Forthcoming articles

International Journal of Exergy

International Journal of Exergy (IJEX)

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International Journal of Exergy (50 papers in press)

Regular Issues

  • Application of Cumulative Exergy Consumption Approach to Assess the Sustainability of Rapeseed Production in Two Different Farming Systems   Order a copy of this article
    by Mahdi Esmaeilpour-Troujeni, Abbas Rohani, Mehdi Khojastehpour 
    Abstract: The study aimed to assess the sustainability of mechanized production system (MPS) and semi-mechanized production system (SMPS) in the rapeseed agroecosystem in northern Iran. The study was conducted through the cumulative exergy consumption (CExC) approach, including the two sustainability indices of cumulative degree of perfection (CDP) and renewability index (RI). The CDP was higher in the MPS (4.36) than SMPS (4.29). The RI was determined to be 0.712 for MPS and 0.731 for SMPS. The results highlighted that CDP and RI could significantly be improved through the consumption of renewable-based energy resources, including biofuel and solar energy.
    Keywords: Cumulative exergy consumption; Mechanized and Semi-mechanized; Rapeseed; Renewable energy; Sustainable agriculture.

  • Energy, Exergy and Exergo-environmental Assessment of a Novel Solar powered Kalina Cycle Incorporated with Micro-CCHP for Poly-generation.   Order a copy of this article
    by Victor Adebayo, Michael Adedeji, Muhammad Abid, Olusola Bamisile 
    Abstract: In this study, a solar parabolic trough collector combined with a Kalina cycle, multi-stage flash desalination unit, a proton exchange membrane electrolyzer for hydrogen production, and a micro-combined cooling, heating, and power system is presented. Systematic energy, exergy, and exergo-environmental evaluation is used to analyze the viability of the integrated systems as the most effective approach for performance assessment of integrated systems. The energy and exergy efficiencies of the overall system is observed to be 50.51% and 3.27% respectively. The rate of exergy destruction of each component and the overall cycle is determined where the parabolic trough collector is shown to have an exergy destruction rate of 234.4kW, which is the highest among all the components. The performance of the proposed systems is also checked through a parametric study of the different key parameters.
    Keywords: Energy; Exergy; Exergo-environmental; Desalination; Hydrogen.

  • Enhanced exergy based malfunction diagnosis of an integrated solar combined cycle system: Parametric study and multi-objective optimization   Order a copy of this article
    by Fateme Ahmadi Boyaghchi 
    Abstract: In this research, a malfunction diagnosis method based on the enhanced exergy concept is applied to quantify the anomalies' sources in a real integrated solar combined cycle system (ISCCS). A comprehensive parametric study is performed to evaluate the malfunction indicators and the overall performance of the power plant by varying the substantial operating parameters under single and multi-malfunction conditions. Then, the fast and elitist non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm (NSGA-II) is applied to maximize the net power and minimize the total exergy destruction rate of the system under a multi-malfunction condition.
    Keywords: Malfunction diagnosis; performance degradation; enhanced exergy; ISCCS; parametric study; optimization.

  • Environmental life cycle assessment of an ammonia production process through Cumulative Exergy Demand and ReCiPe: A focus on power generation from natural gas and biomass   Order a copy of this article
    by A. Ghannadzadeh, R. Shabani, H. Ale Ebrahim 
    Abstract: The environmental impacts of the ammonia production process are because of the discharge of harmful chemicals as well as the high electricity demand. One way to control its environmental impacts in the electricity transition phase, is the natural gas/biomass based scenarios. This Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) study, which has used ReCiPe and Cumulative Exergy Demand, proves that natural gas is not right option for this specific case because the natural gas-based scenarios have more burdens than the residual fuel oil-based scenarios especially regarding Fossil Depletion (0.72%), Human Toxicity (14%), Freshwater Ecotoxicity (23%), Particulate Matter Formation (33%), Marine Ecotoxicity (37%), and Terrestrial Acidification (40%). Moreover, this study shows that it is possible to reduce the environmental impacts without retrofitting the heart of process technology using the biomass-based scenarios. This paves the way for a sustainable ammonia process under the energy transition scenarios where retrofitting the process heart is not desired.
    Keywords: Environmental sustainability; Exergy; ReCiPe; Energy transition; Bioenergy; Monte Carlo simulation.

  • Experimental Study and Exergy Efficiency Prediction of Three-leaved Yam (Dioscorea Dumetorum) Starch Drying   Order a copy of this article
    by Emmanuel Oke, Kenechi Nwosu-obieogu, Chiamaka Ude 
    Abstract: This study predicted three-leaved yam starch drying using Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS), Artificial Neural Network (ANN) and Support Vector Machine (SVM). The input and output variables were drying temperature, time, air velocity and Exergy Efficiency (EE) as well as Sustainability Index (SI) respectively. The EE performance indices are: ANN (R2 = 0.999, MSE=7.40038E-13), ANFIS (R2 = 0.251, MSE=0.001) and SVM (R2 = 0.999, MSE= 3.25E-06). The SI prediction indices are: ANN (R2 = 0.99, MSE=1.0E-10), ANFIS (R2 = 0.41, MSE=0.010) and SVM (R2 = 0.61, MSE= 0.051).
    Keywords: Exergy efficiency; ANN; ANFIS; SVM; Sustainability index.

    by Mustafa Özilgen, Cennet Yildiz, Ayse Selcen Semerciöz, Bahar Hazal Yalcinkaya, Tanya Deniz Ipek, Esin Öztürk Isik 
    Abstract: In living systems, entropy is generated as the result of the metabolic activity, most of it is exported, while only a small fraction is accumulated. Accumulation reveals itself as structural impairment, regarded as a sign of aging and measured in terms of information entropy. This study shows that higher blood flow rate fuels higher work performance and cause higher entropy generation. Since a very important fraction of the work performance in a living system is the internal work, including those of the heart beating, breathing, formation of new molecules, maintenance of the body, muscle contraction-relaxation process, signal transmission in neurons and active transport of some molecules, entropy generation should not be regarded detrimental to the organisms as long as entropy is not collected, but exported. Anterior cingulate cortex, a constituent of the grey matter in the brain, is the neuroanatomical interface between emotion and cognition. In the literature, lower blood flow, is reported as the cause of the shrinking grey matter volume, i.e., entropy accumulation, with aging, confirming that entropy generation within an organ is not detrimental for health, as long as the entropy does not accumulate but flushed out.
    Keywords: Aging impairment; Entropy accumulation; Entropy generation; Information entropy; Measuring impairment.

  • Experimental study on exergy and sustainability analysis of the thermoelectric based exhaust waste heat recovery system   Order a copy of this article
    by Rashmi Sahoo 
    Abstract: In the present study, the energy and exergy analysis of a thermoelectric based waste heat recovery system of a passenger automobile is performed at different loads. Further, an exergetic sustainability assessment is performed by incorporating parameters like exergy destruction factor, environmental impact factor and exergetic sustainability index. Results revealed that by employing waste heat recovery, the exergetic efficiency can be improved by up to 5.78%. The study showed that the exhaust gas is more suitable for heat recovery as it has 81.8 % more exergy than the cooling water.
    Keywords: Thermoelectric generators; power; sustainability; entropy generation.

  • Energy and Exergy Analysis of Solar Photovoltaic Thermal (PV/T) System: Experimental and Numerical Verification   Order a copy of this article
    by Metin GÜL, Ersin AKYÜZ 
    Abstract: In this study, the electrical and thermodynamic performance of a flat-plate liquid PV/T system was investigated, and the experimental results were verified with a numerical model implemented. The simulation analyses showed that the increasing inlet and ambient temperature had a negative effect on thermal efficiency and the highest thermal efficiency was obtained at 800 W/m2 solar radiation. The optical efficiency of the experimental system was verified with the simulation and reported as 45.8% and 47.9%, respectively. Electrical, thermal, and total energy efficiencies obtained hourly on a daily basis were also calculated and varied between 1213.8%, 36.1-45.2%, and 49.1-58.4% respectively. The hourly exergy analyses were also carried out on a daily basis and the results showed that the exergy efficiencies changed between 13.8-14.32%. The experimental data measured in a period of 19 days was analysed and it was found that 68.9 kWh thermal and 19.5 kWh electrical energy were produced from the system at 0.033 kg/s mass flow rate. The annual total thermal and electricity energy outputs were also calculated by using the measured meteorological data as 1912 kWh and 556.8 kWh respectively. In addition, an economic analysis was conducted for the PV/T system, both thermal and electrical energy costs were calculated separately, and sensitive analysis was performed to calculate the effect on the cost of energy by varying interest rate and lifetime of the system.
    Keywords: Photovoltaic thermal system (PV/T); solar energy; energy; exergy; life-cycle cost.

  • Performance Analysis of Human Cardiorespiratory System based on the Second Law of Thermodynamics   Order a copy of this article
    by Abhijit Dutta, Himadri Chattopadhyay 
    Abstract: The purpose of this study is to develop a thermodynamic model of the human cardiorespiratory system under different physiological conditions. To quantify the performance, an analysis based on the second law of thermodynamics has been carried out for the human cardiorespiratory system. The analysis reports three different physiological conditions i.e. rest, moderate level of physical activity and extreme level of physical activity. While the body temperature was assumed at 360C, the standard ambient condition is taken as 250C dry bulb temperature (DBT) and 50% relative humidity (RH). Results show that the human cardiorespiratory performance increases significantly with the increase in physical activity. However, the cardiorespiratory performance also notably increases with the increase in ambient temperature and RH. The cardiomegaly condition of the human cardiorespiratory system decreases the efficiency of the system. It has been observed that O2 fluctuation for metabolic use has no significant effect on the human cardiorespiratory performance. A new dimensionless number, which is the ratio of breathing rate to the heart rate (BHR), is introduced in this work. The increase in BHR affects the cardiorespiratory system performance at rest. During an elevated level of physical activity, the rise in BHR increases the cardiorespiratory performance. The present work reveals that the thermodynamic performance of the cardiorespiratory system depends on the inhaled air property (temperature and RH), cardiomegaly condition and the variation of BHR. It is also noticed that the efficiency of the cardiorespiratory system behaves in a different manner at different levels of activities with the rise in BHR. At rest, efficiency decreases with the increase in BHR, however, it increases with the increase in BHR during the active condition. Hence authors of this work believe that this BHR might have a strong connection with the governing of the artificial ventilation. The state of hypoxia and hyperoxia is basically a consequence of change in BHR.
    Keywords: Cardiorespiratory system; Thermodynamic performance; Physiological condition; Relative humidity; Breathing rate to heart rate ratio (BHR).

  • Thermodynamic assessment of a new solar power-based multigeneration energy plant with thermochemical cycle   Order a copy of this article
    by Murat Ozturk 
    Abstract: In this study, a novel solar energy assisted multigeneration energy plant by using the solar radiation as a renewable energy resource is designed to produce some useful products, such as electricity, heating-cooling, and hydrogen, and modeled to increase the system performance. This designed multigeneration energy system consists of the solar power tower, steam Rankine cycles, absorption heating-cooling system, Cu-Cl thermochemical cycle, and hydrogen liquefaction unit. A thermodynamic assessment is developed by using the energetic and exergetic analyses to determine the irreversibilities of Cu-Cl thermochemical reaction-based integrated system at different working conditions. The energy and exergy performances of solar power assisted multigeneration system are computed as 22.21% and 14.02%. In the present study, the highest exergy destruction of this plant is determined for the solar power tower, and also, 5738 and 4812 kW of exergy destruction happens in the heliostat and central receiver, respectively. Moreover, the parametric works are carried out by changing the reference conditions and design indicators.
    Keywords: Solar energy; thermodynamic analysis; integrated system; thermochemical cycle.

  • Energy and exergy analyses of a large capacity supercritical utility boiler system   Order a copy of this article
    by Perwez Siddiqui 
    Abstract: In this study, energy and exergy analyses of an 800 MW supercritical utility coal-fired boiler have been conducted to assess the thermodynamic performance of all the individual heat transfer components and the entire boiler as well for the various plant operating conditions: BMCR, VWO, TMCR, 100% TMCR, 80% TMCR, 60% TMCR, 50% TMCR, and all HP heaters out of service. It is found that the 1st law efficiency of the boiler varies from 85.98% to 87.28%, and 2nd law efficiency of the boiler varies from 44.33% to 46.62% for the above operating conditions. The highest exergy conversion efficiency is found to be in the primary superheater, except for all HP heaters out of service condition where it is found to be in the primary reheater. Maximum exergy destruction is found to be in combustion chamber and then water wall for the above operating conditions.
    Keywords: boiler; energy; exergy; thermal efficiency.

  • Embodied Exergy-based analysis of a Municipal Solid Waste treatment system with uncertainty inclusion   Order a copy of this article
    by Sofia Russo, Vittorio Verda 
    Abstract: The development of an Integrated Solid Waste Management (ISWM) system is still a matter of interest in many countries. One of the main challenges is to efficiently allocate the material streams in order to save energy and recover materials. The aim of this paper is to use the Embodied Exergy criteria to evaluate the distribution of the material streams into a Solid Waste (SW) treatment system composed by: a Mechanical Biological Treatment (MBT) plant for Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF) production and a paper recycling plant for cardboard production. Two scenarios are compared, based on the inlet mass flow to the MBT plant and the cardboard production. Stochastic tools based on Monte Carlo simulation are adopted for generating simulation scenarios, in order to account for the uncertainty that occurs in external (e.g. waste composition) and internal (e.g. equipment energy consumption) parameters.
    Keywords: Municipal Solid Waste; Mechanical Biological Treatment; Paper recycling; Uncertainty analysis; Embodied Exergy; Exergy analysis.

  • Thermodynamic analysis and optimization of double effect absorption type combined power and cooling cycle using LiBr-water as working fluid   Order a copy of this article
    by Rahul Patil, Sunil Bhagwat 
    Abstract: In this work, the mathematical model and simulation of the series and parallel flow Double effect absorption type combined power and cooling cycle (DACPC) has been done in Scilab (open source software) using highly accurate thermodynamic correlations available in the literature. Sensitivity analysis of the operating parameters of a cycle has been studied and it has been optimized using Scilab's inbuilt function "optim" to get maximum exergy efficiency for given evaporator and absorber temperature. The DACPC has been compared with other combined power and cooling cycle from the literature and found that its exergy efficiency is significantly more by 7-41 %. The data of optimized operating conditions is generated and it will be useful for designing the cycle for practical applications. The maximum exergy efficiency of DACPC is in a range of 60 % to 65 %.
    Keywords: Absorption; combined power and cooling; LiBr-water; Exergy; optimization.

    by Mustafa Özilgen, Cennet Yildiz, Bayram Yilmaz 
    Abstract: Entropic age concept suggests that, in the long-term, metabolic heat damages the living systems and causes ageing. Human host, plus millions of microorganisms living in and on it are called the human superorganism. Gut microbiota acts as an autonomous thermodynamic subsystem in the human superorganism, generate and export its own entropy without causing ageing damage to the host. Thermodynamic analyses are performed to quantify entropy generation by the host and the gut microbiota subsystems, and it is found that 12% to 59% of the metabolic entropy of the human superorganism is generated by the gut microbiota and exported with feces, without contributing to the ageing of the host. Although gut microbiota was used to be studied traditionally only for their nutritional benefits to the host, this is a newly hypothesized benefit and needs to be studied further.
    Keywords: Gut microbiota; human superorganism; Schöridinger’s theory; Prigogine’s theory; entropic age; exporting entropy; feces.

  • Energy and Exergy Analyses of an Ignition Engine with Improved Management System Codes   Order a copy of this article
    by Ayyub Fekari, Nader Javani, Samad Jafarmadar 
    Abstract: In this study, an ignition engine is investigated by using three different codes for its management system to obtain the best performance in terms of engine exhaust emissions. The effect of improved engine management system on the energy and exergy efficiencies are investigated. Two different tests in the idle (850-900 rpm) and mid-range (2500 rpm) modes are conducted. According to the results, a reduction in the exhaust emissions can be obtained while the energy efficiencies increase 1.23% both in idle and medium speeds. Meanwhile, the exergy efficiency increases by 4.76% and 0.7% in the idle speed and mid-ranges, respectively through improving the codes of the engine management system. The amount of unburned hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, and NOx decreases 22.4%, 31%, and 1.4%, respectively, in the idle speed. Similarly, 23.3%, 5.3%, and 18.8% decrease is observed for the same gases in the medium speed, respectively. Brake-specific fuel consumption (BSFC) reduces 1.4% in idle speed and 1.2% in medium speed for the optimum mode in the experiments. The corresponding improved codes based on the conducted experiments in different operating conditions can be assumed as an optimal model for the considered engine.
    Keywords: Exergy efficiency; Energy efficiency; Brake specific fuel consumption; Brake power output.

    by Veena Chaudhary 
    Abstract: This investigation presents the impact of Diethyl-Ether (DEE) on exergy parameters, and emission concentrations for NEEM45 fueled small DI diesel engine. Diethyl-Ether has been used as an oxygenated improver. DEE is mixed in NEEM45 (neem biodiesel45% +55% diesel) in proportions of 5%, 10%, and 15% by vol% basis. The impact of DEE on exergy analysis of diesel engine has been carried out in this investigation. Engine out emissions, namely NOx, CO, HC, and smoke opacity, are measured. Experimental results indicate a significant decline in NOx,CO and improved exergetic efficiency. The exergetic efficiency is increased by 6.8%, which indicates the lower exergy destruction. NOx emission significantly reduced by 56% as compared to that of NEEM45 without DEE.The experimental results show that exergy parameters and emission characteristics improved with 15% DEE addition.
    Keywords: Diethyl ether; Exergy destruction; Exergetic efficiency; Exergy distribution; Neem biodiesel; NOx emission; Smoke opacity.

  • Analysis of the viability of the 2x250 MWth HTR-PM project for the hydrogen production by the high temperature electrolysis and the Cu-Cl cycle   Order a copy of this article
    by Daniel González Rodríguez, Fernado Roberto De Andrade Lima, Carlos Alberto Brayner De Oliveira Lira, Carlos Rafael García Hernández 
    Abstract: The work describes two proposals for hydrogen production using the HTR-PM reactor as an energy source. The HTR-PM is a small modular nuclear reactor (SMR) partially based on the HTR-10 project. Both proposals take advantage of the high output temperatures of the 2x250 MWth HTR-PM reactor project to increase the efficiency of hydrogen production processes. Two proposals are analyzed, the hydrogen production through the Cu-Cl cycle and the high temperature electrolysis process. To evaluate the efficiency of the proposed conceptual designs, two computational models were developed in a chemical process simulator. For each of the proposed systems, an exergy analysis was carried out to determine the main operating parameters in each case. A determination of the efficiency of the hydrogen production process coupled to the HTR-PM is carried out using the computational model developed. The High Temperature Electrolysis process (HTE) can produce 0.7821 kg/s of hydrogen with 27.37 % of efficiency. For this process, the solid oxide electrolyzer cell is the component with the highest value of the exergy destruction rate. The Cu-Cl process, although producing less hydrogen, 0.5637 kg/s, has higher overall efficiency (32.12 %) than the HTE, mainly due to less global exergy destruction and higher exergetic efficiency.
    Keywords: nuclear hydrogen production; Cu-Cl cycle; high temperature electrolysis;\r\nefficiency; exergy.

    by Mustafa Asker 
    Abstract: In this research study, 1D numerical simulation for p-type (Bi0.2Sb0.8)2Te3 nanocomposite thermoelectric cooler (TEC) is conducted by utilizing a finite volume method. The model is verified through a comparison with the published analytical data and good agreement is observed. Multiwall carbon nanotube (MWCNT) is used to enhance the thermal characteristics of TEC which is represented by the figure of merit. In this context, three separate scenarios are developed for different MWCNT compositions in order to investigate the influence of various design parameters on the performance of TEC. Also, a parametric study is carried out to analyze the effect of operating conditions such as temperature difference (?T) and current (I) on the performance of TEC in terms of cooling capacity and coefficient of performance (COP). The effect of a geometric parameter such as leg length of the nanostructured TEC has been examined. It is found that the most efficient performance is achieved for nanocomposite containing 0.12 wt% of MWCNT with a figure of merit equal to 1.4. Moreover, the maximum value of exergy efficiency for this nanocomposite is found to be 0.195 at a current value of 0.7A. In addition, an increase in the length of nanostructured TEC leads to decline in exergy of cooling capacity by 0.56 and in exery efficiency by 0.87.
    Keywords: Coefficient of performance; exergy efficiency; finite volume method; thermoelectric cooler.

  • Energy and Exergy analyses of Flat Plate Solar Collectors with nanofluids containing different size and shape of nanoparticles   Order a copy of this article
    by Mohammed Ayaz Uddin, Ahmet Sahin, Bekir S. Yilbas, Abdullah Al-Sharafi 
    Abstract: The effect of nanoparticle size, shape, and volume concentration upon the flat plate solar collector (FPSC) performance is investigated. The enhancement in efficiency due to volume concentration SiO2/H2O nanofluid was significant whereas the enhancement due to size and shape was marginal. In addition, the paper discusses the effect of the concentration, size and shape of nanoparticles upon the pressure drop, pumping power, exergy destruction and entropy generation. The exergy efficiency is found to increase upon increasing the nanoparticle size and volume concentration. However, the effect due to shape variation on the exergy efficiency is minimal.
    Keywords: Collector Efficiency; Entropy Generation; Exergy Destructed; Exergy efficiency; Flat Plate Solar Collector; Nanofluid; Nanoparticle Shape; Nanoparticle Size; Pressure Drop; Pumping Power; Thermophysical Properties.

  • Microphysical analysis for peristaltic flow of SWCNT and MWCNT carbon nanotubes inside a catheterised artery having thrombus: Irreversibility effects with Entropy   Order a copy of this article
    by Anber Saleem, Salman Akhtar, Sohail Nadeem, Mehdi Ghalambaz 
    Abstract: The blood flow with carbon nanotubes, examining study case of both single and multi-wall carbon nanotubes, is mathematically interpreted. The blood vessel has a sinusoidally fluctuating outer wall and a thrombus is placed at the centre. The restriction to flow is improved by application of a catheter. Entropy is also examined to interpret the irreversibility results. The final results are explained with graphs for exactly obtained mathematical solutions. Streamlines are drawn and they clearly show sinusoidally fluctuating wall on one side and a thrombus on the other side at the centre.
    Keywords: Peristaltic flow; Catheterized artery; thrombus; Carbon nanotubes; entropy.

  • Application of the data validation and reconciliation method in exergy analysis of technological processes   Order a copy of this article
    by Bozena Boryczko, Adam Holda, Michal Dudek, Zygmunt Kolenda 
    Abstract: One of the main tasks of exergy analysis of real physical and chemical processes is to detect, quantify and calculate exergy losses which occur as the results of thermodynamic imperfection or irreversibilities of every process taking place inside the system. Exergy does not satisfy the law of conservation so the exergy balance is always closed by internal exergy losses which are directly proportional to the entropy generation rate. Exergy balance equations contain directly measurable variables which characterize the mass flow rates, the chemical compositions and specific exergy of substances and products calculated from material and energy balance equations (laws of conservation of mass and energy). These laws - when applied to the principal chemical elements and energy lead to the system of nonlinear algebraic equations. Usually, the number of balance equations is greater than the number of unknowns (not directly measured quantities) and because of inevitable errors of measurements the system of equations is not exactly satisfied. The measured variables must be corrected to satisfy the required equations. Such a correction is called data validation and reconciliation (also known in literature as adjustment of material mass and energy balances.) It is obvious that exergy balance equations must be based on the adjusted mass and energy balances in order to be reliable. Neglecting this process can lead to incorrect values of exergy losses, both internal and external. Thus, the general aim of this paper is the analysis of the influence of the measurement results (mass flow rates, chemical composition) on the accuracy of exergy loss calculation. It results from the general requirement of minimization of exergy losses or maximization of thermodynamic efficiency of the process. From the calculation of entropy generation rate, it can be seen that the disagreement with results based on direct measurement results is contained within a 2-5 % interval.
    Keywords: data reconciliation; model validation; least squares method; mass; energy and exergy balances; entropy generation.

  • Exergy efficiency design for multi-stream plate-fin heat exchangers based on entropy generation assessment   Order a copy of this article
    by Jinghua XU 
    Abstract: This paper presents an exergy efficiency design method for multi-stream plate-fin heat exchangers (MPFHE) based on entropy generation assessment (EGA). Dialectically, there are mutually restrictive influencing factors on efficiency and effectiveness of MPFHE widely used in industry, for instance, cryogenic air separation unit (ASU), Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC), liquefied natural gas (LNG) plants, and even semiconductor and advanced chip manufacturing, etc. Firstly, the fundamental concepts of energy, entropy and exergy are introduced. Furthermore, the state corresponding to the designated exergy is creatively defined as the referential assessment state. The potential higher and lower status relative to the referential assessment state are traversed and reckoned to determine the optimal rigorous operation decisions with enough redundancy under variable operating conditions. The multi-objective optimization (MOO) via referential assessment state is built. Taking the ubiquitous Plate-Fin Heat Exchanger (PFHE) as research object, the thermal equilibriums equations are built to calculate equilibrium temperature of each stream in all the passages via Partial Differential Equations (PDEs). The different types of lateral perforated fins and wavy fins are designed to obtain the larger heat transfer coefficient and smaller friction coefficient using multi-physics field synergy computational fluid dynamics (CFD). The changing trend of parameters, for instance, temperature, T-Q diagram, entropy generation, dimensionless entropy generation, exergy loss and exergy efficiency in either stream or system hierarchy are observed to mine the adjustable parameter portfolio. The proposed EGA method is verified by physical experiment concerning heat transfer and flow resistance which involves diverse innovative technologies under different Reynolds number using Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). The results prove that, the net cost of MPFHE is reduced from 20813 $/kW to 19072 $/kW after using EGA, with absolute change ratio of 8.36%, while keeping the stability of exergy efficiency. The proposed design method provides the rational tradeoff between benefits and costs, therefore, it has important implications for high-efficiency energy utilization and operating economical assessment in heat exchange fields.
    Keywords: Exergy efficiency design; Entropy generation assessment (EGA); Multi-stream plate-fin heat Exchangers (MPFHE); T-Q diagram; exergoeconomic analysis.

  • Techno-economic analysis of power generation by turboexpanders in natural gas pressure reduction stations   Order a copy of this article
    by Bijan Hejazi, Ahmad Rafiee 
    Abstract: The objective of this paper is to perform a techno-economic feasibility study of recovering pressure energy of natural gas stream through installing turboexpanders in a pressure reduction station and selling the generated electrical power to the national grid. As a case study, the operating and real conditions of a major pressure reduction station in Iran is collected throughout the years 2015, 2016 and 2017. To account for the effects of the inherently variable operating conditions, a thermodynamic model based on exergy analysis estimates off-design turboexpander isentropic efficiency, size and cost estimate as well as minimum preheating temperature required to avoid hydrate formation due to the expansion process. The detailed economic analysis shows that for the project to be economically feasible, an electricity purchase price of >$0.08/kWh is required. Furthermore, the results of this study are useful for designing automatic preheating temperature control system.
    Keywords: natural gas; pressure reduction station; exergy recovery; turboexpander; variable operating conditions; computer-aided process design.

  • Energy and Exergy Optimization of Parallel Flow Direct and Indirect Fired Triple Effect Vapour Absorption Systems   Order a copy of this article
    by Md Azhar, M. Altamush Siddiqui 
    Abstract: In this study, optimization of operating parameters (generator temperatures, concentrations, and solution distribution ratios) have been performed to achieve maximum thermodynamic performance and minimum energy consumption in the parallel flow triple effect direct and indirect-fired vapour absorption refrigeration systems. Energy and exergy analyses are considered for the formation of the objective function to optimize the above operating parameters. Moreover, comparison of performance parameters have been shown with parallel flow double effect, series flow double effect, and series flow triple effect cycles. After optimization of triple effect parallel flow cycles, results show that coefficient of performance of both triple effect direct and indirect fired cycles are same. While exergy performance of direct fired cycle is around 70 to 80% lower than indirect fired cycle. Moreover, COP of parallel flow triple effect cycle is 7 to 10% higher than its series flow configuration. Also, flow rate of gaseous fuels of parallel flow triple effect cycle require 5% lesser as compared to series flow. Moreover, exergy performance of parallel cycles was found to be around 9-11% better than series flow cycles, but at the expense of 5-10% higher inlet temperature of the main generator.
    Keywords: Triple Effect; Absorption system; Parallel flow Cycle; Optimization; Direct Fired; Indirect Fired; Exergy Analysis.

  • Nutrition and disease-related entropy generation in cancer   Order a copy of this article
    by Mustafa Özilgen, Melek Ece Öngel, Cennet Yildiz, Bayram Yilmaz 
    Abstract: Lifespan entropy generation limit concept suggests that the living beings die after generating a definite amount of life span entropy, since their bodies cannot tolerate accumulating more damage. A healthy person, who has a lifespan of 78.6 years may generate 11,404 kJ/kg K of nutrition-related lifespan entropy. If that person should be diagnosed with cancer at the age of 40, he/she would have already generated 5,803 kJ/kg K of nutrition-related entropy and may generate 5,593 kJ/kg K of more entropy until dying. After the onset of the disease, approximately 97 kJ/kg K of entropy may be generated via nutrition-related metabolic activity in five years. In lung cancer, disease-related entropy generation is 191 folds of that of the diet-related entropy generation and this is 9 folds in skin cancer. This study points that, very high fraction of the lifespan entropy generated by the cancer patients is fueled not by diet, but by tissue-scavenging, slowing down the scavenging-related chemical activity may actually increase the lifespan of the patients.
    Keywords: Cancer patients; Tissue-scavenging; Entropic-age; Nutrition-related entropy generation; Disease-related entropy generation.

  • Sensitivity analysis of N identical evacuated tubular collectors integrated double slope solar distiller unit by incorporating the effect of exergy   Order a copy of this article
    by Desh Bandhu Singh 
    Abstract: This paper focuses on the sensitivity analysis of N alike evacuated tubular collectors integrated double slope solar distiller unit (NETCDS) using computational programme in MATLAB considering typical day of May of New Delhi climatic situation. The one-at-a-time technique (OAT) has been used for the analysis and it has been concluded that potable water yield is most sensitive with respect to number of collectors followed by water depth and mass flow rate. The average value of sensitivity figure for potable water yield as well as daily exergy output with respect to number of collectors has been found to be 0.68 and 1.4 respectively.
    Keywords: sensitivity analysis; ETC; double slope solar still; exergy.

  • Energetic and exergetic analyses of a solar powered combined compression-absorption refrigeration system   Order a copy of this article
    by Abdul Khaliq, Mathkar Alharthi, Saeed Alqaed 
    Abstract: This communication presents a theoretical framework for the thermodynamic analysis of a combined system which can simultaneously produce cooling for both refrigeration (-50C) and air conditioning (100C) for the hot climatic regions in an eco-friendly and carbon free manner. A tower solar collector unit was employed to drive the proposed combined cooling system consists of a hydrocarbon operated vapour compression refrigeration system which is fed by power from steam turbine shaft, and a waste heat operated single-effect LiBr-H2O operated absorption chiller. A mathematical model using the balances of energy and exergy over the components of the system was developed, and solved using Engineering Equation Solver software. A parametric analysis was conducted to estimate the influence of operating conditions on the system performance. The results show that at base line operation of the system for R600a operated VCR, the energetic efficiency of combined system was found to be 73.66% and the exergetic efficiency of 36.43% while for R290 operated VCR, the energetic and exergetic efficiencies of the combined system were found to be 37.17% and 21.04%, respectively.
    Keywords: Tower solar collector; Steam Rankine cycle; Hydrocarbon operated vapour compression cycle; LiBr-H2O operated absorption chiller; Exergy.

  • Energy and Exergy Analysis of an Industrial Corn Dryer Operated by Two Different Fuels   Order a copy of this article
    by Fatih Ünal 
    Abstract: Drying processes are among the most energy-consuming operations in industrial plants. Therefore, it is highly beneficial for drying facilities to have high energy efficiency and low emission values to the environment. Accordingly, in this study, the data obtained after converting an industrial horizontal type corn dryer that meets its drying air temperature from coal to natural gas was compared by thermodynamic analyses. Before starting the drying process, it was assumed that the corn type DKC6050 with 24-25% corn inlet humidity dries when it reaches approximately 14% corn outlet humidity, which is the storage condition after the drying process. Energy and exergy efficiencies, drying rates, unit drying costs, specific moisture extraction rate, and specific energy consumption values of the analyzed systems were determined using the data obtained from the experiments carried out at 90,100 and 110
    Keywords: drying; industrial drying; corn drying; energy analysis; exergy analysis; unit drying cost.

  • Experimental energetic and exergetic analysis with the novel emulsion fuels incorporating CNT and Al2O3 nano additive for DICI engine   Order a copy of this article
    by Ranjeet Rai, Rashmi Sahoo 
    Abstract: Experimental investigation on the energy, sustainability, and exergy based analysis have been performed for the 5% water in diesel emulsion (WiDE) fuel, 50ppm carbon nano tube (CNT) and 50ppm aluminum oxide (Al2O3) nano-additive fuels on the diesel engine with changeable engine speed and load in the present study. Analysis revealed that the parameters brake thermal efficiency (BTE), exergy efficiency, exergy destruction rate, engine sustainability, and other exergy parameters have higher values with increasing engine load and engine speed for all fuel samples. The engine BTE and exergy efficiency with 5%WiDE, 5%WiDE-Al2O3 and 5%WiDE-CNT nano additives are found to be 1.49%, 2.7%, and 3.07% and 1.85%, 3.08%, and 5.21% higher, respectively, than diesel fuel at 5.6kW effective power and 1500 rpm engine speed. The exergy based sustainability is found highest for 5%WiDE-CNT fuel, at 2000 engine rpm with full engine load. The exergy destruction rate and the entropy generation rate with the neat diesel is 1.42% higher than 5%WiDE fuel, while with 5%WiDE-Al2O3 and 5%WiDE-CNT nano additive fuels have 2.07% and 4.15%, higher values, respectively, compared to diesel fuel. The influence of engine load, engine speed, water emulsification, and nano additive on the exergy efficiency has found a little lower value than the energy efficiency.
    Keywords: Emulsification; CNT; exergy-sustainability analysis; exergy destruction.

  • Exergy-based analysis of irreversibilities for heat pump working fluids and cycle layouts   Order a copy of this article
    by Benjamin Zühlsdorf, Jonas Kjær Jensen, Brian Elmegaard 
    Abstract: The use of zeotropic mixtures in well-designed heat pump cycles enables considerable performance improvements. Temperature glide matching of the heat exchange processes and recovery of expansion losses by internal heat exchange decrease the exergy destruction and yield higher cycle performances. A case study for supply to district heating is presented, indicating increases in COP from 4.3 for a pure fluid in a standard cycle to 5.2 for a zeotropic mixture in a cycle with optimized internal heat exchange. As these improvement potentials are difficult to quantify by conventional and advanced exergy analysis, a new approach was suggested. For deriving a meaningful benchmark for cycle optimization, the exergy destruction was distinguished into a contribution describing the irreversibilities from the respective components operating with an ideal working fluid and cycle design and another contribution resulting from the cycle and working fluid being non-ideal. In addition, the exergy destruction was related to the COP, enabling an intuitive interpretation of the exergy-based analyses.
    Keywords: Cycle design; exergy; exergy destruction; heat pump; irreversibility; Lorenz cycle; refrigerant; temperature glide matching; working fluid; zeotropic mixtures.

  • Exergetic evaluation and optimisation of a novel integrated energy conversion system including thermoelectric generators   Order a copy of this article
    by Muhammad Zesshan Malik, Farayi Musharavati, Morteza Saadat-Targhi, Shoaib Khanmohammadi, HADI GANJEHSARABI 
    Abstract: A comprehensive thermodynamic study of a solar integrated energy system consisted of a solar flat plate collector, an organic Rankine cycle, a thermoelectric generator, and a proton exchange membrane electrolyzer is undertaken to generate power and hydrogen. The Matlab and Engineering Equation Solver softwares are linked, and various optimization scenarios are investigated. The results of computational analysis indicate that with adding a thermoelectric generator unit in the system about 14 kW of energy in the form of electricity can be obtained from the waste heat of condenser. Various optimization schemes with exergy efficiency, exergy destruction rate, as well as hourly hydrogen generation as optimization targets are considered. The optimization results comparison between base case and optimum design shows that exergetic efficiency improves by about 2.3% and rate of exergy destruction decrease by about 0.791 MW.
    Keywords: Electrolysis; exergy efficiency; heat recovery; thermoelectric generator; TEG.

  • Exergy analysis of vapour compression-absorption two stage refrigeration cycle   Order a copy of this article
    by Canan Cimsit, Ilhan Tekin Ozturk 
    Abstract: In this work, the exergy analysis of vapour compression-absorption two stage refrigeration cycle has been performed. To improve the performance of the cycle, it is possible to reduce the total damage by focusing on the parts that cause high exergy damage. Therefore, the detailed exergy analysis has been made for different operating conditions (generator temperature, condenser temperature and intermediate pressure) of the cycle. The exergy destruction rates each component were calculated and compared. The performance coefficient (COPcyclegen) increases as the intermediate pressure increases. Maximum value of the exergy efficiency is obtained at the intermediate pressure of 516.015 kPa. With this cycle, it is possible to refrigeration down by using alternative energy sources. Also, environmentally friendly is refrigeration system because environmentally safe fluids are used in this cycle.
    Keywords: Refrigeration; Absorption; Two stage refrigeration; Energy; Exergy.

  • Experimental study and exergy analysis of three-fluid tubular heat exchanger with nanofluids   Order a copy of this article
    by Tarikayehu Amanuel, Manish Mishra 
    Abstract: The present study addresses numerical and experimental approaches for exergy analysis of three-fluid tubular heat exchanger with Al2O3-water nanofluids. The goal is to assess the exergetic performance of employing nanofluids through a three-fluid heat exchanger. A Single-phase approach has been implemented to conduct numerical analysis in ANSYS fluent workbench v.17.2, commercial CFD package. Experiments were also conducted to investigate the effects of varying flow rates, flow arrangements, and nanoparticle volume concentrations on the overall performance of the exchanger under study. Reynolds number in the range 2500 - 10,000 and volume concentration of nanoparticles in the range 0 - 3% have been considered to study their effects. Besides, four flow arrangements (parallel, parallel-counter, counter-parallel, and counter) have been considered for numerical and experimental studies. The numerical investigation results revealed that increasing flow rate and addition of nanoparticles resulted in a reduction of exergy loss of the system. However, a non-monotonic variation of exergy loss with Reynolds number has been observed from experimental results. The experimental results also showed a significant deviation from the numerical ones, mainly due to the uncertainties in experimental measurements and equipment accuracy. At a maximum Re=10,000, a drop in exergy loss by 23.7% for parallel, 11.56% for parallel-counter, 10.6% for counter-parallel, and 25.8% for counter flow arrangements by varying ? from 0% to 3%. Furthermore, minimum exergy loss for all the flow arrangements was found at ?=3% and Re=4500.
    Keywords: Exergy; Experimental; Numerical; Three-fluid heat exchanger; Nanofluid.

  • Thermoeconomic assessment of a waste heat recovery system driven by a marine diesel engine for power and freshwater production   Order a copy of this article
    by Yadaleh Aghdoudchaboki, Ahmad Khoshgard, Gholam Reza Salehi, Farivar Fazelpour 
    Abstract: To develop eco-friendly ships, an integrated system with power and fresh water production capabilities is introduced so as to recover waste heat of a marine engine. A thermoeconomic analysis is conducted on the system which consists a marine engine, a multi-effect desalination unit and an organic Rankine cycle. The modelling results for the base case showed that the suggested cycle is capable of 387.95 kW power and 7.04 m3/hr fresh water. In addition, the effects of major design parameters on the system performance is assessed and illustrated. The ORC contributed to the total exergy destruction by 67% while that was 33% for MED unit. Moreover, a two-objective optimisation with total cost rate and exergy efficiency as objective functions is performed to obtain the optimum values of five design parameters. An optimal condition with the exergy efficiency of 35.96% and total cost rate of 2.54 $/hr is introduced as the best trade-off solution.
    Keywords: thermoeconomic; waste heat recovery; WHR; marine engine; organic Rankine cycle; ORC; multi-effect desalination; MED.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEX.2020.10032784
  • Exergy analysis of plate heat exchanger with graphene alumina hybrid nanofluid: experimentation   Order a copy of this article
    by Atul Bhattad 
    Abstract: The water-based hybrid nanofluid is proposed as a cooling agent in a corrugated counter-flow type plate heat exchanger aimed at sub-ambient temperature applications. For this purpose, an experimental investigation has been done with different working fluids. Fluids considered as a coolant are DI water, alumina nanofluid, and alumina-graphene hybrid nanofluid in 80:20 nanoparticle ratio by volume with a total volume concentration of 0.01% dispersed in DI water. Various exergy related performance factors like coolant outlet temperature, coolant exergy rate, irreversibility rate, non-dimensional exergy, and second law efficiency have been considered. The influence of coolant inlet temperature and flow rate on different parameters has been investigated. Coolant outlet temperature, coolant exergy rate, irreversibility rate and non-dimensional exergy augments by 2.5%, 4.8%, 7.5% and 3.5%, respectively. While the second law efficiency degrades using nanoparticles and increasing flow rate and decreases with the coolant inlet temperature.
    Keywords: hybrid nanofluid; plate heat exchanger; PHE; graphene; non-dimensional exergy; NDE; irreversibility; second law efficiency.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEX.2020.10032793
  • Energetic and exergetic analysis of a novel geothermal driven multi-generation system using n-pentane as working fluid   Order a copy of this article
    by Nima Khosravi, Devrim Aydin 
    Abstract: In the present study, a geothermal driven multi-generation system for electric power, heating, cooling and hydrogen production is introduced. The proposed system is based on an organic Rankine cycle (ORC), where n-pentane is used as the working fluid. Within the study, it is aimed to evaluate the impact of geothermal source flow rate/temperature, ambient temperature and turbine inlet pressure on the energetic and exergetic performance of different system components. Besides, the overall first and second law efficiencies of the multi-generation system for different operating conditions are determined. In the investigated system, generated electricity can be partially used for domestic needs while the rest is proposed to be used for hydrogen production through an electrolysis process. Heat recovered from the ORC is also utilised for driving a single-effect absorption chiller (SEAC) for producing heating and cooling. The study results showed that the optimum mass flow rate and temperature of the geothermal source are 11.88 kg/s and 483.2 K, respectively. For the optimised operating conditions of the proposed multi-generation system, overall energetic and exergetic efficiencies were determined as 0.56 and 0.41, respectively.
    Keywords: multi-generation system; exergetic assessment; geothermal energy; organic Rankine cycle; ORC; power generation; heating and cooling; electrolysis; hydrogen production; n-pentane; absorption.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEX.2020.10032796
  • Evaluation of an urban area in cold climate with a new perspective: exergoeconomic analysis   Order a copy of this article
    by Yelda Mert, Suha Orçun Mert 
    Abstract: The exergoeconomic analysis of an urban area is introduced in this study, performed in an annual energy interaction basis. The investigated period covers the year of 2016, and indoor and outdoor temperatures, construction properties, and annual energy consumptions for heating purposes were all taken into account during the analysis. The selected urban area is the campus housings of Van Yuzuncu Yıl University, which were constructed in 2012 after the Van earthquakes. Known as an important tool in understanding the cost structure of energy-intensive sectors, the exergoeconomic analysis was introduced as part of the planning concept in the study, and the analysis involves the results of 'exergetic cost' and 'exergy efficiency' analyses for the case area. Considering the urban nature of the study location, annual meteorological and domestic values were fully covered in the calculations. The results show that, despite being a well-designed and constructed urban area, certain specific design considerations were not met, and there is plenty of space for improvement in cost-reduction, particularly so for a location with such a cold climate.
    Keywords: efficiency; exergoeconomy; exergy; mass housing; urban area planning.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEX.2020.10032798
  • Energy and exergy analyses of solar drying sardine fillets   Order a copy of this article
    by Hamza Lamsyehe, Bahammou Younes, Hind Mouhanni, Mounir Kouhila, Tagnamas Zakaria, Haytem Moussaoui, Abdelkader Lamharrar, Ali Idlimam 
    Abstract: Fish is a highly perishable food product. It has a very short because it contains up to 78% of water. The aim of this work is to examine the effect of solar drying on the dehydration kinetics of Moroccan sardine fillets. The curves of the experimental kinetics of drying sardine fillets are carried out at four temperatures (50, 60, 70 and 80°C) with two air flow rates of 300 and 150 m3/h. Nine thin-film drying models are adapted to the drying data. The Midilli-Kucuk model allows better adaptation than the other models according to R2, S and χ2. The data shows that the moisture content reduced from 3.98% to 0.08% db (dry basis). In regards to a conducted study of a part concerning the exergy loss, exergy transfer rate from evaporation and exergy efficiency of the drying chamber is carried out.
    Keywords: activation energy; diffusion coefficient; exergy; sardine fillets; solar drying.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEX.2020.10032779
  • Parametric analysis of energy and exergy of the human body in Indian conditions   Order a copy of this article
    by Arvind Kumar Patel, Satish Pal Singh Rajput 
    Abstract: In this study, energy and exergy analysis of the human body are performed for summer and winter seasons for Bhopal (India). The outcome of this work indicates that the energetic metabolic rate is much higher than the exergetic metabolic rate. The maximum energy loss from all sources is computed as 34.26 W/m2 in summer and 40.48 W/m2 in winter. Further in the summer season, the predicted mean vote (PMV) value is 0.85, and in winter, this value is 1.06. The predicted percentage dissatisfaction (PPD) for summer and winter are 24.49% and 28.71%, respectively.
    Keywords: energy; exergy; predicted mean vote; PMV; predicted percentage dissatisfaction; PPD; thermal comfort; summer; winter.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEX.2020.10032802

Special Issue on: GCGW-2019 Exergy Analysis of Processes Associated with Global Warming

    by Arif Karabuga 
    Abstract: Argon is one of the three basic elements in the air and is obtained by separating the air. It can be stored in liquid form using different liquefaction methods. Its basically and widely liquefied by three different liquefaction methods such as cryogenic, pressure swing adsorption and membrane. The main difference between these three methods is that the purity rates of the products obtained are different. The cryogenic method with the highest purity rate constitutes the method of this study. In the present work, conventional and enhanced exergy analyses were applied to the liquefaction process of argon gas. In the conventional exergy analysis, only the exergy efficiency and exergy destruction rate of the components are calculated. For the process improvement, more detail data about the origin of the destructions and effect of the components mutual on the exergy destructions would be required. In the enhanced exergy analysis, splitting the exergy destruction into endogenous/exogenous and avoidable/unavoidable parts represents a new direction. In the study, forward exergy analysis is performed for each component and endogenous, exogenous, unavoidable and avoidable values of these components were calculated. When the convectional exergy analysis is examined, the exergy efficiency of the argon gas liquefaction system is calculated as 51.77 %. When the enhanced exergy analysis of the system is examined, it is found that the highest exergy destruction occurred in the turbine as 614.3 kW. Furthermore, the highest endogenous exergy degradation was found as 494 kW (%80.4) in the turbine.
    Keywords: Enhanced exergy analysis; Liquefaction system; Argon; Cryogenic; Exergy.

    by Jing Luo, Tatiana Morosuk, George Tsatsaronis, Bourhan Tashtoush 
    Abstract: A waste heat driven polygeneration system that couples a supercritical power cycle with a transcritical refrigeration cycle is proposed and evaluated in this study. The stand-alone system using carbon dioxide as the working fluid produces power, refrigeration, and heating capacities simultaneously. Three scenarios of the system with different ambient temperatures (25-35oC) are optimized using the exergoeconomic approach to obtain the lowest average cost of the products. The obtained results show that the average product cost is the highest (113 $/GJ) for the scenario with the ambient temperature of 30 oC, while the product cost is reduced to 82 $/GJ when the ambient temperature is 35 oC. Moreover, the pressure for merging the sub-systems influences the performance of the system significantly, and the variations of the operating conditions differ among the scenarios by increasing the merging pressure. Besides, a multi-objective optimization is implemented for supporting decision-makers to find the optimal solutions.
    Keywords: Polygeneration system; Carbon dioxide; Supercritical power cycle; Transcritical refrigeration cycle; Exergoeconomics; Optimization.

  • GIS-Based Maritime Spatial Planning for Site Selection of Offshore Wind Farms with Exergy Efficiency Analysis: A Case Study   Order a copy of this article
    by Arife Tugsan Isiacik Colak, Gizem Senel, Cigdem Goksel 
    Abstract: Maritime Spatial Planning (MSP) is a mechanism of supporting adaptive decision-making in response to possible conflicts over offshore wind turbine locations. Offshore wind power has recently started to become an essential factor by beginning to control the use of ocean space. This study aims to show a c GIS-based site-selection with multi-criteria decision analysis for offshore wind farms while taking into account energy and exergy efficiency analyses of the selected model wind turbine. The Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) was used to identify potential sites dependent on several critical physical parameters. The first phase of the study is the data collection, which involves the construction of a Geographic Information System (GIS). The second phase is the exclusion step. In the final stage, energy and exergy efficiencies of the wind energy generating system have been investigated. Meteorological parameters are examined on exergy and energy efficiency, and results are shown. The most significant result achieved from this study is that Bozcada has potential sites for installing offshore wind turbines by means of meteorological parameters and suitable location.
    Keywords: Offshore Wind Farm; MSP; Wind Turbine; Energy Efficiency; Exergy Efficiency.

Special Issue on: ECOS 2019 Progress in Exergy Analysis of Energy Systems

  • Exergy Analysis of Novel Integrated Systems Based on MHD Generators   Order a copy of this article
    by Hossein Sheykhlou, Samad Jafarmadar, Rogayieh Abbasgholi Rezaei 
    Abstract: The present work concerns with the thermodynamic analysis of novel opened and closed Magneto Hydrodynamic Organic Rankine Cycles (MHD-ORCs). In this regard, the thermodynamic simulation of the integrated systems with the assumption of the constant stream velocity in the MHD generator has been performed. The impact of MHD input temperature, the electrode surface area, the plasma velocity, and the compressor isentropic efficiency on the overall performance of the combined cycles have been investigated. Moreover, exergy and thermal efficiencies of opened and closed MHD based cycles have been calculated and achieved in optimal points as follows; 66.15 %, 71.67%, 49.21 %, and 39.77%, respectively.
    Keywords: Magneto Hydrodynamic Organic Rankine cycle; MHD generator; Coal combustion; Exergy Efficiency; Thermal Efficiency.

  • Study on combustion irreversibility in turbocharged spark-ignition engines   Order a copy of this article
    by Caio Henrique Rufino, Alessandro José Truta Beserra De Lima, Fazal-Um-Min Allah, Janito Vaqueiro Ferreira, Waldyr Luiz Ribeiro Gallo 
    Abstract: The direct injection (DI) and turbocharging strategies are recently adopted for spark ignition (SI) engines in order to achieve better fuel economy and lower pollutant emissions. A comprehensive analysis is required in order to evaluate the effects of aforementioned strategies on in-cylinder combustion processes. The second law analysis is a proficient thermodynamic tool which is used for identifying irreversibilities and exploring the possibilities of thermal systems optimization. The present work aims at carrying out an exergetic analysis of a downsized turbocharged DISI engine. The engine is fuelled with E10 (gasoline with 10% of ethanol content) while experimental data is acquired for different engine operating conditions. The exergetic analysis identified the combustion irreversibilities. Moreover, a comparison between second law analyses of a previously analysed port fuel injection (PFI) naturally aspirated SI engine and turbocharged DI SI engine is also presented. The study concluded with the potential benefits and drawbacks of newly adopted strategies for SI engines.
    Keywords: Direct-injection; Turbocharging; Spark ignition; Irreversibility; Exergy.

  • Exergy and environmental analysis of black liquor upgrading gasification in an integrated kraft pulp and ammonia production plant   Order a copy of this article
    by Meire Ellen Gorete Ribeiro Domingos, Daniel Florez-Orrego, Moises Teles Dos Santos, Hector Velasquez, Silvio De Oliveira Junior 
    Abstract: The black liquor is a byproduct of the kraft pulping process that contains more than half of the exergy content in the total woody biomass fed to the digester, representing a key supply of renewable energy to the pulping process. In this work, the conventional scenario of the black liquor use (i.e. concentration and combustion) is compared with the black liquor upgrading (via) gasification process for ammonia production in terms of economics, exergy efficiency and environmental impact. The combined energy integration and exergy analysis is used to identify the potential improvements that may remain hidden to the energy analysis alone, namely, the determination and mitigation of the process irreversibility. As a result, the exergy efficiencies of the conventional and the integrated cases average 40% and 42%, respectively, whereas the overall emission balance varies from 1.97 to -0.69 tCO2/tPulp, respectively. The negative CO2 emissions indicate the environmental benefits of the proposed integrated process compared to the conventional kraft pulp mill.
    Keywords: Entrained flow gasifier; Black liquor; kraft pulp; Exergy; Ammonia; Environmental impact; Renewability; Decarbonization; Energy integration; Fertilizers.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEX.2021.10032908
  • Measurement of interior thermal environment of a passive solar house in an urban area in Japan and analysis of time-series variation of human body exergy balance   Order a copy of this article
    by Hideo Asada 
    Abstract: The purpose of this study was to know what kind of time-series variation of interior thermal environment was appeared in the passive solar house as a consequence of installed some passive methods, heating equipment and residents adaptive behaviour acquired through their own lifestyle and accumulated experience and to reveal what time-series variation of human body exergy balance were appeared as a consequence for living in a passive solar house. To know this, we had done a measurement on interior thermal environment of the passive solar house in urban area of Tokyo after 6 years have passed from constructed and had done analysis on time-series variation pattern of human body exergy. As a result, a unique interior thermal environment fluctuation pattern reflecting adaptive behaviour of the residents were formed in the passive house, and the time-series variation patterns of a human body exergy balance created by specific interior thermal environment in winter and summer were explicitly shown and discussed.
    Keywords: passive solar house; measurement; indoor thermal environment; passive solar house; urban area; analysis of time series variation; human body exergy balance; adaptive behavior; lifestyle; accumulated experience; time series variation pattern; unsteady state; radiant heating; natural ventilation; human body exergy consumption.

  • A thermodynamic explanation of the function of bifurcated structures in nature and in engineered artefacts   Order a copy of this article
    by Enrico Sciubba 
    Abstract: Why do bifurcated structures appear in nature? Both in living and non-living systems, the construction of a bifurcation requires some energy input, and in view of the economic principle of nature, this must be justified by a compensating gain for the resulting evolved structure. The most celebrated attempt to a theory of such phenomena is Bejans Constructal Theory, based on a generalization of the Hess-Murray law, first derived in 1903 by the Swiss biologist Walther Rudolf Hess. In spite of the great success of CT, some questions remain unanswered: Given that the purpose of bifurcations is to transport material and immaterial flows, what underlying principle governs the radius ratio between successive branches, the diameter/length ratio and the splitting angle? How do the prevailing boundary conditions influence the onset of bifurcations? This paper presents a novel thermodynamic model based on the assumption that the driving force behind the emergence of a bifurcated structure is its exergy cost. The model may be considered an extension and a completion of the Hess-Murray law: an extension, because it measures the advantage of branched structures with respect to their non-branched counterparts in terms of exergy instead of energy; a completion, because it includes the formation exergy, neglected by previous theories. Since exergy is a homogeneous and rigorous measure of the investment necessary to operate the transport, it seems natural to consider as the fuel required for this transport both the exergy equivalent of the work done to overcome friction and the material exergy embodied in the structure. The model proposed in this paper leads to a quantification of this primary exergy cost. The ubiquity of branched structures seems to suggest that they consume less exergy to perform the same task (transferring mass or energy), and thus can better exploit the resources available in their immediate surroundings, and the numerical results presented here confirm this intuition. The same principle ought to guide the design of artificial bifurcated structures or networks: more effective delivery of material and immaterial fluxes, milder mechanical and thermal gradients, higher power/volume and power/surface ratios
    Keywords: Bifurcated Flows; Exergy Analysis; Hess-Murray Law; Constructal Theory.

  • Electrified District Heating Networks: A Thermo-Economic Optimisation Based on Exergy and Energy Analyses   Order a copy of this article
    by Getnet Tadesse Ayele, Mohamed Tahar Mabrouk, Pierrick Haurant, Björn Laumert, Bruno Lacarrière, Massimo Santarelli 
    Abstract: This paper presents a thermo-economic optimisation of an electrified district heating network consisting of wind power plant, gas-fired combined heat and power plant and heat pumps. The load flow problem of the resulting multi-energy system is formulated by considering all physical and operating parameters in both of the electricity and heat distribution networks. First, energy and exergy analyses are applied to identify and isolate lossy branches of a meshed heating network. This is followed by the optimal placement of heat pumps. Finally, supply and return temperatures are optimised. Particle Swarm Optimisation technique is implemented in order to find the best place of heat pumps, their economical dispatch and optimal temperature profile of the district heating network. Results show that up to 59.12% of the distribution heat loss and 9.37% of the operating cost can be saved by following a step-by-step methodology discussed in this paper.
    Keywords: Combined heat and power (CHP) plants; District heating network (DHN); Electrified district heating network; Energy hubs; Exergy; Heat pumps; Lossy branch identification; Multi-energy systems; Optimal placement; Particle swarm optimisation; Thermo-economic optimisation.

  • Eco-credit system to incentivize the recycling of waste electric and electronic equipment based on a thermodynamic approach   Order a copy of this article
    by Alicia Valero, Ricardo Magdalena, Guiomar Calvo, Sonia Ascaso, Fernando Círez, Abel Ortegof 
    Abstract: The use of electric and electronic equipment has been increasing dramatically in the last years and entails an important amount of waste containing many valuable metals which could constitute an important source of raw materials if appropriately recycled. In this paper, an expression has been developed to value waste of electric and electronic equipment that are sent by users to an appropriate recycling plant. The user obtains in turn eco-credits, which can be later exchanged through different incentives. The eco-credit expression is based on the raw material content of the given device, assessed through an indicator called thermodynamic rarity, which rates minerals according to their scarcity in the crust and the energy required to mine and refine them. Additionally, the state of the device, lifetime and recyclability of the materials are considered in the equation. The expression has been applied as a case study to a working tablet and a LED lamp.
    Keywords: Raw Materials; Reuse; Recycling; Exergy; Eco-credits; Rarity; WEEE.

  • Exergy analysis of a thermostatic heat pump drying system with adjustable bypass air ratios   Order a copy of this article
    by Qiuyuan Qin, Lan Tang 
    Abstract: Drying is the best method to preserve products, but it will consume large amounts of energy. In this paper, a new heat pump drying system is designed, the wet cotton cloth is selected as drying material and the exergy analyses for the main components and the whole system are carried out. The results show that the maximum exergy loss always occurs in the compressor. Both the drying air temperature (DAT) and bypass air ratio (BAR) affect the exergy efficiency of the whole system and components. For the whole system and main components, the optimal BAR at 35?, 40?, 45? are always 40%, 0% and 60% respectively. Under a higher DAT, both the dehumidification ability of the evaporator and its exergy efficiency are reduced by the excess air mass flow rate. Through the exergy analysis, some improvement measures for the exergy efficiency are put forward.
    Keywords: Exergy Analysis; Heat Pump Drying; Drying air Temperature; Bypass Air Ratio.