International Journal of Environmental Technology and Management
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International Journal of Environmental Technology and Management (2 papers in press)
The use of sewage sludge as manure for plant crops: A study of Spinacia oleracea accumulation of heavy metals and heavy metal bio-available fractions fertilized by sewage sludge by Akinwale Akinsanya, John Odiyo, Elizabeth Popoola, Titus Msagati Abstract: This paper presents results from a study of simulated field experiment that was carried out on a farmland fertilized with sewage sludge from Thohoyandou waste water treatment plant (WWTP), Limpopo Province, South Africa. Spinach vegetables (Spinacia oleracea) were planted under controlled conditions such that seven ridges, each measuring 20 m Keywords: Sewage sludge; manure; Spinacia oleracea; heavy metal; metal accumulation.
The Innovative State and the Intellectual Property Management of Publicly Developed Environmentally Sound Technology in the EU by David Svoboda Abstract: In this paper, we argue that the intellectual property (IP) management of publicly developed technology serves insufficiently the imperatives of climate change mitigation, which are understood to demand the most efficient environmentally sound technology (EST), dissemination and development. Firstly, we outline some of the criticism of IPR for climate change mitigation. Then we explain the crucial role of public funding for EST by discussing economic theory of innovation based on the writings of Joseph Schumpeter and Mariana Mazzucato, and focus on the way in which the intellectual property rights (IPR) of publicly funded EST have been managed in the most important areas of state innovation: public procurement for innovation (PPFI), the EU Pilot Horizon 2020 and university research. We outline the perceived problems with IP management of EST and where possible try to outline changes which could, in our view, provide a viable alternative to the often proposed changes to the global IP regime in regard to climate change. Keywords: climate change mitigation; intellectual property rights; innovation and state; technology transfer of climate change mitigation.