International Journal of Environmental Technology and Management (16 papers in press)
Wind-Assist Marine Demonstration for Ferries: Prospects for Saving Diesel Fuel with Wind Power
by Timothy Lipman, Jeffrey Lidicker
Abstract: This sailing vessel testing, data collection and analysis project examined the real world potential for a novel carbon-fiber wingsail technology to reduce fuel use in potential passenger ferryboat applications. The project involved building a carbon fiber, computer-controlled wingsail that was then mounted on a 14-meter trimaran test vessel with a complete instrumentation package. The vessel was then operated on the San Francisco Bay over a three-month period. The test results were conclusive that, for a test vessel traveling at seven knots though water, up to 25 to 40 percent of the fuel burned can be saved through the use of the wingsail, depending on wind speed, with a corresponding reduction in greenhouse gases, toxic and criteria pollutant emissions, and fuel costs. The estimated fuel efficiency gains will not necessarily translate directly to those at actual ferryboat service speeds (at 17 or more knots) but are encouraging pending further investigations.
Keywords: ferryboat; diesel fuel; wind; sail; wing; marine; energy; sustainability.
Correlations between On-site Screening Methods and Laboratory Analyses of Oil-contaminated Fueling Station Sites
by Tsung Nan Weng, Chen Wuing Liu, Wen Yao Liu
Abstract: In order to assess the potential of soil contamination from petroleum-based products and determine the soil samples required for laboratory analysis, investigators generally use portable instruments such as photo ionization detectors (PIDs) or flame ionization detectors (FIDs) for on-site screening. In this study, PIDs, FIDs, and turbidimetric test kits were integratively used to screen 47 soil samples from 28 fueling station sites suspected of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) contamination. The PIDs and FIDs achieved high accuracy in screening sites contaminated by gasoline (TPHC6-C9); the test kits yielded high accuracy in screening those contaminated by diesel fuel (TPHC10-C40), as well as high correlation with laboratory analysis. Regression analyses showed high coefficients of determination (R2), reaching up to 0.819 (PIDs versus TPHC6-C9), 0.788 (FIDs versus TPHC6-C9), and 0.653 (test kits versus TPHC10-C40). The integration of PIDs, FIDs, and test kits with laboratory analysis can significantly increase the efficiency and accuracy of soil contamination investigations. We suggest that the application of turbidimetric test kits to screen potential oil-contaminated fueling station sites can produce accurate assessment results.
Keywords: total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH); soil contamination; turbidimetric test kits; field screening; fueling station sites.
SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF BIO-DIESEL PRODUCTION FOR CLEANER ENVIRONMENT
by Rajeshwari Chatterjee, Sanat Kumar Mukherjee
Abstract: Environmental impacts of fossil fuels and their limited supply are driving the development and use of bio-diesel. Globally bio-diesel is gaining importance because of its environmental advantages. Jatropha curcas has been widely considered as a potential feedstock for the production of bio-diesel in several tropical countries. This study employs a method of data collection that is a face-to-face interview along with questionnaire. The questionnaire is designed considering different aspects of sustainable development. The survey is conducted in Kolkata based on bio-diesel producing companies. Statistical analysis using SPSS version 17 is used for analyzing the data collected from different bio-diesel producing companies from respondents of sample size 100 based on the questionnaire. Analysis of primary data collected is evaluated by Chi-square and correlation tests. The results indicate that the relationship of design, maintenance, process capability, facility management, transportation, quality, technology, material, and human resource with sustainable development is statistically significant and positively correlated. The major barriers that industries are facing relate to inadequate quality management, missing engine approvals and high raw material cost. Removal of tax hurdles and supportive legislative measures are the most efficient measures for overcoming these barriers.
Keywords: bio-diesel; Jatropha; sustainable development; Chi-square; co-relation.
Modeling and Simulation of Batch Adsorption of Malachite Green Using Groundnut Shell Waste Based Activated Carbon
by Irvan Dahlan, Kan Chee Kit
Abstract: Modeling and simulation of batch adsorption in Malachite green dye removal using activated carbon prepared from groundnut shell waste was studied. Mathematical model was developed based on a two-resistance model which included external mass transfer coefficient and pore diffusion coefficient that controls the mass transfer process in batch adsorption. MATLAB program was written to solve ordinary differential equation from the model and to estimate mass transfer parameters by matching the simulation data with the experimental data from literature. From the results, it was found that the external mass transfer coefficient k_f and pore diffusion coefficient D_p were estimated to be 6.2054
Keywords: Adsorption; Mathematical modelling; Malachite green dye; Activated carbon; Groundnut shell waste.
Removal of Cr(VI) and Cu(II) from waste water by an Argopecten irradians shell powder adsorbent
by Yanhong Xu, Guangrong Huang
Abstract: The ability of the shell powder of Argopecten irradians to remove Cr(VI) and Cu(II) ions from aquatic systems was evaluated. The adsorption efficiency was very high for Cu(II), at approximately 99.04%, while for Cr(VI), it was not higher than 24.03%. The adsorption rate of Cr(VI) was affected by the pH, feeding amount, stirring time, calcination temperature and initial Cr(VI) ion concentration. The experimental results indicate that the optimal Cr(VI) absorption rate was 32.86% of Cr(VI) within 1.5 h at a pH of 3 and a 200 mg/L initial Cr(VI) concentration on shell powder acidifie, using hydrochloric acid and calcination at 300
Keywords: chromium ion; copper ion; adsorption; waste water; Argopecten irradians.
Optimization of crystal violet removal onto raw kaolin using response surface methodology
by Natiela Caponi, Gabriela Carvalho Collazzo, Julia Da Silveira Salla, Sérgio Luiz Jahn, Guilherme Luiz Dotto, Edson Luiz Foletto
Abstract: This work aimed to investigate the removal of crystal violet (CV) dye from colored wastewaters using raw kaolin as a potential adsorbent. In order to investigate the effects of independent variables on dye removal and to determine the optimum experimental conditions, a 23 central composite design superimposed with response surface methodology was employed. The experiments were carried out as a function of agitation rate, initial dye concentration and adsorbent dosage. The accuracy of the model and regression coefficients was appraised by employing the analysis of variance (ANOVA). The results revealed a good agreement between the model predicted and experimental values. Under the optimal conditions, the CV removal efficiency was 71 %. The maximum adsorption capacity was 48.8 mg g-1. These findings indicated that the raw kaolin can be successfully applied as a potential low-cost adsorbent for the crystal violet removal from colored wastewaters.
Keywords: Adsorption; Kaolin; Crystal violet; Experimental design; Response surface; Adsorption isotherm; Langmuir model.
Numerical Simulation of Pollutant Dispersion in an Urban Street Canyon Effects of Elevated Metro Rail Track
by Abhishek Pratap Singh, Pramod Bhatia
Abstract: Urban air pollution is one of the unsettled issues in urban development and planning process. Urban street canyons are one of the main focused areas of investigation due to heavy emission of the pollutants by vehicles. In the present study, effects of elevated metro rail track (EMRT) on pollutant dispersion phenomena have been studied using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) technique. As a practical application of a CFD model, k-ε turbulence model was applied for airflow modelling. Transport species model was applied for pollutant dispersion modelling. Geometrical configuration of urban street canyon of aspect ratio one, with elevated metro rail track, has been considered. Numerical simulations were carried out for perpendicular wind flow. Pollutant concentrations, at various locations of the street canyon, were largely affected by the introduction of elevated metro rail track. These results were compared with the street canyon without elevated metro rail track. It has been observed that pollutant concentration increased at lower region and decreased at upper region of the street canyon. Variations were not uniformly distributed in street canyon volume. Contours and pollutant concentrations have been compared and discussed for different sampled locations in the street canyon.
Keywords: pollutant dispersion; air pollution modelling; street canyon; pollutant concentration; elevated rail track.
Identification of the malodour source in a complex office environment using solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography
by Olga Trhlikova
Abstract: Permanent or recurring malodours invading office rooms have not only detrimental effects on the staff productivity but also on their health directly or through the stress mechanisms. The necessary identification and subsequent neutralization of the malodour source is complicated by the fact that various malodour sources produce overlapping sets of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). In this contribution we present a combination of solid phase micro-extraction coupled with gas chromatography with mass detection (SPME/GC-MS) as a useful method for identification of VOCs in case study of malodour occurrence in office environment.
Keywords: gas chromatography-mass spectrometry; malodours; office environment; stress; volatile organic compounds.
Degradation of thiophanatemethyl fungicide by photoFenton process using labscale annular and solar tubular reactors
by Talitha De Andrade Borges, Osvaldo Chiavone-Filho, Antônio Carlos Silva Costa Teixeira, Edson Luiz Foletto, Guilherme Luiz Dotto, Cláudio Augusto Oller Do Nascimento
Abstract: In this work, thiophanatemethyl fungicide was degraded by the homogeneous photoFenton process using labscale annular and solar tubular reactors. A UV light was used as artificial irradiation source in the labscale reactor. The influence of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) dosage and initial pollutant concentration on the process efficiency was investigated. Degradation efficiency of thiophanatemethyl fungicide was monitored by measuring the total organic carbon (TOC). The results revealed that the variable H2O2 dosage showed remarkable effect on the process efficiency, whereas the fungicide concentration showed little influence. Both reactors showed similar efficiencies, reaching a fungicide mineralization of 80% at 120 min of reaction time. Therefore, both reactors demonstrate to be effective on the thiophanatemethyl degradation from aqueous solution.
Keywords: Annular reactor; Degradation; Fungicide; H2O2; Mineralization; Pesticides; Photo–Fenton; Solar reactor; Thiophanate–methyl; TOC.
REMOVAL OF 2,4-DICHLOROPHENOL IN A MICRO-PACKED BED ADSORBER BY ACTIVATED CARBON FROM COFFEA ARABICA FRUIT ENDOCARP
by Jorge H. Sanchez, German C. Quintana, Jorge A. Velasquez, Maria L. Correa, Daniel I. Arango
Abstract: Activated carbon, obtained by phosphoric acid activation of Coffea arabica fruit endocarp, was used to remove 2,4-dichlorophenol from aqueous solutions in a micro-packed bed adsorber. In batch experiments, effects such as initial concentration, solutions pH, and temperature on adsorption were investigated. It was found that acidic pH is favorable and that the adsorption isotherm is best represented by the Langmuir model. In continuous experiments, the effect of inlet concentration, bed-length, and flow rate on the adsorption capacity of the micro-packed bed adsorber were evaluated. Adsorption capacities were higher than those obtained in batch experiments. Inlet concentration and bed length show a significant effect on the adsorption capacity. Breakthrough curves were very well fitted by axial dispersion model. Additionally, breakthrough profiles indicate a particle-controlled process, which suggest a negligible external mass transfer resistance.
Keywords: 2,4-dichlorophenol; Activated carbon; Isotherm; Micro-packed bed; Breakthrough; Axial dispersion.
Desilication of calcined fly ash and use of silicate solution to prepare a mesoporous silica adsorbent for heavy metals in acid mine drainage
by Thabo Falayi, Freeman Ntuli, Felix Okonta
Abstract: Mesoporous silica (MCM41) adsorbent was prepared from silicate solution produced from silica leaching of calcined pulverised fly ash. MCM41 was used for the removal of heavy metals and neutralisation of acid mine drainage. Silica leaching was optimised using 2 level full factorial and 13 run central composite rotable uniform design with 5 centre points. A pH of 7 produced the most pure MCM41 with an external surface area of 98 000 m2m-3. A 4% m/v solid loading of MCM41 could remove 95.5, 97.3 and 99.6% of Ni, Cu and Fe respectively. The adsorption process was found to fit the Langmuir isotherm and pseudo second order kinetics. The Gibbs free energy of adsorption for all metals was below-20 kJ/mol for all metals. The enthalpy for Fe, Cu and Ni removal were 19.97, 21.40 and 16.44 kJ/mol respectively and thus endothermic. The significance of the research was that silica could be leached from calcined pulverised fly ash and MCM41 can be used as an adsorbent for heavy metals in acid mine drainage treatment.
Keywords: Fly ash; MCM41; leaching; central composite rotable uniform design; adsorption.
Forecasting air pollution rates in industrial centers: A case study for Kocaeli-Turkey
by Aliye Atay, Yilmaz Akdi, Yasin Okkaoglu, Faruk Celikkanat
Abstract: Around the world, air pollution is a leading social problem despite all the precautions. Of all the reasons for this, human-induced ones are at the top of the list. These can be prevented or at least reduced by some measures. Thus, forecasting air pollution is an important issue for all related agencies. In this paper, in order to forecast future values of air pollution rates, two different model approaches were considered. The first one is the Box-Jenkins time series model and the second one is a trigonometric Y_t=
Keywords: air pollution; PM10; seasonality; forecasting; Box-Jenkins time series model.
The effect of internationalisation and regulation on environmental efficiency: An empirical analysis of Spanish companies
by Juan A. Román-Aso, Jaime Vallés-Giménez
Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to estimate the impact of pollution taxes, the emissions trading system and internationalisation on environmental efficiency. To this end, we first estimate it for 100 industrial plants in Spain over a period of eleven years, 2001-2011, using a stochastic frontier model (SFA). The first two factors are included to test whether stronger environmental regulations improve efficiency, in line with the Porter Hypothesis. The last is devoted to examine whether multinational companies are more efficient than local ones. Our empirical results reveal that pollution taxes do not produce the expected outcome for the entire sample, but in contrast, the emissions trading system has a significant and positive effect on efficiency. Finally, multinational companies are not more efficient, in contrast with previous studies.
Keywords: Industrial pollution; efficiency; internationalization; Porter Hypothesis.
EVALUATING THE EFFECTS OF ELEVATED CONCENTRATIONS OF UREA, PHOSPHOGYPSUM AND PAPER MILL SLUDGE ON SOIL CHEMICAL, MICROBIAL AND EXOENZYME DYNAMICS
by Suryasikha Samal, C.S.K. Mishra, Sunanda Sahoo
Abstract: Urea, phosphogypsum (PG) and paper mill sludge (PMS) are commonly used to address soil nutrient deficiency. In this study these chemicals were used at recommended agricultural dose (RAD) along with low and high concentrations to assess their effects on soil chemical and biological quality. Urea was applied at 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 g/kg soil, PG at 50, 100, 150 g/kg soil and PMS at 5, 10, 15 g/kg soil. Significant variation in soil pH, electrical conductivity and organic carbon (OC) were noticed in response to chemical concentration and treatment types. The percent OC reduction was high in PG and PMS treated soils. Percent nitrogen and phosphorous in soil increased with the concentrations of urea and PG. Invariably, lower bacterial and fungal population were observed in treated soils relative to control. Activities of amylase, cellulase, invertase, dehydrogenase and protease were inhibited at high concentration of all test chemicals with minor deviations. The study indicated that bacterial population and exoenzymes could be useful markers to evaluate soil toxicity due to hyper concentrations of urea, PG and PMS in soil.
Keywords: exoenzyme; fungi; paper mill sludge; phosphogypsum; soil bacteria; urea.
The use of sewage sludge as manure for plant crops: A study of Spinacia oleracea accumulation of heavy metals and heavy metal bio-available fractions fertilized by sewage sludge
by Akinwale Akinsanya, John Odiyo, Elizabeth Popoola, Titus Msagati
Abstract: This paper presents results from a study of simulated field experiment that was carried out on a farmland fertilized with sewage sludge from Thohoyandou waste water treatment plant (WWTP), Limpopo Province, South Africa. Spinach vegetables (Spinacia oleracea) were planted under controlled conditions such that seven ridges, each measuring 20 m
Keywords: Sewage sludge; manure; Spinacia oleracea; heavy metal; metal accumulation.
The Innovative State and the Intellectual Property Management of Publicly Developed Environmentally Sound Technology in the EU
by David Svoboda
Abstract: In this paper, we argue that the intellectual property (IP) management of publicly developed technology serves insufficiently the imperatives of climate change mitigation, which are understood to demand the most efficient environmentally sound technology (EST), dissemination and development. Firstly, we outline some of the criticism of IPR for climate change mitigation. Then we explain the crucial role of public funding for EST by discussing economic theory of innovation based on the writings of Joseph Schumpeter and Mariana Mazzucato, and focus on the way in which the intellectual property rights (IPR) of publicly funded EST have been managed in the most important areas of state innovation: public procurement for innovation (PPFI), the EU Pilot Horizon 2020 and university research. We outline the perceived problems with IP management of EST and where possible try to outline changes which could, in our view, provide a viable alternative to the often proposed changes to the global IP regime in regard to climate change.
Keywords: climate change mitigation; intellectual property rights, innovation and state; technology transfer of climate change mitigation.