International Journal of Environmental Technology and Management (11 papers in press)
Big Data Analytics: Classification and Solution for Soil and Fertilizer System
by Raghu Garg, Himanshu Aggarwal
Abstract: Soil is one of the most important factors for the growth of plants. It carries various nutrients like water and certain contents of air which are essential for plant nourishment. At times over exposure becomes the root cause for the degradation of an otherwise fertile soil. In present times fertilizers are given the responsibility to maintain the productivity that we yield from the soil. The method prevalent to determine the quality of the soil is known as soil analysis. Soil analysis generates an estimation of the unstructured data through the process of examining the defined soil. The specimens of a wide spectrum of soils are tested in the laboratories in order to develop heaps of agricultural data. During our research work different machine learning algorithm using big data analysis are used to detect the fertilizer recommendation classes through defined soil nutrition composition. The reports are collected from Tata soil testing laboratories for experiment. Stochastic Gradient Descent (SGD) and Artificial Neural Network (ANN) are the classification methods that are compared in this paper. The performance measures inclusive of the accuracy and area under curve (AUC) are exercised to determine efficiency of classification model. Experiments show that the SGD performs a lot better then artificial neural network when it comes to accuracy, AUC and pace. The ANN is outdone by SGD with linear regression. The percentage of overall accuracy and AUC values of SGD are 88% and 86% respectively. The overall accuracy and AUC using ANN is 80% and 79% respectively. The results also reflect that SGD with linear regression are feasible in accurate recognition of the fertilizer recommendation classes.
Keywords: Agriculture data; Fertilizer recommendations; SGD; Soil reports; artificial neural network; AUC.
Innovative blends to wastewater sludge energy valorisation towards a sustainable circular bioeconomy
by Carlos André Silvestre M. De Almeida, Ivo Da Silva, Fernanda S. Peiter, Karina Ribeiro Salomon
Abstract: This work aimed to determine the elementary, chemical and energy characteristics of pellets produced using sewage sludge combined with elephant grass and residual cooking oil. At first, sludge and grass were mixed in respective proportions of 2575 and 50%50%. Afterwards, two more samples were created by adding 5% residual cooking oil to that mixtures. The parameters analysed were moisture, bulk density, elemental composition, immediate chemical analysis (ash, volatile and fixed carbon content), calorific value, fines content and mechanical durability. The material properties were compared to the European standards for pellets EN 14961-6. The results showed the pellets with a lower proportion of sludge presented higher calorific value and less ash content, but less bulk density and higher fines content. The oil provided an increase in calorific value, however, an increase in the sulfur content. Among the four samples, those with 25% sludge and 75% grass fitted all parameters according to the EN 14961-6 standards.
Keywords: pellets; sewage sludge; elephant grass; residual cooking oil; renewable energy.
Socio-economic innovations in the systems analysis: environmental and economic aspects
by Yuri Yevdokimov, Leonid Melnyk, Vladimir Melnyk, Iryna Dehtyarova
Abstract: Current socio-economic development framework does not provide enough opportunities to apply traditional decision making and managerial tools. Specifically it ignores the bifurcation (qualitative) changes in economic systems as well as critical relationship between the economy and the environment. The latter leads to nonlinear relationships between socio-economic and environmental factors. In fact, ecological and economic effects are complex multi-factorial phenomena. As a result, it makes the quantitative assessment methodologically difficult on the one hand, and requires a lot of data on pollution, ingredients, meteorology, population health, ecosystems state, and economy on the other. A deeper analysis is required to assess various environmental indicators, specifically conversion of physical or non-monetary indicators into monetary to evaluate overall environmental damage to the economy.
Keywords: socio-economic development; system analysis; nature resource; sustainable development.
Eco-friendly disposal of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) and a contribution to energy crisis in India A case study
by Chintak Parashar, Partha Das, Subho Samanta, Priyabrata Banerjee, Amit Ganguly, Shibendu Roy, Pradip Chatterjee
Abstract: Increasing rate of generation of MSW (Municipal Solid Waste), complexity of disposal techniques, and air-polluting emissions are major environmental issues in developing cities. In this context, this paper describes a MSW Management (MSWM) pilot plant designed and developed by the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) laboratory, Central Mechanical Engineering Research Institute (CMERI), wherein waste from the colony (CSIR-CMERI habitat place) is collected and then mechanically segregated so as to easily dispose it in order to generate energy from the segregated wastes by WTE (Waste to Energy) conversion technologies and supply this energy in different forms to the society. This MSWM pilot plant strives to judiciously help our governments Clean India mission. At the end, the impact of such eco-friendly waste disposal systems was found to be very beneficial and is believed to be a real day solution which will enhance the hope of waste management scenario in an accelerated fashion.
Keywords: Waste to Energy; Municipal Solid Waste; MSW pilot plant; waste segregation; MSW disposal; pollution; power; renewable energy; sustainable development; societal development; eco-friendly disposal; pyrolysis; bio-methanation.
Special Issue on: WEECON'19 Socio-Economic and Technological Approaches towards Environmental Management
Identification of earthworm for sustainable agriculture - a review
by J. Adeline Sneha, Nor Hisham Haji Khamis, Rekha Chakravarthi
Abstract: Earthworms are considered as a friend of farmer. These fretful worms improve the air and water content in the dirt. When a worm is died, it decomposes into nitrogen and benefits the farming. Nowadays, they are common prey for chemical contamination. Also, the agricultural farming today uses high quantity of pesticides to protect the crops from pest and diseases. By spraying pesticides, the lifecycle of earthworm is affected. This paper focus on detailed study of earthworm and its importance on farming. It also deals with impact of chemicals on earthworm and its side effects. This paper discusses about the identification of earthworm in farmland and various methods for enhancing the growth of worms. This paper focuses on the detailed description of various extraction methodologies of earthworms from the farms and gives the detailed analysis of merits and demerits of each extraction methods.
Keywords: earthworm; earthworm identification; fertility of soil; pesticides.
Waste to Wealth and Health: Bio-recovery and Applications of chitin and its derivatives
by Machineni Lakshmi
Abstract: The search for new molecules that are useful for human health and ecofriendly has led to the study of molecules derived from plants, animals and microorganisms. Chitin is the second most ubiquitous natural polysaccharide after cellulose on the earth, comprising repeating units of N-acetyl-D-glucosamine. However, because chitin in its natural form has high crystallinity and low solubility, its applications are limited. Modified chitin can be converted into chitooligosaccharides with varied degree of polymerization by either chemical or enzymatic methods. Even though this review has emphasized on the different chitin extraction methods, and their applications, the biological methods discussed in detail could suggest new understanding about nontoxic chitin extraction methods. In addition, an attempt has been made to highlight the recent research on their commercial applications.
Keywords: Chitin; Chitosan; CHOS; Bio-deproteinization; Bio-demineralization; Biofilm.
Development of Bacteriocins from Dairy wastes
by HARIKRISHNAN HARIHARAN, Jyothy VB, Steffy P Vinson
Abstract: Bacteriocins are of great interest due to their wide applicability in various fields including food industries. The present investigation aims on the preliminary evaluation on isolation of fluorescence bearing potent organisms and microbial peptides production having wide applicability. Soil sample collection was done from different areas including automobile workshop, waste water from industry outlets and sludge from dairy industry. Fluorescent pseudomonads were isolated and checked for the efficiency of bacteriocin production. Potential isolates were screened and bacteriocins were isolated. The microbial isolation results showed more potential isolates from the dairy industry waste than other sources. Bacteriocins are produced by non-pathogenic bacteria and are having great attention in the medical field. Also it will normally colonize the human body. The present investigation gives immense guarantee on developing a bacteriocin from the selected potential isolate.
Keywords: Bacteriocin; Fluorescent pseudomonads; Non-pathogenic bacteria; Dairy waste.
Optical design of integrated line and point focus solar collector for process heat generation
by Gunjan Kumar, Hemant Gupta
Abstract: Process heat in the form of steam or hot water is one of the essential requirements of various industrial applications. The need for these energies can be served with the help of solar energy. But, the limitations like the lower output of solar collectors and cost-effectiveness, make it difficult to implement in the industries. In this paper, an attempt has been made for the optical design of a solar system that can produce thermal power up to 1 kW. The concept of an integration of line focus and point focus is used in this work. A mathematical model has been developed to assist the optical design. The model is simulated using MATLAB coding. The dimensions of the collector are determined to generate dry and superheated steam to meet industrial needs. The results of the optical model are validated with the published experimental work which shows a good agreement.
Keywords: solar collector; line focus technology; point focus technology; optical design; zero emission; clean energy.
Liver cancer detection based on various sustainable segmentation techniques for CT images
by Reshma Jose, Shanty Chacko
Abstract: Liver cancer remains the most common cause of cancer death worldwide; in recent decades, the epidemiology has improved. Commonly, endoscopic stomach biopsy is performed for early detection of liver cancer to minimise mortality. Picture segmentation is a key technique for comprehension and intensification of the medical image. The purpose of this study was to create a sustainable computer-aided estimating system to determine the risk of liver cancer development, achieved through image processing on a CT image. Initially, the image is enhanced by using ADF-USM (anisotropic diffusion filtering with unsharp masking) technique, and the computer-aided estimating method was developed based on Fuzzy C-Means Clustering, Otsu's, Region-dependent Active Contour and Superpixel Segmentation Dependent Iterative Clustering (SSBIC). This sustainable approach will allow for the effective selection of high-risk liver cancer populations. The performed sustainable CAD device acts as an assistant to the radiologists, helping to identify the area of cancer in the CT scaffold images, take biopsies from those areas and make a better diagnosis.
Keywords: ADF-USM; fuzzy c-means clustering; otsu’s; region based active contour; SSBIC.
Investigation on elevation of sloshing liquid in the square tank under excitation using CFD and RSM
by Bageerathan Thirunavukkarasu, Thundil Karuppa Raj Rajagopal
Abstract: Sloshing loads of fluids in partially filled tanks under external excitation were investigated as they are significant in bulk fluid transportation. Effectiveness of combination of horizontal and vertical baffles with slots and varying height configurations in suppression of sloshing was studied. This study mainly focuses on the investigation of maximum elevation of sloshing water in the partially filled baffled square tank configurations. The Analysis of variance was used to perform the statistical test to investigate the input parameter which influences the output parameter. The Response Surface Methodology (RSM) was used to optimise the responses from the independent variables. A coded equation has been derived to determine the response parameters. This coded equation predicts the elevation of water in two-slot
baffled tank filled with 100 mm and excited with 90% of the resonant frequency for validation. The coded equation was found to predict the values with an error of 2.68%.
Keywords: computational fluid dynamics; CFD; central composite design; CCD; response surface methodology; RSM; tank sloshing; free surface; multiphase.
An in-silico approach for the identification of potential anticancer phytochemicals from Simarouba glauca against the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 protein
by S.S. Gayathri, Shahanas Naisam, Nidhin Sreekumar
Abstract: In-silico docking of 38 phytocompounds of Simarouba glauca (S. glauca) against the HER2 protein was carried out for evaluating its binding affinities. From the docking analysis, the ligands which has novel inhibitor properties had been found out, they were, scopoletin with the highest binding energy 63.8542 showing three H-bonds with an active site, followed by canthin-6-one-dimethoxy with a binding affinity of 33.2519 and three H-bond interactions and fraxidin with a binding affinity of 18.1425 and two H-bond interactions. The property of these phytocompounds was analysed based on Lipinskis filter and ADMET analysis. These phytocompounds show better ADME and satisfied Lipinskis parameters. The result obtained from this
research work strengthens the importance of natural compounds as a potential inhibitor for HER2 overexpression. The complex obtained was subjected to a dynamic simulation of 30 ns using the free software NAMD. For further validation, the research work can be subjected to in-vivo studies.
Keywords: Simarouba glauca; human epidermal growth factor receptor 2; HER2; ADME properties; breast cancer.