International Journal of Environmental Technology and Management (14 papers in press)
Big Data Analytics: Classification and Solution for Soil and Fertilizer System
by Raghu Garg, Himanshu Aggarwal
Abstract: Soil is one of the most important factors for the growth of plants. It carries various nutrients like water and certain contents of air which are essential for plant nourishment. At times over exposure becomes the root cause for the degradation of an otherwise fertile soil. In present times fertilizers are given the responsibility to maintain the productivity that we yield from the soil. The method prevalent to determine the quality of the soil is known as soil analysis. Soil analysis generates an estimation of the unstructured data through the process of examining the defined soil. The specimens of a wide spectrum of soils are tested in the laboratories in order to develop heaps of agricultural data. During our research work different machine learning algorithm using big data analysis are used to detect the fertilizer recommendation classes through defined soil nutrition composition. The reports are collected from Tata soil testing laboratories for experiment. Stochastic Gradient Descent (SGD) and Artificial Neural Network (ANN) are the classification methods that are compared in this paper. The performance measures inclusive of the accuracy and area under curve (AUC) are exercised to determine efficiency of classification model. Experiments show that the SGD performs a lot better then artificial neural network when it comes to accuracy, AUC and pace. The ANN is outdone by SGD with linear regression. The percentage of overall accuracy and AUC values of SGD are 88% and 86% respectively. The overall accuracy and AUC using ANN is 80% and 79% respectively. The results also reflect that SGD with linear regression are feasible in accurate recognition of the fertilizer recommendation classes.
Keywords: Agriculture data; Fertilizer recommendations; SGD; Soil reports; artificial neural network; AUC.
Waste to Wealth and Health: Bio-recovery and Applications of chitin and its derivatives
by Machineni Lakshmi
Abstract: The search for new molecules that are useful for human health and ecofriendly has led to the study of molecules derived from plants, animals and microorganisms. Chitin is the second most ubiquitous natural polysaccharide after cellulose on the earth, comprising repeating units of N-acetyl-D-glucosamine. However, because chitin in its natural form has high crystallinity and low solubility, its applications are limited. Modified chitin can be converted into chitooligosaccharides with varied degree of polymerization by either chemical or enzymatic methods. Even though this review has emphasized on the different chitin extraction methods, and their applications, the biological methods discussed in detail could suggest new understanding about nontoxic chitin extraction methods. In addition, an attempt has been made to highlight the recent research on their commercial applications.
Keywords: Chitin; Chitosan; CHOS; Bio-deproteinization; Bio-demineralization; Biofilm.
Eco-friendly disposal of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) and a contribution to energy crisis in India A case study
by Chintak Parashar, Partha Das, Subho Samanta, Priyabrata Banerjee, Amit Ganguly, Shibendu Roy, Pradip Chatterjee
Abstract: Increasing rate of generation of MSW (Municipal Solid Waste), complexity of disposal techniques, and air-polluting emissions are major environmental issues in developing cities. In this context, this paper describes a MSW Management (MSWM) pilot plant designed and developed by the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) laboratory, Central Mechanical Engineering Research Institute (CMERI), wherein waste from the colony (CSIR-CMERI habitat place) is collected and then mechanically segregated so as to easily dispose it in order to generate energy from the segregated wastes by WTE (Waste to Energy) conversion technologies and supply this energy in different forms to the society. This MSWM pilot plant strives to judiciously help our governments Clean India mission. At the end, the impact of such eco-friendly waste disposal systems was found to be very beneficial and is believed to be a real day solution which will enhance the hope of waste management scenario in an accelerated fashion.
Keywords: Waste to Energy; Municipal Solid Waste; MSW pilot plant; waste segregation; MSW disposal; pollution; power; renewable energy; sustainable development; societal development; eco-friendly disposal; pyrolysis; bio-methanation.
Current Status of E-waste Management in Viet Nam
by Nguyen Trung Thang, Sunil Herat, Duong Thi Phuong Anh
Abstract: E-waste is one of the fastest-growing waste streams in the world today. Rapid innovation and uptake of information technology around the world coupled with the advent of new design and technology at regular intervals in the electronics sector is causing the early obsolescence of many electrical and electronic equipment (EEE) used around the world today. By 2020 Vietnam is expected to generate 10.6 million Units of E-waste. In 2015, the Prime Minister of Vietnam has signed the Decision 16/2015/QD-TTg dated January 22nd, 2015 on retrieval, treatment of discarded products, which is the extended producer responsibility (EPR) system in Viet Nam. The policy is now updated by the Law on Environmental Protection 2020. This paper aims to describe the current situation of E-waste management in Viet Nam, identify some of the issues and challenges, and suggest a way forward. The contents of this paper will also serve as an input to policy making in other developing countries in the region.
Keywords: E-waste; Viet Nam; recycling; legislation; computers; mobile phones; informal recycling; craft villages; health impacts.
Optimising and investigating the effect of leaf area index, soil depth, and water content on energy conservation and pollutant reduction in green roof systems (case study: Mashhad city)
by Mohammad-Reza Seyedabadi, Mohsen Karrabi, Javad Abdollahi, Hossein Kazemian
Abstract: In this study, the effect of leaf area index, soil depth, and water content on the energy conservation and carbon emission was evaluated in building industry. For this purpose, firstly Design Builder software was employed to model a green roof on a 160 m2 building located in the cold and dry climate of Mashhad city in Iran. The results showed that energy conservation in the building has a direct relationship with the soil layer thickness (up to 40 cm) and an inverse relationship with the soil water content. A two-fold increase in the LAI improved energy conservation performance of the green roof by 14%. After estimating the effect of green roofs on pollutant emissions, it was found that the highest emission reduction would be related to NOx with the amount of 1,577.1 tons in warm seasons and 2,073 tons in cold seasons.
Keywords: green roof; environment; energy conservation; carbon emission reduction; simulation.
Design and simulation-based optimization of a renewable energy system consisting of wind and hydrogen for the purpose of reliable electrification
by Mojtaba Nedaei, Maurizio Faccio, Marco Bortolini, Mauro Gamberi
Abstract: In this study, design and simulation-based optimization of a hybrid power system, which consists of wind and hydrogen components for sustainable production and consumption is investigated. The system, which includes hydrogen and wind energy systems has been simulated on the basis of the design coefficients as well as trial and error. The wind turbine is also simulated according to signal processing based on turbine power characteristics. The energy system is designed in such a way that when the electricity is produced from the wind power, it would either be transmitted into the grid for the purpose of medium or large-scale electrification or in the case of surplus electricity, it would be utilized for small-scale hydrogen production. The decision variables such as the hub height wind speed for the wind turbine, the fuel cells incoming current and air flow rate were all categorized under input variables. The energy production transmitted from the wind turbine to the grid was estimated with the average optimum value of approximately 2,000 kWh per day. The hybrid energy system has been adjusted so that the incoming energy supplied from wind energy production powers the electrolyser thus producing H2 from the power plant. An economic analysis by defining the revenues as the objective function was carried out. Through considering various ranges of design coefficients including hydrogen price, hydrogen production, electricity price and electricity transmitted to the grid by harnessing the wind power, the net monthly revenues reached a maximum level of 1974.87 per month.
Keywords: Wind energy; hydrogen production; hybrid energy system; electrical grid.
Impact of COVID-19 restrictive precautions on air quality: case of Zonguldak, Turkey
by Rabia Köklü, Burçin Atılgan Türkmen, Ece Ümmü Deveci, Çağdaş Gönen
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to investigate and assess how restrictive COVID-19 precautions affect air quality in Zonguldak, as well as to determine the relationship between air quality and meteorological variables under these conditions. Daily PM2.5, PM10, SO2, and NOx concentrations and meteorological data, from 1 March to 31 May 2018, 2019, and 2020 were collected for this research. During the 2020 restrictive COVID-19 precautions, it was determined that concentrations of air pollutants were different and low based on the 95% confidence interval by using paired t-test samples. Meteorological variables were found to be similar to previous years, and the correlation between them and air pollutants was found to be significant (P < 0.01) but low according to Pearson correlations. As a result, meteorological variables were determined to have no direct effect on the low concentrations of air quality emissions during the 2020 pandemic. The overall findings revealed that anthropogenic impact has a negative impact on air quality and the air quality had improved during the COVID pandemic. Furthermore, the regions coal mines were restricted along the COVID pandemic was significant.
Keywords: COVID-19; pandemic; air quality; PM10; PM2.5; NOx; SO2; Zonguldak; Turkey.
A preliminary study on the relationship between environmental constraints, technological innovation and economic development in China-- based on the development level and degree of coordination of the combined system
by Mingran Wu, Weidong Huang
Abstract: Under the theory of system synergy, this paper studies the development level and degree of coordination of the combined system of environmental constraint, technological innovation and economic development in China from 2011 to 2019. The results show that in recent years, the development level of Chinas technological innovation and economic development system shows an increasing trend year by year, and their trajectories are very similar, which indicates that Chinas economic development is increasingly driven by scientific and technological innovation. The trend for the environmental constraint level is more complicated and gradually became lower than that of the other two subsystems after 2016, which further leads to the slowdown of the growth of the degree of coordination of the complex system. The results show that the current ecological environment in China restricts economic development, and environmental protection and improvement is an important issue that cannot be ignored. Therefore, the government needs to further improve environmental regulation and use different tools to coordinate these improvements. Moreover, the most important thing is to establish a modernised development system based on green science and technology.
Keywords: environmental constraint; technological innovation; economic development; development level; degree of coordination.
Special Issue on: Advances in Environmental Engineering
Evaluation method of solid construction waste recycling capacity based on AHP-fuzzy algorithm
by Xiaohua Zhang, Jiayue Xing, Zong Gao, Hongyu Zhang
Abstract: The membership calculation of evaluation indexes is easy to be ignored in the evaluation of solid construction waste recycling capacity, resulting in large evaluation errors. Therefore, this paper proposes an evaluation method of solid construction waste recycling capacity based on AHP-fuzzy algorithm. Determine the type of solid construction waste through different sources and properties; Determine the index of solid construction waste recycling according to the type of solid waste, and calculate the weight of capacity index with the help of AHP; On this basis, the membership degree of the evaluation index is obtained with the help of the judgement matrix, the fuzzy evaluation subset is determined by the weight decision matrix, the AHP-fuzzy comprehensive evaluation model is constructed, and the solid construction waste recycling capacity index is input to complete the solid construction waste recycling capacity evaluation. The results show that the error of the proposed method is only 0.5%.
Keywords: AHP-fuzzy algorithm; solid construction waste; recycling capacity; judgement matrix; membership function.
Air harmful gas concentration monitoring method based on particle filter algorithm
by Zhengyan Qin
Abstract: In order to solve the problem of poor accuracy of traditional air harmful gas concentration monitoring, an air harmful gas concentration monitoring method based on particle filter algorithm is proposed. The state space model of air harmful gas distribution is constructed, and the posterior probability density function is obtained by pushover estimation. The gas concentration to be measured is obtained by particle filter. According to the transition frequency, the second harmonic signal characteristics of harmful air gases are described by Lambert Beers law. The Lorentz linear function is used to obtain the light intensity change after gas concentration modulation, obtain the relationship between the second harmonic and gas concentration, and realise the monitoring of harmful gas concentration in the air. The experimental results show that this method can improve the monitoring efficiency and accuracy of air harmful gas concentration, and the maximum monitoring accuracy is 98%.
Keywords: characteristic inversion; gas concentration; observation equation; transition frequency; Lorentz linear function.
Modelling of the impact of land planning and development on regional ecological environment
by Lede Niu, Anlin Li, Liran Xiong, Yan Zhou
Abstract: In order to clarify the impact of land planning and development on regional ecological environment, this paper conducts a modelling study on the impact of land planning and development on regional ecological environment. Determine the change of land planning and development of space comprehensive index, the calculation of regional ecological security evaluation index and weight, in order to determine the land planning and development process of regional environmental sensitivity, according to the results of sensitivity analysis to build the land planning and development of the regional ecological environment influence model, the input of the model for land survey and statistics, the output of influence degree score, complete the modelling study. The experimental results show that the accuracy of ecological security analysis in the sample area is always higher than 90%, and the error of regional ecological security is controlled below 5%, which verifies the advantages of this model.
Keywords: land planning; regional ecological environment; ecological balance; influence model.
Prediction method of pollutant release rate of building materials based on characteristic constraints
by Hongwei Jia
Abstract: In order to solve the problems of low prediction accuracy and long prediction time in traditional prediction of pollutant release rate of building materials, a new prediction method of pollutant release rate of building materials based on feature constraint was proposed. The air flow velocity, air age, release efficiency and accessibility of pollutants are determined. The constant and dynamic release rates of pollutants are calculated, and the release characteristic state is determined by the mass conservation formula. On this basis, the release characteristics are constrained, and the release characteristic gradient value is determined by the loss function to complete the prediction model of building material pollutant release rate. The experimental results show that the prediction accuracy of the proposed method is about 98%, and the prediction time is less than 2 s.
Keywords: building materials; contaminants; release rate; characteristic constraints; air age; influencing parameters.
Special Issue on: Eco-Innovation in Environmental Management and Sustainability
Application of energy performance contracting in building energy saving
by Min Cao, Ling Wang
Abstract: In order to improve the effect of energy-saving renovation of buildings, this paper studies the classification and characteristics of the risks of energy performance contracting projects. Moreover, based on the theoretical knowledge of the grey system, through the analysis and identification of the grey system of the energy performance contracting project, this article establishes a multi-level risk index evaluation system based on the projects risk system. In addition, this article applies the energy performance contracting model to the building energy saving project and calculates the application effect of energy performance contracting in building energy saving, which is mainly evaluated from three aspects: financing effect, risk management, and energy-saving renovation effect. From the research results, it can be seen that the smart energy performance contracting model constructed in this paper has certain effects in building energy saving.
Keywords: energy performance contracting; building energy saving; system model; intelligence.
Ecological construction design and planning based on energy-saving building technology
by Xiaoting Cheng
Abstract: When designing buildings, especially eco-energy-saving buildings, we should fully consider their functions and characteristics, determine the existence of forms by function, and combine building technology with architectural art, instead of blindly pursuing visual impact or even grandstanding and manufacturing products that do not conform to scientific laws, which will increase energy consumption and reduce comfort. This paper builds an ecological construction design and planning system based on energy-saving building technology. When constructing a framework for smart construction of eco-energy-saving buildings, based on the information processing process, this paper proposes an integrated framework system that integrates smart construction requirements and various technical characteristics. Finally, this paper conducts system verification through experimental research. The research results show that the ecological construction planning and design system based on energy-saving building technology constructed in this paper can effectively improve the effect of ecological construction design and planning.
Keywords: energy-saving building; design and planning; intelligent algorithm; ecological construction.