International Journal of Economic Policy in Emerging Economies (38 papers in press)
Improving the Mechanisms of Evaluation of Efficiency of Managing an Educational Establishment Within the Global Crisis Management in Industry 4.0
by Olga V. Fokina, Elena V. Chirkova, Tatiana S. Bobkova, Maria V. Mazunina, Ekaterina L. Ralnikova
Abstract: The purpose of the research is to improve the mechanism of evaluating the efficiency of managing the educational establishment within the global crisis management in Industry 4 0 in modern Russia The authors substantiate the necessity for conducting separate evaluation of efficiency of managing a university within the global crisis management in Industry 4 0 By the example of Samara State Technical University in 2018, the authors show low efficiency of a university within the global crisis management in Industry 4 0 due to foundation on the indicator of effectiveness The offered recommendations for improving the mechanism of evaluation of efficiency of managing a university within the global crisis management in Industry 4 0 in modern Russia allow achieving the following advantages: increased attention to universitys using the possibilities of globalization, which allows implementing the potential of growth of its global competitiveness; receipt of the most precise and correct results.
Keywords: improvement; evaluation of efficiency; management; university; global crisis management; Industry 4.0; modern Russia.
Revisiting the export-growth nexus for India:
an empirical exercise
by Vikas Dixit, Shaista Parveen
Abstract: This paper attempts to investigate empirically the export-growth nexus for India from different theoretical perspectives. Using robust time series techniques, and considering both demand-side and supply-side explanations of the relationship between export and output growth, this paper finds empirical support for export-led growth hypothesis for India for long run and short run from supply-side as well as demand-side perspectives. The demand-side orientation appears to be the better explanation of this relationship during post-liberalisation period. The horizontal export diversification is observed to have U-shaped relationship with output growth. In terms of export composition (or vertical export diversification), share of manufactured exports bear a positive and significant relation with output growth, whereas the positive but insignificant impact of services exports on economic growth underlines the need for a rigorous policy action in this sector. The results of empirical estimation are further confirmed by lag-augmented vector autoregressive non-causality test.
Keywords: export-led growth; growth-led export; demand-side; supply-side; export diversification; export composition.
Economic Effects of Earthquakes; Focusing on the Health Sector
by Malihe Ashena, Ghazal Ashahpari, Hossein Sadeqi, Mehran Shahpari
Abstract: This paper aims to clarify the effects of earthquake as a shock to the Irans economy providing policy makers with insight in the impacts of such shocks. Using CGE approach, it proposes modelling the reduction of capital stock stem from the earthquake and outlining its effects on the GDP, health sectors and households welfare. Based on simulation results, the GDP decrease and the rate of reduction depend on the severity of the earthquake. Supply side of health sector is affected more than demand side, due to the fact that healthcare centres destroy aftermath of earthquakes. Households welfare reduces after earthquake and the urban population are more vulnerable.
Keywords: Earthquakes; Health; Welfare; Computable General Equilibrium Models.
Optimisation of the mechanisms of managing venture investments in the sphere of digital education on the basis of new information and communication technologies: audit and reorganisation
by Svetlana P. Goryachikh, Anastasia A. Sozinova, Elena N. Grishina, Eleonora V. Nagovitsyna
Abstract: The purpose of the paper is to consider the model of managing
venture investments in the sphere of digital education in modern Russia and
development of recommendations for optimisation of its mechanisms on the
basis of new information and communication technologies (ICT). Based on the Russian experience of managing venture investments a conceptual model of this process is compiled. It is determined that two mechanisms are involved in the process of managing venture investments in the sphere of digital education in Russia audit and reorganisation of universities. It is proved that optimisation of the mechanisms of managing venture investments in the sphere of digital education on the basis of ICT allows solving the problem of insufficient information support of this process. The offered recommendations allow guaranteeing full-scale and highly-effective information support for audit of digital modernisation of universities and their reorganisation.
Keywords: optimisation; management; venture investments; digital education; university; new information and communication technologies; ICT; audit; reorganisation; modern Russia.
COULD THE NEXT INDONESIAN INCOME TAX LAW ADOPT TO THE CONCEPT OF INCOME UNDER IFRS?
by Prianto Budi, Ning Rahayu
Abstract: This study has two purposes. The first is to explore the implementation of income concepts under current income tax law (UU PPh) before and after the convergence of International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) in Indonesia. The second is to explore whether the new UU PPh could adopt the notion of income under IFRS. By using a qualitative approach, this study concluded that before and after IFRS convergence, the income definition under current UU PPh has never changed since its first 1983 enactment. Such condition has resulted in some income tax issues based on the ability-to-pay principle and realization doctrine. The main problem relates to the realization principle as part of the historical cost accounting system, whereas accounting income refers to the mark-to-market, ignoring realization rules. The second conclusion is that the income concept under the next UU PPh can partially apply the accounting income concept because it still needs the realization principle.
Keywords: the concept of income; ability-to-pay principle; realization doctrine; historical cost accounting; fair value accounting.
Macroeconomic determinants of military expenditure in Malaysia
by Abdul Rahim Ridzuan, Mohd Shahidan Shaari, Nur Surayya Mohd Saudi, Vikniswari Vija Kumaran, Mohamad Idham Md Razak
Abstract: The decreasing trend of Malaysian annual allocation towards military expenditure in the past 16 years ago has become a subject of interest for this research paper. This paper aim to investigates either the selected macroeconomic variables such as domestic investment, exchange rates, inflation, trade openness and population growth could be the factors that lead towards lower government spending in this country. The ARDL regression is introduced based on the data span range from 1970 until 2016. The long run elasticities showcased that low inflation and currency appreciation lead towards higher government spending on military expenditure while deepening in trade openness cause lower spending on military. The role of inflation again is being highlight as it is also granger cause military expenditure in Malaysia. The list of policy recommendation is being discuss and hopefully it could give a fresh insight to the policymakers with regards to this research topic.
Keywords: military expenditure; macroeconomics variables; ARDLregr ession; Malaysia.
The Impact of Fiscal and Monetary Policy on Economic Growth in Southern African Custom Union: A panel ARDL Approach
by Nkosinathi Emmanuel Monamodi, Ireen Choga
Abstract: This study investigates the impact of fiscal and monetary policy on economic growth in (SACU) economies between 1980 and 2017. Panel auto regression distributed lags (PARDLs) estimation technique and Pooled mean group (PMG) estimator were utilised in this study. The results indicate that these policies influence economic growth significantly across SACU economics in the long run. However, fiscal policy is only significant if government expenditure is used as the functional policy instrument rather than government revenue. The short run effects of these macroeconomic policies are mixed. Granger causality results indicate that the direction of cointegration is from government, real interest rate, inflation and official exchange rate to economic growth
Keywords: economic growth; fiscal policy; monetary policy; panel auto regression distributed lag; PARDL; Southern African Custom Union; SACU; pooled mean group; PMG.
Conceptual model for managing sustainable development of the financial market based on fuzzy cognitive maps: case study of Kazakhstan
by Yuliya Nichkasova, Kulyash Sadvokassova, Nursultan Kayupov
Abstract: Kazakhstans financial market, being relatively small in size, does not have the ability to compensate for the needs of economic entities for financing development through market mechanisms. Therefore, a decision support tool is needed to ensure continued growth. The solution was to use a fuzzy cognitive map and a method for constructing indicators of the systems sustainable development which included a set of three types of subsystem: economic, financial institutions, and financial markets. The sample, containing data from between 1993 and 2018, uses 31 indicators of the economic development of Kazakhstan to reflect the ability of the system to develop in terms of depth, accessibility, efficiency, stability, integration, innovation, and cognitive approach of the economic agents. The current state of the financial market for the period up to 2025 indicates initial shallow depth and slow progress requiring increased investment, GDP growth and reduced inflation to stimulate its development.
Keywords: economic system; financial market; financial institution; financial
indicators; sustainable development; fuzzy cognitive map; FCM; conceptual model; decision support system; strategic decisions; Kazakhstan.
Educational support for digital state communications for transition to Industry 4.0
by Svetlana V. Sharokhina, Olga E. Pudovkina, Igor A. Yasenitskiy, Tatiana N. Gorokhovitskaya, Elena A. Bratukhina
Abstract: The purpose of the article is to substantiate the necessity for educational support for establishment of digital state communications for transition to Industry 4.0 (by the example of Samara Oblast of the Russian Federation). This purpose determines the directions of the research: university students readiness for usage of the internet space for implementing their political desires and the technical possibilities of public authorities and local administration to organise the channels of interaction with this audience. The leading research methods are determination of the category tools, sociological survey (questionnaire survey) with the elements of case study
among the undergraduates, and content analysis of the main public offices of Samara Oblast. These methods allow determining the modern state of public communications in the region. As a result of the performed research, characteristics of the youth audience of social networks and of the internet space on the whole as potential participants of public communications were determined.
Keywords: public communications; Web 2.0; Samara Oblast; public authorities; society; participation; education; Industry 4.0.
The determinants of point of sales system adoption perceived by micro small medium enterprises in West Java, Indonesia
by Sylviana Maya Damayanti, Tarindra Raditya, Indra Yudha Mambea, Arinda Mentari Putr
Abstract: This paper examines the determinants of a point of sales (POS) system adoption perceived by micro small medium enterprises (MSMEs) by using a cross-section survey data set of the largest population province in Indonesia, West Java. A binary logistic regression is employed to analyse the influence of subjective norms, images, perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use on POS system adoption. Valid and reliable questionnaires are used to collect data. This paper finds that Image and Perceived Usefulness have an impact on the adoption. This result indicates that in the MSMEs context, image and perceived usefulness are factors that have a positive and significant impact on the adopters in terms of functionality.
Keywords: point of sales; POS; MSMEs; binary logistic regression; West Java; Indonesia.
The problems of using intellectual property as a tool of growth of national economys competitiveness
by Vyacheslav M. Bezdenezhnykh, Elena V. Karanina, Nadezhda M. Yartseva
Abstract: The authors study the problems of using intellectual property in Russia as a tool of innovative economic development and the possible ways of solving them in view of experience of developed countries. The regulator, having left the state financing of innovative projects, left the scientific community and business with a lot of questions. It is shown that in countries of EU and the USA small business, in which most of active and educated youth is involved, dominates among other innovative institutes that create and implement innovations in the sphere of hi-tech. it is emphasised that the largest losses for the Russian economy are borne by small business, which creates new innovative solutions that could be quickly applied in the national economy.
Keywords: intellectual property; IP; national innovative system; NIS; object of intellectual property; OIP; evaluation and accounting of OIP; market institutes of evaluation of OIP.
Influence of technological innovations on economic inequality in developed and developing countries
by Valeria D. Dmitrieva, Anna I. Yakovleva, Valeriy V. Glebov, Ekaterina P. Petukhova, Aleksey V. Shpakov
Abstract: The authors analyse the indicators that show the situation of inequality for 37 countries of the world. It is shown that high level of indicators of effectiveness of states activities does not necessarily lead to reduction of inequality; neither it means that government will spend money for social protection of population, education, and other humanitarian tasks. A dream of technological innovations and digital transformations faces the reluctance to spend money for education and science. As a result of analysis of the indicators of economic, innovative, and social development, the authors determine several main tendencies of the modern times, which connect the situation of inequality and implementation of technological innovations. It seems that not in all cases one can speak of a positive effect of technological innovations, for
very often they have a temporary, though long, effect, and leading to large gaps
in the level of well-being.
Keywords: economic inequality; inequality of incomes; inequality of opportunities; spatial inequality; economics of innovations; innovative systems.
Resource-abundance regions of Russia and
by Kirill Sablin
Abstract: The paper is devoted to the study of entrepreneurs ability those generate Schumpeterian innovations to be a subject of the Russian economy development. Regions those are rich in natural and mineral resources are the object of the study. Research methodology includes concept of dual enclave economy, concept of fragmented innovation systems, and concept of institutional entrepreneurship. Research method is represented
with multifunctional -Fisher criterion. Activities of entrepreneurs of developmental institutions in Kuzbass and Krasnoyarsk regions are analysed. It is revealed that entrepreneurs faced with a number of problems related not only to the existence of administrative barriers, but also to the lack of demand for their products from large companies, as well as the lack of access to necessary infrastructure. Most of entrepreneurs preferred individual form of interaction with regional authorities representatives that to solve these problems. These facts mean bounded positive externalities arising in the process of innovation activities.
Keywords: resource-abundance regions; institutional environment; Schumpeterian innovations; rent-seeking behaviour.
Brexit aftermath a lot of fuss over nothing? The perspective of the EU-27 member states
by Katarzyna Mroczek-Dąbrowska, Anna Matysek-Jędrych
Abstract: The uncertainty of the post-Brexit relations between the UK and the
remaining EU-27 countries has caused political and economic concerns (Kroll and Leuffen, 2016). The ongoing negotiations concerning future relations cover various scenarios that may have different impacts on the individual economies in both an economic and a political sense. The article analyses consequences of the British voters decision to withdraw from the European Union through the lens of a disintegration process and its main objective is to identify the scale and the nature of individual countries vulnerability toward Brexit. It demonstrates purely economic approach to the critical assessment of Brexit, with focus on building rankings of losers. In this way, we contribute to the ongoing debate on the Brexit negotiation process by providing strong arguments in favour of certain policy decisions. In line with the neighbour country hypothesis and small country hypothesis, we assume that small economies will experience moderate to high negative consequences of Brexit, while larger ones will not be affected as much, having regard, however, to the countrys location in relation to the UK.
Keywords: Brexit; European integration; European Union; UK; vulnerability.
Agricultural exports and potentials of Algeria: an econometric investigation through gravity model
by Mohamed Assad Allah Matallah, Mohamed Amine Benmehaia, Abdelmadjid Benmebarek
Abstract: This paper investigates Algerias export flows, with special reference to agricultural exports, through an econometric analysis. Based on the panel data, the gravity model approach has been used to estimate Algerias exports determinants through annual data covering the period 2001 to 2017 for 98 trading partners. The study also uses measures for export propensities and potentials to examine agricultural exports performances. The main findings indicate that Algerian export sector corroborates the gravity model, importers GDP and distance are its significant driven factors, the common culture has a significant effect on the agricultural exports sector, and there is more potentials
to be tapped. Besides, rankings are obtained based on Algerian exports propensities. Some policy recommendations are derived from this study in order to highlight the main considerations to be taken into account to enhance exports sector performance
Keywords: agricultural exports; gravity model; exports potential; panel regression; Algeria.
Management efficiencies in Russian banking: specificity of the transition to socially-oriented management
by Artem N. Gerasimov, Irada A. Azhieva, Vladimir I. Kurbatov, Ekaterina V. Kartashevich, Angela M. Salogub
Abstract: The article considers the conditions and opportunities for the development of socially-oriented management in the Russia banking, as this type of management activity and these management relations allow banks to overcome the absolutisation of the economic priorities through socialisation of their target orientation, ultimately harmonising banks objectives to achieve economic efficiency with a high level of social responsibility. Particular attention is paid to the search for the primary contradiction that determines the nature of the formation of a professionally specialised system of socially-oriented management relations and the role of social reporting mechanisms in its direct, systemically organised form, functioning as an indicator of banking organisations degree of maturity and social responsibility
Keywords: specificity of the banking sector; social management; socially-oriented management; social policy; management activities; management relations; social responsibility; social reporting mechanisms.
Measuring stock market volatility a study in India perspective
by Jitendra Kumar Dixit, Vivek Agrawal, Sucheta Agarwal
Abstract: Volatility is the inherent characteristics of stock market. The presence of the volatility provides an opportunity to earn unexpected profits by risk seeker investors and becomes a matter of diffidence among risk averse as high risk is anticipated with high return during the period of high volatility. Informed investors consider market volatility while making investment decision. Volatility is reflected due to uncertainty in stock return and price and unexpected events that can be measure through the GARCH family models. Analysis is performed on daily closing value of NSE and BSE from 1 April, 2011 to 31 March, 2019, extracted through the online-portal of BSE (bseindia.com) and NSE (nseindia.com) for the purpose of present analysis. The output of the current study confers the acceptance of E-GARCH model for the purpose of predicting and forecasting the market volatility.
Keywords: volatility; variance; GARCH; P-GARCH.
Factors of creation and functioning of AI: anthropogenic vs. social
by Ekaterina A. Fadeeva, Igor V. Denisov, Platon A. Lifanov, Irina S. Bagdasarian
Abstract: The purpose of the work is to determine, systematise, and rank the factors of creation and functioning of AI and to determine the perspective measures of state management of these factors for quick development and reduction of risks of using AI in the modern digital economy. The authors use the methods of systematisation and classification within the systemic approach. Also, the authors use formalisation and sociological survey for determining the significance of the factors of creation and functioning of AI. The respondents are 323 developers of AI in Russia in 2019. The results of the research showed that the processes of creation and functioning of AI are influenced by the social and anthropogenic factors. The social factors are primary they are more significant and determine the anthropogenic factors. This shows that digital modernisation of economy based on AI is to serve the interests of acceleration of economic growth and increase of competitiveness of the economic system and (what is more important) the interests of increase of populations quality of life.
Keywords: AI; anthropogenic factors; social factors; state management; Russia; digital economy.
Education and equal opportunity: a study of state initiatives towards gender sensitisation for sustenance of a responsible society
by Puja Khatri, Khushboo Raina
Abstract: Equity or equal opportunity in education has remained a focal point of study for recent researches on inclusion. An inclusive society which is said to overlook caste, status, gender, religion, etc., is much cohesive in nature and accepts all individuals for their real identities. There is an urgent need of imparting gender sensitive education at school level in India, in order to, build an inclusive society which aims at respect for all individuals and their equality The purpose of the study is to map the perceptions of school going students towards various gender and equality related variables and mapping their relationships in light of the steps taken by the government. The study was conducted on 160 students out of which students representing three socialeconomic status (SES) namely low-income group, middle income group and high-income group were considered. Multivariate analysis (MANOVA) and correlation techniques were applied for data analysis.
Keywords: equity in education; responsible living; educational sustenance; inclusive society; gender sensitisation.
Multidimensional poverty analysis and its determinants in Rwanda
by Gerard Bikorimana, Shengmin Sun
Abstract: This paper analyses multidimensional poverty and its determinant in Rwanda by using Rwandas demographic health survey and integrated household living conditions survey. Analytical techniques used include the current multidimensional poverty index, descriptive statistics and ordered probit regression. The results revealed that multiple deprivations are found mostly in the rural settings compared to urban areas. The standard of living dimension is largest contributor to multidimensional poverty in both rural and urban areas of Rwanda. In order to improve from multidimensional poverty and its determinants, policies towards supporting the promotion of women especially by reinforcing females education and intensifying womens employment opportunities, strengthening family planning program and reducing poverty in regions with special focus on poverty reduction in rural areas, mainly in the Western and Northern provinces will be effective. In addition, supporting farmers who do not possess farmland and increasing vocation program may be also helpful for poverty reduction in Rwanda.
Keywords: multidimensional poverty; rural; urban; ordered probit regression; Rwanda.
Crop insurance for agricultural turn-around in India
by Debabrata Mukhopadhyay, Rupam Mukherjee
Abstract: The present study focuses on the working of National Agricultural Insurance Scheme (NAIS), which was implemented in the Indian agriculture since Rabi season of 19992000. Crop insurance is the only available mechanism to mitigate production risk in farming. Agricultural insurance reduces fluctuations in farmer output by agricultural progression. The paper tries to examine how the mean value of output production as well as fluctuation in output production of some select crops has changed in NAIS period compared to pre-NAIS period in their major production states. The paper also tries to investigate whether functioning of NAIS has resulted in any significant structural break in output production of those crops in terms of Quandt Andrews (1993) and Bai and Perron (2003) test of break points for a time series data. The paper proposes a universal crop insurance scheme to augment output production, stabilise farm income, which can cause a turn-around of Indian agriculture.
Keywords: crop insurance; structural break; burden of debt; farmers’ suicides; India.
Fiscal policys impact on economic growth an estimation on eight Balkan countries
by Ela Golemi, Klodian Muço
Abstract: The analysis of the correlation between fiscal policy and economic growth is a particularly important and highly debated topic in the theoretical and empirical literature. In this study we examine the impact of fiscal policy on economic growth in the eight western Balkan countries for the period 20052018. The results suggest that fiscal revenues have a positive impact on the economic growth of the countries under consideration. The empirical results also suggest that tax increases have a relatively low negative impact on the flow of foreign direct investments in these countries. As well as the fact that taxes have an almost negligible impact on the formation of capital in countries taken into consideration that are notable for corruption and high tax evasion. Our study contributes to the debate on the factors that influence economic growth and the impact of different taxes on real GDP growth in Balkan
Keywords: taxation; growth; western Balkan countries.
Innovative economy: problems of the legal form in modern Russia
by Dmitry A. Lipinsky, Victoria V. Bolgova, Nikolay V. Makareyko, Aleksandra A. Musatkina, Roman S. Markunin
Abstract: The purpose of the research is to determine the structure of the legal form of the innovative economy and specific features of certain elements of the system of legal regulation of innovative activities and to analyse the legal obstacles for innovative development in modern Russia. The authors use the methods of systemic analysis, which allow considering the processes of creation of innovations due to goals and tasks of the national policy and evaluating the influence of certain means of legal regulation on efficiency of the innovative activities. It is shown that drawbacks of legal definition of innovations influence the effectiveness of the public and legal influence and state support for innovations. The authors analyse the public and legal means of state support for innovations and make a conclusion on the possibility of using the method of legal vacuum for stimulating innovative activities.
Keywords: legal regulation; innovative development; innovations; law; investments; innovative law; innovative system; Russia.
Impact of India ASEAN FTA on employment in Indian manufacturing sector
by Chandrima Sikdar, Biswajit Nag
Abstract: Domestic production in Indian manufacturing sector failed to generate adequate employment opportunities but jobs supported by exports from the sector has been on the rise. The current study examines the employment effect of India-ASEAN Free Trade Agreement (IAFTA) on Indian manufacturing sector. Of the different FTAs signed by India, IAFTA involves one of the largest trade volumes. Using CGE modelling framework of GTAP database the study conducts simulations by calibrating the trade liberalisation scenario as of 2018 between India and the ASEAN countries. IAFTA fetches employment growth in manufacturing. But the beneficiaries of this gain are the
unskilled labour who benefit both in terms of greater employment and higher wages. Higher usage of unskilled labour in conjunction with increased imported inputs also fetches productivity gains for the country. However, skilled labour employment is hit. Overall impact of IAFTA on manufacturing sector remains positive due to increased trade and employment gains.
Keywords: trade; employment; manufacturing; India-ASEAN FTA; CGE modelling; GTAP.
Emotional labour, stress and employee performance: a study of higher education system
by Binod Kumar Rajak, Sambashiva Rao Kunja, Punam Singh
Abstract: The teacher is expected to play a multifaceted role in the overall development of students, which makes a teachers job much more challenging as well as stressful. Creating a conducive environment for a meaning and engaging student-teacher interaction requires the teacher to regulate his/her emotions in a manner with is favourable to a students wellbeing. In the given competitive and highly demanding educational environment, this study attempts to understand the influence of stress on teachers performance and the intervening role of EL. The study was conducted on teachers employed in university and colleges across India. The study revealed that DA has a more significant effect on stress in comparison to SA whereas stress strongly impacts the EP. EL is one of the crucial factors in creating stress. Our research enriches the existing literature by exploring EL, stress and EP in the perspective of
teachers in higher education.
Keywords: emotional labour; higher education; stress; employee performance; structural equation modeling; deep acting and surface acting.
Revealed comparative advantage and constant market share analysis of Indonesian cinnamon in the world market
by Evi Thelia Sari, Maria Rochelle G. Divinagracia
Abstract: The study analysed the RCA and CMS of Indonesian cinnamon in the world market. Data on all types of cinnamon products traded by Indonesia to USA and the world market from 1987 to 2017 were retrieved from the UN Comtrade. Results showed that Indonesian cinnamon has comparative advantage in either the world or US market because the RCA value is greater than one. The CMS analysis indicated that Indonesian cinnamon garnered positive signs for the world effect, commodity growth effect, and competitiveness. The negative sign of market distribution implied the difficulty of Indonesian cinnamon to increase its volume of exports to the US market. The Indonesian government should identify other markets, and not solely depend on the requirements of the US market. There is an opportunity for Indonesians to grow and produce cinnamon to increase its supply to existing and potential markets.
Keywords: cinnamon; spices; revealed comparative advantage; RCA; constant market share; CMS.
Kinked economic growth: insights from gender lens
by Supreet Kaur, Satinder Kumar
Abstract: The long-standing cultural customs and theories of gender imbalance posit that widening gender gaps can dampen the growth prospects of a nation. The present study traces the reasons behind persisting meta-son preferences that contribute towards skewed sex ratios and the impact of such stormy preferences on the economic growth of the nation. To substantiate the same, data is used from the fourth wave of the National Family and Health Survey conducted in 20152016, Economic survey, 2018 and Gender Gap index 2018. The responses were gathered with the help of semi-structured personal interview conducted in the southeastern region of Punjab, India. Using IPA, the study found that meta-son preferences will lead to privation of human capital thereby limiting productive capacities. The study will be an insight especially for the Punjab government officials for setting up of future policies to counter the same. Applying these findings will help eradicate the post natal discrimination.
Keywords: gender gap; missing women; sex-selective abortions; meta-son preferences; interpretative phenomenological analysis; skewed ratios; economic growth.
Asymmetric price transmission of Indonesian, Thailand, and the Philippines canned tuna to the European market
by Puspi Eko Wiranthi
Abstract: Although Thailand and the Philippines have dominated the canned tuna market, Indonesia indicates an upward export value to the EU. Data revealed that there were differences in the speed of price adjustments between the three countries and there was an indication that Indonesia responded more quickly to changes of Thailand and the Philippines prices over the past few years. Therefore, in this study, the causality price relationship is examined by employing monthly data from January 2008 until September 2018. Asymmetric error correction model (AECM) was performed through the E-Views 10 statistical package to analyse a short and long term price transmission. The
results indicate that the canned tuna export prices from the three exporting countries are well cointegrated. The short-term price transmission of Thailand and the Philippines has an asymmetrical influence on an increase of Indonesian prices while the long-term price transmission between three countries occurs symmetrically.
Keywords: market integration; price transmission; canned tuna; Indonesia; Thailand; The Philippines; AECM.
Thai pottery industry economic innovation on the edge pottery purchasing decision factors Dan Kwian pottery village a case study (purchasing decision factors case study of Dan Kwian pottery village)
by Adisak Suvittawat
Abstract: Thailand is well known for its floating markets and night markets in Bangkok and surrounding areas. It is lesser known for its pottery markets which include Jattuchak market (JJ market) and the most famous. Dan Kwian pottery village on the outskirts Nakhon Ratchasima city also known as Korat. This quantitative research project focused on the market visitors perceptions and purchasing decision making in relation to pottery shopping at the Dan Kwian market. This destination shopping experience combines affordable prices with cultural tourism and economic development and entrepreneurship. This research project concentrated on the product characteristics and pricing of Thai pottery. With the main points to be researched being: does the product match the needs of the consumer? What is the relationship between product and price? As well as styles and form factors of the pottery products and the colour varieties of the pottery products. The main purpose of going to the pottery market was shopping for reasonable local products while supporting the local economy. The majority of the shoppers had a positive shopping experience and were happy with the quality and prices at the Dan Kwian pottery market. It is hoped to replicate this study at other pottery markets in Thailand and around
Keywords: destination tourism; economic; farmer markets; pottery markets.
Agency creation as an instrument of rent-seeking in South Sudan
by James Alic Garang
Abstract: The paper, analysing secondary data and case studies of select events, focuses on instruments that economic agents have used to extract rents from the state in South Sudan. Invoking a simplified conceptual framework nested in the rent-seeking theory, it finds that agency creation, a profound penchant to form new institutions, was not confined but widespread across the government in the period 20052016. In furthering the agency creation hypothesis, the paper argues that institutional weaknesses, mostly in the public sector, and oil bonanza have enabled economic actors to bring about innovations in the rent-seeking market in which individual agents, including importers, well-connected elites and members of public created or chose existing government agencies as instruments to capture rents. The paper concludes by urging more vigilance in addressing agency creation or shopping, either of which is more pronounced where institutions are weak, with resource abundance creating opportunities for rent-seeking.
Keywords: South Sudan; agency creation; agency shopping; letter of credit; Dura scheme; crisis management committee; CMC; market imperfections.
Analysing the impact of oil capital on economic growth in West Asia and North African countries
by Mushtaq Ahmad Malik, Tariq Masood
Abstract: Most countries of West Asia and North Africa (WANA) are dependent directly or indirectly on oil resources to fuel growth. There are apprehensions as to whether oil-capital has benefited these countries and their economic growth. The present research seeks to investigate the association between the dependence on oil resources and economic growth of WANA countries from 1970 through 2016. We used the share of fuel exports in total merchandise exports as a proxy for resource dependence. Furthermore, we incorporate measures of institutional quality, terms of trade, and investment as control variables to evaluate if resource dependence impacts growth differently. The empirical investigation found the existence of paradox of plenty or resource curse effect. Both cross-country ordinary least squares (OLS) and two-stage least squares (2SLS) regressions strongly confirm the hypothesis of a negative relationship between fuel exports as a percentage of total merchandise exports and real per capita GDP growth. These results remain robust after controlling for institutional quality, terms of trade, and investment.
Keywords: oil resources; economic growth; resource curse; fuel exports; trade; institutions; WANA countries.
Mapping innovation in Indonesian cooperative: priorities, obstacles and challenges to survive
by Novita Puspasari, Yudha Aryo Sudibyo
Abstract: Indonesia has the largest number of cooperatives in the world, however cooperatives have not been able to contribute optimally to the country's economy. Therefore, innovation is needed in order to develop Indonesian cooperatives. This research aims to measure cooperatives innovation priorities and map such innovations in Indonesia. The method used was mixed method through survey and in-depth interviews sequentially. A 1,050 cooperatives became the respondent of the survey, while 113 cooperatives became the participant of the interviews. The study found that innovation priority in cooperatives varies among provincial clusters and quadrants. The implications of this research will be a baseline for conducting necessary interventions to build cooperative innovation ecosystem in Indonesia.
Keywords: cooperative; innovation; mixed method; innovation ecosystem.
Measuring mismatch unemployment in the Malaysia
by Rusmawati Said, Salwaty Jamaludin, Normazwana Ismail, Norashidah Mohamed Nor, Yong Chen Chen
Abstract: Despite its low unemployment rate, the Malaysia labour market is currently sending signals of mismatch, a misallocation between demand and supply that may occur in the form of educational, skills, geographical, occupational, and industrial mismatches. Failure to identify the right type of mismatches will lead to ineffective policies to solve the unemployment issue. Using matching function, this study aims to calculate the labour mismatch index and measure the contribution of mismatch unemployment to the rise of unemployment rate. Employing various sources of data from the Department of Statistics Malaysia, Ministry of Human Resource Malaysia and Bank Negara Malaysia, this study found the presence of skills mismatch in the Malaysia labour market, with the mismatch index gradually increased from 0.108 in 2007 to 0.273 in 2017. Mismatch unemployment explained at most half of the total observed increase in unemployment rate, signalling severe mismatch in the Malaysia labour market.
Keywords: mismatch; unemployment; vacancies; matching models; Malaysia.
Exploring the transmission and determinants of volatility shocks in emerging South-Asian markets.
by Pranab K. Pani, Hameedah Sayani
Abstract: The transmission of volatility shocks in two prominent South Asian markets is analysed to identify whether shocks in these markets overlap and are associated with any global or national events. This study attempts to provide an insight into the interdependence between these markets and their interaction with the US market. The data is analysed using multiple methods. First, the iterated cumulative sum of squares (ICSS) algorithm is employed to determine shocks in the returns series and then examined to understand their domestic/global scope. A modified version of GARCH (1, 1), is used to determine the impact of events on volatility persistence. The study reveals that the shocks in important stock indices associate mostly with country-specific or regional political and/or economic events. The assimilation of shocks in the GARCH (1, 1) model improves the volatility measures only in two of the candidate markets.
Keywords: BSE30; KSE100; ICSS algorithm; emerging market; GARCH (1; 1); break points; stock exchange; South-Asian markets; volatility shocks.
Construction activity and economic growth: what follows what? Evidence from India.
by Rochna Arora, Baljit Kaur
Abstract: Construction sector holds a meaty place among all sectors of the economy. The importance of construction sector stems from its promise of strong linkages (both backward as well as forward) with other sectors of the economy. Of all, effect on employment is highly crucial for labour-intensive economy like that of ours. To study which economic variable precedes the other, data are collected on economic variables of gross domestic product and GDP from construction activity for the period running from 19912017. The results from long-run causality worked out using Granger test points to long-run causality from construction activity and employment to economic growth and from growth and employment to construction activity. While the short-run causal results which are worked out using Wald test gives evidence in favour unidirectional causality from economic growth to construction activity; employment to economic growth and employment to construction growth.
Keywords: construction; economic growth; employment; causality; India.
Tax evasion and economic growth in the EU
by Jana Stavjaňová, Leoš Vítek
Abstract: The aim of this study is to verify the presence of a negative link between the size of tax evasion and economic growth and whether this possible link is stronger in the countries with higher taxation. Based on the EU 28 data and the period 20032014, the results of regression analysis of panel data in all the relevant models are indeed indicative of a negative impact of tax evasion on the economy. We did not confirm the hypothesis that there are differences in the impact of tax evasion on the economy between the more resp. less taxed countries. The group of Northern European countries with higher tax quota reports its negative regression coefficient lower than Central European countries. However, when we compare the results of countries with higher tax quota with those of Eastern Europe where average tax quota is low, we do not reach the same conclusion.
Keywords: tax evasion; shadow economy; economic growth; EU countries.
Reliability and credibility of credit rating an evidence from Indian CRAs
by Manisha Kumari, V. Mary Jessica
Abstract: The quality of rating given by the credit rating agencies (CRAs) have been questioned for a long time and also criticised for the same. Mandatory bond rating and financing of 25% capital through bond motivates to carry out this study. The objective of this paper is to examine the reliability of rating given by CRAs by predicting the rating through market-based information. An ordered probit model is used to predict the rating. The sample consists of BSE500 firms from 2014 to 2019, extracted from the ProwessIQ CMIE database. The Results show that issuers in India have been enjoying a
very high rating compared to firms in the USA, and the difference between predicted ratings and actual rating given by CRAs is more in India. As per Result, the actual rating is high compared to predicted ratings. The implication of the study suggests that regulators need to tighten the functioning and working process of CRAs. This will help in strengthening the weak bon market of India.
Keywords: bond rating; risk; reliability; default; credibility; accuracy.
Special Issue on: IJEPEE ICKSSD2019 Policy for Sustainable Development in Emerging Economies
Climate Finance: A Systematic Literature Review
by Sanjeet Singh, R. Jayaram
Abstract: Climate finance has a significant role in sustainable economy. in this systematic review, eighty journal articles related to climate finance of the last two decades (19992019) had been reviewed from the sources of Web of Science and Scopus. This review had selectively categorised the existing literature on climate finance into three broad issues, that is, donor-related issues, and recipient related issues and common issues. The study had identified eight sub-issues (accounting issues, political issues, governance issues, allocation issues, bias issues, issues related to the burden of climate finance, recipient issues, and financial management issues) in connection with major issues in climate finance. This study concluded that many of the issues were unresolved and identified the under-researched areas like accounting challenges, donor domination, gender issues, human rights, and weakness of local institutions and allocation model issues as the futuristic areas of research in relation with climate finance issues.
Keywords: climate finance; adaptation finance; mitigation finance; sustainable economy; allocation issues; sustainable finance; climate fund.