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International Journal of Environment and Pollution

International Journal of Environment and Pollution (IJEP)

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International Journal of Environment and Pollution (23 papers in press)

Regular Issues

  • Research on immobilisation of heavy metals in karst soil in Guizhou Province under the effect of carbonate   Order a copy of this article
    by Shaoxia Lin, Mingyang Cui, Zhiqiang Xiao, Changhu Lin 
    Abstract: Yellow soil and limestone soil are two dominant types of agricultural cultivated soil in carbonatite outcropped regions in Guizhou Province. Heavy metals in these soils are characteristic of high background value and low activity. To explore the relationship between high carbonate content and heavy metal activity in soils, this study simulated immobilisation of heavy metals in yellow soil and limestone soil under the existence of different concentrations of carbonates through laboratory experiments. Results showed that CaCO3 can increase the pH of yellow soil up to 7.08 and the limestone soil up to 8.25. CaCO3 is conducive to immobilisation of heavy metals in yellow soils within a certain range. It can relieve bio-availability of heavy metals in soil. In limestone soils, CaCO3 controls activity of heavy metals by adjusting soil pH and thereby influences solubility product constant of metallic compound precipitation. The adsorption kinetics model revealed that adsorption of heavy metals by yellow soil and limestone soil is not a physical adsorption, but a chemical adsorption based on chemical bonds. The rate of adsorption is controlled by heavy metal diffusion in soil particles and liquid film diffusion. High-concentration carbonates in karst soils in Guizhou Province can inhibit activity of heavy metals. Although the background value of heavy metals in soils in Guizhou Province is high, it hasnt shown serious health risks to crops or human beings.
    Keywords: calcium carbonate; heavy metal; yellow soil; adsorption kinetics;.

  • Geographic information system simulation and assessment for environmental impact of overall urban planning   Order a copy of this article
    by Chuhong Li, Bo Zhou 
    Abstract: In order to achieve the rationality of urban positioning and development direction and the suitability of ecological shadow environment, the environmental impact of overall urban planning based on Geographic Information System (GIS) evaluation method is evaluated. Firstly, a GIS evaluation index system for the environmental impact of urban planning is established, and the regional boundary layer model and the atmospheric motion equation are used to analyze the feasibility of the GIS model. Then, the construction of GIS evaluation model for the environmental impact of overall urban planning is introduced, and spatial division of the planning scheme is carried out. The atmospheric environment and noise environment models of urban planning are established using the land regression method, and the water environment use model is established using the continuous water tank method. Finally, taking X city as an example, the environmental impact of the overall urban planning is evaluated using the GIS evaluation model. The results show that the assessment of environmental impact of urban master planning based on GIS is feasible. In terms of the water quality environment, the GIS model can be used to find out the reasons affecting the water quality environment and provide good guidance for the site selection and planning of factories in cities. In the aspect of atmospheric environment, the congested routes can be found out to provide guidance for urban road planning. In terms of noise environment, the construction site can be selected away from the concentrated residential buildings. The GIS evaluation of urban master plan quantitatively evaluates the atmospheric environment, noise environment, and water environment, which can provide scientific basis for urban master plan. The study provides a good guiding ideology for the overall planning of the city.
    Keywords: environmental impact; overall urban planning; geographic information system; evaluation model.

  • Effects of phosphorus fertiliser type and application rate on leaf traits of sickle lucerne (Medicago falcate L) in a semi-arid environment in Northern China   Order a copy of this article
    by Bo Xu, Huimin Jiang, Baoyin Taogetao 
    Abstract: By observing the micro-structure of sickle alfalfa (Medicago falcate L.) treated with different phosphorus fertilisers, the adaptive mechanism of sickle alfalfa to structures in different phosphorus application rates can be explained, and a theoretical basis for phosphorus environment adapted by alfalfa can be provided. Six micro-morphological structure indicators from 2012 to 2014, including leaf thickness, palisade tissue thickness, spongy tissue thickness, palisade/spongy ratio, CTR and SR, were measured for sickle alfalfa treated with different phosphorus fertilisers. The results show: (1) with increase of phosphorus application rate, leaf thickness firstly increased and then decreased: it was thickest under moderate phosphorous rate; (2) different phosphorus fertiliser types had less effect on leaf thickness.
    Keywords: phosphorus fertiliser; leaf micro-structural mechanism; allometry.

  • Does environmental regulation promote the upgrading of industrial structure? Evidence from the Yangtze River Economic Belt in China   Order a copy of this article
    by Yanyun Chen, Yuying Chen, Fang Wang, Kun Liao 
    Abstract: This paper examines the impact of environmental regulation on regional industrial structure in the Yangtze River Economic Zone of China. We show that the environmental regulation imposes a single-threshold dampening effect on the upgrading of industrial structure. Specifically, the dampening effect decreases significantly after regulation intensity crosses the threshold. In addition, there exists spatial heterogeneity in the relationship between environmental regulation and the industrial structure upgrading across the region. In the lower reaches of the Yangtze River Economic Zone, environmental regulation imposes a single-threshold positive impact on the regional industrial structure upgrading, which is further strengthened when the environmental regulation intensity passes the threshold. On the contrary, there is a single negative relationship between environmental regulation and industrial structure upgrading in the upper and middle reaches of the Yangtze River. Therefore, when imposing environmental regulations, differential strategies across regions and industries should be adopted considering regional differences.
    Keywords: environmental regulation; industrial structural upgrade; Yangtze River Economic Zone; threshold model; single threshold effect.

  • Assessment of pollution load and identifying bioindicator algal species using multivariate statistical techniques: a case study from Damodar River, India   Order a copy of this article
    by Savana Lata Dora, Abhiroop Chowdhury, Subodh Kumar Maiti, Rajani Kanth Tiwary 
    Abstract: The ecological health of Damodar River, flowing through the mining-industrial zone of the mineral-rich Chotanagpur plateau of India, is assessed in this study, and pollution indicator algal species have been identified. As the river flows through weathered lateritic formations of Chotanagpur, Fe (126820
    Keywords: pollution; Damodar River; trace metals; bioindicators; algal biodiversity; saprobic index; diversity index; contamination indices; canonical correspondence analysis.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEP.2022.10046987
  • Assessment the risk of urban exposure to polyaromatic hydrocarbons in cities of Transylvania, Romania   Order a copy of this article
    by Andreea-Maria Rotaru, Mihail Simion Beldean-Galea 
    Abstract: The goal of this study is to estimate the urban environmental risk exposure to polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the atmosphere of six cities of Transylvania region using moss as biomonitor and GC-MS analysis.The carcinogenic potential of the measured atmospheric PAHs was estimated by the benzo[a]pyrene toxicity equivalent (BaPeq) and the toxic equivalence factor (TEF), respectively.The PAHs concentration found in the analysed dried moss ranged from 45.27 ng g-1 in T
    Keywords: polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons; urban atmosphere; moss; biomonitors; risk assessment; Transylvania.

  • Visible symptoms and changes in physiological parameters of Cinnamomum camphora and Michelia chapensis under ozone stress   Order a copy of this article
    by Lan Pan, Long-hua Ye, Hong-yue Chen, Gan-wen Lie 
    Abstract: The responses of Cinnamomum camphora and Michelia chapensis to ozone (O3) exposure in terms of the O3 injury and changes in the physiological parameters of their leaves were examined in charcoal-filtered (CF) air and O3 at 1
    Keywords: tropospheric ozone; visible injury; chlorophyll; antioxidative system.

  • Growth, accumulation and trasnfer of Cu and Zn by Commelina communis under Cu, Zn and their combined pollution   Order a copy of this article
    by Zhiqiang Pan, Shuqin Zhang, Dajun Ren, Xiaoqing Zhang, Shuang Liu 
    Abstract: A pot experiment was carried out to investigate the growth, accumulation and transfer of Cu and Zn in a traditional Chinese plant species named Commelina communis, which were cultivated under single and combined pollution of Cu and Zn. Afterwards, the biomass and Cu and Zn concentrations in the roots, stems and leaves were measured, and the tolerance index (TI), bioconcentration factor (BCF), transportation factor (TF) were calculated. The chlorophyll content, relative electronic conductivity, and malondialdehyde (MDA) were also determined. The results showed that, with increasing single and combined concentration of Cu and Zn, the biomass of Commelina communis initially increased and then decreased. The highest biomass was observed in the Cu200Zn100 treatment group. The Cu tolerance and accumulation capacity of Commelina communis was superior to Zn, the BCF and TF were both higher than that of Zn and more than 1.0. With an increasing Cu and Zn concentration, the relative electronic conductivity and MDA increased eventually and the chlorophyll content declined. In addition, the experiment data revealed that low concentration level of Cu and Zn had a synergistic effect, which low-dose Zn significantly facilitated the adsorption of Cu in Commelina communis. High-dose Cu and Zn tend to antagonistic effects, causing an inhibition to Cu accumulation by the plant. Comprehensively, Commelina communis was a potential hyper-accumulator for Cu and could be applied to the heavy metal contaminated environments.
    Keywords: Commelina communis; copper; zinc; combined pollution; accumulation.

  • Transport and influential parameters of Cryptosporidium from soil to surface water with preferential flow   Order a copy of this article
    by Tao Yuan, Sen Cheng, Yadong Kong, Ping Lu 
    Abstract: Cryptosporidium outbreaks in surface water are the main route of the human infection cryptosporidiosis. However, Cryptosporidium transport from soil to surface water is not clear. In this paper, two transport paths were simulated to determine the transport behaviour and mechanism of Cryptosporidium oocyst substitutes in a soil-water medium (i.e., root path with preferential flow and root-free path without preferential flow) through laboratory experiments. Fluorescent polystyrene microspheres were used as substitutes for Cryptosporidium oocysts. A 50 cm slope model was used to simulate the two-dimensional transport of Cryptosporidium oocyst substitutes under rainfall conditions. The results showed that the preferential flow formed by plant roots enhanced the transport of Cryptosporidium oocysts. Soil physicochemical properties affected the transport of Cryptosporidium oocyst substitutes, and the results indicated that a high sodium ion intensity and organic matter content in soil inhibited the transport of Cryptosporidium oocyst substitutes; low soil pH values enhanced the adsorption by plant roots, thereby inhibiting the transport of Cryptosporidium oocyst substitutes.
    Keywords: cryptosporidium oocyst substitutes; transport; preferential flow; influencing factors.

  • Removal of copper, lead and zinc from artificially contaminated soil samples using EDTA, rhamnolipids, and soapnut in batch experiments.   Order a copy of this article
    by Elijah Ugwu, Bhaskar Sen Gupta, Adebayo Adeloye, Nadia Martínez-Villegas 
    Abstract: The feasibility of the removal of Cu, Pb and Zn from sandy loam soils was investigated in laboratory-scale batch experiments, using soapnut, rhamnolipids, and EDTA (ethylenediamine tetraacetate) as washing agents. Influencing parameters, including the concentration and pH of the washing solutions, soil-solution ratios (weight of soil sample/volume of the washing solution) and washing times, were studied. It was observed that removal efficiencies were influenced by the concentration of the washing solution, pH, soil-solution ratio, and washing time as well as by the addition of EDTA. While an increase in the concentration of the washing solution, soil-solution ratio, washing time and addition of EDTA increases the removal efficiency, an increase in pH of the washing solution decreases the removal efficiency. The results indicate that the heavy metal removal efficiency almost approached a plateau, at pH 3, a soil-solution ratio of 40, a concentration of 3%, and a washing time of 24 h.
    Keywords: copper; lead and zinc; saponin; contaminated soil; soil washing; biosurfactant; removal efficiency.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEP.2022.10045028
  • Oil spills risk management system: challenges and prospects in South Africa   Order a copy of this article
    by Phindile Tiyiselani Zanele Sabela-Rikhotso, Dewald Van Niekerk, Livhuwani David Nemakonde 
    Abstract: The potentially devastating consequences of accidental oil spills on the marine ecosystem raise a growing concern on the efficiency of the preparedness and response strategies. Previous studies have explored scientific variables, including the toxicity of pollutants, dispersants and other response mechanisms. This study is, however, limited to the institutional lens of managing oil spills. While there has been a generic focus on marine legislation, a limitation of studies concentrating on institutional and governance principles for managing oil spill risk persist. This article thus critically analyses the risk management system for oil spills in South Africa. A total of forty-two experienced individuals within the field of marine oil spills management participated in the study. This article identifies three salient elements of the risk management system for oil spills that require attention in South Africa. Firstly, the existing legislative arrangements mandating the function of oil spills management is fragmented, highlighting a need for integrated policy reform. Secondly, stakeholders involved in ex-ante and ex-post activities have limited technical capacity in oil spills risk management, suggesting the need for structured training and exercise inputs. Lastly, the complexity of the current financial arrangements creates a gap that undermines resilience, calling for the adoption of budgetary re-allocation and alternative forms of funding.
    Keywords: risk management; oil spills; South Africa; institutional capacity; legislative arrangements.

  • An improvement of PM2.5 concentration prediction using optimized deep LSTM   Order a copy of this article
    by Tong-Hyok Choe, Chung-Song Ho 
    Abstract: Air pollution poses a serious threat to human health and the environment worldwide, of which particulate matter (PM2.5), consisting of suspended particles with a diameter equal to or less than 2.5 ?m, receives increasing attention with deeper recognition of human health risk. Of air pollution abatement technologies, accurate prediction of PM2.5 concentration is a prerequisite for people's health as well as protection and management of the environment of the atmosphere. In the previous studies, many methods were used to predict the concentration of PM2.5, especially including neural network models. In general, neural network models produce outputs of different quality depending on how the model parameters are set. In this paper, we propose a method for optimising the deep Long Short Term Memory (LSTM) model to improve the quality of PM2.5 concentration prediction and use it for PM2.5 concentration prediction. The parameters of the optimised deep LSTM model were determined by using the genetic algorithm, and were applied to predict PM2.5 concentration, thus achieving better results than when the genetic algorithm was not used. The predicted PM2.5 concentration results of the optimised deep LSTM model were compared with the Recurrent Neural Network (RNN) and Gated Recurrent Unit (GRU) models, showing that the LSTM model had improved performance. This method would possibly contribute to enrich solutions in the aspect of air-pollution prediction.
    Keywords: air quality; air pollution; PM2.5 prediction; deep LSTM; long short term memory; neural networks; genetic algorithm; optimisation.

  • Research on carbon footprint reduction and smart pricing decision-making system of green energy consumption   Order a copy of this article
    by Zheng Liu, Bin Hu, Ling-ling Lang, Hang-xin Guo, Jing-ying Sun, Kelly Florence 
    Abstract: Reducing carbon footprint is one of the important purposes of green energy consumption. The article takes the secondary supply chain consisting of a single manufacturer and a single retailer as the research object, and firstly analyes the influence of the supply chain structure on the optimal decision of the game when the supply chain members have different gaming capabilities, by consideration of the optimal total profit of the supply chain system under centralised and decentralised decisions, optimal decision model of supply chain (RS model) under Retailer-Stackelberg game and the decision model of producer and retailer (N model) under Nash game. Finally, the advantages and disadvantages of the optimal wholesale price, the optimal carbon footprint of products, and the retailer's optimal sales price under the two games are compared.
    Keywords: complex structures; green energy products; carbon footprints; smart pricing; decision-making systems.

  • Characteristics of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in fresh snow in Changping district, Beijing   Order a copy of this article
    by Yun-Yang Wan, Jia-Jia Fei, Yi Zhang, Shuang-Xin Shi, Liang Dong, Zhi-Huan Zhang 
    Abstract: To investigate the distribution characteristics and pollution sources of 16 priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in heavy snow in Changping district, Beijing, China, and to evaluate the ecological risk of PAHs in snow in the research area, we collected seven subsamples from three sample snow locations, namely, along roadsides, in parks, and in a mountain area (background region). We pretreated the samples by liquid-liquid extraction after melting, and the total contents of the 16 PAHs were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry as 4281.9 ng
    Keywords: PAHs; snowfall; ecological risk assessment; pollution source; combustion; incineration.

Special Issue on: Green Economy and Sustainable Development

  • Energy poverty and energy efficiency in emerging economies   Order a copy of this article
    by Rui Li, Ying Xin, Iryna Sotnyk, Oleksandr Kubatko, Ismail Almashaqbeh, Svitlana Fedyna, Olha Prokopenko 
    Abstract: Energy poverty and low energy efficiency of households in emerging economies is a challenging sustainability issue. Using the general least squares technique for time series, it is found that if households' expenditures for utilities grow by one percentage point, the poverty headcount ratio below national poverty lines increases by three percentage points in Ukraine during the period 1999-2018. With GDP per capita rising by 100 USD, there is a decrease in the headcount ratio below national poverty lines by six percentage points. That is, even a slight increase in household incomes has a significant effect on reducing energy poverty. The results suggest that if GDP per capita increases by 1000 USD, the energy efficiency of GDP improves by one USD per kg of oil equivalent. Therefore, increased population wellbeing is a factor of energy poverty reduction and energy efficiency improvements. The rise of utility prices contributes to the profitability growth of energy-efficient measures and the increase in utility expenditures.
    Keywords: energy poverty; energy efficiency; emerging economies; econometric model; Ukraine.

  • Spatial and seasonal variation of CO2 concentration within some selected areas of Owerri, Nigeria   Order a copy of this article
    by Chukwuma Anoruo 
    Abstract: Emission-driven climate variability continues to receive great interest worldwide. Owing to its negative impacts on human health and welfare, an accurate carbon dioxide (CO2) estimate is needed. Improving estimates of CO2 will enhance understanding of how these impacts may change with urban growth and development. There is a great need to control concentrations, and to monitor the environment and industrial processes of Owerri metropolis. This comparative study presents the measured concentration of CO2, relative humidity, temperature and wind speed. We concentrate on stations that have green plants and those of non-green plants over seven sites from January to April 2016. Diurnal pattern measurements of the mentioned parameters are maintained using a non-dispersive infrared analyser. The results are compared with 16 weeks of measurements from the suburb environment at Uratta in Owerri North LGA. Additionally, we estimate concentrations from these measurements using a variety of statistical techniques. The instrument measurement error is 0.2%, and it was optimised to avoid any interference with the measured properties and human exhalation. Concentrations of CO2 were approximately 42.38 ppm higher during the rainy season than during the dry season over the non-green plant area. This indicates the capture of solar energy and active photosynthesis. The results are representative of the biological surroundings and indicate the importance of intra-urban selection when characterising spatial and seasonal variation in surface characteristics of CO2.
    Keywords: metropolis; Nigeria; Owerri; seasonal variation; urban CO2; vegetated surroundings.

  • Environmental sustainability: a case study of Noamundi area in Jharkhand, India   Order a copy of this article
    by Surajit Panda, Manish Kr. Jain, Krishnendu Banerjee, A.T. Jeyaseelan 
    Abstract: Environmental issues such as mine-water drainage, land resources and socio-environment are threats to the whole biosphere. An overview of ES processes was analysed using weight-overlay with sub-surface/groundwater quality (SWQ and GWQ), slope, LULC, LST, HCI and crowdedness data. SWQ was between 06.43 and 92.94, LST was 27.8oC to 40oC, and HCI was (79 to 103: uncomfortable) in study area. Degraded GWQ was observed near Bahada, Kothghar while better GWQ was seen near Noamundi, Mahudi, Meralgara village. Mines and rocky surfaces displayed very low sustainability with high LST, steep slope, and low organic-carbon and moisture content. Agricultural and forest cover areas indicate high to very-high sustainability owing to low LST, and more organic-carbon and moisture. This study investigates human-survival efficiency in respect of environmental sustainability, which may be considered as a measurement tool for representing, analysing, and managing the bio-geophysical environment.
    Keywords: WQI; human comfort index; land surface temperature; crowdedness; environmental sustainability; land use/land cover.

  • Investment attractiveness of the country: social, ecological, economic dimensions   Order a copy of this article
    by Bogdan Moskalenko, Oleksii Lyulyov, Tetyana Pimonenko, Aleksy Kwilinski, Henryk Dzwigol 
    Abstract: Effective state regulation of the national economy requires clear mechanisms for assessing investment attractiveness, and a scientifically sound and consistent approach to identifying determinants of its improvement to achieve competitive advantages of the national economy. The imbalances in the countrys social, ecological, and economic development decrease its investment attractiveness, the confidence level on the part of foreign stakeholders, the outflow of investment resources, the ability to achieve sustainable development goals, etc. The paper conducts a benchmarking analysis of approaches to assessing the social, ecological, and economic components of the country's investment attractiveness. A system describing the country's ability to attract new and use existing resources increases the investment attractiveness of factors. A method for assessing the countrys investment attractiveness is proposed. The article presents an empirical analysis of six European countries (Bulgaria, Croatia, Lithuania, Latvia, Poland and Romania) during 20002019, which showed that Ukraine has the lowest level of investment attractiveness among the studied countries. The study results can help to create the preconditions to increase investment attractiveness by identifying inhibitors and catalysts for managerial influence.
    Keywords: sustainable development; investment; green economy; resource.

  • Vulnerability of sub-Saharan Africa and Southeast Asian countries owing to carbon dioxide emissions: an assessment based on the STIRPAT model   Order a copy of this article
    by Jean Baptiste Aboyitungiye, Suryanto Suryanto 
    Abstract: This article explores factors affecting vulnerability to climate-related CO2 emissions and options for adaptation to climate change in sub-Sahara African and Southeast Asian countries. The STIRPAT model used in the methodology proves that significant causes of carbon dioxide emissions are different in the two regions: agriculture-forestry and fishing. The human development index has solid explanatory power on CO2 emissions in Southeast Asian countries. The income per capita positively and significantly influences carbon emissions in sub-Saharan Africa, but was statistically insignificant in the Southeast Asian countries. The population growth decreases CO2 emissions in the sub-Saharan African countries while not being statistically significant in the Southeast Asian countries. Besides, the estimation results showed a lower level of CO2 emissions in the sub-Saharan African countries relative to the Southeast Asian countries. These regions should not follow the same example to achieve a green economy because the effects of CO2 emissions are not felt uniformly.
    Keywords: carbon dioxide emissions; climate change; vulnerabilities; environmental degradation; disasters; environmental economics; human activities.

  • Decarbonisation drivers and climate change concerns of developed economies   Order a copy of this article
    by Yu-Xia Tu, Oleksandra V. Kubatko, Oleksandra Karintseva, Vlad Piven 
    Abstract: The research is built on the World Bank, OECD, and the Heritage datasets for OECD economies. It investigates the main drivers of decarbonisation and climate change in these countries, analysing three CO2 indicators: total and per capita CO2 emissions as well as carbon efficiency. The results have confirmed that the growth of nations' welfare increases economies' carbonisation levels while creating prerequisites for improving states' carbon efficiency. It is proved the positive influence of energy efficiency progress on OECD countries' decarbonisation. In contrast, green energy development has no significant effect on the reduction of total CO2 emissions but positively influences increasing carbon efficiency and reducing per capita CO2 emissions. Oil prices and most institutional factors such as EU membership and Heritage Foundation indicators have no noticeable influence on CO2 indicators. The paper provides policy recommendations and points to future research based on the research results.
    Keywords: decarbonisation; climate change; CO2 emissions; carbon efficiency; economic growth; energy efficiency; renewable energy; institutional factors; OECD countries.

  • A review of the current situation of municipal solid waste management in India and its potential for anaerobic digestion   Order a copy of this article
    by Rikitha S. Fernandes, Nitinkumar S. Shetty, B.H.S. Thimmappa 
    Abstract: The administration of the enormous amount of municipal solid waste from 1.37 billion Indian inhabitants is a big challenge for governing bodies and the people. Untreated waste dumping, still the first option for waste treatment in India, is causing a high risk for human health and releases greenhouse gases as well as leachate. This work aims to give an overview of the current situation of municipal solid waste management in India to discuss the consequences of untreated waste for humans and the environment, and to show the potential for sustainable disposal. In particular, anaerobic digestion has been discussed, as this technology is already widely used in India and proves its sustainable effect. The high organic fraction content in municipal solid waste makes it suitable for anaerobic digestion and can be used sustainably. Besides, this waste-to-energy technology is very profitable owing to biogas production out of organic waste and the generation of fertiliser out of the slurry. The result of the analysis of useful information on the current situation and prospects shows that India's biogas production is lower than its potential. This aspect is mainly due to non-functioning waste management, including separation, collection, and transport.
    Keywords: biogas; biomethanation; biowaste; organic manure; waste-to-energy conversion.

  • The dynamic relationship between combined pollution, consumption and production of renewable electricity and sustainable development in Iran   Order a copy of this article
    by Zahra Fotourehchi 
    Abstract: Iran suffers from the consequences of combined environmental pollution and massive power outage despite having the proper platform for consumption and production of renewable electricity as a main tool for sustainable development. The key intention of this study is to investigate the dynamic causal relations between combined pollution, production and consumption of renewable electricity, and sustainable development in Iran. The research is benefited from the Autoregressive Distributed Lag Cointegration method during 2010 to 2018. Based on the results, consumption of renewable electricity has a beneficial impact on combined pollution in the long-run, whereas a detrimental combined pollution effect in the short-run. Moreover, renewable electricity production and sustainable development statistically affect combined pollution with positive signs whether in the long-run or the short-run. Furthermore, the findings indicate that in the short-run, a unidirectional Granger causality runs negatively from renewable electricity consumption to combined pollution and positively from renewable electricity production to sustainable development, but not vice versa. A positive bidirectional Granger causality is evident between renewable electricity production and combined pollution and also between renewable electricity production and consumption. Finally, it can be concluded that the renewable electricity production and consumption, and sustainable development Granger cause the combined pollution in the long-run, although the opposite action does not happen. Regarding the obtained results, renewable electricity consumption has a considerable influence on enhancing environmental quality. However, renewable electricity production is very low and has not reached enough level to reduce combined pollution. Hence, the study suggests that Irans energy policy makers and authorities must prioritize the implementation of renewable electricity generation and focusing on capacity-developing policies in order to reduce the air pollution based on the principle of sustainability and not harming non-renewable sources. Simultaneously, Irans electricity production and consumption pattern must reform and swiftly move energy policies from polluting energy consumption and production to clean, carbon-free energy.
    Keywords: renewable electricity; combined pollution; sustainability.

Special Issue on: Stochastic Computational Models for Air Pollution and Environmental Risk Assessment

  • Effects of an ICT-based campus energy management system on educational performance: a perspective of a fuzzy DEA approach   Order a copy of this article
    by Xuesong Zhai, Yumeng Zhu, Yan Li, Wenzhi Chen 
    Abstract: The use of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) to digitalise and visualise the campus energy management aided the ideology of green and sustainable campuses. However, the effects of ICT-based energy management systems on educational performance are less explored. Although Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) has been regarded as a validating efficiency evaluation approach, the data sources were constrained to the objective data set. The subjective educational data are invalid to be employed in the DEA. This study applied fuzzy set theory to the DEA to evaluate the efficiency of an ICT-based campus energy management system on educational performance. The energy-management input data and educational performance output data were collected from 63 universities and colleges in China. The efficiency distinctions across samples may be theoretically explained by fuzzy DEA, emphasising the value of further investigation of an ICT-based energy management system on educational performance by varied school features.
    Keywords: campus energy management; education performance; ICT in education; efficiency assessment; fuzzy set; DEA model.