International Journal of Environment and Pollution (23 papers in press)
Analysis of the combined estrogenic activity of plasticizers
by Hui Zhang, Shiqi Zhen, Zhaoying Tan, Chicheng Cao, Qi Zhang, Qi Ju
Abstract: Several studies have reported that plastic additives exhibit estrogenic activity and may cause adverse effects on human health. However, existing risk assessment procedures lack the capability to accurately evaluate the combined effects of plastic additives. In this study, we performed a cell proliferation assay on the MCF-7 cell line, an estrogen-sensitive human breast cancer cell, to quantify estrogenic activities of single chemicals and their mixtures. We applied biomathematical regression models to simulate toxicity of four single substances, biphenyl A (BPA), di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP), di-butyl phthalate (DBP) and 17
Keywords: biphenyl A; phthalates; dose-response relationship; combined effects.
Particulate matter emission prediction of Beijing's Fengtai District through the box model application and statistical analysis of spatial layout grid.
by Harrison Odion Ikhumhen, Tianxin Li, Zhou XIng Chen, An Difei
Abstract: The box model technique was applied to analyse the regional air quality distribution of Beijings Fengtai district. Using the IDW interpolation and spatial grid statistical method, the spatial representation of PM emission of different regions surrounding different air monitoring stations was deduced using GIS to help suggest priority regions for monitoring station installations. The results revealed that the main source of PM10 emission in the region was the industrial and commercial areas, both exhibiting values higher that the annual PM10 concentration standard (50
Keywords: spatial representation; IDW interpolation; spatial distribution; PM10 concentration; box model; monitoring station; geographic information system.
Occurrence, seasonality, and risk assessment of (anti-)estrogenic compounds in bankside groundwater in Wuchang City, China
by Jian Li, Rongfang Wang, Hedan Liu, Chenglian Feng
Abstract: Riverbank filtration (RBF) is widely used in drinking water supplies. This work highlights the importance of assessing the quality of bankside groundwater through evaluation of the potential health risks using recombinant estrogen receptor (ER) gene yeast assays in conjunction with a novel risk assessment approach. While none of the water samples collected from Wuchang City, China exhibited ER agonistic activity, they all demonstrated (anti-)estrogenic activity. The bioassay-derived 4-hydroxytamoxifen equivalents (HTQs) ranged from 0.29 g/L to 44.43 g/L, which decreased after RBF treatment. For the bankside groundwater samples, the HTQ values were higher during the rainy season than during any other season, showing that climate change has the potential to affect the quality of bankside groundwater. A risk assessment was performed, and the results suggested that (anti-)estrogenic endocrine disruptors will have a low impact on human health.
Keywords: bankside groundwater; riverbank filtration; climate change; water quality; health risk; estrogen receptor; endocrine-disrupting chemicals; recombined gene yeast assays; risk assessment.
Phytoextraction of cadmium by African marigold (Tagetes erecta L.) grown under cadmium contaminated soil inoculated with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus, Glomus mosseae
by Asha Sahu, S.K. Singh, Nisha Sahu, M.C. Manna, A.K. Patra
Abstract: The African marigold (Tagetes erecta L.) was grown in cadmium-stressed soil, with and without the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus Glomus mosseae to assess mycorrhizal effects on plant growth and cadmium uptake from the soil in green house conditions. Inoculation of the AM fungus significantly increased plant growth, cadmium uptake and bioremediation of cadmium from the soil. The accumulation of cadmium in the African marigold plants was found to be significant in the presence of the AM fungus compared with control (uninoculated) plants at different levels of cadmium (0, 5, 10, 25, 50, 100 mg kg-1). The results provide evidence for the potential usefulness of the African marigold in combination with the AM fungus, Glomus mosseae, in reducing environmental pollution and in the sustainable ecological restoration of cadmium contaminated sites.
Keywords: African marigold; Glomus mosseae; bioremediation; cadmium; Tagetes erecta; environmental pollution.
Bench scale study of thermal remediation of barbiturate and sulfonamide co-contaminants in soil from a complex pharmaceutical waste site
by Rudi Nielsen, Jens Muff, Erik G. Søgaard
Abstract: Barbiturate and sulfonamide pharmaceuticals are rare soil and groundwater contaminants but may appear in increased concentrations at chemical waste sites. For this reason, knowledge on their remediation is scarce. This paper presents studies of the thermal remediation of barbiturate and sulfonamide co-contaminants from a complex chemical waste site. It is investigated if steam injection may induce degradation or mobilisation to an extent that may be applicable as a remediation strategy. At 100 C and 140 C, laboratory results did show increased desorption from soil to aqueous phase with increased temperature but indicated only slight degradation of both barbiturates and sulfa compounds over a 14-day period. No gas phase mobilisation of barbiturates was observed, and very small amounts of sulfonamides were detected in the condensate. Hence this paper does not recommend thermal treatment as an efficient remediation technology for these types of soil and groundwater contaminant.
Keywords: thermal remediation; pharmaceuticals; barbiturates; sulfonamides; mobilisation; contaminated soil; co-contaminants; complex waste site.
Seasonal variations of aerosol number concentration and spectrum distribution in Nanjing
by Qi Jiang, Fei Wang, Chun Ying, Zhu Bin
Abstract: In this paper, the diurnal variations and seasonal variations of the aerosol spectrum distribution and number concentration, as well as their correlations with meteorological factors in Nanjing in different seasons during 20072011, are analysed. The results show that the average aerosol concentration during the observation period is 12,606 cm-3 in spring, 12,934 cm-3 in summer, 15,262 cm-3 in autumn and 15,571 cm-3 in winter, respectively. The number concentration of ultrafine particles of in size of 0.010.1 m exceeds the counts for over 60% of the total particle concentration in each season. The Aitken mode (AIM) particles dominate the changes of aerosol in Nanjing, which are mainly from traffic sources. Both local emissions and external transportation make important contributions to the air pollution in Nanjing. The southerly and easterly airflows are conducive to the accumulation of pollutants. Oppositely, the northerly and westerly airflows are relatively clean, and the number concentration of ultrafine particles smaller than 0.1 m is low. The number concentrations of the AIM and accumulation mode (ACM) particles decrease with the increase of the wind speed, and the variation trend of the nucleation mode (NUM) particles is opposite. The number concentrations of total particles, NUM and AIM particles are inversely proportional to the relative humidity, which has the most significant effect on the NUM particles in summer. The number concentration of ACM particles is positively correlated with the relative humidity. The removal efficiency of precipitation for the ACM particles is much lower than that for the other three modes. Owing to the frequent thunderstorms in summer, the effect of summer precipitation on the removal of aerosol particles in summer, especially the ACM particles, is much more significant than in the other three seasons in Nanjing.
Keywords: aerosol spectral distribution; meteorological elements; aerosol mode; number concentration.
Does environmental regulation promote the upgrading of industrial structure? Evidence from the Yangtze River Economic Belt in China
by Yanyun Chen, Yuying Chen, Fang Wang, Kun Liao
Abstract: This paper examines the impact of environmental regulation on regional industrial structure in the Yangtze River Economic Zone of China. We show that the environmental regulation imposes a single-threshold dampening effect on the upgrading of industrial structure. Specifically, the dampening effect decreases significantly after regulation intensity crosses the threshold. In addition, there exists spatial heterogeneity in the relationship between environmental regulation and the industrial structure upgrading across the region. In the lower reaches of the Yangtze River Economic Zone, environmental regulation imposes a single-threshold positive impact on the regional industrial structure upgrading, which is further strengthened when the environmental regulation intensity passes the threshold. On the contrary, there is a single negative relationship between environmental regulation and industrial structure upgrading in the upper and middle reaches of the Yangtze River. Therefore, when imposing environmental regulations, differential strategies across regions and industries should be adopted considering regional differences.
Keywords: environmental regulation; industrial structural upgrade; Yangtze River Economic Zone; threshold model; single threshold effect.
The pilot trading of carbon emission rights and upgrading of industrial structure
by Huaiwen Zhang, Xinyu Wang, Yu Ma, Dongsheng Zhao
Abstract: Anthropogenic greenhouse gases have been vastly increased over the past decades, whereas conventional experts claims are the primary drivers of global warming and climate change. Further, the carbon trading program is therefore deemed a government instrument to combat global climate change. While having many observational studies on the carbon content and its derivatives, consistency along with its theoretical findings remain sparse as identified in this research. However, the price of carbon trading on both the primary and secondary markets has been increased in the conventional method of trading. Through the analysis conducted in this paper, the building of the carbon emissions trading market in China has been improved through the Pilot Trading of Carbon Emission and Trading of Pricing of Carbon (PTCMTP). Hence, in this article, PTCMTP establishes a theoretical and mathematical model to the value of carbon dioxide pollution derivatives with stochastic yields of arbitration incentives theory. Therefore, the formulation of the price problem in two spatial dimensions to a direct parabolic variational inequality has been developed along with a penalty power approach to fix it. Further, establishing the market for carbon emissions trading under total emissions regulation is possible, to the leading alternatives for carbon emissions rights strategies providing a common market for trade. In this connection, several analytical tests are performed to demonstrate this method's validity and usefulness at real-time analysis. Finally, PTCMTP finds that the value of carbon emission derivatives is affected by the stochastic convenience yield and outperforms the drawbacks in pilot trading.
Keywords: carbon emission; pricing of carbon; linear parabolic; pilot trading; upgrading of industrial structure.
Assessment of pollution load and identifying bioindicator algal species using multivariate statistical techniques: a case study from Damodar River, India
by Savana Lata Dora, Abhiroop Chowdhury, Subodh Kumar Maiti, Rajani Kanth Tiwary
Abstract: The ecological health of Damodar River, flowing through the mining-industrial zone of the mineral-rich Chotanagpur plateau of India, is assessed in this study, and pollution indicator algal species have been identified. As the river flows through weathered lateritic formations of Chotanagpur, Fe (126-820
Keywords: pollution; Damodar River; trace metals; bioindicators; algal biodiversity; saprobic index; diversity index; contamination indices; canonical correspondence analysis.
Assessment the risk of urban exposure to polyaromatic hydrocarbons in cities of Transylvania, Romania
by Andreea-Maria Rotaru, Mihail Simion Beldean-Galea
Abstract: The goal of this study is to estimate the urban environmental risk exposure to polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the atmosphere of six cities of Transylvania region using moss as biomonitor and GC-MS analysis.The carcinogenic potential of the measured atmospheric PAHs was estimated by the benzo[a]pyrene toxicity equivalent (BaPeq) and the toxic equivalence factor (TEF), respectively.The PAHs concentration found in the analysed dried moss ranged from 45.27 ng g-1 in T
Keywords: polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons; urban atmosphere; moss; biomonitors; risk assessment; Transylvania.
Visible symptoms and changes in physiological parameters of Cinnamomum camphora and Michelia chapensis under ozone stress
by Lan Pan, Long-hua Ye, Hong-yue Chen, Gan-wen Lie
Abstract: The responses of Cinnamomum camphora and Michelia chapensis to ozone (O3) exposure in terms of the O3 injury and changes in the physiological parameters of their leaves were examined in charcoal-filtered (CF) air and O3 at 1
Keywords: tropospheric ozone; visible injury; chlorophyll; antioxidative system.
Growth, accumulation and trasnfer of Cu and Zn by Commelina communis under Cu, Zn and their combined pollution
by Zhiqiang Pan, Shuqin Zhang, Dajun Ren, Xiaoqing Zhang, Shuang Liu
Abstract: A pot experiment was carried out to investigate the growth, accumulation and transfer of Cu and Zn in a traditional Chinese plant species named Commelina communis, which were cultivated under single and combined pollution of Cu and Zn. Afterwards, the biomass and Cu and Zn concentrations in the roots, stems and leaves were measured, and the tolerance index (TI), bioconcentration factor (BCF), transportation factor (TF) were calculated. The chlorophyll content, relative electronic conductivity, and malondialdehyde (MDA) were also determined. The results showed that, with increasing single and combined concentration of Cu and Zn, the biomass of Commelina communis initially increased and then decreased. The highest biomass was observed in the Cu200Zn100 treatment group. The Cu tolerance and accumulation capacity of Commelina communis was superior to Zn, the BCF and TF were both higher than that of Zn and more than 1.0. With an increasing Cu and Zn concentration, the relative electronic conductivity and MDA increased eventually and the chlorophyll content declined. In addition, the experiment data revealed that low concentration level of Cu and Zn had a synergistic effect, which low-dose Zn significantly facilitated the adsorption of Cu in Commelina communis. High-dose Cu and Zn tend to antagonistic effects, causing an inhibition to Cu accumulation by the plant. Comprehensively, Commelina communis was a potential hyper-accumulator for Cu and could be applied to the heavy metal contaminated environments.
Keywords: Commelina communis; copper; zinc; combined pollution; accumulation.
Transport and influential parameters of Cryptosporidium from soil to surface water with preferential flow
by Tao Yuan, Sen Cheng, Yadong Kong, Ping Lu
Abstract: Cryptosporidium outbreaks in surface water are the main route of the human infection cryptosporidiosis. However, Cryptosporidium transport from soil to surface water is not clear. In this paper, two transport paths were simulated to determine the transport behaviour and mechanism of Cryptosporidium oocyst substitutes in a soil-water medium (i.e., root path with preferential flow and root-free path without preferential flow) through laboratory experiments. Fluorescent polystyrene microspheres were used as substitutes for Cryptosporidium oocysts. A 50 cm slope model was used to simulate the two-dimensional transport of Cryptosporidium oocyst substitutes under rainfall conditions. The results showed that the preferential flow formed by plant roots enhanced the transport of Cryptosporidium oocysts. Soil physicochemical properties affected the transport of Cryptosporidium oocyst substitutes, and the results indicated that a high sodium ion intensity and organic matter content in soil inhibited the transport of Cryptosporidium oocyst substitutes; low soil pH values enhanced the adsorption by plant roots, thereby inhibiting the transport of Cryptosporidium oocyst substitutes.
Keywords: cryptosporidium oocyst substitutes; transport; preferential flow; influencing factors.
Special Issue on: Environment and Pollution Research on Enterprises' Sustainable Development
Performance evaluation of environmental management for sustainable development of enterprises based on human resource management
by Leilei Zhou, Rui Mao, Peng Li
Abstract: With the development of China's social economy and the continuous improvement of the market economy system, the human resource industry has become an important capital for enterprises to achieve economic benefits. Therefore, strengthening enterprise human resource management is the key to improving market competitiveness. This article believes that the development of the production process of enterprises has produced different production modes, and the content of environmental performance evaluation in each production mode is different. Therefore, it is not possible to simply use an enterprise environmental performance evaluation mode to evaluate enterprises under different production modes. Instead, we should establish a corresponding corporate environmental performance evaluation model for the content of corporate environmental performance evaluation under different production modes. In this paper, an expert survey method is used to study the performance evaluation of corporate environmental management based on human resource management, and it is found that the main evaluation model adopted by companies in the process of environmental performance evaluation at this stage has not been activated. The main reason is the production mode adopted by the company and the lack of existing environmental protection technology and environmental management experience. Members of the expert group believe that there are two experts who currently take the initiative to hope to obtain economic benefits through environmental protection measures, the proportion of which is less than 10%; five experts think that the proportion is between 10% and 30%; seven experts think that the proportion is between 30% and 50%; and one expert believes it to account for more than 50%.
Keywords: human resources; sustainable development; environmental management; performance evaluation.
The interaction between economic growth energy consumption and environmental pollution
by Xiaoqing Li, Zongyi Hu
Abstract: A large amount of energy consumption promotes rapid economic growth and brings serious environmental pollution problems. The purpose of this paper is to study the dynamic interaction between economic growth, energy consumption, and environmental pollution. This paper selects the 2003-2016 A-provincial time data as the research object, and constructs a vector autoregressive model based on economic, energy and environmental related data. The Johansen cointegration test, Granger causality analysis, IRF impulse response and variance decomposition method are used to empirically analyse the dynamic interaction between energy consumption, economic growth and environmental pollution. The results show that there is a long-term equilibrium relationship between energy consumption, environmental pollution and economic development. Economic growth and energy consumption are the Granger causality of environmental pollution. The positive impact of energy consumption on economic growth is long and stable. The interpretation of energy consumption on environmental pollution is 44.2%, indicating that environmental pollution is more affected by changes in energy consumption.
Keywords: economic growth; energy consumption; environmental pollution; VAR model.
Measurement of cooperative degree among participants in multi-cooperative air pollution control in Beijing and its influencing factors
by Changsheng Meng, Duofen Chang, Yongping Chen
Abstract: This study concludes that there are 11 types of participant in the multi-cooperative control of air pollution in Beijing. This study uses questionnaires to measure the degree of cooperation among these participants in the multi-cooperative governance of air pollution, and puts forward 11 hypotheses. The study found that the participants' willingness, ability, cost, benefit, need to share risks, and trust factors between them have different degrees of impact on the degree of collaboration, and the 11 hypotheses have also been verified. Besides, this study broadens the path of measurement to quantify the degree of collaboration among the various participants in the multi-cooperative governance of air pollution, and considers that the influencing factor of the degree of cooperation among participants in air pollution control is an integrated whole. Finally, it is suggested that a government-centred multi-cooperative air pollution control system should be established.
Keywords: air pollution; multi-collaboration governance;participants; collaboration; measurement.
Atmospheric nitrogen deposition on growth and results of young macadamia nut plants
by Wei Huang, Zhaoliang Liu, Daobo Wang
Abstract: Atmospheric nitrogen deposition is not a rare natural phenomenon. It often leads to the formation of acid rain, and the deposition of atmospheric nitrogen washes away the nutrients of the plants, leading to the loss of their leaves. Therefore, it is necessary to study the effects of atmospheric nitrogen deposition on the growth and results of young macadamia nut plants. The purpose of this article is to explore the effect of atmospheric nitrogen deposition on the growth of the young macadamia plants. A control group is compared with the experimental research method, including the control of a planting base of agricultural institutions. A total of 20 young macadamia plants were planted under a normal environment. In the experimental group, 20 young macadamia nut plants were planted at special planting sites in the agricultural institution planting base, and the growth environment was set up to simulate the atmospheric nitrogen deposition. In order to make the experiment fair, the nutrient supply and soil conditions and other growth conditions of the two groups were the same, and the two groups of plants were investigated for a period of 3 years. The results showed that the atmospheric nitrogen deposition had a great influence on the growth and results of young macadamia nuts. The 20 plants in the experimental group were far less affected than those in the control group, and the survival rate was 15% lower than that in the control group.
Keywords: atmospheric nitrogen deposition; macadamia nut plants; plant growth; plant results.
Rural tourism environmental protection evaluation index system based on PSR model
by Han Liu
Abstract: With the development of the national economy and the implementation of the paid vacation system in China, rural tourism consumption has gradually escalated. However, owing to the inadequate management level of rural tourism and environmental protection measures, many problems have appeared in the whole system. In order to build a perfect environmental protection evaluation index system, this paper constructs a Pressure-State-Response (PSR) model. Based on the quantitative criteria for the evaluation index of sustainable development of rural resorts, the actual value of each evaluation index of Village A is in contrast, standardisation is performed. According to the index system established by the PSR model, the principal component analysis method is used to screen the index system in terms of factor loading. Therefore, the index system for evaluating the carrying capacity of the rural tourism environment based on the PSR model is determined. Under the established evaluation system, the principal component analysis method is used to analyse and calculate the evaluation indicators, and the four main components that affect the carrying capacity of the rural tourism environment are obtained, and the carrying capacity of the rural tourism environment is analysed. Moreover, the scores of rural tourism environmental carrying capacity over the years have been obtained under different angles. Then, using the entropy weight method, the scores of the four principal components obtained are weighted, and finally the comprehensive score of the rural tourism environment carrying capacity over the years is obtained.
Keywords: pressure-state-response model; evaluation index system; rural tourism environmental carrying capacity; entropy weight method; principal component analysis.
How does regional energy allocation evolve and form? Evidence from urban agglomeration in China
by Qiu Derong, Huang Chen, Ji Kaiwen, Ma Jian
Abstract: The allocation of resource is in a key position in regional economic development. The misallocation of energy, which was particularly strategic in large economies, is highly valued but ignored. This paper investigates the energy misallocation in the context of urban agglomeration, based on the theoretical accounting framework of resource misallocation. Then spatial econometric empirical research is conducted by using the micro dataset of Chinese industrial enterprises from 1998 to 2007. With an energy efficient allocation, the productivity of an urban agglomeration could rise by another 5.1% in 2007. The energy misallocation was declining. The results show that: a) the accounting framework incorporating energy elements can calculate resource misallocation more accurately in urban agglomeration; b) compared with the capital and labour factor, the degree of energy misallocation is close to that of capital and labour; c) the mitigating factor of energy misallocation is trade openness, which has a negative spatial effect. The factors that aggravate energy misallocation are market barriers, fiscal stimulus, and labour control. Market barriers and fiscal stimulus have obvious spatial effects.
Keywords: energy misallocation; urban agglomeration; trade openness; market barriers; spatial dependence.
Linking consumers' anticipated guilt to green consumption intention: testing the role of perceived consumer effectiveness and green involvement
by Yingying Li, Dongmei Quan, Hairu Zhang
Abstract: Green consumer behaviour has received increasing attention in recent years, but research offers only limited explanations for the links between consumers positive attitudes and their behaviour. Drawing from the consumer psychology literature and the theory of cognitive dissonance, we start by the anticipated guilt and highlight the role of perceived consumer effectiveness in the relationship between anticipated guilt and green consumer intention. Based on the hypotheses, we propose a conceptual model of anticipated guiltgreen consumer intention link under different green involvement. We test our arguments with the survey data of 435 questionnaires and a structural equation model via Amos software. The results show that consumers' anticipated guilt is positively associated with their perceived effectiveness, and increased green consumption intention through the mediating mechanism of perceived consumer effectiveness. Green involvement negatively moderates the relationship between anticipated guilt and green consumption intention.
Keywords: anticipated guilt; perceived consumer effectiveness; green involvement; green consumption intention.
Special Issue on: New Trends in Monitoring and Measuring Air, Land and Water Pollution
Research on immobilisation of heavy metals in karst soil in Guizhou Province under the effect of carbonate
by Shaoxia Lin, Mingyang Cui, Zhiqiang Xiao, Changhu Lin
Abstract: Yellow soil and limestone soil are two dominant types of agricultural cultivated soil in carbonatite outcropped regions in Guizhou Province. Heavy metals in these soils are characteristic of high background value and low activity. To explore the relationship between high carbonate content and heavy metal activity in soils, this study simulated immobilisation of heavy metals in yellow soil and limestone soil under the existence of different concentrations of carbonates through laboratory experiments. Results showed that CaCO3 can increase the pH of yellow soil up to 7.08 and the limestone soil up to 8.25. CaCO3 is conducive to immobilisation of heavy metals in yellow soils within a certain range. It can relieve bio-availability of heavy metals in soil. In limestone soils, CaCO3 controls activity of heavy metals by adjusting soil pH and thereby influences solubility product constant of metallic compound precipitation. The adsorption kinetics model revealed that adsorption of heavy metals by yellow soil and limestone soil is not a physical adsorption, but a chemical adsorption based on chemical bonds. The rate of adsorption is controlled by heavy metal diffusion in soil particles and liquid film diffusion. High-concentration carbonates in karst soils in Guizhou Province can inhibit activity of heavy metals. Although the background value of heavy metals in soils in Guizhou Province is high, it hasnt shown serious health risks to crops or human beings.
Keywords: calcium carbonate; heavy metal; yellow soil; adsorption kinetics;.
Geographic information system simulation and assessment for environmental impact of overall urban planning
by Chuhong Li, Bo Zhou
Abstract: In order to achieve the rationality of urban positioning and development direction and the suitability of ecological shadow environment, the environmental impact of overall urban planning based on Geographic Information System (GIS) evaluation method is evaluated. Firstly, a GIS evaluation index system for the environmental impact of urban planning is established, and the regional boundary layer model and the atmospheric motion equation are used to analyze the feasibility of the GIS model. Then, the construction of GIS evaluation model for the environmental impact of overall urban planning is introduced, and spatial division of the planning scheme is carried out. The atmospheric environment and noise environment models of urban planning are established using the land regression method, and the water environment use model is established using the continuous water tank method. Finally, taking X city as an example, the environmental impact of the overall urban planning is evaluated using the GIS evaluation model. The results show that the assessment of environmental impact of urban master planning based on GIS is feasible. In terms of the water quality environment, the GIS model can be used to find out the reasons affecting the water quality environment and provide good guidance for the site selection and planning of factories in cities. In the aspect of atmospheric environment, the congested routes can be found out to provide guidance for urban road planning. In terms of noise environment, the construction site can be selected away from the concentrated residential buildings. The GIS evaluation of urban master plan quantitatively evaluates the atmospheric environment, noise environment, and water environment, which can provide scientific basis for urban master plan. The study provides a good guiding ideology for the overall planning of the city.
Keywords: environmental impact; overall urban planning; geographic information system; evaluation model.
Effects of phosphorus fertiliser type and application rate on leaf traits of sickle lucerne (Medicago falcate L) in a semi-arid environment in Northern China
by Bo Xu, Huimin Jiang, Baoyin Taogetao
Abstract: By observing the micro-structure of sickle alfalfa (Medicago falcate L.) treated with different phosphorus fertilisers, the adaptive mechanism of sickle alfalfa to structures in different phosphorus application rates can be explained, and a theoretical basis for phosphorus environment adapted by alfalfa can be provided. Six micro-morphological structure indicators from 2012 to 2014, including leaf thickness, palisade tissue thickness, spongy tissue thickness, palisade/spongy ratio, CTR and SR, were measured for sickle alfalfa treated with different phosphorus fertilisers. The results show: (1) with increase of phosphorus application rate, leaf thickness firstly increased and then decreased: it was thickest under moderate phosphorous rate; (2) different phosphorus fertiliser types had less effect on leaf thickness.
Keywords: phosphorus fertiliser; leaf micro-structural mechanism; allometry.