Forthcoming and Online First Articles

International Journal of Environment and Pollution

International Journal of Environment and Pollution (IJEP)

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International Journal of Environment and Pollution (27 papers in press)

Regular Issues

  • Analysis of the combined estrogenic activity of plasticizers   Order a copy of this article
    by Hui Zhang, Shiqi Zhen, Zhaoying Tan, Chicheng Cao, Qi Zhang, Qi Ju 
    Abstract: Several studies have reported that plastic additives exhibit estrogenic activity and may cause adverse effects on human health. However, existing risk assessment procedures lack the capability to accurately evaluate the combined effects of plastic additives. In this study, we performed a cell proliferation assay on the MCF-7 cell line, an estrogen-sensitive human breast cancer cell, to quantify estrogenic activities of single chemicals and their mixtures. We applied biomathematical regression models to simulate toxicity of four single substances, biphenyl A (BPA), di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP), di-butyl phthalate (DBP) and 17
    Keywords: biphenyl A; phthalates; dose-response relationship; combined effects.

  • Particulate matter emission prediction of Beijing's Fengtai District through the box model application and statistical analysis of spatial layout grid.   Order a copy of this article
    by Harrison Odion Ikhumhen, Tianxin Li, Zhou XIng Chen, An Difei 
    Abstract: The box model technique was applied to analyse the regional air quality distribution of Beijings Fengtai district. Using the IDW interpolation and spatial grid statistical method, the spatial representation of PM emission of different regions surrounding different air monitoring stations was deduced using GIS to help suggest priority regions for monitoring station installations. The results revealed that the main source of PM10 emission in the region was the industrial and commercial areas, both exhibiting values higher that the annual PM10 concentration standard (50
    Keywords: spatial representation; IDW interpolation; spatial distribution; PM10 concentration; box model; monitoring station; geographic information system.

  • Occurrence, seasonality, and risk assessment of (anti-)estrogenic compounds in bankside groundwater in Wuchang City, China   Order a copy of this article
    by Jian Li, Rongfang Wang, Hedan Liu, Chenglian Feng 
    Abstract: Riverbank filtration (RBF) is widely used in drinking water supplies. This work highlights the importance of assessing the quality of bankside groundwater through evaluation of the potential health risks using recombinant estrogen receptor (ER) gene yeast assays in conjunction with a novel risk assessment approach. While none of the water samples collected from Wuchang City, China exhibited ER agonistic activity, they all demonstrated (anti-)estrogenic activity. The bioassay-derived 4-hydroxytamoxifen equivalents (HTQs) ranged from 0.29 g/L to 44.43 g/L, which decreased after RBF treatment. For the bankside groundwater samples, the HTQ values were higher during the rainy season than during any other season, showing that climate change has the potential to affect the quality of bankside groundwater. A risk assessment was performed, and the results suggested that (anti-)estrogenic endocrine disruptors will have a low impact on human health.
    Keywords: bankside groundwater; riverbank filtration; climate change; water quality; health risk; estrogen receptor; endocrine-disrupting chemicals; recombined gene yeast assays; risk assessment.

  • Phytoextraction of cadmium by African marigold (Tagetes erecta L.) grown under cadmium contaminated soil inoculated with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus, Glomus mosseae   Order a copy of this article
    by Asha Sahu, S.K. Singh, Nisha Sahu, M.C. Manna, A.K. Patra 
    Abstract: The African marigold (Tagetes erecta L.) was grown in cadmium-stressed soil, with and without the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus Glomus mosseae to assess mycorrhizal effects on plant growth and cadmium uptake from the soil in green house conditions. Inoculation of the AM fungus significantly increased plant growth, cadmium uptake and bioremediation of cadmium from the soil. The accumulation of cadmium in the African marigold plants was found to be significant in the presence of the AM fungus compared with control (uninoculated) plants at different levels of cadmium (0, 5, 10, 25, 50, 100 mg kg-1). The results provide evidence for the potential usefulness of the African marigold in combination with the AM fungus, Glomus mosseae, in reducing environmental pollution and in the sustainable ecological restoration of cadmium contaminated sites.
    Keywords: African marigold; Glomus mosseae; bioremediation; cadmium; Tagetes erecta; environmental pollution.

  • Bench scale study of thermal remediation of barbiturate and sulfonamide co-contaminants in soil from a complex pharmaceutical waste site   Order a copy of this article
    by Rudi Nielsen, Jens Muff, Erik G. Søgaard 
    Abstract: Barbiturate and sulfonamide pharmaceuticals are rare soil and groundwater contaminants but may appear in increased concentrations at chemical waste sites. For this reason, knowledge on their remediation is scarce. This paper presents studies of the thermal remediation of barbiturate and sulfonamide co-contaminants from a complex chemical waste site. It is investigated if steam injection may induce degradation or mobilisation to an extent that may be applicable as a remediation strategy. At 100 C and 140 C, laboratory results did show increased desorption from soil to aqueous phase with increased temperature but indicated only slight degradation of both barbiturates and sulfa compounds over a 14-day period. No gas phase mobilisation of barbiturates was observed, and very small amounts of sulfonamides were detected in the condensate. Hence this paper does not recommend thermal treatment as an efficient remediation technology for these types of soil and groundwater contaminant.
    Keywords: thermal remediation; pharmaceuticals; barbiturates; sulfonamides; mobilisation; contaminated soil; co-contaminants; complex waste site.

  • Seasonal variations of aerosol number concentration and spectrum distribution in Nanjing   Order a copy of this article
    by Qi Jiang, Fei Wang, Chun Ying, Zhu Bin 
    Abstract: In this paper, the diurnal variations and seasonal variations of the aerosol spectrum distribution and number concentration, as well as their correlations with meteorological factors in Nanjing in different seasons during 20072011, are analysed. The results show that the average aerosol concentration during the observation period is 12,606 cm-3 in spring, 12,934 cm-3 in summer, 15,262 cm-3 in autumn and 15,571 cm-3 in winter, respectively. The number concentration of ultrafine particles of in size of 0.010.1 m exceeds the counts for over 60% of the total particle concentration in each season. The Aitken mode (AIM) particles dominate the changes of aerosol in Nanjing, which are mainly from traffic sources. Both local emissions and external transportation make important contributions to the air pollution in Nanjing. The southerly and easterly airflows are conducive to the accumulation of pollutants. Oppositely, the northerly and westerly airflows are relatively clean, and the number concentration of ultrafine particles smaller than 0.1 m is low. The number concentrations of the AIM and accumulation mode (ACM) particles decrease with the increase of the wind speed, and the variation trend of the nucleation mode (NUM) particles is opposite. The number concentrations of total particles, NUM and AIM particles are inversely proportional to the relative humidity, which has the most significant effect on the NUM particles in summer. The number concentration of ACM particles is positively correlated with the relative humidity. The removal efficiency of precipitation for the ACM particles is much lower than that for the other three modes. Owing to the frequent thunderstorms in summer, the effect of summer precipitation on the removal of aerosol particles in summer, especially the ACM particles, is much more significant than in the other three seasons in Nanjing.
    Keywords: aerosol spectral distribution; meteorological elements; aerosol mode; number concentration.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEP.2020.10038237
  • Does environmental regulation promote the upgrading of industrial structure? Evidence from the Yangtze River Economic Belt in China   Order a copy of this article
    by Yanyun Chen, Yuying Chen, Fang Wang, Kun Liao 
    Abstract: This paper examines the impact of environmental regulation on regional industrial structure in the Yangtze River Economic Zone of China. We show that the environmental regulation imposes a single-threshold dampening effect on the upgrading of industrial structure. Specifically, the dampening effect decreases significantly after regulation intensity crosses the threshold. In addition, there exists spatial heterogeneity in the relationship between environmental regulation and the industrial structure upgrading across the region. In the lower reaches of the Yangtze River Economic Zone, environmental regulation imposes a single-threshold positive impact on the regional industrial structure upgrading, which is further strengthened when the environmental regulation intensity passes the threshold. On the contrary, there is a single negative relationship between environmental regulation and industrial structure upgrading in the upper and middle reaches of the Yangtze River. Therefore, when imposing environmental regulations, differential strategies across regions and industries should be adopted considering regional differences.
    Keywords: environmental regulation; industrial structural upgrade; Yangtze River Economic Zone; threshold model; single threshold effect.

  • The pilot trading of carbon emission rights and upgrading of industrial structure   Order a copy of this article
    by Xinyu Wang, Huaiwen Zhang, Yu Ma, Dongsheng Zhao 
    Abstract: Anthropogenic greenhouse gases have been vastly increased over the past decades, whereas conventional experts claims are the primary drivers of global warming and climate change. Further, the carbon trading program is therefore deemed a government instrument to combat global climate change. While having many observational studies on the carbon content and its derivatives, consistency along with its theoretical findings remain sparse as identified in this research. However, the price of carbon trading on both the primary and secondary markets has been increased in the conventional method of trading. Through the analysis conducted in this paper, the building of the carbon emissions trading market in China has been improved through the Pilot Trading of Carbon Emission and Trading of Pricing of Carbon (PTCMTP). Hence, in this article, PTCMTP establishes a theoretical and mathematical model to the value of carbon dioxide pollution derivatives with stochastic yields of arbitration incentives theory. Therefore, the formulation of the price problem in two spatial dimensions to a direct parabolic variational inequality has been developed along with a penalty power approach to fix it. Further, establishing the market for carbon emissions trading under total emissions regulation is possible, to the leading alternatives for carbon emissions rights strategies providing a common market for trade. In this connection, several analytical tests are performed to demonstrate this method's validity and usefulness at real-time analysis. Finally, PTCMTP finds that the value of carbon emission derivatives is affected by the stochastic convenience yield and outperforms the drawbacks in pilot trading.
    Keywords: carbon emission; pricing of carbon; linear parabolic; pilot trading; upgrading of industrial structure.

  • Assessment of pollution load and identifying bioindicator algal species using multivariate statistical techniques: a case study from Damodar River, India   Order a copy of this article
    by Savana Lata Dora, Abhiroop Chowdhury, Subodh Kumar Maiti, Rajani Kanth Tiwary 
    Abstract: The ecological health of Damodar River, flowing through the mining-industrial zone of the mineral-rich Chotanagpur plateau of India, is assessed in this study, and pollution indicator algal species have been identified. As the river flows through weathered lateritic formations of Chotanagpur, Fe (126-820
    Keywords: pollution; Damodar River; trace metals; bioindicators; algal biodiversity; saprobic index; diversity index; contamination indices; canonical correspondence analysis.

Special Issue on: Environment and Pollution Research on Enterprises' Sustainable Development

  • Performance evaluation of environmental management for sustainable development of enterprises based on human resource management   Order a copy of this article
    by Leilei Zhou, Rui Mao, Peng Li 
    Abstract: With the development of China's social economy and the continuous improvement of the market economy system, the human resource industry has become an important capital for enterprises to achieve economic benefits. Therefore, strengthening enterprise human resource management is the key to improving market competitiveness. This article believes that the development of the production process of enterprises has produced different production modes, and the content of environmental performance evaluation in each production mode is different. Therefore, it is not possible to simply use an enterprise environmental performance evaluation mode to evaluate enterprises under different production modes. Instead, we should establish a corresponding corporate environmental performance evaluation model for the content of corporate environmental performance evaluation under different production modes. In this paper, an expert survey method is used to study the performance evaluation of corporate environmental management based on human resource management, and it is found that the main evaluation model adopted by companies in the process of environmental performance evaluation at this stage has not been activated. The main reason is the production mode adopted by the company and the lack of existing environmental protection technology and environmental management experience. Members of the expert group believe that there are two experts who currently take the initiative to hope to obtain economic benefits through environmental protection measures, the proportion of which is less than 10%; five experts think that the proportion is between 10% and 30%; seven experts think that the proportion is between 30% and 50%; and one expert believes it to account for more than 50%.
    Keywords: human resources; sustainable development; environmental management; performance evaluation.

  • The interaction between economic growth energy consumption and environmental pollution   Order a copy of this article
    by Xiaoqing Li, Zongyi Hu 
    Abstract: A large amount of energy consumption promotes rapid economic growth and brings serious environmental pollution problems. The purpose of this paper is to study the dynamic interaction between economic growth, energy consumption, and environmental pollution. This paper selects the 2003-2016 A-provincial time data as the research object, and constructs a vector autoregressive model based on economic, energy and environmental related data. The Johansen cointegration test, Granger causality analysis, IRF impulse response and variance decomposition method are used to empirically analyse the dynamic interaction between energy consumption, economic growth and environmental pollution. The results show that there is a long-term equilibrium relationship between energy consumption, environmental pollution and economic development. Economic growth and energy consumption are the Granger causality of environmental pollution. The positive impact of energy consumption on economic growth is long and stable. The interpretation of energy consumption on environmental pollution is 44.2%, indicating that environmental pollution is more affected by changes in energy consumption.
    Keywords: economic growth; energy consumption; environmental pollution; VAR model.

  • Measurement of cooperative degree among participants in multi-cooperative air pollution control in Beijing and its influencing factors   Order a copy of this article
    by Changsheng Meng, Duofen Chang, Yongping Chen 
    Abstract: This study concludes that there are 11 types of participant in the multi-cooperative control of air pollution in Beijing. This study uses questionnaires to measure the degree of cooperation among these participants in the multi-cooperative governance of air pollution, and puts forward 11 hypotheses. The study found that the participants' willingness, ability, cost, benefit, need to share risks, and trust factors between them have different degrees of impact on the degree of collaboration, and the 11 hypotheses have also been verified. Besides, this study broadens the path of measurement to quantify the degree of collaboration among the various participants in the multi-cooperative governance of air pollution, and considers that the influencing factor of the degree of cooperation among participants in air pollution control is an integrated whole. Finally, it is suggested that a government-centred multi-cooperative air pollution control system should be established.
    Keywords: air pollution; multi-collaboration governance;participants; collaboration; measurement.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEP.2021.10037408
  • Atmospheric nitrogen deposition on growth and results of young macadamia nut plants   Order a copy of this article
    by Wei Huang, Zhaoliang Liu, Daobo Wang 
    Abstract: Atmospheric nitrogen deposition is not a rare natural phenomenon. It often leads to the formation of acid rain, and the deposition of atmospheric nitrogen washes away the nutrients of the plants, leading to the loss of their leaves. Therefore, it is necessary to study the effects of atmospheric nitrogen deposition on the growth and results of young macadamia nut plants. The purpose of this article is to explore the effect of atmospheric nitrogen deposition on the growth of the young macadamia plants. A control group is compared with the experimental research method, including the control of a planting base of agricultural institutions. A total of 20 young macadamia plants were planted under a normal environment. In the experimental group, 20 young macadamia nut plants were planted at special planting sites in the agricultural institution planting base, and the growth environment was set up to simulate the atmospheric nitrogen deposition. In order to make the experiment fair, the nutrient supply and soil conditions and other growth conditions of the two groups were the same, and the two groups of plants were investigated for a period of 3 years. The results showed that the atmospheric nitrogen deposition had a great influence on the growth and results of young macadamia nuts. The 20 plants in the experimental group were far less affected than those in the control group, and the survival rate was 15% lower than that in the control group.
    Keywords: atmospheric nitrogen deposition; macadamia nut plants; plant growth; plant results.

  • Rural tourism environmental protection evaluation index system based on PSR model   Order a copy of this article
    by Han Liu 
    Abstract: With the development of the national economy and the implementation of the paid vacation system in China, rural tourism consumption has gradually escalated. However, owing to the inadequate management level of rural tourism and environmental protection measures, many problems have appeared in the whole system. In order to build a perfect environmental protection evaluation index system, this paper constructs a Pressure-State-Response (PSR) model. Based on the quantitative criteria for the evaluation index of sustainable development of rural resorts, the actual value of each evaluation index of Village A is in contrast, standardisation is performed. According to the index system established by the PSR model, the principal component analysis method is used to screen the index system in terms of factor loading. Therefore, the index system for evaluating the carrying capacity of the rural tourism environment based on the PSR model is determined. Under the established evaluation system, the principal component analysis method is used to analyse and calculate the evaluation indicators, and the four main components that affect the carrying capacity of the rural tourism environment are obtained, and the carrying capacity of the rural tourism environment is analysed. Moreover, the scores of rural tourism environmental carrying capacity over the years have been obtained under different angles. Then, using the entropy weight method, the scores of the four principal components obtained are weighted, and finally the comprehensive score of the rural tourism environment carrying capacity over the years is obtained.
    Keywords: pressure-state-response model; evaluation index system; rural tourism environmental carrying capacity; entropy weight method; principal component analysis.

  • How does regional energy allocation evolve and form? Evidence from urban agglomeration in China   Order a copy of this article
    by Qiu Derong, Huang Chen, Ji Kaiwen, Ma Jian 
    Abstract: The allocation of resource is in a key position in regional economic development. The misallocation of energy, which was particularly strategic in large economies, is highly valued but ignored. This paper investigates the energy misallocation in the context of urban agglomeration, based on the theoretical accounting framework of resource misallocation. Then spatial econometric empirical research is conducted by using the micro dataset of Chinese industrial enterprises from 1998 to 2007. With an energy efficient allocation, the productivity of an urban agglomeration could rise by another 5.1% in 2007. The energy misallocation was declining. The results show that: a) the accounting framework incorporating energy elements can calculate resource misallocation more accurately in urban agglomeration; b) compared with the capital and labour factor, the degree of energy misallocation is close to that of capital and labour; c) the mitigating factor of energy misallocation is trade openness, which has a negative spatial effect. The factors that aggravate energy misallocation are market barriers, fiscal stimulus, and labour control. Market barriers and fiscal stimulus have obvious spatial effects.
    Keywords: energy misallocation; urban agglomeration; trade openness; market barriers; spatial dependence.

  • Linking consumers' anticipated guilt to green consumption intention: testing the role of perceived consumer effectiveness and green involvement   Order a copy of this article
    by Yingying Li, Dongmei Quan, Hairu Zhang 
    Abstract: Green consumer behaviour has received increasing attention in recent years, but research offers only limited explanations for the links between consumers positive attitudes and their behaviour. Drawing from the consumer psychology literature and the theory of cognitive dissonance, we start by the anticipated guilt and highlight the role of perceived consumer effectiveness in the relationship between anticipated guilt and green consumer intention. Based on the hypotheses, we propose a conceptual model of anticipated guiltgreen consumer intention link under different green involvement. We test our arguments with the survey data of 435 questionnaires and a structural equation model via Amos software. The results show that consumers' anticipated guilt is positively associated with their perceived effectiveness, and increased green consumption intention through the mediating mechanism of perceived consumer effectiveness. Green involvement negatively moderates the relationship between anticipated guilt and green consumption intention.
    Keywords: anticipated guilt; perceived consumer effectiveness; green involvement; green consumption intention.

Special Issue on: New Trends in Monitoring and Measuring Air, Land and Water Pollution

  • Field-based evaluation of Han-Mercury-1 UAV Sprayer: Droplet Deposition Characteristics at Various Canopy Heights of Soybean Crop   Order a copy of this article
    by He Li, Yahui Zhang, TahirShahid Ali, Kaifei Zhang 
    Abstract: Modern agriculture is precision oriented and more focused on efficient usage of Plant Protection Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (PPUAVs) for spray operations. It is of great importance on many fundamental levels to know about optimum spraying environments of UAV to reduce pesticide losses by drifting and ground dropping. This article examines the best operating conditions for a single rotor UAV by taking Han-Mercury-1 as a model equipment. Experimental datasets derived by linear regression and response surface method described the key factors affecting droplet deposition concentration. Variables included fluctuating canopy heights An-1, An-2 and An-3, flight velocity (3, 5 and 7 m/s), flight control aids and carmine tracer. Regularity in droplet uniformity and even deposition under interaction of variables was obtained for summer soybean (glycine max L.). A comprehensive model proposed in this work could be helpful in future use of UAVs for plant protection.
    Keywords: UAV sprayer; deposition concentration; deposition uniformity; flight height and speed; flying aids.

  • Analysis of the impact of China's manufacturing industry in the global value chain on carbon emissions   Order a copy of this article
    by Hou Fangmiao, Su Haiying, Li Tianyu 
    Abstract: As China's manufacturing industry's carbon dioxide emissions have increased over the years, environmental problems have become increasingly prominent. In many studies, trade scale, product structure and technological factors are used to influence trade and environmental relations. But in the context of the continuous refinement of the trade industry in recent years, we should consider that Chinese manufacturing in the global value chain has been significantly contributing to carbon emissions. This paper classifies Chinese manufacturing into four technical categories: low-tech, medium-low-tech, medium-high-tech, and high-tech. It calculates the exports added value and embedded global value. The status index and carbon emissions, with scale effect, structural effect, technological effect and global value chain position as independent variables, are used in the empirical research on the impacts of China's manufacturing export on carbon emissions in the global value chain.
    Keywords: manufacturing export trade; carbon emissions; global value chain.

  • Can environmental information disclosure regulate the relationship between environmental cost and enterprise value?   Order a copy of this article
    by Liping Wang, Chuang Li 
    Abstract: The growing awareness of environmental protection calls for higher quality environmental information disclosure. This paper builds up a unified framework including environmental information disclosure, environmental cost and enterprise value, and studies the mechanism based on structural equation modelling. The main conclusions are as follows: (1) Environmental information disclosure is significantly and positively related to corporate value, that means that enterprises transmit their environmental strategies, environmental management and environmental performance to the outside world through environmental information disclosure, which helps to win green competitive advantages and establish a good corporate social image, thereby enhance enterprises value; (2) Environmental cost is significantly negatively correlated with enterprise value, that means that there is a trade-off between environmental cost and enterprise value in the short term, but in the long run, the impact is not significant; (3) Environmental information disclosure can effectively alleviate the negative correlation between environmental cost and enterprise value, and enterprise can use environmental information disclosure tools to curb the adverse impact of increased environmental cost on enterprise value. The above conclusions reflect that environmental information disclosure is an important path to realise the unification of environmental and economic benefits of enterprises. Therefore, both government and enterprises should continuously enrich the information content, improve the disclosure quality, and build a sound environmental information disclosure system.
    Keywords: environmental information disclosure; environmental cost; enterprise value; structural equation model.

  • Research on immobilisation of heavy metals in karst soil in Guizhou Province under the effect of carbonate   Order a copy of this article
    by Shaoxia Lin, Mingyang Cui, Zhiqiang Xiao, Changhu Lin 
    Abstract: Yellow soil and limestone soil are two dominant types of agricultural cultivated soil in carbonatite outcropped regions in Guizhou Province. Heavy metals in these soils are characteristic of high background value and low activity. To explore the relationship between high carbonate content and heavy metal activity in soils, this study simulated immobilisation of heavy metals in yellow soil and limestone soil under the existence of different concentrations of carbonates through laboratory experiments. Results showed that CaCO3 can increase the pH of yellow soil up to 7.08 and the limestone soil up to 8.25. CaCO3 is conducive to immobilisation of heavy metals in yellow soils within a certain range. It can relieve bio-availability of heavy metals in soil. In limestone soils, CaCO3 controls activity of heavy metals by adjusting soil pH and thereby influences solubility product constant of metallic compound precipitation. The adsorption kinetics model revealed that adsorption of heavy metals by yellow soil and limestone soil is not a physical adsorption, but a chemical adsorption based on chemical bonds. The rate of adsorption is controlled by heavy metal diffusion in soil particles and liquid film diffusion. High-concentration carbonates in karst soils in Guizhou Province can inhibit activity of heavy metals. Although the background value of heavy metals in soils in Guizhou Province is high, it hasnt shown serious health risks to crops or human beings.
    Keywords: calcium carbonate; heavy metal; yellow soil; adsorption kinetics;.

  • Ecological red line zoning of the Tibet Autonomous Region based on ecosystem services and ecological sensitivity   Order a copy of this article
    by Lei Huang, Bo Wang, Rongguang Zhang, Kaiming Li 
    Abstract: The Ecological Red Line (ERL) has been used as a national strategy in China to maintain ecological security and achieve sustainable development, even though ERL theory and technology are not yet perfect. With rational ERL delineation, in Tibet as the 'roof of the world', it should be possible to find a balance between conserving the fragile ecological environment and the strong demand for social and economic development. For the Tibet Autonomous Region, we selected four key indicators of ecosystem services (water conservation, biodiversity maintenance, soil and water conservation, wind and sand stabilisation) and three indicators of ecological sensitivity (soil erosion, land desertification and geological disasters) to establish a targeted ERL framework and evaluation criteria, including data collection, indicator selection, model selection and evaluation of the complete process. Using this approach, we found an ERL total area of 657,451 km2, accounting for 53.55% of the total assessed area. The areas of grades I and II are 443,487 km2 and 214,358 km2, respectively, with dominant types of water conservation and desertification prevention. Our targeted ERL framework was well suited to the geographical and spatial differences and unique ecological problems of the Tibet plateau. The consistent framework and standards we used at a regional scale should also be applicable to other similar plateau regions in China.
    Keywords: ecological red lines; ecosystem services; ecological sensitivity; Tibet Autonomous Region.

  • Runoff simulation performance of multi-source precipitation products in small watersheds of different climate regions in the United States   Order a copy of this article
    by Kepeng Feng, Yang Hong, Juncang Tian, Guoqiang Tang, Guangyuan Kan, Xiangyu Luo 
    Abstract: Because the precipitation estimation data obtained by ground observation, remote sensing and numerical simulation are affected by climate zone, season, latitude, and other factors, precipitation is variable in different time and space. There are still apparent uncertainties in the hydrological application of precipitation data products in different climate zones. In this study, the precipitation data of NOAA-CPC-US is used as a reference to evaluate the accuracy of satellite precipitation data products, such as PERSIANN, GPM-IMERG, radar StageIV, and climate model ERA5, in eight basins of different climate zones in the United States. The five precipitation data products were used to drive the CREST distributed hydrological model to evaluate their runoff simulation effectiveness. The results show that StageIV has the best estimation accuracy in eight different climate zones, followed by GPM-IMERG, PERSIANN and ERA5 numerical model. According to the accuracy of different precipitation intensity, the precipitation data products of PERSIANN, GPM-IMERG, and ERA5 underestimated the precipitation to varying degrees in rainlessness and drizzle, and overestimated in heavy rain and severe rain. In the effectiveness evaluation of runoff simulation, StageIV and NOAA-CPC-US have a better effect in runoff simulation of different climate zones to meet runoff simulation. The GPM-IMERG and PERSIANN have different runoff simulation abilities in different climate zones, with low stability, and their simulation abilities are better in low latitude climate zones than in high latitude climate zones. The ability of GPM-IMERG is better than that of PERSIANN in general. As a result, these two precipitation data products need to be further verified when used in runoff simulation. Besides, the runoff simulation effect of ERA5 is not as expected, which cannot support the runoff simulation of small watersheds in different climate zones.
    Keywords: runoff simulation; precipitation; small watershed; climate zone.

  • Application of multiple imputation and support vector machine algorithms in coal and gas outburst prediction   Order a copy of this article
    by Xiaoliang Zheng, Wenhao Lai, Sheng Xue, Liang Yuan, Xianzhan Chen 
    Abstract: As the accident training data is small in the coal and gas outburst prediction model, and the dataset is extremely missing, the Multiple Imputation (MI) algorithm is proposed to fill up the missing parameters in the accident data to enlarge the usable dataset and also for use in the training and test of Support Vector Machine (SVM)prediction model. The average recognition rate respectively is 88.37% and 88.87% before and after the data filling, and that of the accident data recognition rate is 79.71% and 91.27%. Comparing KNN (k-Nearest Neighbors) algorithm with SVM, we can see that before and after KNN, the average recognition rate respectively is 87.59% and 88.37%, and the accident recognition rate is 70.4% and 84.23%, so we conclude that MI has little effect on the average recognition rate in different algorithms, but is important in the improvement of the accident recognition rate. Therefore, MI+SVM has better coal and gas outburst accident prediction compared with MI+KNN.
    Keywords: coal and gas outburst; multiple imputation; support vector machine; accident recognition rate.

  • Study progress and prospects of ecological industrial market models for control of karst rocky desertification   Order a copy of this article
    by Liang Li 
    Abstract: With policy support, technological innovation and financial guarantee provided by the Ninth Five-Year Plan through the Thirteenth Five-Year Plan, derivative industrial products related to rocky desertification control have emerged and derivative industry related to rocky desertification control tends to be industrialized. Results of statistical analysis of 211 domestic and overseas relevant papers indicate that: (1) As per time, the number of papers shows that the progress advanced in a wave mode up to and before the year 2002 and rose up in a ladder-like pattern after year 2002, which implies that such study gradually turned into a scholastic hotspot; (2) The study is dominated by theoretical study to discuss ecological environment and regional resource endowment in karst regions and demonstrate the feasibility of controlling rocky desertification by developing ecological industry; (3) The domestic papers mainly focus on discussion of southwest China, Jiangsu and Zhejiang provinces of China, which signifies that ecological industrial products significantly couple with regions with favorable environmental conservation and advanced ecological ideas. In addition, frontier theory about ecological industrial market models and realisation of value of products from karst rocky desertification control are revealed from five aspects theoretical study, technology research and development, model construction, experiment and demonstration, and monitoring and assessment. It is finally discovered that study of four aspects technology research and development, model construction, technical demonstration, and monitoring and assessment related to ecological industrial market models and realisation of value of products from karst rocky desertification control still lags behind. In view of this, study of external value calculation of ecological industry, circulation and marketing of ecological agricultural products, influencing factors of behaviour purchasing ecological products, promotion of value of ecological products, and branding and marketing of ecological products shall be intensified to ecologically remedy rocky desertification and propel development of regional economic industries with ecological industry for rocky desertification control as the bond.
    Keywords: karst; rocky desertification; ecological industry; ecological products; research progress; frontier prospect.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEP.2020.10039109
  • Geographic information system simulation and assessment for environmental impact of overall urban planning   Order a copy of this article
    by Chuhong Li, Bo Zhou 
    Abstract: In order to achieve the rationality of urban positioning and development direction and the suitability of ecological shadow environment, the environmental impact of overall urban planning based on Geographic Information System (GIS) evaluation method is evaluated. Firstly, a GIS evaluation index system for the environmental impact of urban planning is established, and the regional boundary layer model and the atmospheric motion equation are used to analyze the feasibility of the GIS model. Then, the construction of GIS evaluation model for the environmental impact of overall urban planning is introduced, and spatial division of the planning scheme is carried out. The atmospheric environment and noise environment models of urban planning are established using the land regression method, and the water environment use model is established using the continuous water tank method. Finally, taking X city as an example, the environmental impact of the overall urban planning is evaluated using the GIS evaluation model. The results show that the assessment of environmental impact of urban master planning based on GIS is feasible. In terms of the water quality environment, the GIS model can be used to find out the reasons affecting the water quality environment and provide good guidance for the site selection and planning of factories in cities. In the aspect of atmospheric environment, the congested routes can be found out to provide guidance for urban road planning. In terms of noise environment, the construction site can be selected away from the concentrated residential buildings. The GIS evaluation of urban master plan quantitatively evaluates the atmospheric environment, noise environment, and water environment, which can provide scientific basis for urban master plan. The study provides a good guiding ideology for the overall planning of the city.
    Keywords: environmental impact; overall urban planning; geographic information system; evaluation model.

  • Evaluating the effects of regulated deficit irrigation on soil water movement, nitrate transport, photosynthetic characteristics, grain yield, water and N use efficiency under furrow irrigation   Order a copy of this article
    by Lin Chen, Xiaofei Liu, Liangjun Fei 
    Abstract: A method combining experiment (field) and numerical simulation (HYDRUS-1D) is an efficient approach for revealing the effect of deficit separate furrow irrigation on soil water and nitrogen movement, winter wheat root water and nitrogen uptake, physiology and biochemical characteristics. The numerical simulation model was calibrated and validated by using field data which included five levels of irrigation amount with the same fertilisation rate under three irrigation methods (conventional flat irrigation (CF), alternate furrow irrigation (FI) and deficit separate furrow irrigation (DSFI1, DSFI2, DSFI3)). Winter wheat crop coefficients calculated by water balance method and modified logistic formula and root length were used to obtain the potential evapotranspiration for HYDRUS-1D model input. The HYDRUS-1D model was to evaluate the water stress on crop water and nitrogen use efficiency and reflected the soil moisture and nitrate concentration dynamic changes. Through analysing photosynthesis, proline content, soluble sugar content and grain yield, the research results showed that the net photosynthetic and transpiration rates of CF were the highest. But the leaf water use efficiency (LWUE) under FI and DSFI were higher than that under CF. The diurnal mean LWUE of DSFI1 in flowering-filling growth stage was the highest among all treatments. The mean proline content of DSFI was higher than that of CF and FI. The deficit irrigation schedule had non-significant effects on both crop water consumption and water use efficiency, but had significant effects on nitrogen use efficiency. Therefore, the deficit irrigation in green-jointing growth stage (DSFI1 treatment) under furrow irrigation is the best water-saving management strategy for growing winter wheat.
    Keywords: soil water and nitrogen transport; regulated deficit furrow irrigation; HYDRUS-1D model; photosynthetic characteristics; water and nitrogen use efficiency.

  • Effects of phosphorus fertiliser type and application rate on leaf traits of sickle lucerne (Medicago falcate L) in a semi-arid environment in Northern China   Order a copy of this article
    by Bo Xu, Huimin Jiang, Baoyin Taogetao 
    Abstract: By observing the micro-structure of sickle alfalfa (Medicago falcate L.) treated with different phosphorus fertilisers, the adaptive mechanism of sickle alfalfa to structures in different phosphorus application rates can be explained, and a theoretical basis for phosphorus environment adapted by alfalfa can be provided. Six micro-morphological structure indicators from 2012 to 2014, including leaf thickness, palisade tissue thickness, spongy tissue thickness, palisade/spongy ratio, CTR and SR, were measured for sickle alfalfa treated with different phosphorus fertilisers. The results show: (1) with increase of phosphorus application rate, leaf thickness firstly increased and then decreased: it was thickest under moderate phosphorous rate; (2) different phosphorus fertiliser types had less effect on leaf thickness.
    Keywords: phosphorus fertiliser; leaf micro-structural mechanism; allometry.