International Journal of Environment and Health (7 papers in press)
Distribution analysis and autoregressive modelling of ultraviolet radiation over Akure, Nigeria
by Ayodeji Ashidi, Samuel Ogunjo
Abstract: Management of health risks associated with excessive exposure to ultraviolet radiation involves understanding its characteristics within any location. This work employed five-year archived data of UV index for analysis and autoregressive modelling of UV radiation over Akure (7.15oN, 5.12oE), Nigeria. In-situ measurements of UV index were made every day between January 2007 and December 2011 at 30 minutes interval using Davis 6162 vantage Pro2 weather station. The prevalence of high intensity UV index, which indicates human susceptibility to UV-related health risks, was investigated. The statistical model that best describes UV distribution and its autoregressive characteristics was also determined for the location. The annual UV index was found to fit a Nakagami distribution and well modelled by a third order polynomial equation to at least 95% accuracy. Nonlinear autoregressive (NAR) artificial neural network analysis also returned regression coefficient values of 0.95, 0.94 and 0.94 for the training, validation and test parameters, respectively.
Keywords: health risk; sun exposure; auto regressive; UV index; neural network.
Glyphosate photodegradation: stoichiometry, kinetic and catalytic effects
by María Alcira Trinelli, Cecilia G. Cantera, Maria Mar Areco, Maria Dos Santos Afonso
Abstract: In the present study the photodegradation of glyphosate (PMG) in aqueous solution by the action of UV light and the catalytic effect of copper and copper-alga Ulva lactuca is described. The photodegradation kinetic reaction of PMG can be explained using a first-order kinetic model, with a mean rate constant of k = (0.04
Keywords: glyphosate; photodegradation; copper; Ulva lactuca; kinetic; catalysis.
Occupational exposure to magnetic fields and the risk of somatic and psychological symptoms among sewing machine operators
by Hamed Jalilian, Omid Gorjizadeh, Zahra Zamanian, Zeynab Hajizadeh, Martin Roosli, Mohammad Reza Monazzam, Mohammad Reza Najimi
Abstract: This study aimed to assess the occupational exposure to extremely low frequency magnetic fields (ELF-MF) and static magnetic field (SMF) and their relationship to health problems among tailors. Totally, 71 male tailors (exposure group) and 60 male clothing retailers (control group) participated in the study and completed three questionnaires. ELF-MF and SMF were measured in four levels of body organs in three states of sewing machine by two instruments. A significant risk for somatic symptoms (odds ratio [OR]: 1.58; 95% confidence intervals [CI]: 1.02, 2.46), sleep disorders (OR: 1.68; 95%CI: 1.04, 2.78), dizziness (OR: 1.58; 95%CI: 1.00, 2.85), and fatigue (OR: 1.67; 95%CI: 1.00, 2.85) were observed. The tailors occupationally were exposed to 1.78
Keywords: occupational exposure; magnetic fields; tailors; somatic symptoms; psychological symptoms.
From animal instinct to human birth theory: an entangled path
by Marcelo Enrique Conti
Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to show/analyse the discontinuity between animal and human birth. Starting from theories on animal instinct and those on animal/human behaviour, from Aristotle to Darwin, and to the evolutionary synthesis of the 1940s, from distorted and controversial interpretations of Darwins thought to some aspects of modern ethology and animal psychology, and to the human birth theory, the paper tries to respond to the old question: what differences exist between animal behaviour and human behaviour? Can instinct and animal behaviour explain mens actions? Trying to answer these questions, the Aristotelian scientific method and Darwins theory of evolution are here discussed. In the present work, therefore, the tentative motivation is to undertake a (necessarily summarised) historical-critical path among studies and thoughts interested in instinct and animal behaviour. Moreover, a contribution to the debate about Darwinian theory, which is still a source of great controversy, and its implications for the relationship between nature and culture, is given. The scientific-rational method, even if it has achieved tremendous results in the history of humankind, is still not adequate to completely comprehend humankind. The main issue is the biological origin of the human psyche, the human birth theory postulated by Fagioli several decades ago (Fagioli, 2019a). The capability to imagine, which relates to the disappearance fantasy at human birth, is a crucial concept in the separation between humans and animals. These aspects will be thoroughly debated.
Keywords: animal instinct; Darwin’s theory; Aristotle; animal behaviour; human behaviour; capability to react; capability to imagine; human birth theory; annulment pulsion; vitality; disappearance fantasy; mental health; well-being; history of science.
Effects of cadmium on the behaviour of Cnesterodon decemmaculatus
by Juan Pablo Ferro, Liria Belen Campos, Natalia Alejandra Ossana, Lucrecia Ferrari, Bettina Lorena Eissa
Abstract: Recognising the need for new tools or biomarkers for assessing early ecotoxicity effects and the importance of their characterisation using test species exposed to reference toxicants, the aim of this work was to study changes in some behavioral parameters of Cnesterodon decemmaculatus. Fish were placed under stress conditions induced by exposure to a subtoxic concentration of cadmium (Cd) in the laboratory.
Acute bioassays (96 h) were under laboratory conditions, with medium renewal every 48 h. Animals were randomly assigned into two groups of 10 individuals each: Cd-exposed (0.50 mg Cd L-1) and control (moderate tap water: MHW). Both groups were video-recorded every day for 15 min at the same time of day. Each individual was evaluated for: a) aggressive behaviour, b) sexual behaviour, c) swimming alterations.
Fish acutely exposed to Cd showed irregular swimming, hyperactivity periods, fewer copulation attempts and the same aggressive behaviour as compared with the control group. Our results suggest that these behavioral alterations may serve as early and reliable indicators of environmental stress in fish.
Keywords: Cnesterodon decemmaculatus; cadmium; aggressive behaviour; sexual behaviour; swimming behaviour.
A study on antecedents of household willingness to engage in e-waste recycling: evidence from Vietnam
by Hong Thi Thu Nguyen, Chun-Hung Lee, Rern-Jay Hung
Abstract: To achieve a good rate of e-waste collection and recycling, it is of great importance to ensure the compliance of end-users. This study aims to seek the determinants that influence household willingness and their favourite collection pattern towards e-waste recycling by using the logistic regression model as an analysis tool. The findings pinpointed that recycling motivations, recycling awareness, and some demographic socio-economic factors are positively correlated to the willingness of recycling involvement. On the contrary, the recycling constraints variable was proved to have a statistically negative effect on household willingness to engage in recycling. Regarding collection method, door-to-door and curbside pick-up services are the most favoured options amongst households for handing their e-waste to formal collectors, while making drop-off at regional collection centres and drop-off at retailer shops are the least preferred choices. The newly explored highlights may be added to currently limited e-waste literature in Vietnam, which emphasise the role of the government in establishing reasonable rules and cooperating with other stakeholders to support households in the recycling process, aiming to gain a higher collection target and a better recycling rate of e-waste.
Keywords: willingness to engage; e-waste recycling; logistic regression; collection method; Vietnam.
Social determinants of access to health care as an indicator of health equity among patients with chronic diseases in Jordan: a cross-sectional study
by Rula Al-Rimawi, Jafar Alshraideh, Mahmoud Al-Hussami, Madi Jaghbir
Abstract: The purpose of this study is to describe and predict the social determinants of accessing the governmental healthcare system as an indicator of health equity among patients with chronic diseases in Jordan. A cross-sectional structured face-to-face interview survey was performed of 320 patients selected from three hospitals in Amman, Jordan. The collected data, including the social determinants of health (household income, working status, educational level, gender, age, health insurance, and perceived distance to the hospital), access and use of outpatient's clinic, and accessibility factor. Hierarchical regression was used to predict the social determinants of accessing governmental healthcare system in Jordan. The overall regression, including all seven predictors, was statistically significant: R = .368, R2 =.135, adjusted R2 = .116, F (7,309) = 6.91, P <.001. Accessibility could be predicted partly from this set of variables, with approximately 12% of the variance in accessibility scores. The strongest unique predictive contribution was from household income and gender. Higher income and being female predicted higher scores on accessibility. Whereas, faraway distance between place of residency and hospital predicted lower scores on accessibility. There are thus inequities between patients in accessing the public healthcare system in Jordan based on income, gender (being male), and place of residency.
Keywords: health equity; healthcare access; equity in chronic diseases; non-communicable diseases; Jordan; nursing; social determinants of health equity.