International Journal of Environment and Health (5 papers in press)
The impact of flavoured mineral water drinks and sugar substitutes available on the Polish market on exogenic erosion of tooth enamel: preliminary results from an in vitro study
by Anna Lewandowska, Marzena Kuras
Abstract: An increase in the consumption of soft drinks has been observed in recent years. Flavoured mineral waters are often treated as an alternative to still mineral waters. The aim of our study was to determine the influence of sugar substitute solutions and flavoured mineral water drinks available in Poland on the tooth enamel dissolution. The following parameters were determined: pH, titrable acidity, the concentration of phosphorus. Solutions of xylitol, erythritol, stevia and glucose-fructose were tested in order to discover the impact of the sweeteners on exogenous erosion. The results of phosphorus release from the hydroxyapatite show that mineral water drinks cause erosion. Different sweeteners (glucose-fructose, xylitol, stevia, erythritol) cause exogenic erosion of the enamel. The erosive potential of the tested sugar substitutes used as beneficial for our health was similar to the glucose-fructose syrup.
Keywords: dental erosion; non-carious tooth surface loss; sweeteners; soft drinks.
Co2+ sorption capacity indicators of La Plata region
by Maria Luciana Montes, Fernadez Mariela Alejandra, Joseline Brendlé, Laure Michelin, Marce Andrea Taylor, Rosa María Torres Sáchez
Abstract: Although the soil act as a pollutant sink, its cobalt sorption capacity still presents controversial results. In this paper, Co2+ sorption on soils from La Plata (Argentina) was analysed. Three sorption indicators were used: Kdis (estimated from sorption isotherm), Kdx, (solid-solution distribution coefficient) and Kr (new sorption capacity indicator). Pearson correlation coefficients between the parameters and soil properties were calculated. Significant and negative correlations with silt were obtained, while significant and positive correlations were established with clay and smectite content. Soil clay fractions were isolated and Co2+ sorption was evaluated, observing relatively high removal. The correlations with kaolinite, magnetite and manganese and iron oxides showed debatable results: Kdis could be more sensitive than Kr to magnetite variations, whereas Kr seems to be more sensitive to manganese changes. The studied soils presented a high Co2+ sorption capacity, making them an effective barrier to this pollutant, avoiding its passage to groundwater and crops.
Keywords: cobalt sorption; soil/clay; distribution coefficients; correlations; soil properties.
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in street dust of Marvdasht city, SW Iran: concentration, health risk assessment and source apportionment
by Farid Moore, Farideh Amini Birami, Behnam Keshavarzi, Ommolbanin Shahidi
Abstract: The status, health risk and sources of street-dust-borne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were investigated in Marvdasht city, in southwest Iran. The total concentration of 15 PAHs ranged from 932.85 to 5030 μg kg-1 with a mean of 2185.7 μg kg-1. The PAHs contained from two to six rings, and the level of five carcinogenic PAHs generally accounted for 5 to 40% of the total concentration. The statistical analysis and diagnostic ratios demonstrated that the main emission source of PAHs is traffic. The toxic equivalent concentrations (TEQs) of PAHs in street dust ranged from 12.91 to 1160.88 μg kg-1, with a mean of 257.18 μg kg-1. High correlation coefficients (r > 0.9, p < 0.01) among benzo[a]pyrene, dibenzo[a,h]anthracene, benzo[g,h,i]perylene, and indene and toxicity equivalent concentrations of street dust indicated that these PAHs are the predominant contributors to TEQ. The results of total incremental lifetime cancer risk demonstrated that Marvdasht's residents are potentially exposed to a high cancer risk via dust ingestion and dermal contact.
Keywords: street dust; polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons; cancer risk assessment; health risk; Marvdasht.
Risk of high blood lead levels among informal sector automobile artisans: a case study of Nakuru town, Kenya
by Alfred Odongo, Wilkister Moturi, Meshack Obonyo
Abstract: Artisans in the informal automobile sector are involved in diverse occupational activities, such as spray painting and panel beating, soldering, and welding, that could predispose them to health risks associated with lead exposure. Their work environment presents risks of inhalation, dermal absorption or ingestion of lead particles. A case-control study was conducted to assess the risk of having high blood lead levels among the artisans. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire and laboratory analysis. Sixty purposively sampled participants, 30 artisans and 30 age-matched control subjects, were assessed. Lead levels in blood samples were analysed using NIOSH method 8003 and data analysed using SPSS version 22. The mean blood lead (BPb) levels of the artisans (25.36
Keywords: blood lead levels; informal sector automobile artisans; occupational lead exposure. biological exposure index.
Heavy metal contents in the most productive Argentinean Humid Pampa soils
by Claudio Bilos, Leandro Martin Tatone, Carlos Norberto Skorupka, Malena Julia Astoviza, Camila Lucia Romero, Juan Carlos Colombo
Abstract: Argentinean Humid Pampa topsoil samples from sites with different land use patterns were analysed. Texture was dominated by fines (silt + clay > 50%) with high total organic carbon contents (2.8
Keywords: soil; heavy metals; C:N relationship; texture composition; Argentinean Humid Pampa.