International Journal of Emergency Management
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International Journal of Emergency Management (16 papers in press)
Abstract: ICT has enabled the pooling of emergency response resources. Here, we explore and compare three cases of cross-sector collaboration: co-location, co-use of resources and semi-professionals as first responders. Identified opportunities include shared facilities and equipment, and a positive attitude towards the new collaboration. Challenges include undefined roles, responsibilities, difficulties in prioritising among ordinary and new tasks in resource-strained organisations; and lack of legislation and agreements. Reported needs are related to improved training and joint exercises, to trauma support and basic supplies, e.g. blankets, reflective vests, and warning triangles. ICT suggestions include e.g. systems for errand handling, joint assessment of information, status and acknowledgement of available and dispatched resources, and smartphone-based dispatch management. The emerging collaborations can be seen as hybrid forms of government and network governance. Network governance may thus support the development of their institutional aspects, but needs to be complemented with practical elements relating to the emergency response context.
Keywords: emergency response; information and communication technology; cross-sector collaboration; network governance.
Humanitarian supply chain management: a systematic literature review and directions for future research
by Sachin Agarwal, Ravi Kant
Abstract: The purpose of this study is to review the available literature of Humanitarian Supply Chain Management (HSCM), highlighting the research gap and setting the future research agenda. This research presents a literature review on HSCM over a time span of last 14 years (2005-2018). Content analysis is used to examine the available literature published in well-known databases. The material selection process leads to 316 full text articles for analysis. Out of selected 316 articles, 175 articles (55.37%) were published after 2014, which shows a significant rise in the field of HSCM. The HSCM research studies are thoroughly reviewed and structured as per their contents using descriptive and categorical analysis. The descriptive analysis includes year, journal, universities, authors and country. The categorical analysis includes research design, research methods, data analysis techniques, operation research (OR)/mathematical tools, multicriteria decision making (MCDM), disaster phases, disaster types verses disaster phases, HSCM practices, enablers, barriers and research fields. The key observation indicates that the HSCM research is mostly focused on the qualitative research methods. Quantitative research is mostly focused on the mixed integer programming models, which are frequently applied to solve the HSCM problems. There is enough possibility to explore the MCDM methods in HSCM research for decision making in challenging situations. The findings also illustrate that there is adequate scope to develop the HSCM fields and a possibility to explore the wide range of unfamiliar but very useful research avenues.
Keywords: humanitarian chain; humanitarian logistics; humanitarian relief chain; humanitarian supply chain.
Role of economic development and the government on flood impact in India
by Yashobanta Parida, Swati Saini
Abstract: This paper examines the role of economic development and government on mitigating flood impact in India during the period of 1980-2011. The empirical estimates reveal that there exists an inverse relationship between economic development (proxied by PCI) and flood impact measured in terms of flood fatalities and damages due to floods. Furthermore, the empirical results show that higher literacy rates lower flood fatalities. Government intervention (measured by indicators such as expenditure on irrigation and flood control and spending on medical care and public health) also minimises the impact of floods. The empirical results suggest that higher economic development and government intervention in the form of flood mitigation measures can help in mitigating the adverse impact of floods in developing economies such as India.
Keywords: economic development; flood mortality; flood damage; flood control expenditure; ARDL model; India.
Management of infectious animal diseases: the Korean experience
by Kyoo-Man Ha
Abstract: Despite the efforts of stakeholders, infectious animal diseases, including foot and mouth disease and avian influenza, continue to afflict Korea during winter. The present research aims to examine how the nation can improve its management of infectious animal diseases toward the ultimate goal of emergency disease management. The main methodology applied is qualitative content analysis. The management of infectious animal diseases is compared between the normal and the emergency approaches in terms of central government policy, local government strategy, farm efforts, scientific research, and visitor readiness. The key finding is that disease management in Korea has to shift from the current normal approach to an emergency approach. Neighboring nations need to implement all four phases of the emergency management process toward achieving an emergency approach to management.
Keywords: foot and mouth disease; avian influenza; foreign animal diseases; public health; four phases of emergency management lifetime.
Exploring the process of strategic planning in emergency management
by Scott Manning
Abstract: This study examines the strategic planning practices of county-level emergency management agencies (EMAs) throughout the United States, with a focus on the strategic planning process. A theoretical framework was developed by reviewing the literature on public sector strategic planning and identifying the features that characterise 'high quality' strategic planning. The analysis revealed that success in using strategic planning in the public sector depended on the inclusion of key planning components, the availability of advanced planning capabilities, strong planning process leadership, broad planning process participation, and post-strategic planning integration and implementation. Using this framework, the study found considerable variation in the underlying structure and characteristics of the strategic planning processes used by county-level EMAs. The data revealed that while many county-level EMAs attempted to undertake and fully execute most, if not all, of the components of strategic planning, they often struggled with inadequate planning capabilities, leadership, participation, and post-planning integration and implementation.
Keywords: emergency management; strategic planning; strategic management; planning process; program management; public administration; public organisations; local government; leadership; implementation.
Public health emergency management capacity building in Guinea: 2014-2019
by Lise Martel, Michael Phipps, Amadou Traore, Claire J. Standley, Mohamed Lamine Soumah, Appolinaire Lamah, Abdoulaye Wone, Michael E. Asima, Alpha Mahmoud Barry, Mahawa Berete, Aurelia Attal-Juncqua, Rebecca Katz, Alexandre Robert, Idrissa Sompare, Erin M. Sorrell, Yakaria Toure, Antoine Morel-Vulliez, Sakoba Keita
Abstract: Before the Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) outbreak of 2014-2016, Guinea did not have an emergency management system in place. During the outbreak, Global Health Security Agenda (GHSA) 2014-2019 funds made it possible to rapidly improve the countrys capacity to manage epidemics through the development of public health emergency operation centres (PHEOCs) at the national and district levels. Since the end of the response, the infrastructure, staff, and systems of these PHEOCs have been further reinforced and well-integrated in the daily activities of Guineas National Agency for Health Security, the entity responsible for the management of epidemics. The development of PHEOCs as emergency management tools for epidemics in Guinea would not have been possible without a strong endorsement within the Ministry of Health. Guineas PHEOC network is well-positioned to serve as a model of excellence for other Ministries in Guinea and Ministries of Health of other countries of West Africa.
Keywords: emergency management; EOC; West Africa Ebola response; capacity building; GHSA; Guinea.
Beyond information sharing: stimulating youth recovery and resilience post-disaster through social media
by Ashley A. Berard, Tamara Plush, Robin S. Cox, Tiffany T. Hill
Abstract: In disaster response, social media can perform a critical role in disseminating evacuation information, connecting friends and family, and linking those affected to urgently needed services. Less explored is the role social media might play after disaster in online and offline processes of recovery and resilience, especially for young people deeply engaged in its use. This article considers the possibilities through the #YouthVoicesWB campaign, which was developed with youth a year after the Canadian 2016 Horse River wildfire disaster (a.k.a., the Fort McMurray wildfire). It offers insight into the campaign: an emergent approach to recovery that created agentic spaces for youth through online and offline interactions. It also examines the value of youth-adult partnerships when building a social media platform aimed at strengthening the voices of youth post-disaster. Ultimately #YouthVoicesWB demonstrates the value of listening to youth, and shows how including youth in recovery decision-making as key stakeholders holds potential for more resilient communities.
Keywords: disaster; emergency response; recovery; resilience; social media; youth; creative arts; action research; voice; policy.
Enhancing disaster mutual assistance decisions with machine learning: the case of electricity utilities
by Ali Asgary, Ghassem Tofighi, Mohammad Ali Tofighi
Abstract: Disaster mutual assistance is an important mechanism that is used by many organisations, including the electricity utilities, to generate the needed resources during major disasters and emergencies. The decision to provide (or not to provide) mutual assistance is a complicated decision that needs to be taken by considering different factors and under limited time, therefore, it can benefit from advanced decision support tools. This paper applies several machine learning algorithms (i.e. Logistic Regression, k-NN, Gaussian Naive Bayes, SVM, Decision Tree, and Random Forest) to enhance disaster mutual assistance decisions by electricity utilities. These methods are implemented on an experimental dataset obtained during a workshop participated by disaster management experts from a number of Canadian electricity utilities. Results show that all of the employed machine learning methods have very high and almost similar accuracy in predicting the disaster mutual assistance decisions. However, Random Forest and Decision Tree provide additional information by generating the weight of each criterion, optimum thresholds that can be applied to each criterion, and visual interpretation of the decision process. Therefore, these two methods are recommended to be added to the existing mutual assistance operation management tools that are developed to assist emergency managers at the electricity utilities.
Keywords: disaster mutual assistance; machine learning; electricity utilities; power distribution.
Effects of earthquake experiences on household preparedness: a community-based survey in Kerman Province, Iran
by Ali Khodadadizadeh, Sanaz Sohrabizadeh, Azam Heidarzadeh, Ahmad Reza Sayadi, Katayoun Jahangiri, Fatemeh Sadeghizadeh Janatabadi
Abstract: Natural disasters have been constantly occurring within the Earths lifespan. Iran is considered as one of the most disaster-prone countries in the world. Moreover, preparedness is one of the important phases of disaster management. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of earthquake experiences on household preparedness. This study was a cross-sectional research conducted on a total of 500 households living in Bam and Rafsanjan counties. The data were collected using the standardised Earthquake Preparedness Questionnaire through randomised sampling. The data were analysed using the T-test and frequency. Based on the data, a difference of total preparedness scores between the two groups was statistically significant (p<0.01). The mean score of preparedness of Bam households was higher than the preparedness of Rafsanjan households. Preparedness dimensions such as risk reduction measures, family planning, exercises, safety skills, first aid and firefighting, hazard map, communication and awareness was statistically significant between the two groups (p<0.05). Disaster-experienced households benefitted from higher levels of preparedness than households without any earthquake experience in Kerman Province, Iran. Community-based education, training, exercising and collaborating are suggested as important factors to improve preparedness.
Keywords: preparedness; earthquake; household; Iran.
Lessons lost: a comparative analysis of animal disaster response in New Zealand
by Steve Glassey, Marcelo Rodriguez Ferrere, Mike King
Abstract: This paper compares the animal emergency management related lessons identified after two different disasters in New Zealand: the 2017 Edgecumbe Flood event and the 2019 Nelson Fires. It uses an ethnographic content analysis to compare two after action reports and identify common themes, and lesson learning between events. It concludes that only 7% of lessons identified in the Edgecumbe Flood were applied at the Nelson Fires, nearly two years afterwards. Common issues related to training, capability, law, policy, planning, information management and incident management. The paper makes several recommendations from its analysis for improving animal emergency management arrangements, both domestically and abroad.
Keywords: animal welfare; disaster response; lessons management; wicked problems.
Landslide risk, resilience and resistance: confronting community resilience with economic benefits in landslide-prone areas in Kerala
by Mohammed Irshad
Abstract: Landslides are increasingly posing challenges to disaster risk management institutions in countries like India. Unlike other disaster risk reduction measures that include community-based resilience, it is a challenging task in the present context of development. Landslide-prone areas in India are not just risky geographical regions with vulnerable people; instead these are emerging economic zones. The economic value of these regions displaces the risk and hence, state governments and central government often find it difficult to promote community-based resilience in landslide-prone areas. The community often interprets resilience as resistance. Community-based resilience in landslide-prone areas never follows the general theoretical position on resilience as the ability to bounce back. Large-scale concentrations of quarry industries in the landslide-prone areas of Kerala limit the community mobility as resilience. The idea of resilience converged into resistance in the landslide susceptible areas in Kerala. Resistance becomes an easy method rather than building resilience. A communitys perception of resilience is never acceptable to the government and investors and hence no one is promoting community-based resilience in these areas.
Keywords: community mobility; landslide; quarry industries; resilience.
Investigating causal relationship of disaster risk reduction activities in the Indian context
by Akhilesh Barve, Ram Naresh Prasad, Devendra K. Yadav
Abstract: This study focuses on the identification of disaster risk reduction (DRR) activities which are carried out during pre and post-disasters to save the lives of the population under risk of disasters. Odisha, one of the disaster-prone states in India has been taken as a case study to identify the relevant DRR activities for cyclone and later the efforts were made to explore the strength of identified DRR activities and causal relationship between them by using decision-making trial and evaluation laboratory (DEMATEL) method. The activities used in these processes were finalised after the detailed discussion with policymakers and academicians working at the various levels and capacities of disaster management and allied domain of DRR. The results of this study show that cause group activities influence effect group activities, and emergency planning at various levels was found to be the most influencing DRR activity among other activities.
Keywords: DRR; disaster risk reduction; Odisha; DEMATEL; decision-making trial and evaluation laboratory.
Twitter as a communication tool in the Germanwings and Ebola crises in Europe: analysis and protocol for effective communication management
by Carles Pont-Sorribes, Guillem Suau-Gomila, Salvador Percastre-Mendizábal
Abstract: We investigated Twitter communications by the media and institutions regarding two emergency situations which had a major impact in Europe: the accident of Germanwings Flight 9525 in the French Alps on 24 March, 2015, and Ebola infection of Teresa Romero, a nursing assistant at the Hospital Carlos III in Madrid, reported on 6 October, 2014. Our methodology was based on a new tool called top discussion indicator (TDI). Our results indicate that media and institutions do not exploit all the possibilities offered by Twitter. We propose a decalogue of recommendations aimed at improving use of Twitter and ensuring greater communicative efficacy.
Keywords: emergency communication; public institutions communication; media information; twitter; Europe; Ebola emergency; Germanwings emergency; mixed methods; TDI; top discussion indicator; decalogue of recommendations.
Social vulnerability determinants of individual social capital for emergency preparedness
by Julius A. Nukpezah
Abstract: The study uses data from the 2008 General Social Survey to construct a goal-specific individual social capital for emergency preparedness (ISCEP) scale. It draws on social vulnerability theory to propose determinants of ISCEP and ordinary least squares (OLS) to estimate the coefficients of the regressions. The study findings contribute to extant scholarship about the role of investing in human capital on social capital outcomes. It also supports the idea that communication among groups nourishes individual social capital and that policymakers should invest in policy narratives that shape perceptions of residents for emergency-related social capital that they would like to promote. Overall, the study makes three novel contributions to the scholarship. First, social capital should be goal-specific and measured at the individual level as ISCEP to understand its formation. Second, ISCEP should be studied as an outcome variable and not only as a causal variable, and lastly, social vulnerability provides a theoretical framework for investigating determinants of ISCEP.
Keywords: social capital; social vulnerability; emergency preparedness; individual social capital; social network; risk perception; ISCEP; individual social capital for emergency preparedness; general social survey.
Knowledge, experience and preparedness: factors influencing citizen decision-making in severe weather situations
by S. Guillot, P. Jarvis, T. Powell, J. Kenkre
Abstract: During 1997-2007 the entire state of Tennessee experienced in total 300 tornados, causing 87 deaths and $617.1 million in damaged property. Therefore the ability to alert/warn all segments of a community regarding the potential of severe weather is essential for the safety and well-being of those potentially affected. To ascertain the best way that this could be achieved, questionnaire surveys were conducted on the current practice and limitations to inform future need for change from the public, disaster management and the broadcast media. Prior experience gave the public a greater understanding of the threats associated with severe weather and actions to be taken. This study identifies a clear need for new and innovative ways to educate both the general public as well as the broadcast media and emergency management in disaster awareness and preparedness.
Keywords: emergency management; disaster awareness; disaster preparedness; societal resilience; hazard detection; community impact; survey.
Search and rescue mission teaming lessons from the 13 trapped inside a Thai cave
by Pichaphob Panphae, Ravee Phoewhawm
Abstract: This study draws on the events from the successful rescue of the 13 young men trapped inside a cave for providing emergency management a practical guideline in teaming. The work addressed the lessons learned for teaming in a search and rescue mission to function effectively and efficiently, being creative and innovative to challenges, dealing with constraints, reducing the wastage of time, managing accidents and mistakes, and coping with death. A case study was undertaken to examine the daily events of the search and rescue mission by following the articles written in online news sites. The mission becomes successful when the teams coordinate together as one cohesive unit. Teams have to re-examine their practical mode of operation for the sake of safety and well-being during the performance of searching and rescuing. Emergency management is promoting a 'learning from doing' environment by allowing teams to reflect on the procedures.
Keywords: anticipating; coordination; improvising; innovation; resilient; renewal; safety; senselosing; sense-remaking; teaming.