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International Journal of Emergency Management (7 papers in press)
Pre-positioning facilities for collecting tents from communities for post-earthquake relief by Jing-Xian Zhou, Zhi-Hua Hu, Xiang Li Abstract: Pre-positioning facilities for collecting tents distributed in communities is critical to improve the efficacy of tent collection and supply in post-earthquake relief. This paper aims at a pre-positioning problem for facilities that collect the tents in communities by considering various earthquake scenarios. A bi-stage stochastic programming model is formulated for the facility location problem. The model minimises the economic costs and time-related penalty costs. Considering the effects of objective weights and known parameters on the solutions, five experiments were performed and analysed for studying the proposed model. A case illustrates the location problem for the facilities for collecting tents from communities in Pudong New District, Shanghai, China, in the relief of the Yaan earthquake. Keywords: emergency logistics; location problem; stochastic programming; uncertain scenario; earthquake
Spatial analysis of disaster statistics in selected cities of Nigeria by Olasunkanmi Okunola Abstract: The frequency of occurrence of natural, technological and man-induced disasters is increasing in Nigeria. The trends and patterns of these occurrences are scarcely reported in the literature. This paper focuses on types, occurrences and causes of disasters in Lagos, Port Harcourt and Kaduna, Nigeria. Data were collected by administering a questionnaire and conducting in-depth interviews with disaster stakeholders (residents, National Emergency Management Agency personnel and victims of disasters) in disaster-prone areas of the selected cities. Results indicated that fire outbreak, flood, building collapse and windstorm have been the major threats to lives and properties in all three cities. Also, factors such as overpopulation, poor governance, erection of weak structures, unplanned urban spread and unenforced physical planning policy worsen the issue. These results, among others, contribute to our understanding of causes and trend of disasters in a typical developing country. Keywords: disasters; trend; statistics; flood; fire outbreak; building collapse; Nigeria.
Configuring emergency response networks by Willem Treurniet, Kees Boersma, Peter Groenewegen Abstract: If an emergency strikes a community, a response effort involving multiple organisations is initiated. In the fog and chaos it seems difficult to determine which organisations and agencies to involve in the response in order to ensure that the organisational network is fit for purpose. In this paper we study three recent emergencies in the Netherlands in order to find out what patterns are detectable in the network of the organisations responding to the emergency. Based on qualitative analysis we develop insights about how the composition of the organisational network and the development of this composition over time relate to the nature of the emergencies, the way in which they develop, and the impact they have on the community. While emergency management scholars often focus on large disasters that can have devastating effects, we have deliberately selected a number of smaller incidents. We find the community to be an intertwined network of networks. A failure in this constellation of networks may result in an emergency situation. The failure itself and any collateral effects from emergency response actions ripple through the constellation of networks and may therefore have a multifaceted impact on society. We found that the emergency situation and the emergency response network mutually shape each other and are a reflection of each other. Failing to consider possible ripple effects, or ignoring them when they occur, shapes the scope of the emergency and the response to it differently. Keywords: emergency management; emergency response network; organisational network; network composition; Netherlands.
Peer reviews for making cities resilient by Jennifer Bealt, Duncan Shaw, Chris M. Smith, Manuel López-Ibáñez Abstract: Peer reviews are a unique governance tool that use expertise from one city or country to assess the capabilities or intentions of another, with a view to strengthening those. Peer review tools are gaining momentum in disaster management and remain an important but understudied topic in risk governance. We conduct a systematic literature review of academic and non-academic literature on city resilience peer reviews to provide useful insights for practitioners on structuring peer reviews as a tool for resilience building in cities. Through exploring conceptualisations of key resilience principles and peer reviews, 33 attributes of resilience are identified which provide useful insights to the ways in which research and practice can inform risk governance and use peer reviews to drive meaningful change. Moreover, it situates the challenges associated with resilience building tools within the risk governance field to support practitioners in developing interdisciplinary perspectives for integrated city resilience frameworks. Keywords: city resilience; city peer review; disaster risk governance.
Limited medical perspective at a strategic level in relation to mass casualty incidents in Swedish tunnels by Isabelle Stjerna Doohan, Britt-Inger Saveman, Lina Gyllencreutz Abstract: Mass casualty incidents (MCI) in tunnels can result in devastating consequences. Despite this, there is a knowledge gap in the perspectives and experiences of strategic stakeholders in relation to the emergency medical response to MCI in tunnels. This study aims to explore and describe this issue. The study includes 11 interview participants from the emergency services organisations and governmental and municipal organisations in Sweden. The results indicate that the medical perspective is inadequately represented at a strategic level owing, among other things, to limited input from emergency medical representatives during planning stages and a lack of social networks. The results indicate a need to create and improve networks among the stakeholders from the involved organisations. Emergency medical personnel should not only be acknowledged for their expertise but also be included to a greater extent in the planning stages and exercises. Medical and rescue personnel need time to jointly discuss how they, in the best way, can save lives in tunnel MCIs. Keywords: tunnel safety; mass casualty incident; emergency medical services; rescue services; police services; collaboration; emergency services; emergency management; qualitative studies; interviews.
Investigating causal relationship of disaster risk reduction activities in the Indian context by Akhilesh Barve, Ram Naresh Prasad, Devendra K. Yadav Abstract: This study focuses on the identification of Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) activities which are carried out during pre- and post-disasters to save the lives of the population under risk of disasters. Odisha, one of the disaster-prone states in India has been taken as to case to identify the relevant DRR activities for cyclone and later the efforts were made to explore the strength of identified DRR activities and causal relationship between them by using Decision Making Trial and Evaluation Laboratory (DEMATEL) method. The activities used in these processes were finalised after detailed discussion with policy-makers and academicians working at the various levels and capacity of disaster management and allied domain of DRR. The results of this study show that cause group activities influence effect group activities, and emergency planning at various levels was found to be the most influencing DRR activity among other activities Keywords: disaster risk reduction; Odisha; DEMATEL.
Twitter as a communication tool in the Germanwings and Ebola crises in Europe: analysis and protocol for effective communication management by Carles Pont-Sorribes, Guillem Suau-Gomila, Salvador Percastre-Mendizábal Abstract: We investigated Twitter communications by the media and institutions regarding two emergency situations which had a major impact in Europe: the accident of Germanwings Flight 9525 in the French Alps on 24 March 2015, and Ebola infection of Teresa Romero, a nursing assistant at the Hospital Carlos III in Madrid, reported on 6 October 2014. Our methodology was based on a new tool called Top Discussion Indicator (TDI). Our results indicate that media and institutions do not exploit all the possibilities offered by Twitter. We propose a decalogue of recommendations aimed at improving use of Twitter and ensuring greater communicative efficacy. Keywords: emergency communication; public institutions communication; media information; Twitter; Europe; Ebola emergency; Germanwings emergency; mixed methods; top discussion indicator; decalogue of recommendations.