Forthcoming and Online First Articles

International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Innovation Management

International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Innovation Management (IJEIM)

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International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Innovation Management (14 papers in press)

Regular Issues

  • The impact of demography on opportunity recognition among Caribbean entrepreneurs   Order a copy of this article
    by Paul Pounder 
    Abstract: Opportunity recognition plays a key role in understanding entrepreneurship and its development. This research focused on the impact of demography on opportunity recognition. The aim was to investigate the effect of age, gender and education on opportunity recognition on entrepreneurs in the Caribbean. Selection of those areas align with their importance seen in other related studies. The dataset for the research came from the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM) Adult Population Survey. The findings highlighted that as age and education years increase, the odds of opportunity recognition decrease and that males are more likely to recognize opportunities. Additionally, further exploratory analysis showed that age partially mediates the relationship between education and opportunity recognition. If researchers can achieve a better understanding of the impact of demographic factors on opportunity recognition, this can assist entrepreneurs in appraising their own prospects. In addition, governments can use this research to inform the design of more effective and supportive policies.
    Keywords: entrepreneurship; opportunity recognition; Caribbean; demographics; age; gender; education; mediation; Global Entrepreneurship Monitor.

  • Knowledge creation process within high-tech SMEs in a context of industrial clusters: a cross-national comparison   Order a copy of this article
    by Marcos Ferasso 
    Abstract: This paper presents research results that aimed to explain the multilevel mechanism of the knowledge creation process in biotechnological industrial clusters. Conducted research was cross-national research of four multiple case studies with an inferential and exploratory approach. The key finding of this paper is that the SMEs have in common a knowledge creation process and its elements were classified as a priori and a posteriori assets, that occur at their internal levels. The French SMEs benefit from additional assets if compared with Brazilian SMEs, and these assets allow the acceleration of their knowledge creation process, mainly due to financial supports, shared infrastructures, and collaborative projects. This study continues and further develops the model proposed by Nonaka and Takeuchi (1995), who described the knowledge creation process by identifying tangible and intangible assets that are retrieved from a multilevel structure. Implications for policymakers, scholars and practitioners are addressed.
    Keywords: Intangible assets. Tangible assets. Industrial clusters. Knowledge creation. SMEs. Innovation.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEIM.2021.10051312
    by Annabeth Aagaard 
    Abstract: This research aim of this paper is to explore how open innovation contests are applied and facilitated successfully for business model innovation using student teams. Based on a case study of five international food companies, the study explores how food companies use innovation contests and identify how interdisciplinary student teams successfully develop business model innovations. The findings reveal 6 key steps and 25 key activities that influence the success of interdisciplinary student teams in carrying out business model innovation in innovation contests. The theoretical contributions of the study answer the research gaps on how different open innovation approaches like open innovation student contests are applied in developing creative solutions and business model innovation and how open innovation processes using students are carried out successfully. The empirical contributions and managerial implications of the study reveal how companies can leverage open innovation contests through key steps and activities in effective use of interdisciplinary student teams to successfully develop business model innovation.
    Keywords: Innovation contests; open innovation; business model innovation; student teams; food industry; case study.

  • Organization design (OD) frameworks and digital innovation An extension of Galbraiths STAR model   Order a copy of this article
    by Robert Eirich, Björn Schäfer, Max Ringlstetter 
    Abstract: We examined whether the STAR model developed by Galbraith could be used to organize activities in the context of digital innovation. This question has arisen as a result of the different organization designs demanded by digital innovation, because of the speed with which it is introduced, pressure from competitors and challenging investment requirements. Galbraith developed his STAR model in its pure form in the 1980s. It consists of the parameters Structure, Processes, People and Rewards. We selected the STAR model as the core concept for this paper based on an assessment of four major organization design frameworks commonly used by scholars and managers. A pre-study revealed that the pure form of the STAR model lacks granularity and does not provide a full or holistic picture to account for digitalization in OD frameworks today. Hence, we analyzed an expansion of the model with the parameter 'Legacy', and also tested for further sub-parameters which might be included to improve the models explanatory power. We base our findings on a survey with 115 participants. The results show that an adjusted STAR model can and should be used to organize for digital innovation (excluding the parameter Rewards), and that Legacy should be included in the model as a guiding principle. Additionally, the parameter People is critical and should be split into the sub-parameters Staffing and Knowledge. By confirming and adjusting the STAR model, we provide a theoretically grounded and empirically verified model that better fits the complexity of digital innovation tasks. The adjusted framework can be used by scholars for further research in the field, and gives managers a tool for improving the allocation of resources by focusing on the most important parameters.
    Keywords: Organization design; Digital innovation; Digital innovation performance; Organization design frameworks; Galbraith's STAR model; Legacy; Hierarchical regression.

  • Partnership Venture Capital and Post-IPO Innovation Behaviors in China   Order a copy of this article
    by Shengnan Li, Anqi Yang, Xiao Yang 
    Abstract: Venture capital, an incubator of technological innovation, generally pursues IPO as a successful exit channel. However, numerous Chinas venture capital institutions still hold shares after IPO since they have long-term strategic goals. This study investigates how partnership venture capital affects companies post-IPO innovation behaviors based on a sample of 479 Chinese listed companies in the growth enterprise market (GEM) from 2009 to 2017. As revealed by the results, partnership venture capital can expedite enterprise innovation, particularly exploratory innovation. The above result exhibits robustness to a number of estimation techniques, including PSM, Heckman's selection model and instrumental variable. Partnership venture capital with a government background and syndicate partnerships can significantly inhibit companies innovation. This study provides empirical evidence to interpret innovation in terms of partnership venture capital.
    Keywords: Partnership Venture Capital; Enterprise Innovation; IPO; Long-term Shareholding.

  • Forced digital transformation during the COVID-19 pandemic   Order a copy of this article
    by Djalma Silva Guimarães Júnior, Ademir Macedo Nascimento, Gerlane Pereira De Albuquerque Rodrigues, Letícia Oliveira Claizoni Dos Santos, Marlos Gondim Ribeiro Batista 
    Abstract: Due to an unprecedented threat from COVID-19, the World Health Organization recommended the introduction of physical distancing measures, such as quarantine and social isolation. These measures have severely affected some sectors of the economy, hampering the development of many economic activities, especially retail. In this context, this article investigated strategies for the dissemination, commercialization and distribution of goods during the COVID-19 pandemic, particularly related to small companies that were not yet fully integrated with digital technologies. We perceived a forced digital transformation, disclosure on social networks, negotiating sales through text messaging applications, electronic payments and motorcycle and bicycle delivery service. The combination of different technologies has supported small businesses in times of pandemic, since commercialization in digital media has been one of the main solutions for the prevention of bankruptcy, particularly for physical companies.
    Keywords: Digital transformation; Micro and small businesses; COVID-19; Business strategy; Brazil; Social media; Last mile; Mobile messaging applications; Survey.

  • Analysing institutional and government support for the development of Mauritian SMEs   Order a copy of this article
    by Randhir Roopchund 
    Abstract: This research paper provides an insight about the institutional and government support for the development of Small Medium Enterprises (SMEs) in Mauritius over the past two decades. The rationale of the study is that SME growth and development is still a problematic issue despite years of government support and incentives. The article seeks to analyse changes with regards to government policy decisions, namely laws, incentives and innovation schemes provided to SMEs in the Mauritian context. The methodology used is the content analysis where reference is made to websites (SME Support arm and institutions from 1993 onwards), secondary data, budget speech documents, Parliamentary Hansard documents and existing statistics for making appropriate analysis. The methodology is mostly qualitative and relies on extensive research on government reports and other research findings to consolidate a logical sequencing of the SME laws in the Mauritian context. The study is of great importance to the policymakers and the different stakeholders for understanding the importance of institutional support for SMEs for a small island economy such as Mauritius.
    Keywords: SMEs; Institutional Support; SME Development and Incentive Schemes.

  • Entrepreneurial Universities as a value chain: a multiple case study of higher education strategies for entrepreneurship in China   Order a copy of this article
    by Artur Ribeiro, Camila Yamashiro, Paulo Feldmann, Guilherme Plonski 
    Abstract: Following accelerated growth in the past few decades, China has bet on mass entrepreneurship in universities as a way to modernize its economy in the search to consolidate itself as a global power. This study aims to present the concrete actions of leading Chinese universities in fostering entrepreneurship and regional development. The study presents the results of 27 in-depth interviews conducted in Chinese entrepreneurship ecosystems, building a multiple case study on Tsinghua and Jiao Tong Universities. The main conclusions, framed by Vaz & Nijkamps model, depict integration of different economic levels; (i) a macroeconomic infrastructure for innovation that permeates Chinese ecosystems; (ii) universities organized as a value chain to stimulate their students from the idea stage to IPO; (iii) new dynamics for training students in entrepreneurship and innovation through modern educational approaches. From an academic standpoint, the study contributes by offering variety to the research on entrepreneurial universities and regional development, showing new strategies within the Chinese socio-economic conditions.
    Keywords: entrepreneurial universities; entrepreneurship education; universities; china; chinese economy; innovation; startups; entrepreneurship; tsinghua university; jiao tong university.

  • The symbiosis evolution mechanism and simulation research of developed science-based innovation ecosystem   Order a copy of this article
    by Yuqiong Li, Ling Zhou, Han Tian 
    Abstract: Based on the perspective of the developed science-based innovation ecosystem, this research constructs a biomedical innovation ecosystem structure model, integrates the Lotka-Volterra model to conduct empirical research on the symbiotic evolution of innovation populations in the system and discusses the cooperative evolution law among innovation populations in the system, with taking China's biomedical industry as an example. The research results indicate that in the biomedical industry based on developed-science innovation ecosystem, the development of the industry strongly depends on scientific research, and the innovation vitality is mainly concentrated at the university, scientific research institutes, and enterprises with R&D capabilities. This research provides a theoretical and practical significance for the breakthrough in national innovation from the perspective of the developed science-based innovation ecosystem.
    Keywords: innovation ecosystem; innovation based on developed science; innovation population; biomedical industry; logistic model; evolutionary simulation.

  • University technology transfer: assessment of invention disclosures by technology transfer offices   Order a copy of this article
    by António Rocha, Maria Cruz-Cunha, Fernando Romero 
    Abstract: University technology transfer offices (TTOs) encourage researchers to disclose their inventive results to assess their novelty, industrial applicability, and inventive step to protect and devise a plan to gather the necessary resources for its deployment. To describe the invention disclosure process and to gain knowledge about assessment practices to understand the invention, its market, potential for transfer, and accessibility to finance, Portuguese University TTOs were asked to provide information on their internal processes through a semi-structured survey. The most frequent practices have been identified, including, the analysis of all the technology applications, the assessment of the technology readiness level, patentability, strength of its claims, and protection costs; assessment of the extent of technology demand and potential licensees; and analysis of available sources of finance. The approach was essentially descriptive and exploratory to convey information on how to proceed to guide the initial evaluation that triggers the valorization process.
    Keywords: Technology transfer; Intellectual property rights; University-Industry relations; Assessment practices; Licensing.

  • Trust Is Not Recognition: An Exploration of Revolts in Crowdfunding   Order a copy of this article
    by Jack Wroldsen, Djamchid Assadi 
    Abstract: Theoretical frameworks for understanding and analyzing the emerging and evolving crowdfunding industry have coalesced around the importance of establishing and maintaining trust in crowdfunding transactions and relationships. Going beyond trust, this study proposes the philosophical concept of recognition as a more complete theory of the nature of crowdfunding. Recognition, or the sphere of solidarity, emphasizes the ongoing and reciprocal relationships of mutual respect that are central to how entrepreneurs derive value and project supporters derive meaning through crowdfunding. The paper relies on case studies to show the concept of recognition in action, demonstrating both the presence and the absence of recognition in crowdfunding campaigns. The paper contends that a theory of recognition provides a more accurate and holistic model for crowdfunding than trust alone.
    Keywords: Recognition; Sphere of Solidarity; Crowdfunding; Rewards; Equity; Strategy; Entrepreneurship; Oculus; Facebook; Exploding Kittens.

  • Fintech, financial literacy, and financial inclusion in Indonesian SMEs   Order a copy of this article
    by Mutamimah Mutamimah, Maya Indriastuti 
    Abstract: This study examines the effect of fintech and financial inclusion moderated by financial literacy in improving the financial performance and business growth of SMEs in Indonesia. The purposive sampling technique was used to obtain data from 202 SMEs in Indonesia, statistically analysed using descriptive and multiple regression analyses. The results showed that financial literacy could moderate the effect of fintech on financial inclusion. Furthermore, fintech cannot improve financial performance, despite being moderated by financial literacy. Meanwhile, financial inclusion can improve financial performance, and subsequently, financial performance increases the business growth of SMEs. Implications of this study are that SMEs must improve financial literacy, and the government needs to improve regulations on financial literacy, fintech, and financial inclusion, especially for SMEs.
    Keywords: Fintech; financial inclusion; financial literacy; financial performance; business growth.

  • Internal antecedents for systematic business model innovation: insights from the German automotive manufacturers   Order a copy of this article
    by Benedict Seiferlein, Dominik K. Kanbach, Claudia Lehmann 
    Abstract: Despite considerable interest from academics and management professionals in creating sustainable, competitive advantages through business model innovation (BMI), and highly-prominent BMI success stories, the contemporary understanding of how company-internal antecedents can enable systematic BMI remains limited. However, this specific knowledge is necessary if companies are to repeatedly exploit BMI's strategic and financial benefits. Therefore, this paper aims to reveal the internal antecedents by applying an in-depth qualitative research approach to the systematic BMI of all five German automotive manufacturers. The results show that systematic BMI is enabled through: (1) unified orientation, (2) dynamic orchestration, (3) flexible operations, and (4) adjacent fields, which are underpinned by 16 distinct second-order themes. These findings significantly enhance the theoretical and managerial understanding of the enabling factors for BMI, and contribute unique empirical insights to the ongoing academic debate particularly from the perspectives of dynamic capabilities and strategic agility.
    Keywords: business model innovation; enabling factors; support conditions; German automotive industry; internal antecedents; qualitative research; unified orientation; dynamic orchestration; flexible operations; adjacent fields.

  • Getting by with a little help from my friends: The impact of the pandemic on the collaboration of small Finnish food and beverage ventures   Order a copy of this article
    by Erika Perttunen, Teo Keipi, Sooa Hwang, Tua A. Björklund 
    Abstract: Ventures social ties are important enablers of value creation. Particularly during crises, the value of relationships is highlighted as scale-limited ventures can draw from their partners resources to find opportunities for survival and renewal. Crises also shape ventures collaboration opportunities by disrupting networks and changing ways of engagement. Yet, longitudinal research on the impact of crises on ventures collaboration remains limited. In the current study, we combine pre- and during-pandemic interviews with social media data from 14 packaged food and beverage ventures to explore the impact of the crisis on venture collaboration. The data illustrates four distinct approaches to collaboration during the pandemic, differing in terms of the scope of collaborations, the variety of different partner types, the proportion of developmental collaborations, and engagement in collaboration due to or despite the crisis. The findings show that the crisis significantly shaped ventures collaborations, which may shape their social capital beyond the crisis.
    Keywords: collaboration; entrepreneurs; COVID-19 pandemic; social media; social capital; bonding ties; bridging ties; small business; crisis response; social tie management.