International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Innovation Management (15 papers in press)
Reinforcement contingencies of innovative behaviour: Antecedent and consequent factors
by Alipio Veiga Neto, Rodrigo De Siqueira Christo, Antonio Jorge Fernandes, Cristine Hermann Nodari
Abstract: This study aimed to investigate the antecedent stimulus and consequent reinforcement that produce the innovative behaviour. Based on Foxall (2009), this study is proposing a model to analyze the Contingencies of Innovative Behaviour (CIB) which was tested using multivariate data analysis in an exploratory research. We identified 38 variables which stimulate the subjects to innovate and what can induce the avoidance of innovation. Using a sample of 224 entrepreneurs, business owners or company managers located throughout Brazil we found the social interaction and learning as the main factor that stimulates innovative behaviour and, as a conclusion, innovative behaviour occurs in organisations, regardless of the difficulties or barriers that can minimize the occurrence of innovative practice.
Keywords: innovative behaviour; antecedent stimulus; consequent reinforcement; contingences; competitiveness; differentiation; avoidance; utilitarian reinforcement; informative reinforcement; social interaction; learning.
Perceptions and Role of University Spin-offs on the Employment of Young Graduates
by Fernando Luis Almeida, José Duarte Santos
Abstract: This study intends to characterize and analyze the role that university spinoffs play in the employability of recent graduates and their function in opposing youth unemployment. For that purpose, this study uses empirical data from Portugal to analyze the evolution of the population with higher education levels, the evolution of the unemployment rate and the geographical distribution of university spinoffs. Additionally, a survey was adopted to collect data from 117 Portuguese university spin-offs to identify the main advantages and difficulties in hiring young graduates. The results indicate that the number of young graduates in these companies is small, representing only 11,8% of their total employees. The main advantages of hiring young graduates include their learning ability and new knowledge brought from abroad. By contrast, the main difficulties are their low capacity in dealing with pressure, low autonomy, and difficulties in taking responsibilities.
Keywords: university spin-off; employment; entrepreneurship; graduate employability; higher education.
Entrepreneurial opportunity recognition: an empirical study in Iranian agriculture sector
by Ehsan Masoomi, Kurosh Rezaei-Moghaddam
Abstract: One of the central questions in the field of entrepreneurship is that how are opportunities recognized? This question is still need to be answered in agriculture sector. Recognizing entrepreneurial opportunities by agricultural entrepreneurs is one of the most understudied topics in entrepreneurship research. The aim of this study was to investigate the factors related to the entrepreneurial opportunity recognition in agriculture sector. We considered different groups of factors including demographic, individual, and contextual factors. A simple random sampling of 205 awarded agricultural entrepreneurs at national level in Iran was selected (N=440). The study was designed using survey research. The results indicated that entrepreneurs social networks, prior knowledge, self-efficacy, creativity, and perception about agricultural environmental opportunities had positive effects on entrepreneurial opportunity recognition. The results also revealed the significant difference in opportunity recognition between agricultural entrepreneurs place of residence, education level, and work experience level. Theoretical and practical implications for entrepreneurial opportunity recognition by agricultural entrepreneurs have been provided.
Keywords: Agricultural entrepreneurship; Opportunity recognition; Agriculture sector; Iran.
The role of social capital in the growth of innovative nascent firms: the moderating effect of incubators
by Valerie Francois, Christophe Lafaye, Matthieu Belarouci
Abstract: The concept of social capital is increasingly used in entrepreneurship studies to explain the growth of innovative nascent firms. However, empirical findings about the role of social capital (SC) in the growth of young firms have been contradictory to date. We focused on the relational dimension of social capital and differentiated between internal social capital (ISC) and external social capital (ESC). We analysed the perceived utility which is rarely used in SC studies of resources received from the networks of innovative nascent firms in their first six years of existence. We implemented the two-stage least squares (2SLS) analysis to avoid the endogeneity bias. The results indicated that during the early years, nascent firms' external social capital is a decisive resource for growth. This was not the case for internal social capital. We observed that joining an incubator appears to have no impact on either growth or the relationship under study.
Keywords: Social capital; innovative nascent firm; incubator; growth.
Empowerment and autonomy in rural women: Case study of the municipality of Chivat
by Andrea Cantor, Javier Lopéz, Fabio Blanco-Mesa
Abstract: There is a disparity between men and women, which is conditioned by the accepted gender roles within the culture. It carries a disadvantage for women in political, economic and social terms in general. Due to the rural population in Colombia does not have equal access to infrastructure and technology, rural women have an even greater disadvantage. In this sense, the main aim of this research is to assess the level of empowerment of the rural female population and the factors that determine it. To achieve this purpose, an exploratory study of a transversal type is designed in a rural population of Colombia. The results show a low level of empowerment, related to a population with less access to education, more children and diminished psychological power, which is limited by economic power and culture, where the reproductive role of women is normalized. This collective stereotype feeds back the disempowerment of women, tending to perpetuate this socio-cultural phenomenon. It is remarked that the most appropriate tool to reverse this situation is education, through the implementation of public policies that help to generate psychological changes not only in women, men and children. It emphasizes the relevance of women genuinely expressing their expectations, gaining access to jobs, occupying leadership positions and no longer being seen as the sole caregivers of children and the home.
Keywords: independence; gender equality; autonomy; leadership; economic; empowerment.
Understanding new corporate innovation strategies: Hybrid high-involvement approaches and the increasing importance of individual absorptive capacity
by Katja-Maria Prexl, Antje Gonera
Abstract: Driven by the challenges of digitalisation and increasing market dynamics, corporations must develop new strategies for innovation and knowledge management. This paper describes hybrid high-involvement innovation (HHII) as an emerging approach to corporate innovation. Through nine interviews, we explore the experiences and actions of experts in German corporate innovation programs in an effort to understand and systematise new approaches to corporate engagement in innovation. We categorise HHII benefits, antecedents, and emerging challenges, indicating the importance of innovation engagement activities and capabilities on the corporate and individual levels. We additionally identify and adapt key design elements of HHII to support its development and implementation in corporate environments, thereby examining the use of open innovation initiatives as vehicles to enable internal and external crowdsourcing of new ideas. This paper develops the concept of individual absorptive capacity (IAC) and explores its increasingly important role in open innovation initiatives such as HHII.
Keywords: high-involvement innovation; individual absorptive capacity; innovation management; innovation programs; knowledge management; organisational learning; hybrid high-involvement; open innovation; explorative approach; corporate innovation.
Transitional practices in the pre-startup phase of academic spin-off creation: An explanatory case study
by Emmanuel D. Adamides, Eleni Karfaki
Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to shed light on the pre-startup phase of a university spin-off, investigating how a group of researchers becomes an entrepreneurial team through the transformation of its work practices. Towards this end, we adopt Bourdieus relational social practice theory for developing a set of interrelated propositions regarding the role of transitional entrepreneurial practices and their underlying producing mechanisms in this phase. It is proposed that induced transformational practices and changes in the underlying mechanisms result in reinforcing dynamics that can break the circle of social reproduction of an academic research group and direct it towards entrepreneurship. The propositions are explored in a longitudinal case study of an academic entrepreneurial team in a European peripheral economy.
Keywords: university spin-off; entrepreneurial team; practice; Bourdieu; relational approach.
The role of business accelerators in generating dynamic capabilities within startups
by Celia Polo García-Ochoa, Carmen De Pablos Heredero, Francisco José Blanco Jimenez
Abstract: Business accelerators provide entrepreneurs with a combination of capital and specific support resources to help them grow rapidly and scale their business idea. Despite their rapid emergence as key role players in the entrepreneurial ecosystem, research is still scant about their impact on new ventures development. This paper examines the effects of business accelerators based on the achievement of positive results from the dynamic capabilities perspective. Specifically, a qualitative and descriptive approach of Y Combinators business accelerator methodology has been applied. The analysis shows how Y Combinator contributes to the generation of dynamic capabilities in companies through the implementation of specific actions and resources embedded in its business acceleration program. Findings reveal that business accelerator stimulates dynamic capabilities of portfolio firms. It can help them to gain competitive advantage and superior performance in the market compared to companies that do not participate in an acceleration program.
Keywords: entrepreneurship; dynamic capabilities; business accelerator; startups; new venture creation; business incubation; processes for new venture creation; entrepreneurs; startup accelerators; seed acelerator.
Proactiveness, Environmental Munificence and Environmental Hostility and their Impacts on the Growth of SMEs
by Olufemi Muibi Omisakin, Chris Arasanmi, Indrapriya Kularatne
Abstract: This research investigates the relationship between proactiveness, environmental munificence and environmental hostility on the growth of small and medium enterprises (SMEs). The study used an online survey/questionnaire for its data collection from small and medium business owners/managers. One hundred questionnaires were sent to the would-be participants but only 60 questionnaires were returned. Therefore, the study was conducted on 60 SME firms in the Auckland central business district (CBD). The collected data was analysed using the regression method to test the relationships among the specified variables. The research findings show that proactiveness and environmental munificence influence the growth of SMEs while environmental hostility and the growth of SMEs were insignificantly related, and were therefore not supported in this analysis.
The major applied contributions from this study are that business managers should be proactive in the formulation of business strategies. Secondly, the study suggests that external environments should be properly scanned so that businesses can maximise opportunities for business sustainability.
Keywords: Entrepreneurial orientation; proactiveness; environmental hostility; environmental munificence; SME growth.
Explaining employee innovative behavior: A test of an integrative model
by Uri Sternberg, Aviv Shoham
Abstract: The ability to innovate is crucial to the success of any organization and it largely depends on the employees' innovation. Yet despite a rich emerging literature on this topic, there remain important gaps in knowledge. This study seeks to help fill these gaps by examining innovative behavior in two contexts: at home and in the workplace, and link innovative behaviors in the consumer and work realms in this way. The study provides an integrated overview of innovative behavior, including its antecedents and its effects, by examining 19 hypotheses. Findings help clarify the relationship between innovative behavior in the two contexts, both in general and with respect to its drivers and consequences. The core finding is that consumer innovative behavior influences employee innovative behavior. The findings outlined and discussed make important theoretical and practical contributions, shedding light on a crucial but still somewhat opaque phenomenon.
Keywords: employee innovative behavior; innovation; innovative behavior; home-work conflict.
Review of key performance indicators for measuring innovation process performance
by Vanessa Nappi, Kevin Kelly
Abstract: Performance indicators (PIs) are critical to the measurement of the innovation process. However, existing studies neglect PIs and dimensions relevant to companies in the current innovation landscape. This paper bridges this gap in prior research by reviewing and systematising PIs for the innovation process. It builds upon a systematic literature review to analyse scientific publications on innovation PIs published between 1983 and 2018. Thus, this study identifies the characteristics of relevant publications as well as systematises 259 PIs into nine company-specific and contextual dimensions and further categorisations. The analysis discusses the top-cited PIs and finds that more qualitative and leading PIs than quantitative exist in the literature. Furthermore, additional PIs are needed to address areas, such as leadership quality and tacit knowledge. This study may constitute an opportunity for academics to identify relevant measurement instruments and innovation managers to find an initial reference to support the selection of PIs.
Keywords: Innovation process; new product development; performance measurement; performance framework; systematic literature review; dimensions of performance; key performance indicators; qualitative indicators; quantitative indicators; leading indicators.
Antecedents of Entrepreneurial Intention with specific reference to Cyber Entrepreneurship in Delhi /NCR
by Supreet Wahee, Leo Paul Dana, Navneet Gera, Walter Vesperi
Abstract: The study aims to examine key drivers of entrepreneurial intention with specific reference to cyber entrepreneurship. Understanding the key drivers and the intention of cyber entrepreneur has become a central issue in the academic and public policy debate. Research is descriptive and causal in nature. A total of 817 students of final year of management studies program, from management institutes in Delhi/NCR were surveyed through a self-designed questionnaire. We have employed SPSS and AMOS to analyze the data using Exploratory Factor Analysis and Confirmed Factor Analysis. The study contributes the literature on cyber entrepreneurship and, in the Indian context, provides some insightful information especially to the MBA students on the intention of cyber entrepreneurs. This study offers theoretical exploration and practical research on the determinants of students' cybernetic entrepreneurship intention. Further from the study the drivers of cyber entrepreneurship identified could help in increasing the success rate of start-ups as well as students intentions to start their own business.
Keywords: Entrepreneurship Intention; Innovative Startup; Cyber entrepreneurship; Theory of Planned Behaviour.
Cooperative technological development and business generation among startups and medium and large-sized companies. Case Study:
Nexos Program (Brazil).
by Krishna Faria, GRACE GHESTI
Abstract: Open innovation is a category in which external partners are sought to promote technological development and the execution of research and development (R&D) projects. The Lei do Bem (Law No 11.196/2005), a public policy to foster innovation, is an attractive and facilitating instrument for medium and large-sized companies, operating in the tax regime of real profit, to invest in technological innovation projects. This study aimed to investigate the relationships between companies of different sizes, focusing on innovative small businesses by studying the case of the Nexos Program which is an initiative by SEBRAE and ANPROTEC whose purpose is to identify substantive elements that create synergies and increase the innovative potential of the market. It is a meritorious tool for the Brazilian innovation system since it stimulates business generation between companies, by creating a cooperative environment among them, and positions innovative small businesses as strategic partners in the pursue of R&D activities.
Keywords: Open Innovation; Lei do Bem; Nexos Program; Brazilian Inovative System.
Classification of the Key Competencies of Cluster Managers Using a Delphi Approach: Introducing Insights from the Czech Republic
by Martin Horák, Lukáš Danko, Markéta Slováková, Jana Matošková
Abstract: Recent studies highlight the significance of a competent manager for the long-term development of a cluster organization. However, the key competencies required for managers have not been adequately studied. The main objective of this study is to identify the key competencies of managers and construct a competency model. The data was gathered using the Delphi method with three rounds involving a group of experts with prior experience in management of cluster organizations. The results identified nine key competencies, to further develop an innovation-intensive ecosystem based on the managers abilities to manage, motivate, communicate, protect, analyse, and network. The final list of competencies provide practical implications for the selection and evaluation of managers and meet their development needs as well as those of cluster organizations, with insights from the Czech Republic. Additionally, the paper sheds some light on the theoretical overview concerning the managements competencies in a collaborative environment.
Keywords: cluster; cluster organization; cluster management; competencies; competency models; Delphi method; Czech Republic.
Business Model Innovation in the Insurance Industry: Barriers Faced by Incumbents
by Tim Mosig, Claudia Lehmann, Kathrin M. Moeslein
Abstract: The emergence of FinTechs and InsurTechs and ever-increasing regulatory pressure have accelerated insurance companies need to innovate their business models and to find novel sources of value creation and cost-saving. This study provides deep insight into various internal and external barriers influencing business model innovation in the German insurance industry. Results of interviews conducted with 23 experts working in established insurance firms operating in Germany showed that internal barriers constitute more of a hindrance than external barriers. This dynamic holds especially true for regulations, as the fear of breaching external regulation fosters the development of even stronger internal rules that fundamentally impede business model innovation.
Keywords: Business Model Innovation; Insurance Industry; Incumbents; Barriers; Regulations; Data Protection.