International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Innovation Management (13 papers in press)
Transitional practices in the pre-startup phase of academic spin-off creation: An explanatory case study
by Emmanuel D. Adamides, Eleni Karfaki
Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to shed light on the pre-startup phase of a university spin-off, investigating how a group of researchers becomes an entrepreneurial team through the transformation of its work practices. Towards this end, we adopt Bourdieus relational social practice theory for developing a set of interrelated propositions regarding the role of transitional entrepreneurial practices and their underlying producing mechanisms in this phase. It is proposed that induced transformational practices and changes in the underlying mechanisms result in reinforcing dynamics that can break the circle of social reproduction of an academic research group and direct it towards entrepreneurship. The propositions are explored in a longitudinal case study of an academic entrepreneurial team in a European peripheral economy.
Keywords: university spin-off; entrepreneurial team; practice; Bourdieu; relational approach.
The role of business accelerators in generating dynamic capabilities within startups
by Celia Polo García-Ochoa, Carmen De Pablos Heredero, Francisco José Blanco Jimenez
Abstract: Business accelerators provide entrepreneurs with a combination of capital and specific support resources to help them grow rapidly and scale their business idea. Despite their rapid emergence as key role players in the entrepreneurial ecosystem, research is still scant about their impact on new ventures development. This paper examines the effects of business accelerators based on the achievement of positive results from the dynamic capabilities perspective. Specifically, a qualitative and descriptive approach of Y Combinators business accelerator methodology has been applied. The analysis shows how Y Combinator contributes to the generation of dynamic capabilities in companies through the implementation of specific actions and resources embedded in its business acceleration program. Findings reveal that business accelerator stimulates dynamic capabilities of portfolio firms. It can help them to gain competitive advantage and superior performance in the market compared to companies that do not participate in an acceleration program.
Keywords: entrepreneurship; dynamic capabilities; business accelerator; startups; new venture creation; business incubation; processes for new venture creation; entrepreneurs; startup accelerators; seed acelerator.
Proactiveness, Environmental Munificence and Environmental Hostility and their Impacts on the Growth of SMEs
by Olufemi Muibi Omisakin, Chris Arasanmi, Indrapriya Kularatne
Abstract: This research investigates the relationship between proactiveness, environmental munificence and environmental hostility on the growth of small and medium enterprises (SMEs). The study used an online survey/questionnaire for its data collection from small and medium business owners/managers. One hundred questionnaires were sent to the would-be participants but only 60 questionnaires were returned. Therefore, the study was conducted on 60 SME firms in the Auckland central business district (CBD). The collected data was analysed using the regression method to test the relationships among the specified variables. The research findings show that proactiveness and environmental munificence influence the growth of SMEs while environmental hostility and the growth of SMEs were insignificantly related, and were therefore not supported in this analysis.
The major applied contributions from this study are that business managers should be proactive in the formulation of business strategies. Secondly, the study suggests that external environments should be properly scanned so that businesses can maximise opportunities for business sustainability.
Keywords: Entrepreneurial orientation; proactiveness; environmental hostility; environmental munificence; SME growth.
Explaining employee innovative behavior: A test of an integrative model
by Uri Sternberg, Aviv Shoham
Abstract: The ability to innovate is crucial to the success of any organization and it largely depends on the employees' innovation. Yet despite a rich emerging literature on this topic, there remain important gaps in knowledge. This study seeks to help fill these gaps by examining innovative behavior in two contexts: at home and in the workplace, and link innovative behaviors in the consumer and work realms in this way. The study provides an integrated overview of innovative behavior, including its antecedents and its effects, by examining 19 hypotheses. Findings help clarify the relationship between innovative behavior in the two contexts, both in general and with respect to its drivers and consequences. The core finding is that consumer innovative behavior influences employee innovative behavior. The findings outlined and discussed make important theoretical and practical contributions, shedding light on a crucial but still somewhat opaque phenomenon.
Keywords: employee innovative behavior; innovation; innovative behavior; home-work conflict.
Review of key performance indicators for measuring innovation process performance
by Vanessa Nappi, Kevin Kelly
Abstract: Performance indicators (PIs) are critical to the measurement of the innovation process. However, existing studies neglect PIs and dimensions relevant to companies in the current innovation landscape. This paper bridges this gap in prior research by reviewing and systematising PIs for the innovation process. It builds upon a systematic literature review to analyse scientific publications on innovation PIs published between 1983 and 2018. Thus, this study identifies the characteristics of relevant publications as well as systematises 259 PIs into nine company-specific and contextual dimensions and further categorisations. The analysis discusses the top-cited PIs and finds that more qualitative and leading PIs than quantitative exist in the literature. Furthermore, additional PIs are needed to address areas, such as leadership quality and tacit knowledge. This study may constitute an opportunity for academics to identify relevant measurement instruments and innovation managers to find an initial reference to support the selection of PIs.
Keywords: Innovation process; new product development; performance measurement; performance framework; systematic literature review; dimensions of performance; key performance indicators; qualitative indicators; quantitative indicators; leading indicators.
Antecedents of Entrepreneurial Intention with specific reference to Cyber Entrepreneurship in Delhi /NCR
by Supreet Wahee, Leo Paul Dana, Navneet Gera, Walter Vesperi
Abstract: The study aims to examine key drivers of entrepreneurial intention with specific reference to cyber entrepreneurship. Understanding the key drivers and the intention of cyber entrepreneur has become a central issue in the academic and public policy debate. Research is descriptive and causal in nature. A total of 817 students of final year of management studies program, from management institutes in Delhi/NCR were surveyed through a self-designed questionnaire. We have employed SPSS and AMOS to analyze the data using Exploratory Factor Analysis and Confirmed Factor Analysis. The study contributes the literature on cyber entrepreneurship and, in the Indian context, provides some insightful information especially to the MBA students on the intention of cyber entrepreneurs. This study offers theoretical exploration and practical research on the determinants of students' cybernetic entrepreneurship intention. Further from the study the drivers of cyber entrepreneurship identified could help in increasing the success rate of start-ups as well as students intentions to start their own business.
Keywords: Entrepreneurship Intention; Innovative Startup; Cyber entrepreneurship; Theory of Planned Behaviour.
The impact of demography on opportunity recognition among Caribbean entrepreneurs
by Paul Pounder
Abstract: Opportunity recognition plays a key role in understanding entrepreneurship and its development. This research focused on the impact of demography on opportunity recognition. The aim was to investigate the effect of age, gender and education on opportunity recognition on entrepreneurs in the Caribbean. Selection of those areas align with their importance seen in other related studies. The dataset for the research came from the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM) Adult Population Survey. The findings highlighted that as age and education years increase, the odds of opportunity recognition decrease and that males are more likely to recognize opportunities. Additionally, further exploratory analysis showed that age partially mediates the relationship between education and opportunity recognition. If researchers can achieve a better understanding of the impact of demographic factors on opportunity recognition, this can assist entrepreneurs in appraising their own prospects. In addition, governments can use this research to inform the design of more effective and supportive policies.
Keywords: entrepreneurship; opportunity recognition; Caribbean; demographics; age; gender; education; mediation; Global Entrepreneurship Monitor.
Knowledge creation process within high-tech SMEs in a context of industrial clusters: a cross-national comparison
by Marcos Ferasso
Abstract: This paper presents research results that aimed to explain the multilevel mechanism of the knowledge creation process in biotechnological industrial clusters. Conducted research was cross-national research of four multiple case studies with an inferential and exploratory approach. The key finding of this paper is that the SMEs have in common a knowledge creation process and its elements were classified as a priori and a posteriori assets, that occur at their internal levels. The French SMEs benefit from additional assets if compared with Brazilian SMEs, and these assets allow the acceleration of their knowledge creation process, mainly due to financial supports, shared infrastructures, and collaborative projects. This study continues and further develops the model proposed by Nonaka and Takeuchi (1995), who described the knowledge creation process by identifying tangible and intangible assets that are retrieved from a multilevel structure. Implications for policymakers, scholars and practitioners are addressed.
Keywords: Intangible assets. Tangible assets. Industrial clusters. Knowledge creation. SMEs. Innovation.
READY, SET, INNOVATE!
DEVELOPING BUSINESS MODEL INNOVATION THROUGH OPEN INNOVATION CONTESTS AND STUDENT TEAMS
by Annabeth Aagaard
Abstract: This research aim of this paper is to explore how open innovation contests are applied and facilitated successfully for business model innovation using student teams. Based on a case study of five international food companies, the study explores how food companies use innovation contests and identify how interdisciplinary student teams successfully develop business model innovations. The findings reveal 6 key steps and 25 key activities that influence the success of interdisciplinary student teams in carrying out business model innovation in innovation contests. The theoretical contributions of the study answer the research gaps on how different open innovation approaches like open innovation student contests are applied in developing creative solutions and business model innovation and how open innovation processes using students are carried out successfully. The empirical contributions and managerial implications of the study reveal how companies can leverage open innovation contests through key steps and activities in effective use of interdisciplinary student teams to successfully develop business model innovation.
Keywords: Innovation contests; open innovation; business model innovation; student teams; food industry; case study.
Small business antifragility: how research and innovation can help survive crises and thrive
by Vincenzo Corvello, Vincenzo Straffalaci, Luigino FIlice
Abstract: To survive the emergency caused by Covid-19, organizations need to change. In particular, many small firms will need to transform their business model. In some cases the crisis is an opportunity to move towards activities with greater added value. This attitude has been called antifragility. In this study three SMEs from southern Italy were investigated which, as a response to the current crisis, transformed their business and shifted their production to new products,. The paper identifies the dynamic capabilities implemented by the three companies and the levers used to develop these capabilities. In particular research and innovation processes, implemented through collaboration with research institutions, have proved to be of great importance in building antifragility. The Covid-19 pandemic is an exceptional crisis but emergencies in general are not uncommon. The results of this study are useful for researchers interested in antifragility in innovative small businesses and their ability to survive.
Keywords: antifragility; Covid-19; resilience; open innovation; SME; disruption.
Organization design (OD) frameworks and digital innovation An extension of Galbraiths STAR model
by Robert Eirich, Björn Schäfer, Max Ringlstetter
Abstract: We examined whether the STAR model developed by Galbraith could be used to organize activities in the context of digital innovation. This question has arisen as a result of the different organization designs demanded by digital innovation, because of the speed with which it is introduced, pressure from competitors and challenging investment requirements. Galbraith developed his STAR model in its pure form in the 1980s. It consists of the parameters Structure, Processes, People and Rewards. We selected the STAR model as the core concept for this paper based on an assessment of four major organization design frameworks commonly used by scholars and managers. A pre-study revealed that the pure form of the STAR model lacks granularity and does not provide a full or holistic picture to account for digitalization in OD frameworks today. Hence, we analyzed an expansion of the model with the parameter 'Legacy', and also tested for further sub-parameters which might be included to improve the models explanatory power. We base our findings on a survey with 115 participants. The results show that an adjusted STAR model can and should be used to organize for digital innovation (excluding the parameter Rewards), and that Legacy should be included in the model as a guiding principle. Additionally, the parameter People is critical and should be split into the sub-parameters Staffing and Knowledge. By confirming and adjusting the STAR model, we provide a theoretically grounded and empirically verified model that better fits the complexity of digital innovation tasks. The adjusted framework can be used by scholars for further research in the field, and gives managers a tool for improving the allocation of resources by focusing on the most important parameters.
Keywords: Organization design; Digital innovation; Digital innovation performance; Organization design frameworks; Galbraith's STAR model; Legacy; Hierarchical regression.
The perfect match! Open innovation platformsassets for collaborative start-ups.
by Izabella Bereczki, Johann Füller, Oana Stanculescu
Abstract: In todays hyper-connected world, open innovation can be a way for start-ups to grow more quickly and more effectively. However, finding suitable innovation partners might be a challenge. Therefore, certain innomediaries offer digital platforms that connect start-ups with corporations. However, little is known about the partner-searching methods of start-ups. Moreover, there is a knowledge gap with respect to start-ups needs regarding these platforms. The aim of this study was to investigate the partner-searching methods of start-ups, furthermore, to determine their opinions about existing platforms and their needs for such innomediaries. We used two different research methods: a survey and interviews. Our findings revealed the potential advantages and disadvantages of traditional partner-searching methods. Additionally, we explored the requirements of start-ups for digital platforms that connect innovation partners. The entrepreneurs expected to find specific information about their potential partners, and they wanted to connect with corporations, SMEs, and other start-ups
Keywords: open innovation; online platforms; innomediaries; partner search; start-up; SME; collaboration.
Broken Promises in Crowdfunded Projects: Reasons and Mitigating Governance Mechanisms
by Olga Shtepa, Oleksiy Osiyevskyy
Abstract: Reward-based crowdfunding is a popular method of obtaining financing for new ventures, allowing to attract funding for projects from numerous individual backers, who pledge small amounts of money in return for future products/services, discounts, acknowledgement, or branded merchandise. Yet, more than half of all crowdfunded projects deliver rewards to backers late (i.e., after the promised date), and around 5% do not deliver at all. Relying on the premises of bounded reliability and bounded rationality of project creators, we pose the following research questions: (1) what are the reasons for failed commitments (i.e., delayed or canceled delivery) in crowdfunded projects? and (2) which governance mechanisms prevent these failed commitments? We address these questions using a qualitative investigation of reward-based crowdfunded projects, comparing cases of successful and failed implementation.
Keywords: crowdfunding; failed commitments; bounded reliability; governance mechanisms.