Forthcoming and Online First Articles

International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Innovation Management

International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Innovation Management (IJEIM)

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International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Innovation Management (12 papers in press)

Regular Issues

  • The impact of demography on opportunity recognition among Caribbean entrepreneurs   Order a copy of this article
    by Paul Pounder 
    Abstract: Opportunity recognition plays a key role in understanding entrepreneurship and its development. This research focused on the impact of demography on opportunity recognition. The aim was to investigate the effect of age, gender and education on opportunity recognition on entrepreneurs in the Caribbean. Selection of those areas align with their importance seen in other related studies. The dataset for the research came from the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM) Adult Population Survey. The findings highlighted that as age and education years increase, the odds of opportunity recognition decrease and that males are more likely to recognize opportunities. Additionally, further exploratory analysis showed that age partially mediates the relationship between education and opportunity recognition. If researchers can achieve a better understanding of the impact of demographic factors on opportunity recognition, this can assist entrepreneurs in appraising their own prospects. In addition, governments can use this research to inform the design of more effective and supportive policies.
    Keywords: entrepreneurship; opportunity recognition; Caribbean; demographics; age; gender; education; mediation; Global Entrepreneurship Monitor.

  • Knowledge creation process within high-tech SMEs in a context of industrial clusters: a cross-national comparison   Order a copy of this article
    by Marcos Ferasso 
    Abstract: This paper presents research results that aimed to explain the multilevel mechanism of the knowledge creation process in biotechnological industrial clusters. Conducted research was cross-national research of four multiple case studies with an inferential and exploratory approach. The key finding of this paper is that the SMEs have in common a knowledge creation process and its elements were classified as a priori and a posteriori assets, that occur at their internal levels. The French SMEs benefit from additional assets if compared with Brazilian SMEs, and these assets allow the acceleration of their knowledge creation process, mainly due to financial supports, shared infrastructures, and collaborative projects. This study continues and further develops the model proposed by Nonaka and Takeuchi (1995), who described the knowledge creation process by identifying tangible and intangible assets that are retrieved from a multilevel structure. Implications for policymakers, scholars and practitioners are addressed.
    Keywords: Intangible assets. Tangible assets. Industrial clusters. Knowledge creation. SMEs. Innovation.

    by Annabeth Aagaard 
    Abstract: This research aim of this paper is to explore how open innovation contests are applied and facilitated successfully for business model innovation using student teams. Based on a case study of five international food companies, the study explores how food companies use innovation contests and identify how interdisciplinary student teams successfully develop business model innovations. The findings reveal 6 key steps and 25 key activities that influence the success of interdisciplinary student teams in carrying out business model innovation in innovation contests. The theoretical contributions of the study answer the research gaps on how different open innovation approaches like open innovation student contests are applied in developing creative solutions and business model innovation and how open innovation processes using students are carried out successfully. The empirical contributions and managerial implications of the study reveal how companies can leverage open innovation contests through key steps and activities in effective use of interdisciplinary student teams to successfully develop business model innovation.
    Keywords: Innovation contests; open innovation; business model innovation; student teams; food industry; case study.

  • Organization design (OD) frameworks and digital innovation An extension of Galbraiths STAR model   Order a copy of this article
    by Robert Eirich, Björn Schäfer, Max Ringlstetter 
    Abstract: We examined whether the STAR model developed by Galbraith could be used to organize activities in the context of digital innovation. This question has arisen as a result of the different organization designs demanded by digital innovation, because of the speed with which it is introduced, pressure from competitors and challenging investment requirements. Galbraith developed his STAR model in its pure form in the 1980s. It consists of the parameters Structure, Processes, People and Rewards. We selected the STAR model as the core concept for this paper based on an assessment of four major organization design frameworks commonly used by scholars and managers. A pre-study revealed that the pure form of the STAR model lacks granularity and does not provide a full or holistic picture to account for digitalization in OD frameworks today. Hence, we analyzed an expansion of the model with the parameter 'Legacy', and also tested for further sub-parameters which might be included to improve the models explanatory power. We base our findings on a survey with 115 participants. The results show that an adjusted STAR model can and should be used to organize for digital innovation (excluding the parameter Rewards), and that Legacy should be included in the model as a guiding principle. Additionally, the parameter People is critical and should be split into the sub-parameters Staffing and Knowledge. By confirming and adjusting the STAR model, we provide a theoretically grounded and empirically verified model that better fits the complexity of digital innovation tasks. The adjusted framework can be used by scholars for further research in the field, and gives managers a tool for improving the allocation of resources by focusing on the most important parameters.
    Keywords: Organization design; Digital innovation; Digital innovation performance; Organization design frameworks; Galbraith's STAR model; Legacy; Hierarchical regression.

  • Partnership Venture Capital and Post-IPO Innovation Behaviors in China   Order a copy of this article
    by Shengnan Li, Anqi Yang, Xiao Yang 
    Abstract: Venture capital, an incubator of technological innovation, generally pursues IPO as a successful exit channel. However, numerous Chinas venture capital institutions still hold shares after IPO since they have long-term strategic goals. This study investigates how partnership venture capital affects companies post-IPO innovation behaviors based on a sample of 479 Chinese listed companies in the growth enterprise market (GEM) from 2009 to 2017. As revealed by the results, partnership venture capital can expedite enterprise innovation, particularly exploratory innovation. The above result exhibits robustness to a number of estimation techniques, including PSM, Heckman's selection model and instrumental variable. Partnership venture capital with a government background and syndicate partnerships can significantly inhibit companies innovation. This study provides empirical evidence to interpret innovation in terms of partnership venture capital.
    Keywords: Partnership Venture Capital; Enterprise Innovation; IPO; Long-term Shareholding.

  • Forced digital transformation during the COVID-19 pandemic   Order a copy of this article
    by Djalma Silva Guimarães Júnior, Ademir Macedo Nascimento, Gerlane Pereira De Albuquerque Rodrigues, Letícia Oliveira Claizoni Dos Santos, Marlos Gondim Ribeiro Batista 
    Abstract: Due to an unprecedented threat from COVID-19, the World Health Organization recommended the introduction of physical distancing measures, such as quarantine and social isolation. These measures have severely affected some sectors of the economy, hampering the development of many economic activities, especially retail. In this context, this article investigated strategies for the dissemination, commercialization and distribution of goods during the COVID-19 pandemic, particularly related to small companies that were not yet fully integrated with digital technologies. We perceived a forced digital transformation, disclosure on social networks, negotiating sales through text messaging applications, electronic payments and motorcycle and bicycle delivery service. The combination of different technologies has supported small businesses in times of pandemic, since commercialization in digital media has been one of the main solutions for the prevention of bankruptcy, particularly for physical companies.
    Keywords: Digital transformation; Micro and small businesses; COVID-19; Business strategy; Brazil; Social media; Last mile; Mobile messaging applications; Survey.

  • Analysing institutional and government support for the development of Mauritian SMEs   Order a copy of this article
    by Randhir Roopchund 
    Abstract: This research paper provides an insight about the institutional and government support for the development of Small Medium Enterprises (SMEs) in Mauritius over the past two decades. The rationale of the study is that SME growth and development is still a problematic issue despite years of government support and incentives. The article seeks to analyse changes with regards to government policy decisions, namely laws, incentives and innovation schemes provided to SMEs in the Mauritian context. The methodology used is the content analysis where reference is made to websites (SME Support arm and institutions from 1993 onwards), secondary data, budget speech documents, Parliamentary Hansard documents and existing statistics for making appropriate analysis. The methodology is mostly qualitative and relies on extensive research on government reports and other research findings to consolidate a logical sequencing of the SME laws in the Mauritian context. The study is of great importance to the policymakers and the different stakeholders for understanding the importance of institutional support for SMEs for a small island economy such as Mauritius.
    Keywords: SMEs; Institutional Support; SME Development and Incentive Schemes.

  • The perfect match! Open innovation platforms - assets for collaborative start-ups   Order a copy of this article
    by Izabella Bereczki, Johann Füller, Oana Stănculescu 
    Abstract: In today's hyper-connected world, open innovation can be a way for start-ups to grow more quickly and more effectively. However, finding suitable innovation partners might be a challenge. Therefore, certain innomediaries offer digital platforms that connect start-ups with corporations. However, little is known about the partner-searching methods of start-ups. Moreover, there is a knowledge gap with respect to start-ups needs regarding these platforms. The aim of this study was to investigate the partner-searching methods of start-ups, furthermore, to determine their opinions about existing platforms and their needs for such innomediaries. We used two different research methods: a survey and interviews. Our findings revealed the potential advantages and disadvantages of traditional partner-searching methods. Additionally, we explored the requirements of start-ups for digital platforms that connect innovation partners. The entrepreneurs expected to find specific information about their potential partners, and they wanted to connect with corporations, SMEs and other start-ups.
    Keywords: open innovation; online platforms; innomediaries; partner search; start-up; small and medium enterprise; SME; collaboration.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEIM.2022.10049548
  • Broken promises in crowdfunded projects: reasons and mitigating governance mechanisms   Order a copy of this article
    by Sophia Shtepa, Oleksiy Osiyevskyy 
    Abstract: Reward-based crowdfunding is a popular method of obtaining financing for new ventures, allowing to attract funding for projects from numerous individual backers, who pledge small amounts of money in return for future products/services, discounts, acknowledgement, or branded merchandise. Yet, more than half of all crowdfunded projects deliver rewards to backers late (i.e., after the promised date), and around 5% do not deliver at all. Relying on the premises of bounded reliability and bounded rationality of project creators, we pose the following research questions: 1) What are the reasons for failed commitments (i.e., delayed or cancelled delivery) in crowdfunded projects? 2) Which governance mechanisms prevent these failed commitments? We address these questions using a qualitative investigation of reward-based crowdfunded projects, comparing cases of successful and failed implementation.
    Keywords: crowdfunding; failed commitments; bounded reliability; governance mechanisms.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEIM.2022.10049549
  • Innovative cooperation among small medium-sized enterprises: from the perspective of multi-department symbiosis   Order a copy of this article
    by Yuyan Luo, Bingqian Wu, Tingting Liu, Maoyan Li, Zerui Su 
    Abstract: Synergetic innovation has become an important way of technological innovation for small medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). To this end, this study constructs several research models with synergetic innovation mechanism and synergetic innovation network as moderating variables according to different forms of synergetic innovation networks, so as to verify the stability of the structural equation model to a certain extent. At the same time, for synergetic innovation mechanism and different forms of synergetic innovation network composed of two regulating variables in synergetic innovation model and synergies between possible adjustment effects are discussed in this paper. The results help small and medium-sized enterprises in synergetic innovation, cooperative innovation mechanism and partner selection decisions, which in turn eventually make the enterprise innovation ability get promoted, and achieve long-term high quality development.
    Keywords: synergetic innovation; enterprise innovation; small medium-sized enterprises; enterprise collaboration; synergy effect; innovation performance; synergetic innovation network; SEM; synergetic innovation mechanism; synergetic innovation model.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEIM.2022.10049554
  • Telecom strategies for IoT innovations in Asian and European business ecosystems   Order a copy of this article
    by Caroline Cecilie Skogland Kverne, Per Jonny Nesse 
    Abstract: Telecom operators are looking for ways to develop new revenue streams beyond their current basic connectivity service. Internet of things (IoT) represents a new revenue opportunity where devices embedded with sensors connected to the operators' network collect and exchange data that improves decision making, business performance and customer experience. In this article we study how telecom operators have developed partnership strategies related to IoT innovations in emerging markets in Asia as well as in the more mature and advanced economies in Europe. In the emerging economies the telecom operators pursue a fully integrated vertical IoT solution provider strategy in co-creation with other third-party service developers. In the mature economies, the telecom operators follow an IoT business relationship strategy. This article contributes to the literature by defining three types of IoT business ecosystems and the respective telecom operators' strategies for successful exploration and exploitation of value in these ecosystems.
    Keywords: internet of things; IoT; open innovation; telecom operator; business ecosystem; emerging; mature economies.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEIM.2022.10049555
  • Small business antifragility: how research and innovation can help survive crises and thrive   Order a copy of this article
    by Vincenzo Corvello, Vincenzo Straffalaci, Luigino Filice 
    Abstract: To survive the emergency caused by COVID-19, organisations need to change. In particular, many small firms will need to transform their business model. In some cases the crisis is an opportunity to move towards activities with greater added value. This attitude has been called antifragility. In this study three SMEs from southern Italy were investigated which, as a response to the current crisis, transformed their business and shifted their production to new products. The paper identifies the dynamic capabilities implemented by the three companies and the levers used to develop these capabilities. In particular research and innovation processes, implemented through collaboration with research institutions, have proved to be of great importance in building antifragility. The COVID-19 pandemic is an exceptional crisis but emergencies in general are not uncommon. The results of this study are useful for researchers interested in antifragility in innovative small businesses and their ability to survive.
    Keywords: antifragility; COVID-19; resilience; open innovation; SME; small businesses.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEIM.2022.10049547