International Journal of Electronic Governance (15 papers in press)
Proposed Solutions to Citizen Engagement in Virtual environments of social participation: A Systematic Review
by Carlos Oliveira
Abstract: This paper aimed to understand how the engagement of citizens in virtual environments of social participation is studied in the literature. By virtual environment of social participation I understand: an Internet platform where themes for direct or indirect dialogue between civil society and the various spheres of government are made available through the digital participation of the citizen. A systematic review identified 96 papers, which were then analysed. Proposals to engage citizens in virtual environments of social participation use one of the following approaches: gamification, games, social networks, collaborative contribution or specific and personalised information. This study is important for researchers wanting to be current with the scientific state of the art. This review will also assist the scientific community working with citizen engagement in virtual environments of social participation to build a common understanding of the challenges that must be faced, and to identify areas where research is lacking.
Keywords: Systematic review; e-Participation; Engagement.
Using a Service Blueprint and the Service Catalogue Concept to Plan a Smart Governance System: The case study of the Southern Taiwan Science Park
by Tung-Cheng Lin, David Fang
Abstract: To improve the Southern Taiwan Science Park efficiency, the administration of the park used the smart city concept to transform it into a smart science park. Beyond the information and communication technology (ICT), the key to the development of a smart science park was to consider the requirements of the parks relevant stakeholders. Hence, this study applied the concept of persona, a service blueprint, and the service catalogue concept as the planning methodology and used smart governance as an example to demonstrate our planning process. We held focus group meetings with each persona, used a service blueprint to visualise the groups requirements, and utilised a service catalogue to present the service contents of the related smart governance systems. The study suggested that the relevant authority should implement the smart governance data centre, a public equipment management monitoring platform, and a disaster management platform to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of the public service of the park.
Keywords: Smart City; Smart Science Park; Service Blueprint; Smart Governance; e-Government; Service Catalogue; Public Service; Persona.
Examining Voters Intention to Use Internet Voting System: A Case of Ghana
by Samuel Agbesi
Abstract: This study seeks to examine and understand factors that influence internet voting (i-voting) adoption intention from young voters perspective, using unified theory of acceptance and use of technology (UTAUT) and the trust as a framework. Using a quantitative research method, the researcher collected data from 274 university students in Ghana, using closed-ended questions, and the data was analysed using the partial least square with SmartPLS 3. The results of the findings indicates that accuracy (? = 0.251, p = 0.001), performance expectancy (? = 0.406, p = 0.000), and effort expectancy (? = 0.136, p = 0.008) have a significant positive effect on behavioural intention to use i-voting system. Facilitating condition was also find to have significant effect on trust in EC (? = 0.237, p = 0.001). But social influence (? =
Keywords: adoption; accuracy; e-voting; elections; i-voting; internet voting; trust; UTAUT; Ghana.
Administrative Errors and the Burden of Correction and Consequence: How Information Technology Exacerbates the Consequences of Bureaucratic Mistakes for Citizens
by Rik Peeters, Arjan Widlak
Abstract: Administrative errors are an overlooked cause of administrative burdens. Citizens face costs in the correction of an error and in the material and immaterial consequences of an error, such as loss of access to benefits or services. This problem is especially relevant given the characteristics of information technology in the public sector, which is increasingly used to share data among multiple organisations through master data management systems. We conceptualise administrative errors and their burdens through the analysis of an exemplary case of a Dutch womans Kafkaesque problems because of a registration error by the police regarding her stolen car.
Keywords: administrative errors; administrative burdens; master data systems; information technology; bureaucracy.
Decentralization and governance in IoT
by Anass Sedrati, Nelly Stoyanova, Abdellatif Mezrioui, Aziz Hilali, Aziza Benomar
Abstract: In the era of digital revolution many contemporary events that changed the world were shaped through the internet. Nowadays, the emergence of internet of things (IoT), combining physical objects with virtual networks is expected to have even more influence. This new
Keywords: Governance; Internet; Decentralization; Bitcoin; Wikipedia; Democracy; Power; IoT.
A critical study of electronic participation, transparency and open data in two Latin American countries
by Jorge Freitas, Eder Henriqson, Marie Macadar
Abstract: This study compares two Latin American open government programs by focusing on electronic participation, transparency and open data practices in light of the theory of communicative action (TCA). The results show potential faults in the electronic participation and open data programs when substantial resources are not aligned with the governments speeches and political wills. In addition, the investigation illustrates the value of adopting the TCA to investigate open programs from a critical perspective as a viable way to expand such research to other countries, portray the status quo of open government and improve policy making.
Keywords: open government; eParticipation; transparency; open data; electronic governance; e-government; Habermas; theory of communicative action; discourse analysis; critical study; Latin America.
Differential Roles of Usage Patterns of Social Networking Sites in Political Learning
by Chang Sup Park
Abstract: Drawing on a national survey of 1266 South Korean adults, this study finds that social networking sites (SNSs) use for news is positively associated with knowledge about political issues. However, uses of SNSs for social interaction or recreation are not linked to political knowledge. The present study also finds that political talk and news reflection strengthens the association of SNS use for news and knowledge about political issues. The findings suggest a theoretical implication that the association between SNS use and political knowledge is contingent upon usage patterns and political reasoning.
Keywords: social networking sites; political talk; news reflection; political issue knowledge; political process knowledge.
Role of organizational aspects in requirements engineering processes of a socio-technical system: Insights from E-Governance case studies
by Lakshminarayana Kompella
Abstract: Requirements engineering (RE) contributes to developing products of a socio-technical system. External triggers cause transitions in sociotechnical systems; to manage transitions the products need to form stable designs. During RE and software development, organisations interact with rulesets (interoperations) and the organisational aspects influence interoperations. When we extend interoperations from socio-technical transition theory, it assists product development, including RE, and contributes to the stabilisation of product designs. With an approach that analyses inter-organisational interactions, the author extended one of the existing transition theories and identified improvements to organisational aspects. With diverse heuristics and analytic views, we can examine the phenomenon (interoperations) and requires studying it in its settings; so, used a multi-case study method to represent diverse interoperations. Selected traditional software development cases of e-governance and represented all socio-technical transition trajectories. The author extended socio-technical transition theory and contributes to inter-organisational body-of-knowledge by adding additional categories to inter-organisational approach.
Keywords: Socio-technical system; Requirements engineering; interoperability; E-Governance; absorptive capabilities.
Special Issue on: Privacy-Preserving, Secure, Intelligent eGoverment Services
The Interslavic language as a tool for supporting e-democracy in Central and Eastern Europe
by Vojtěch Merunka, Jan Van Steenbergen, Lina Yordanova, Maria Kocór
Abstract: The quality of information systems to support democracy and public administration in the Slavic countries between Western Europe and Russia can be improved through the use of Interslavic, a zonal constructed language that can successfully replace English as a regional lingua franca, enhance participation and improve the overall quality of ICT used for e-Democracy assignments. Its potential role in improving computer translation between fusional languages with free word order by means of graph-based translation is discussed as well. This paper gives an overview of the pros and cons of various language options and describes the results of public research in the form of surveys, as well as the practical experiences of the authors. Special emphasis is given to the crucial role played by education: it is assumed that language, e-democracy, and education form a triangle of three inseparable, interdependent entities. Finally, the paper describes how these ideas can be developed in the future.
Keywords: e-democracy; education; Interslavic language; lingua franca; zonal constructed language; receptive multilingualism; Slavic countries; Central and Eastern Europe; human-computer interaction.
Big data in political communication: implications for group privacy
by Paola Mavriki, Maria Karyda
Abstract: A growing body of academic literature explores privacy implications stemming from the adoption of big data analytics technologies in the area of political marketing and communication. While academic and public discourse on privacy focuses on the individual level, this paper explores a scarcely studied issue: group privacy. We elaborate on the importance and role of group privacy showing that even when the members of a group have their data protected, there are still privacy risks concerning the group and we identify and analyse threats to group privacy stemming from the exploitation of big data for political purposes. This paper argues that the use of big data analysis technologies in a political context can have severe implications for group privacy, including (political) targeting of particular groups and biased decision making based on group behaviour. We also show that threats to group privacy may have long term implications for society, especially with regard to the impact of populist movements.
Keywords: group privacy; group targeting; political communication; big data analytics; privacy implications; political privacy.
Transparency-enabling information systems: trust relations and privacy concerns in open governance
by Aristomenis Gritzalis, Aggeliki Tsohou, Costas Lambrinoudakis
Abstract: Information systems designed to enable transparency of public expenses and discourage corruption in the public sector are being embraced worldwide. The purpose of this paper is to examine the value of transparency-enhancing IT from a citizens' perspective. In order to fulfil this objective we address several research questions associated with the impact of openness on citizens' trust, focusing on transparency-enabling IS. In addition, we explore the impact of privacy requirements and regulations on these systems, and the effect they have on citizens' attitude towards openness. This study comprises a web survey, followed by an empirical investigation involving citizens who have used a specific system of this kind, 'Diavgeia'; the national transparency system in Greece. The results demonstrate that the system is a well-established, reliable data source, and is regarded potentially trust-enhancing. Meanwhile, personal privacy risks related to the system seem to concern even supporters of the 'right to know' principle.
Keywords: information systems; transparency; anti-corruption; open data; privacy; trust.
Enhancing university students' privacy literacy through an educational intervention: a Greek case-study
by Maria Sideri, Angeliki Kitsiou, Eleni Tzortzaki, Christos Kalloniatis, Stefanos Gritzalis
Abstract: Social network sites (SNSs) have doubtlessly altered the way that social actors communicate and interact worldwide. Several researches have shown that users disclose personal information within SNSs, while expressing privacy concerns. Users' inability to protect their privacy within SNSs, despite their recorded privacy concerns, constitutes the core of 'Privacy Paradox' and leads to privacy breaches or risks for themselves and other users. To reverse or at least minimise users' disclosure behaviour so as to protect themselves, researches underline the need for privacy awareness increase, focusing on the crucial role of education towards this. This research aims to explore the effects of a long-term university-based educational intervention for enhancing students' digital knowledge and skills to protect their privacy in SNSs efficiently. The findings are encouraging regarding students' privacy awareness enhancement and protection strategies adoption.
Keywords: SNSs; social network sites; Facebook; privacy concerns; privacy awareness; educational intervention; semester course.
Anonymity in social networks: the case of anonymous social media
by Vasileios Chatzistefanou, Konstantinos Limniotis
Abstract: The anonymity provided by the so-called anonymous social networks is studied in this paper. More precisely, emphasis is given on investigating whether the underlying personal data processing in such networks may suffice to result in tracking or identification of the users. To this end, five popular anonymous smart applications are being analysed through monitoring the outgoing traffic of Android devices in real-time when using these applications, to examine which personal data - including device data - are being processed by either the anonymous networks or third parties such as library providers. The corresponding privacy policies of these applications are also examined, towards evaluating whether the information provided to the users is sufficient. Our analysis concludes that there is personal data processing in place even in such (so-called anonymous) applications which in turn implies that users anonymity cannot ensured, whilst the corresponding privacy policies may leave room for further improvement.
Keywords: Android; anonymous social networks; device identifier; dynamic analysis; general data protection regulation; personal data.
Authenticated academic services through eIDAS
by Michael Maliappis, Konstantinos Gerakos, Constantina Costopoulou, Maria Ntaliani
Abstract: The eIDAS regulation on electronic identification and trust services for electronic transactions in the European single market, provides a legal framework to enable secure and seamless transactions between citizens, businesses, and public agencies. The objective of this paper is to present the design and implementation of academic eIDAS-based services. Two particular services have been studied, namely, the Erasmus student mobility and the certificate issuance services. In this context, microservice architecture has been deployed, as it comprises an innovative approach for facilitating the process of registration of Erasmus students and the issuance of certificates in a fast, secured and reliable way.
Keywords: authentication; eIDAS identification; cross-border services; Erasmus mobility; microservices.
Redefining freedom of speech in the digital environment from an EU law perspective
by Philippe Jougleux
Abstract: This paper discusses the freedom of expression in the digital environment from an EU law perspective. The author proposes to apprehend it as an autonomous concept. In the first part, the general legal regulation of online freedom of expression is analysed, with reference to the three-part test and the specific case of hate speech. In the second part, the paper uses copyright law as a case study of how balancing of rights is applied by the courts, with reference to the mechanism of blocking orders. However, the author regrets the lack of reference to freedom of expression in the recent discussion about the qualification of hyperlinks as communication to the public. In the third part, three characteristics of online freedom of expression are addressed: the application between individuals (horizontal effect), the intermediaries' protection and the principle of neutrality.
Keywords: freedom of expression; internet; social media; law; copyright; intermediary; interference; hate speech; blocking order; internet neutrality.