International Journal of Electronic Governance (14 papers in press)
The examination of voter opinions on implementation and use of i-voting: the case of Poland
by Magdalena Musia?-Karg, Izabela Kapsa
Abstract: Although it never prevailed, i-voting has been present in the public discourse in Poland for over ten years. Despite declarations of some political parties to implement innovative voting methods to facilitate the election process for eligible citizens, no legal basis has been created for i-voting as yet. In 2020, the Covid-19 pandemic exposed weaknesses of a limited range of voting methods available both in ordinary and extraordinary situations. The article analyzes and explains the support for additional election methods among voters in Poland. The analysis of demographic features and political preferences highlights differences in opinions on i-voting as a remote voting method. The research is based on a statistical analysis of data from a survey conducted in Poland between March and May 2018.
Keywords: Alternative Voting Methods; Elections; Electronic Voting; i-Voting; Internet Voting; Opinion Polls; Poland; Polish Voters; Political Preferences; Remote Voting.
A Bibliometric Analysis on Mobile Government Research
by Sunith Hebbar, Kiran K.B.
Abstract: The Mobile Government (MG) being a crucial subset of e-government with its complexity and limited success makes it a key field for study among practitioners and researchers. However, studies on MG appear to be more repetitive in nature, with a lower contribution to the expansion of knowledge. It is therefore important to take stock of current MG literature and categorize all documents. This enhances the understanding on MG research and supports future researchers. Hence, this study performs bibliometric analysis using two main techniques using Scopus database on MG research. Firstly, Co-citation analysis, which determined twenty seminal works in the area. Secondly, bibliometric coupling analysis identified eleven themes in MG research (from 109 articles). Each cluster is further examined to understand its research focus and to identify research gaps to guide future studies. Overall, the study clearly reflects on various themes, relevant seminal works and research gap that directs future studies.
Keywords: Mobile government Bibliometric analysis Co-citation analysis Bibliometric coupling analysis Systematic review.
Eroded Sovereignty or Algorithmic Nation: Transnational Diffusion of Blockchain in Governance
by Xiaoyu Lu, Hao Wu, Beini Liu
Abstract: This paper explores the relationship between transnational non-state actors and sovereignty through the adoption of blockchain technology in governance A growing number of blockchain applications have been introduced both by governments to reform state functions and authority mechanisms such as voting, citizenship, and national identity system Initial expectations for blockchain were that it would act as a disruptive and transformative force to decentralise state authority; however, this is only part of the real picture Our research shows that the decentralising tendencies of blockchain technology appear in political spaces where state sovereignty is already weakened or absent, particularly among displaced and stateless communities On the other hand, strong states use blockchain technology to upgrade their existing digital infrastructure to empower and reinforce state power. Thus, the diffusion of blockchain in governance leads to the birth of two opposite phenomena: eroded sovereignty and algorithmic nation.
Keywords: blockchain; governance; state sovereignty; transnational diffusion.
Citizen Empowerment and Adoption of E-Governance Services: The Role of Online Citizen Skills, Awareness, and Engagement
by SAURABH GUPTA, ONKAR NATH MISHRA, Sunil Kumar
Abstract: This study was carried out to investigate the inter-relationship between citizen empowerment and adoption of e-governance services. Online citizen skills (OCS), online citizen awareness (OCA) and online citizen engagement (OCE) are the baseline prerequisites of successful e-governance adoption, and thus, should be considered as pillars of citizen empowerment. An e-governance adoption model is proposed based on existing literature especially technology adoption model (TAM) and citizen empowerment theory. Further, it is empirically tested using field data collected from primary surveys in Delhi National Capital Region (Delhi-NCR). The purposive sampling procedure was followed for generating the required sample. Structural Equation Model (SEM) with path analysis was used to assess the proposed research model and validate the hypotheses. The results revealed that citizen empowerment determines the adoption of e-governance.
Keywords: Citizen empowerment; e-governance services; online citizen skills; online citizen engagement; information and communication technology; structural equation modeling.
Measuring citizen satisfaction with e-government services by using sentiment analysis technology
by Gunay Iskandarli, Ramiz Aliguliyev
Abstract: The state provides various services to citizens. Whereas the provision of these services electronically is an essential part of the e-government strategy, it is not enough. Thus, ensuring citizen satisfaction from these services is one of the significant responsibilities of the state. Considering it, in the paper we propose a method for measuring citizen satisfaction with e-services provided by government agencies and determining the rating of these agencies in society. In the proposed method, the citizen comments written for each service were sentimentally analysed, and consequently, the polarity score for each comment was evaluated. The average satisfaction score of the citizens for each service is evaluated according to the polarity score of the comments and the influence of the citizens who made these comments. The influence weight of the citizen in society is determined on the basis of the analysis of his social media accounts. Finally, using the citizens average satisfaction score for e-services, the average satisfaction score of each government agency is evaluated and the rating of these institutions in society is determined.
Keywords: e-government; social media; e-service; citizen satisfaction; sentiment analysis; satisfaction score.
Sentiment Analysis of Political Discussion on Twitter in Nigeria 2019 Presidential Election
by Aderonke A. Oni, Samuel Oni, Blessing Udemezue
Abstract: Social media have helped in political communication by reinforcing social change and commitments from governments. This study analyses political discussion on Twitter during the 2019 Nigeria general election. The aim is to identify popular issues discussed and opinion of citizens on popular presidential candidates social media network and correlate the online discussion with real world events during the 2019 election. Five most popular presidential candidates were selected for the investigation. Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA) model was used to identify frequent terms and topics discussed. Sentiment of the tweets was analysed using National Research Council Canada (NRC) Emotion Lexicon. Findings revealed that Twitter is mainly used for political discussion that cantered on personal representation, political partys promotion and elections matters. The behaviour of users shows that Twitter platform is not being used to share original political ideologies, instead the platform was used for re-tweeting of tweets and political campaigns for candidates.
Keywords: social media; election; sentiment analysis; latent Dirichlet Allocation; emotion lexicon; Nigeria.
Overhauling democracy by switching to corporate-like governance
by George Bitros
Abstract: With few exceptions, representative party democracy is dysfunctional due to structural deficiencies like the impossibility of representation in groups, the asymmetry of information, the state capture by political parties, and the uncoordinated administrative polycentrism. Hence, should circumstances render imperative a regime change, citizens should opt for digital citizen-managed democracy, which combines key elements from the direct democracy of classical Athens with aspects of governance in multinational corporations, and functions by digital Information and Communications Technologies. For, self-government in this context is superior because, first, it is free from the above innate deficiencies, and second, it is endowed with several advantages. In particular, it matches policy choices to citizen preferences. It offers institutional flexibility and efficiency. Citizens as shareholders of the state engage and take responsibility for the institutions of democracy, and the problems of asymmetric information and management coordination are confronted through discussion in the electronic Ecclesia of Demos.
Keywords: Deficiencies of representative democracy; Athenian democracy; Governance in multinational corporations; Prospects for digital citizen-managed democracy.
A systematic review of technological innovation and e-government in public management reforms in developing countries
by Kot David Nguar
Abstract: Public management reforms through ICTs and the agile methodological approach enhance public value creation and e-governance, which enriches public policies and consolidates institutional efficiency, transparency, and accountability in developing countries. This study aims to contribute to the ongoing discussion on e-government and technological innovation on public management reforms, a less researched field. It adopted the Technological Acceptance Model and New Public Management for hypothesizing reforms. Methodologically, it employed content and comparative analysis of published 151 peer-reviewed papers 2000 - 2019. Findings show technological innovation and e-government can significantly accelerate public management reforms. Europe and America exploit technological innovation to effect reforms and public value addition, in Africa and Asia, the public is interested in e-government because it creates efficiency. This study calls for empirical research to investigate the negative technological culture and rural communities' exclusion. The author calls for a better-integrated technology and systemic process: performance-oriented (efficiency) and value creation.
Keywords: Digitalization; E-government; Technological innovation; Digital economy; developing countries; Public management reforms.
Privacy issues in Android applications - The cases of GPS navigators and fitness trackers
by Stylianos Monogios, Kyriakos Magos, Konstantinos Limniotis, Nicholas Kolokotronis, Stavros Shiaeles
Abstract: The Android operating system constitutes a very attracting platform for developing smart applications providing various services to the users, including the field of e-governance. This provision comes along with personal data processing, which in turn raises several privacy concerns. This paper studies privacy issues in the mobile ecosystem, focusing on two important types of smart applications which process personal data to a large extent: GPS navigators and fitness tracking applications. More precisely, for both types of applications, an indicative list of popular apps is being analysed through appropriate experimental environment, aiming to identify the underlying personal data processing that takes place. Our analysis illustrates that both GPS navigation apps and fitness trackers have access to several types of users data, while they may allow for personal data leakage towards third parties such as library providers or tracking services without providing always adequate or precise information to the users.
Keywords: Android system; Fitness trackers; GPS navigator; Privacy; Profiling; Third-party library.
Combating fake news in social networks through the active participation of users
by Panagiotis Monahelis, Lazaros Toumanidis, Panagiotis Kasnesis, Charalampos Patrikakis
Abstract: With the rapid expansion of social networks, one of the most critical issues that have been emerged is the spread of fake news. The technology of blockchain in a combination of peer-to-peer networks can deal with the privacy and ownership of the users providing a tool that can overcome the issue of misinformation encouraging users to participate in a procedure of contents evaluation. This solution is proposed by EUNOMIA project, funded under H2020 research funding programme of EU. The architecture adopted in the project in order to enable the users to actively engage in the detection of fake news, identify the provenance of information and protect their network from misinformation is presented here.
Keywords: Decentralized Social Networks; Blockchain; Human as Trust Sensor.
Exploring data subjects knowledge on the rights GDPR guarantees. An exploratory research in Greece.
by Maria Sideri, Stefanos Gritzalis, Athanasios Fontaras
Abstract: In a data driven era, the implementation of the General Data Protection Regulation in the member-states of the European Union signals enforceable rights for data subjects attributing them more control over their data. However, the actual protection of personal data and natural persons freedoms does not depend only on the legal framework, but relies also on data subjects rights knowledge highlighting thus the individual responsibility for personal data protection. In the frame above, this exploratory research investigating the knowledge of a Greek adults group regarding the rights GDPR guarantees reveals fluctuations in rights knowledge related to the information sources on GDPR, data subjects concerns and the socio-demographic characteristics of the participants. The research findings highlight the need for data subjects to have more information on GDPR and become fully aware of their rights in order to protect their data.
Keywords: General Data Protection Regulation; data subjects; rights knowledge; concerns; demographic characteristics; information sources; awareness; Greece.
APPLICATIONS FOR CITIZEN E-PARTICIPATION AND COMMUNICATION IN THE CZECH REPUBLIC - CURRENT SUPPLY AND CONTENT ANALYSIS OF MOBILE APPS.
by Michael Fanta, Radek Sob?hart
Abstract: The level of e-participation in the Czech Republic is below EU average in a long term. In order to expand the research on this topic, we created an overview of the municipal mobile apps that are being used in the Czech Republic, analysed their functions, and performed a pilot evaluation. Overall, 84 mobile apps from Google Play Store and Apple Appstore were sorted into 15 types and divided into the two main groups according to their design: 1) universally designed products that municipalities can use for an appropriate monthly flat fee which depends/varies based on its selected functions; 2) custom designed products according to the requirements of the municipalities management. We conducted a content analysis of the applications and identified their offered functions. Via a pilot evaluation we discovered that the universally designed apps scored significantly higher in four out of the five evaluated criteria than the custom designed apps.
Keywords: e-participation; communication; citizen; municipality; mobile application; content analysis; evaluation; Czech Republic.
A Method for Assessing the Degree of Openness of Semi-Open Data Initiatives: Applied to the Justice Domain
by Mortaza Shoae Bargh, Sunil Choenni, Ronald Meijer, Sharvin Choenni
Abstract: Some public organisations struggle to meet the Open Data requirements fully because their data often have sensitive (personal) information, are of low quality, or have interoperability issues in terms of format and semantics. These restrictions quite often hold for justice domain data sets. In order to be transparent, nevertheless, many of such public organisations do share their data in a way that it partially satisfies the Open Data requirements. These partially opened data sets do not count as Open Data and, therefore, the efforts that organizations put behind these initiatives are not acknowledged adequately and appropriately. To acknowledge such data opening initiatives, we advocate and describe a method to assess the degree of data openness, as a first step for recognizing such so-called Semi-Open Data initiatives. We carry out eight case studies, not only to validate the proposed method, but also to show how the method can be deployed in practice.
Keywords: Assessment; Indicator; Measurement; Method; Open Data; Openness; Semi-Open Data.
Advanced digital skills towards interoperable e-government services
by Antonios Stasis, Anastasia Papastilianou
Abstract: The recent Covid-19 social distance measures highlighted the need for efficient and effective interoperable electronic services. As a consequence, Public Administrations invest a lot in offering interoperable public services and implementing actions that intent to close the advance digital skill gap of the Public Administration officials. This paper presents the digital skills policy, frameworks for citizens and professionals, the respective profiles and roles that were developed during the last decade in Europe, focusing on Interoperability. Important case studies such as the National Digital Academy for Citizen in Greece, the ISA Interoperability Academy are being analysed against the above-mentioned frameworks. Finally, the training practises of the Greek National Centre of Public Administration and Local Government for interoperability are being presented, including Open Collaborative Courseware initiatives and a significant reorganization of the F2F courses in fully online courses. The training courses included the assessment of 147 real case examples of public services.
Keywords: Blended Learning; Open CourseWares; OCW; Slidewiki; Interoperability Maturity Assessment Model; IMAPS; Public Services; e-Learning; Project Based Learning; Moodle; e-Government; Digital Skills; Webex.