International Journal of Education Economics and Development (14 papers in press)
The education policy challenge to the brain drain problem
by Akira Shimada
Abstract: In a world of increased mobility of students and workers, both developing and developed countries are attempting to prevent brain drain. This studys research question is how we can prevent it. Utilising an analytical method, this study finds that education subsidies may be implemented as a new policy option to do so. In particular, developed countries, which are faced with a small wage disparity with the destination country, can eliminate brain drain for any degree of human capital transferability by paying subsidies appropriately. However, developing countries, which are faced with a large wage disparity, cannot always alleviate brain drain. The significance of this policy lies in that education subsidies affect the choice of study location, which in turn induces individuals to work in their home countries. Moreover, education subsidies are more effective than a Bhagwati tax since individuals have less incentive to evade subsidies.
Keywords: education policy; education subsidies; brain drain; Bhagwati tax; labour migration; student migration; human capital transferability; wage disparity; developed country; developing country.
Factors influencing Omani students selection of higher education institutions: An emphasis on undergraduate and postgraduate students
by Abdelghani Echchabi, Salim Al-Hajri, Islam Tanas
Abstract: The study aims at investigating the factors that influence students selection of the higher education institutions in the Omani context. The study used mean values to rank the factors based on the students responses following Friedmans test. The study has also applied factor analysis to summarise and reduce these factors, and ANOVA (Analysis of Variance) test to investigate any differences in the selection factors across genders and education levels. The study covered a sample of 384 respondents from various Omani regions and used the mean value to examine the factors that influence students selection of their respective universities. The findings revealed that the main factors for university selection are the academic and financial benefits and advantages closely followed by the quality and reputation of the universities. In addition, the findings revealed that there is a significant difference across education levels with regards to the perception of academic quality, accommodation, as well as reference to website advertisements. These findings have significant contributions to the Omani universities, as well universities in similar contexts. Particularly, it provides the universities with insights on the main dimensions and characteristics to emphasize in order to enhance their overall performance.
Keywords: Oman; University Reputation; Academic Quality; Selection Criteria; Education Marketing; Academic Advising; University Tuition Fees.
Determinants of Academic Performance of Left-behind Children in Rural Nigeria: Quantile Evidence from Niger State
by Muktar Bala, Mohd Razani B. Mohd Jali, Nor Azam Abdul Razak
Abstract: Recently, scholars have expressed concern about the potential effects of leaving children behind by migrant parents on their academic performance, but little is known about the determinants of academic performance of the children. Using survey data from Niger State, Nigeria (N=1,140), and applying Quantile regression, this study shows that the academic performance of left-behind children is affected by the quality of parental involvement they receive in the absence of parents, their physical and mental health, the type of school they attend and their birth order. The effects are however specific to the children in the lower and upper tails of the performance distribution. Therefore, policies that ensure proper care of the children and those that enhance school quality would promote the academic performance of the children, particularly if targeted at the children who are in the lower and upper quantiles of the performance distribution.
Keywords: Rural-urban migration; left-behind children; academic performance; quantile regression; parental involvement; physical health; mental health; birth order; Nigeria.
An Investigation of the Demographic Factors affecting Financial Literacy and Its Components among Urban Indians
by SNEHAL BAWRE, SUJATA KAR
Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the impact of socio-demographic factors on financial literacy and its components, namely, financial behavior, financial attitude and financial numeracy skills. Also, the relationships between the components of financial literacy and the influence of financial numeracy skill on investment pattern is examined. The data showed that financial literacy in terms of familiarity with financial instruments and participation in formal financial system is quite reasonable at 65 percent among the participants. Socio-demographic variables like gender, age, education, income, and reliability of income are found to have significant influence on financial literacy. Further, all the components of financial literacy are found to impact each other positively. The findings also suggest that financial numeracy skill may improve overall financial literacy and secondary market participation in India. However, the use of financial websites or social media sites for investment decisions are meagre.
Keywords: Financial literacy; financial behavior; financial attitude; financial numeracy; multinomial logit model; socio-demographic factors; India.
Returns to education in MENA countries: A continuing story of under-achievement
by Reham Rizk
Abstract: The paper provides a comparative study of private rates of return to education in five MENA countries to better understand the pattern of rewards to different levels of schooling. Moreover, the paper attempts to link the structure of returns to education to labour market, gender and different age groups.
The findings confirm less consistency among countries and this is due to differences in education quality and supply and demand of graduates, which has a significant influence on returns to schooling. Returns to additional years of schooling are the highest for Tunisia and lowest for Egypt. On analysing the rate of return to education by socioeconomic factors: returns to education for women are lower than for men, and older cohorts have highest returns particularly for Egypt and Tunisia. With respect to policymakers, MENA region should adopt education policies that target quality of education, which meets labour demand rather than expansion of education.
Keywords: rate of return to education; Gender; MENA Countries; Cross-section analysis.
Organizational Communication in Higher Educational Institutions: Scale Development and Validation
by Kriti Priya Gupta, Ruby Sengar
Abstract: Many researchers have generated instruments to assess communication at an organizational level. Although these scales are alluring, but still, there is a scarcity of valid and reliable constructs to measure organizational communication (OC) from all perspectives. Therefore, this study is trying to deduce the factors of OC scale and develop a construct to assess communication in higher educational institutions (HEI). Item generation and scale refinement for OC construct involve a survey of faculty members working with various HEIs in Delhi-National Capital Region, followed by construct, divergent, convergent, nomological and cross-validation using 576 faculty members, resulting in an organizational communication scale for higher educational institutions (OCHE). The empirical results indicate that the OCHE scale consists of 4 dimensions namely communication structure, style, behavior, and barriers. The proposed OCHE scale can serve as an indicative tool that enables the authorities of HEIs to monitor and manage the internal communication practices within their organizations.
Keywords: Organizational communication; communication structure; communication behavior; communication styles; communication barriers; higher educational institutions; India.
Returns to Schooling in Palestine: A Bayesian Approach
by Mohsen Ayyash, Tareq Sadeq, Siok Kun Sek
Abstract: This paper presents an empirical method to find more efficient estimates of returns to schooling using Bayesian linear regression instead of OLS method. The private returns to schooling in Palestine using the Palestinian Labour Force Survey (PLFS) for the year 2017 have been estimated, where on average, males earn 40.7% more than females. Separate regressions have been performed for males and females, in which the returns to schooling for females are found higher than their males' counterparts. Bayesian inference has also been applied into Heckman two-step procedure with logit and probit models to correct self-selection bias for females' sample. It is found that logit Heckman correction yields positive and higher coefficient of years of schooling than probit and OLS. The wage disparities in Palestine have been found influenced by various factors like age, sex, and occupational groups. These findings are useful for policymakers to plan for future investment in higher education.
Keywords: Bayesian linear regression; wages; returns to schooling.
Factors influencing students motivation to study at a university
by Hana Urbancova, Adela Fajcikova
Abstract: One of the main priorities of universities today is to determine the motivating factors influencing students attitude towards their studies and whether they successfully graduate or not. The aim of the paper is to identify selected attributes influencing student motivation and evaluate their impact on the learning process. The results were obtained through a quantitative survey (n = 293) and were evaluated using descriptive and multi-dimensional statistics. The survey identified 2 main factors influencing the motivation to study (quality of teaching and teacher, personal aspirations), with variable strength ranging from 0.513 to 0.836. These findings may help in targeted preparation and optimisation of study programmes that would respect the key motivations of students, and as a direction for future research, particularly aimed at student performance and teaching results comparable in the national and international academic environment.
Keywords: Higher education; learning process; motivational factors; personal aspirations; public university; quantitative survey; quality of teaching; satisfaction; students; teacher competences; teaching methods.
Implementing Pragmatism and John Deweys Educational Philosophy in Emirati Elementary Schools: Case of Mathematics and Science Teachers
by Adeeb Jarrah, Omar Khasawneh, Yousef Wardat
Abstract: The purpose of this study is to determine the extent to which John Deweys philosophical pragmatic thoughts are implemented in Emirati Elementary schools from the perspectives of mathematics and science teachers. Data were collected from 87 teachers using a descriptive analytical approach. The study findings indicate a general agreement among teachers who believed that Pragmatism is implemented in the United Arab Emirates Elementary schools from moderate to strong degree. The findings also reveal that there was no statistical significant difference between public and private school teachers perspectives, and no statistical difference between teachers teaching experience in terms of their views on the implementation of John Deweys educational pragmatic principles. The recommendations arising from the study emphasize the importance of conducting workshops about educational philosophy to ensure that school teachers believe that the teaching profession must stem from an educational belief, which would help in an improved job performance.
Keywords: Elementary Teachers; Pragmatism; John Dewey; Educational Philosophy; Emirati Schools; Mathematics and Science Teachers.
Education costs in Brazil: analysis of macroeconomic variables
by Mariana Planells Gutiérrez, Simone Bernardes Voese, Cicero Aparecido Bezerra, Marcia Maria Dos Santos Bortolocci Espejo
Abstract: This article is meant to analyse the key macroeconomic variables that affect higher education costs in Brazil and to provide an overview of the present status of education in that country. Quantitative indicators regarding population, education, employment and economy, provided by public database bodies such as MEC, IBGE, OECD and WEF were used. Statistical tools, such as principal component analysis, simple regression and clusters analysis, were carried out. Results indicate a strong relationship between the number of public higher education institutions (HEI) and number of people who attend them. As a result of the main components analysis, 15 variables were reduced to three principal components that explain 89.109% of the total variance. Finally, as a result of the cluster analysis, four different clusters can be verified, with divergent situations identified between the four aggrupation of Brazilian states.
Keywords: education costs; higher education institutions; HEI; human capital theory; endogenous growth theory.
Structural equation modelling analysis for internship satisfaction of Vietnam business students
by Van-Quy Le, Vinh-Long Tran-Chi
Abstract: Business internship is helpful for students' learning and career preparation. However, there is no report using structural equation modelling to analyse the relationship between the internship satisfaction and the students' learning in Vietnam. Business students (male: 222, female: 74) were sampled from University of Finance and Marketing. Forty-three question items were drawn from ten popular questionnaires. However, four of the factors are not significantly related to the internship satisfaction including university support, academic supervisor, student's knowledge, and student's attitude; two of the factors are significantly related to the internship satisfaction including student's skills and host company's support. This result suggests that students with good learning skills expect higher level of training program from the competitive company. It also suggests that characteristics of the host company's support are good predictors of internship satisfaction.
Keywords: business education; internship satisfaction; IS; students; Vietnam.
How does economic expansion react to educational expenditure, financial development, and financial integration? A nonlinear Granger causality and quantile regression analysis in an Asian perspective
by Amritkant Mishra, Amba Agarwal
Abstract: This empirical analysis aspires to adequately investigate the causal effect of financial integration, educational expenditure and financial development on economic growth, by exerting the nonlinear Granger-causality approach. On another hand, it additionally strives to uncover the heterogeneous effect of financial integration, academic expenditure and financial development on the economic growth of nine pertinent Asian economies by employing quantile regression techniques. The consequence of nonlinear Granger causality analysis demonstrates that the nonlinear causality exists from educational spending towards the economic growth in the countries such as Bangladesh, India, China, and Thailand. While on the other hand, no such causality found in civilised nations like Australia, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, and Singapore. The empirical outcome also manifests that if monetary integration, financial development, and educational expenditure happen simultaneously then it leads to economic growth in Bangladesh, China, India, Japan, Malaysia, and Thailand. Additionally the outcome of quantile regression documents that education sector outlay enhances the economic growth of underdeveloped or developing countries while it does not demonstrate a significant impact on the economic growth of the highly developed nations.
Keywords: educational expenditure; financial development; economic growth; quantile regression; nonlinear causality.
Between-group inequality in education in India: a sequential logit model analysis
by Anjan Ray Chaudhury, Madhabendra Sinha
Abstract: The study provides an insight into the between-group educational inequality India, where the groups are defined by taking caste and religion together. We propose an index of between-group inequality applicable to ordinal categorical data and compute the between-group educational inequality existing in Indian society and its overtime persistence. Findings reveal an overtime increase in between-group educational inequality in India. We invoke the sequential logit model of regression to assess the probability of transition from lower to higher levels of education. The results of estimation of this regression model reveal a declining trend in the rate of dropout across all levels of education for all groups, though the rate of decline is greater for the advantaged groups compared to the disadvantaged groups. This disparity in the rate of decline is the responsible factor for the rise in between-group educational inequality.
Keywords: between-group educational inequality; transition probability; India; sequential logit model; scheduled castes; Muslims.
The influence of management's accounting skills on the existence of their South African small, medium and micro enterprises
by Ernest Mbumbo, Henrie Benedict, Juan-Pierré Bruwer
Abstract: In South Africa (RSA), small, medium and micro enterprises (SMMEs) provide assist government with the reduction of unemployment and poverty. Unfortunately, research shows that RSA SMMEs are not sustainable as 70% fail after being operating for three years. This phenomenon is caused by the non-management of economic factors, including a lack of skills. In a recent study, basic business skills evident in RSA SMMEs were found to leave much to be desired. One of these skills is that of accounting skills. Accounting skills should assist with making economic business decisions; taking into account the failure rate of RSA SMMEs, the question arises: Do the accounting skills of management influence the existence of RSA SMMEs? To answer this question, empirical research was conducted and data were collected from respondents. From the results, respondents who were equipped with accounting skills were more likely to remain in existence for the foreseeable future.
Keywords: management accounting; accounting skills; SMMEs; existence.