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International Journal of Education Economics and Development

International Journal of Education Economics and Development (IJEED)

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International Journal of Education Economics and Development (28 papers in press)

Regular Issues

  • Modeling the Economic Reciprocal Relationship between Student Learning and Professor Teaching: An Economic Theoretical Study and Application   Order a copy of this article
    by Tin-Chun Lin 
    Abstract: This research is to model the economic reciprocal relationship between student learning and professor teaching. We use a game theoretical model to study the effort provision by a professor and a student in knowledge production. We solve for the Nash equilibrium efforts analytically and to obtain the algebraic expressions for the players equilibrium payoffs. Analysis suggested that two parties effort investments (and payoffs) in teaching and learning are endogenously and positively correlated and simultaneously determined. This model is the most appropriate for studying independent study classes and thesis supervision as one-on-one experiences. We suggest that the university authority considers providing extra incentive-pay to professors who teach independent study classesdoing so would motivate faculty to increase their efforts toward student knowledge acquisition. More importantly, the theoretical model developed here may be useful in constructing empirical models for future investigation on this educational research and innovation problem.
    Keywords: Economic behavior; Static games of complete information; Producer choice theory; Nash equilibrium; Independent study classes.

  • Effectiveness of Training Program on Workers Commitment in the Education Subsector in Malaysia   Order a copy of this article
    by Noorazeela Zainol Abidin, Nurliyana Mohd Basri, Hafizah Abdul Rahim 
    Abstract: The study aims at analyzing the effectiveness of training program towards worker commitment in the education subsector in Malaysia. The effectiveness is measured through the use of three main elements, namely training course content, role of the trainer and support from top management. The analysis is based on data from 237 workers involved in the education subsector and sourced through questionnaires distributed throughout a few selected states in 2016. The study employed the Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) approach which applied the software model SmartPLS 3 for analyzing the relationship between the three elements on the effectiveness of the training program and workers commitment. Results showed that the training course content construct produced a non-significant and negative relationship. Whereas the other two constructs, namely role of the trainer and support from top management gave significant and positive worker commitment in the education subsector in Malaysia.
    Keywords: Training; Course Content; Education Subsector; Structural Equation Modelling.

  • The Correlation between Education Expenditure and Higher Education in Pakistan   Order a copy of this article
    by Gulzar Ali 
    Abstract: Higher education is considered as one of the essential factors that enables people to increase better aptitudes and learning that in turn progressively affects humans capital in the development, growth, and prosperity of a country as well as in poverty reduction, skill development and provision of important services. Knowing the importance of higher education, this study empirically examines the correlation and impact of public education expenditure on higher education in Pakistan. The study found that public education expenditure has a positive and significant effect on higher education showing that a satisfactory share of public education expenditure brings an increase in attaining higher education in Pakistan. Moreover, the number of universities and university teachers has also a noteworthy effect on higher education in Pakistan.
    Keywords: Higher Education; Education Expenditure; No. of Universities; Universities Teachers.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEED.2022.10042152
     
  • Key Competencies Increasing Chance for Employment of Students Case Study   Order a copy of this article
    by Hana Urbancová, Pavla Vrabcová, Jan Coufal, Ji?í Tobíšek 
    Abstract: The level of competencies of university and college students, they gain during their studies, predetermine their employment in the labour market and their capabilities for their further development. In today's highly competitive environment, organizations are interested in graduates who have highly developed primarily soft competencies and at the same time have the growth potential. The survey focuses on the identification of transferable cross-sectional competencies and their measurement among students of the private university of economics. This article aims to identify transferable cross-sectional competencies of university students that contribute most to the graduate's success in the labour market and to summarize the approach to identify tasks for the development of the educational program of the private university of economics. Chi-square tests were applied to determine the dependencies, and the data were also evaluated by factor analysis to find hidden factors. Four factors were identified, namely appropriate communication style, complexity and self-management, performance individualism, and socially desirable behaviour.
    Keywords: competencies; economic field; growth potential; survey; the Czech Republic.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEED.2022.10042020
     
  • Empirical Evidence on Intellectual Property Copyright: Student Perspectives on Learning Outcomes and Challenges   Order a copy of this article
    by Siew King Ting, Tze Wee Lai, Brian Dollery 
    Abstract: Universities play an important role to promote, transfer and commercialise intellectual property in the knowledge-based economy. This study aims to evaluate the perceived learning outcomes and challenges based on a self-made short video clip project. Under the project, students produced short video clips by themselves to explain economic concepts and then registered the short video clip at the Intellectual Property Corporation of Malaysia (MyIPO) in Sarawak. Using a sample of undergraduate students who took introductory economics courses at the Universiti Teknologi MARA, Cawangan Sarawak over the period September 2019 to January 2020 period, our results show that the overall mean score of perceived learning outcomes on copyright was 3.86 suggesting positive response from respondents. Respondents also confronted finance, time and procedure challenges in producing short video clips and registering their copyright. We offer several suggestions on improving quality of digital innovation and promoting importance of copyright amongst tertiary students
    Keywords: Intellectual property; copyright; innovation; perceived learning outcomes; economic concepts.

  • What Rate My Professors ratings indicate about effective teaching in Economics   Order a copy of this article
    by Junaid Jahangir 
    Abstract: Four questions pertaining to effective teaching are addressed through content analysis of student comments at the Rate My Professors website for Economics instructors at two universities in Edmonton. First, do student comments capture effective teaching? Second, why are Economics instructors rated lower than those in other social sciences? Third, do contract instructors lower teaching standards through easy classes and grade inflation? Finally, are quality instructors penalized for rigorous standards? The analysis suggests that student comments capture many attributes of effective teaching but not critical thinking. There exists some evidence on contract instructors offering easy As just as there exist individual cases of instructors being penalized for maintaining rigorous standards. These findings suggest that administration should focus on student comments instead of average numerical scores. Effective instructors should not be penalized when student comments emphasize easy grades as part of the corporate model of education instead of learning and critical thinking.
    Keywords: Rate My Professors ratings; effective teaching; easy As and corporate education; teaching Economics.

  • A Comparative View of the Educational Systems of Greece, France and England   Order a copy of this article
    by Evaggelos Mavrikakis, Vasiliki Brinia, Andriani Gkouma 
    Abstract: This study aims to explore the dividing lines between the educational systems of three countries, Greece, France and England on the areas of public participation, staffing of structures, administration and supervision, assessment, curriculums and funding. Each of these systems has developed a different control system, established roles, frameworks as well as procedures that define to a certain degree its dimension of roles. The study was based on a literature review concerning these systems, educational administration, organisational behaviour and management of school units. Basic dimensions of educational policies were studied in order to comprehend each systems approach. The study indicated basic differences between the three systems on decision making, bodies implicated, organisational behavior and system effectiveness. These differences provide significant insights on systems characteristics in order to enhance their future development and autonomy, as they are constantly affected by global, political, social, economic and cultural changes. Conclusions are discussed.
    Keywords: educational system; dimension of roles; administration; system autonomy; comparative view; organisational behaviour.

  • The macroeconomic impact of school enrollments. Time-series evidence from Greece.   Order a copy of this article
    by Georgios Garafas, Ioannis Sotiropoulos, Nikolaos Arnis, Georgios Kolias 
    Abstract: This paper explores the impact of human capital on economic growth. For this purpose, it employs data for Greece concerning enrollment rates in each level of the formal educational system as a proxy for human capital. It is of particular importance that the impact of vocational education is being distinguished. By applying Johansen's approach, two cointegrating vectors were identified summarizing the positive long-run relationship between enrollment rates and gross domestic product (GDP). Whereas, in the short run a unidirectional Granger causality was found running from GDP to general secondary education which is an indication of the Greek household preference for general education instead of vocational training.
    Keywords: Enrollment rates; Human capital; Economic growth; VAR.

  • Does demographics moderate the learning in accounting and finance courses?   Order a copy of this article
    by Mona M. ElShaabany, Moid Ahmad 
    Abstract: The effectiveness of technical courses such as accounting and finance, depends upon an understanding of endogenous and exogenous variables and their behavior with the teaching-learning process. This paper is focused on analyzing the effect of three independent variables (readiness of students, course scheduling and interest of students) upon learning in accounting and finance courses under the moderating influence of three demographic variables (gender, age and background). The research is based on a survey of respondents from three stakeholders (students, faculty and managers) and applies regression based moderation technique for analysis. One of the significant finding of the study is that at a given level of interest of students, male students are marginally better learner than female students.
    Keywords: Business Education; Accounting courses; Finance courses; Moderation analysis; Learning.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEED.2022.10043955
     
  • Increasing Access but not Equity: Higher Education Policy and Participation in Mexico   Order a copy of this article
    by Shaye S. Worthman, Manuel Palma-Cornejo, Adriana Rueda-Barrios 
    Abstract: Given Mexico's comparatively low coverage of higher education, concerns about inequalities in participation persist, especially between different social groups. The current study examined participation trends associated with Mexico's expansion of higher education coverage since the country's neoliberal turn in the 1990s, reviewing education policies across six presidential administrations and analysing household data provided by the National Institute of Statistics and Geography to compare socio-demographic characteristics of higher education students from 1994 to 2018. Findings indicate that although higher education coverage increased during this time period, inequalities persist between young people from different economic backgrounds, rural and urban areas, and indigenous and non-indigenous groups, thereby reproducing social disparities. Moreover, the most economically advantaged in society have most benefited from the expansion in the higher education system. The paper concludes by discussing alternative policy approaches that focus directly on disadvantaged groups to promote equity and inclusion in the higher education system.
    Keywords: higher education; higher education policy; access to higher education; inequality of opportunity; educational equity; educational opportunity; university enrolment; Mexico; Latin America.

  • Impact of achievement, skills, gender and career intentions on students perceptions of economics in the UAE   Order a copy of this article
    by Abderrazak Bakhouche 
    Abstract: Understanding students' opinions is of substantial benefit to higher education providers with implications on student's attrition. This study examines undergraduate business students' perceptions of Economics in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). The role of a host of student-specific attributes, including academic achievement, gender, career intentions and skills accumulated during preparatory education, is assessed using the Logit regression analysis. The results show that students generally have positive perceptions of Economics, but they consider the course to demand more concentration and time to understand. Better knowledge of maths and having an adequate level of English significantly contribute to forming better opinions about Economics. The gender effect is slightly observed in the study of Economics. The course is relevant to students of all fields of study, emphasising consensus on its function as a conduit of liberal art skills. This study calls on educators and administrators to ensure that students are adequately prepared to study Economics. More importantly, students shall be exposed to an awareness campaign about the importance of economic literacy for themselves and the nation's economic development.
    Keywords: higher education; locus of control; UAE; Impact of GPA; skills; English competency; maths competency; students' perceptions; Economics Education; quantitative survey; quality of teaching; logit regression.

  • Skills-Based Approach and learning outcomes determinants in West Africa   Order a copy of this article
    by Kadio Eric KADIO 
    Abstract: This paper analyses Skills-Based Approach implementation effect on learning outcomes in West Africa. Its expansion was made under multiple goals, including skills improvements, which are related to innovation and productivity in economic literature. However, few works have been devoted to its effect evaluation on pupils outcomes at primary education level. Moreover, the economic analysis has little to say about its contribution to learning quality. To achieve this goal, we estimate a two-level hierarchical linear model where endogeneity bias is corrected by Mundlak estimator adaptation to multilevel data. Our results show the Skills-Based Approach negative impact on achievements, but also, learning disparities related to pupil gender, school location and type, while some institutional factor and family background positively influence students outcomes.
    Keywords: Skills-Based Approach; Primary Education; learning outcomes; Hierarchical linear model; West Africa.

  • Digitalisation Determinants and Digital Dividends of the Higher Education System (on the example of Russia)   Order a copy of this article
    by Evgeniya Karpunina, Asya Arutyunova, Ekaterina Sazanova, Arthur Maksaev, Gulnaz Galieva 
    Abstract: The research was based on studying the digitalisation determinants of the higher education system in Russia and evaluating the digital dividends received, which indicate the effectiveness of digitalisation processes. The digitalisation determinants of the higher education system (digital architecture, digital educational services, personnel potential and economic capital) were identified. The authors introduced the concept of "digital dividends of the higher education system", which includes an increase in the number of students, cost reduction, enhancement of the educational process. The authors proposed a method for calculating the digital dividend ratio based on 4 indicators with different weights. The result of the digital dividend ratio should become the basis for making management decisions in the process of implementing the state educational policy (the policy for active digitalisation of higher education; the policy for restrained digitalisation). The proposed method for calculating the digital dividend ratio can be used to conduct a comparative analysis of the effectiveness of digitalisation of education worldwide.
    Keywords: digitalisation determinants; digital dividends; higher education system; distance technologies; e-learning; digital literacy; educational process effectiveness.

  • Exploring the Spatial Dimensions of College Retention within the Context of Inequality   Order a copy of this article
    by Serkan Catma, Serkan Varol 
    Abstract: Exploring the spatial dimensions of college student retention is critical in order to fully understand the motivation of students dropping out, yet the literature lacks a comprehensive spatial analysis. This study aims to assess the impact of a combination of spatial and institutional predictors on college student retention. A key finding of this research is that the geo-spatial location of a public four-year university in the US is an important determinant of student persistence. Distance to the closest metropolitan area, number of universities within close proximity and local unemployment rate where an institution is located not only impact freshman retention but also reveal important implications for barriers to equal access in higher education. We suggest that administrators and policy makers consider the spatial factors while determining the best management practices and policy tools to address problems pertaining not only to retention but also the accessibility issues in higher education.
    Keywords: student retention; spatial; inequality; affordability; selectivity.

  • THE EFFECTS OF COOPERATION IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF STUDY CURRICULA BETWEEN HEI AND EMPLOYERS, IN INCREASING THE EMPLOYMENT RATE - THE CASE OF KOSOVO   Order a copy of this article
    by Bekim Marmullaku, Avni Arifi 
    Abstract: The objective of this paper is to assess the link between higher education institution in the aspect of development of the curricula and their match with the existing requirements by the employers, which represent the labor market offer in Kosovo. The data used in the paper are gathered form the survey that was conducted by the authors during the period March October 2020, in Republic of Kosovo. The results of the testings done through our econometric models shows that there is a positive relationship in the cooperation between businesses (that is employers) and universities and other higher education institutions, in designing the curricula for study programs and in increasing the employment rates of graduates. Moreover, in the case of businesses this cooperation is positive, while in the case of universities and other higher education institutions no significant results were found.
    Keywords: employment; curricula; higher education institution; private sector.

  • Digital competition and capabilities   Order a copy of this article
    by Bruno F. Abrantes 
    Abstract: Intertwining the fields of education policy research (EPR) and educational experiment research (EER), this investigation exploits the usage of digital technologies and team-competition to test whether the phenomenon of digital competition yields a divergent (and likely more positive) impact than traditional classroom coursework, measurable on the degree of learning (criterion 1) and satisfaction (criterion 2) within a target population of international higher education students (HES).rnAn event fashioned and simply dubbed as Case Competition, provided the context and virtual environment for a quasi-experiment which assigned participants (the experiment group) to seven teams competing for solving an industry case. Primary data obtained from the latter through an individual anonymized event
    Keywords: digital competition; higher education; international students; student-centric learning; problem-based learning (PBL).

  • Investigating Thai Lecturers Perceptions about Factors Undermined the Reliability of Summative Assessment during COVID-19   Order a copy of this article
    by Mohammed Yassin Mohd Aba Sha'ar, Phanit Singhasuwan, Chamaiporn Buddharat, Pimporn Markphan 
    Abstract: This study aims to examine the impact of COVID 19 on the assessment process in the Thai context. It investigates the factors that undermined the reliability of online summative assessment during COVID 19. 196 lecturers from five faculties voluntarily participated in questionnaires data collection, out of which 15 were conveniently selected for interviews. Descriptive statistics and qualitative content analysis were utilized for data analysis. The findings suggest that COVID 19 affected the assessment process and increased the digital divide among the students. It urges canceling and/or replacing the students assessment with assignments. The findings also show that the reliability of online assessment was undermined by three factors namely students and lecturers digital illiteracy, the possibility of cheating as the lecturers were unable to administer the assessment process, and the inefficiency of online assessment tools to assess students different skills and competencies. Overall, the findings indicate that COVID 19 critically affects the reliability of summative assessments as technology is still underdeveloped in the field of online assessment. Therefore, this study provides a clear view on how the reliability of online assessment is undermined by factors related to students, lecturers, and online assessment tools. It gives the lecturers insights into the threats and possibilities for improving the online assessment process.
    Keywords: reliability; digital literacy; digital divide; COVID 19; assessment process; scaffolding.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEED.2023.10043204
     
  • Assessing Developing Countries Students Achievements in International Educational Testing by Socio-economic Status across Regions, Areas and Gender: A Case of Vietnam Participating in PISA 2012 and 2015   Order a copy of this article
    by Thi Hong Thu Nguyen, Pierre Lefebvre 
    Abstract: Purpose The exiting literature shows the absence of international educational testing of regimes of low-income developing countries. This paper aims to investigate three neglected issues related to students school achievement in such a country, Vietnam. First, to examine the link between the family background, measured by socio-economic status (SES), and educational skills measured by Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) tests scores (2012, 2015). There is no evidence of a substantial SES gradient in literacy and numeracy skills across regions, areas, and gender. Second, to analyze the dispersion of academic deciles achievement at age 15 in Vietnam across the same samples. There is no evidence on the association between low- and high-parental SES and students skills across the distribution of the scores. Third, to illustrate the proficiency levels and socio-economic gradient, a left out the issue more important for the economic and social success of young adults. Design/methodology/approach This paper estimates empirically the link between the family background, measured by socio-economic status (SES), and educational skills measured by PISA 15-year-old students test scores, across Vietnam regions, areas, gender, and years. Findings First, students average scores gaps between the lower and top SES quintile, indicate wide-ranging variations in the size of the SES gradient in academic competencies. Second, estimates over the entire achievement distribution -nine deciles of scores- expound that the gaps move up and down across regions and waves for both main domains tested (math in 2012 and science in 2015). Across gender, the differences are very small, indicating that girls have better performances than boys and suggesting equitably treatment across sex by families. Also, gaps for students living in rural areas are small, but their achievements are well below those of their urban peers. Third, the association between SES and proficiency levels, in all domains tests is strong, with estimates illustrating statistically significantly socioeconomic gradients for the upper quintile of family background. Originality/value The present analysis makes three major contributions. First, it presents the extent and distribution of socioeconomic gradient in academic skills across Vietnam, regions, and gender in 2012 using a comparable measure between parental SES and the 2015 reiteration of students test scores. Second, a cross-areas variation identifies indirectly the differences in regional school resources (North to South, urban, rural, and ethnic) that may lead to inequalities of opportunity. Third, our estimations of socioeconomic gradient not only relate to skills in three domains (math, reading, and science), but also to proficiency levels at different years, in the same cognitive domains.
    Keywords: socioeconomic inequalities; PISA; literacy; numeracy and science skills; proficiency scales; education attainment gradient; region; rural-urban area; and gender.

  • Determinants of Education-Job Vertical Mismatch in Urban Ghana   Order a copy of this article
    by Prince Adjei, William Baah-Boateng 
    Abstract: The paper explores the determinants of education-job vertical mismatch in urban Ghana. It uses cross sectional data from the World Bank Skills Toward Employment and Productivity (STEP) surveys of working age urban population and applies the self-assessment method of measuring the incidence of education-job mismatch. The study employs the method of multinomial logit estimation technique to ascertain whether over and undereducated individuals possess a relatively worse bundle of skills than workers who are adequately matched to their jobs in terms of formal education. It identifies gender, marital status, education, skills, occupation and time-to-proficiency as significant determinants of mismatch. The study adduces evidence to the transient nature of mismatch as reflected in time to proficiency’s negative relationship with overeducation and positive link with undereducation. Given the competitiveness of the national and global economic environment, the study provides some policy thoughts towards addressing challenges of skill mismatch.
    Keywords: education-job mismatch; overeducation; undereducation; Ghana.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEED.2023.10042296
     
  • Does PhD Enrolment Improve the Research Efficiency of Educational Institutes: A Comparative Assessment of Indian Universities Using Data Envelopment Analysis   Order a copy of this article
    by Sushant Malik, Nisha Bharti, Varnika Gupta 
    Abstract: Today, there is an increased focus on research in Indian universities. The objective of this paper is to determine the research efficiency of the universities and the effects of PhD enrolments on the same. The study uses the National Institutional Ranking Framework (NIRF) data. Two models were used to analyse and compare the research efficiency of universities. The results indicate, to increase the efficiency, the output from the PhD scholars needs to be improved. The results imply that some universities have a high count of PhD students, but their contribution to research is insignificant, resulting in poor research efficiency scores in Model 2. This study concludes that proper policy needs to be framed for minimum research outputs as part of PhD programs. Public and private universities in India should monitor the number of PhD scholars and their output.
    Keywords: higher education; Indian universities; research efficiency; data envelopment analysis; DEA; NIRF.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEED.2023.10043402
     
  • Improving Operational- Developmental Connections: Foregrounding an Alignment- Dealignment- Realignment Perspective   Order a copy of this article
    by Eglantina Hysa, Russell Foote 
    Abstract: basis of our administrative experiences and gaps in the literature, the authors develop a very practical theory, namely the (ADR) alignment-dealignment-realignment perspective. Using a sample of 80 questionnaires targeting university administrators in Albania, the authors hypothesise direct linkages between education process, quality of support services, achieving sustainability in higher education. The SSPS statistical package was employed to receive reliability analysis, Spearman’s correlation, and Chi-square test results. If from one side, budgeting, research, human resource issues, and student’s matters are found to have a strong positive monotonic correlation between both, quantity-quality aspects, and information given on a timely basis, the academic policies and degree programs are showing a weak relationship. Additionally, different management categories have different opinions regarding the reasons for which the problem in the HE system occurs. The survey analysis provides valuable insights regarding the existing communication gap among the university administrators and the challenges of HEIs.
    Keywords: sustainability; HEIs; model; perspectives.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEED.2023.10043670
     
  • IS FINANCIAL RESOURCES THE ONLY FACTOR THAT CAUSES LOW OPPORTUNITIES FOR CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES TO PARTICIPATE IN SCHOOL?   Order a copy of this article
    by Hardius Usman, Nucke Widowati Kusumo Projo 
    Abstract: Our research objectives are to investigate the effect of household income, the region of residence, and gender on the opportunity of children with disabilities (CWDs) to attend school, to propose policy implications for increasing the quality of CWDs in Indonesia. Our research uses the national socio-economic survey data from BPS Statistics Indonesia in 2018 and uses sub sample of CWDs, with ages 6 to 18 years. The analysis involved is a cross-tabulation analysis and the multinomial logit model. The results highlight the positive effect of household income on the opportunity of attending school among CWD’s. The chance of CWD’s to drop out of school in rural areas is higher than in urban areas. Both boys and girls have a high risk of falling out of school. For CWDs in rural areas, the main problem is not to encourage CWDs to participate in schools, but rather to keep them in school.
    Keywords: children with disabilities; education; household income; rural; urban; gender.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEED.2023.10043823
     
  • Assessing and ranking the performance of higher education institutions: A non-radial super efficiency DEA approach   Order a copy of this article
    by Mushtaq Taleb, Ruzelan Khalid, Mamdooh AttAllah, Qaiser Abdul Kareem, Razamin Ramli 
    Abstract: In this era of global competition, higher education institutions (HEIs) are important institutions for social development and economic sustainability of a country. Thus, the efficiency of HEIs should always be evaluated to maintain their quality and improve their performance through various strategic planning. Such efficiency evaluation can be performed using data envelopment analysis (DEA). One of the prominent models of DEA is a super efficiency slacks-based measure (SE-SBM) model that can simultaneously deal with input and output slacks. However, the model has not much been used to evaluate the efficiency of HEIs. To address this gap, this paper utilises SBM and SE-SBM models to assess the efficiency of 41 research and teaching universities in Taiwan. The results showed that 25 universities achieved the super efficiency status, with the top ranked are the best DMUs consuming their educational inputs to produce their educational outputs.
    Keywords: data envelopment analysis; higher education institutions; super efficiency slacks-based measure; Taiwanese universities.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEED.2023.10044759
     
  • Modelling the private for-profit higher education market with peer effects and informational asymmetry   Order a copy of this article
    by Quang Hoa Duong, Khang Do Ba 
    Abstract: We develop two models of private for-profit universities to analyse the market structure at long-run equilibrium. The first model indicates that peer effects cause the universities at equilibrium to stratify along their selectivity levels. With informational asymmetry added, the second model shows that at each selectivity level there may be so-called dishonest universities that prey on uninformed students by offering the lowest possible quality at the same high tuition fees as other universities. We discuss policy implications, and present new insights from the findings to help explain empirical observations and contribute to the ongoing debate on the role of the for-profit sector in higher education.
    Keywords: private for-profit universities; long-run equilibrium; tuition; selectivity; peer effects; informational asymmetry; market stratification; competitive models of higher education.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEED.2022.10044281
     
  • Students' and teachers' perception of the teaching-learning process: what brings them together or apart   Order a copy of this article
    by Carlos Arriaga Costa, Orlando Petiz Pereira 
    Abstract: New teaching methodologies have sought greater integration with the learning process. Ideas of excellence and efficiency are now part of the educational objectives, whereas the result of the evaluation is a key tool in the process of selection and visibility. However, the traditional culture of knowledge transmission still seems to remain and, in a sense, hinder these metamorphoses. This study unveils our concern about the students' and teachers' perceptions regarding the distribution of tasks: which ones are to be performed individually and which ones should be shared, in the teaching-learning process. Evidence shows that students and teachers still assign responsibility to the teacher regarding the monitoring and evaluation of students. However, a significant number of students wish to assume or share part of these responsibilities, in particular with regards to the definition of the work plan and evaluation criteria.
    Keywords: learning process tasks; teaching process tasks; new teaching approaches; student role; teacher's role; university; teaching-learning process; pedagogy; service-learning; who evaluates.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEED.2022.10044282
     
  • The impact of online learning on student satisfaction during the COVID-19 pandemic in Indonesia   Order a copy of this article
    by Jonathan Djuwandi, Al Amin Samsu Niang, Willy Gunadi 
    Abstract: Many studies have discussed the factors that influence student satisfaction in both offline and online learning. However, COVID-19 forced students in Indonesia to transition from offline to online learning. This research aims to reveal the effect of online learning on student satisfaction during this period. The authors examined the findings from university students and literature discussing online learning, and factors that influenced student satisfaction. The results gathered from the quantitative study showed that students that had a high degree of satisfaction in online learning also excelled in academic performance. The importance of the findings of this research and proof of the hypotheses are discussed.
    Keywords: class interaction; instructor performance; learning convenience; online learning; student satisfaction; Indonesia.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEED.2022.10044283
     
  • University selectivity: does it correlate with graduates' wages? Evidence from Chile   Order a copy of this article
    by Oscar Espinoza, Luis Sandoval, Luis Eduardo González, Noel McGinn 
    Abstract: This paper explores the relationship between university selectivity and graduates' wages. Holding other factors constant, do employers award higher salaries to graduates of universities that impose higher admission requirements? The study looks at wage returns to Chilean graduates in two different disciplines in three universities. The participants were 587 graduates. The results reveal a positive relationship between these factors at high and low selectivity, but not in the middle range. There is no concrete evidence that training in the higher selectivity university is of higher quality. The results advance our understanding of how higher education can contribute to income inequality, but are generalisable only to the two disciplines studied.
    Keywords: university selectivity graduates; wages; income inequality; Chile.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEED.2022.10044285
     
  • Education and economic growth in a developing country   Order a copy of this article
    by Kalé Akwei, Misheck Mutize, Abdul Latif Alhassan 
    Abstract: Quality education is one of the 17 United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) for its 2030 vision to 'transform the world'. It is assumed that, investment in inclusive and equitable quality education opens economic opportunities for all and has a long-term positive impact on economic growth. This paper thus examines the impact of education on economic growth in Togo, a developing country, using the autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) error correction model (ECM) estimation method on time series data from 1971 to 2018. Results of the short-run estimations show a significant positive relationship between education and GDP per capita. However, long-run estimations results show a negative relationship between education and GDP per capita growth. Thus, the study recommends governments to increase investment in education in the short term.
    Keywords: SDGs 2030; education; economic growth; GDP per capita; United Nations.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEED.2022.10044287