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International Journal of Education Economics and Development

International Journal of Education Economics and Development (IJEED)

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International Journal of Education Economics and Development (37 papers in press)

Regular Issues

  • Antecedents of satisfaction and continuance intention towards e-learning adoption in school education in India - teachers’ perspective during COVID-19 pandemic   Order a copy of this article
    by Pankaj Kumar, Parveen Kumar, Raj Kumar, Nitu Kumari, Vaibhav Aggarwal 
    Abstract: The present study examines the foremost antecedents of teachers’ satisfaction and continuance intention towards the adoption of e-learning in the school education system in India during the COVID-19 pandemic. Data was collected through an online Google form from 297 teachers (278 considered usable) of private senior secondary schools in Gurugram, Haryana, India, using the purposive sampling technique and was analysed by performing partial least squares-structural equation modelling (PLS-SEM). The study revealed that institutional support followed by computer self-efficacy, teacher-student interaction, and perceived usefulness positively and significantly impact teachers’ satisfaction towards e-learning adoption in school education in India. Notably, teachers’ continuance intention towards online teaching in private schools is significantly affected by computer self-efficacy rather than that of teachers’ satisfaction and perceived usefulness. The present study has several important administrative implications for India’s schooling system as administrators are the significant decision-makers regarding implementing online education modes.
    Keywords: India; school; e-learning; teachers’ satisfaction; continuance intention.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEED.2023.10046507
  • The Impact of Female Off-farm Wage Employment on Child School Enrolment in Lesotho   Order a copy of this article
    by ErnestNgeh Tingum, Nkhethuoa Makhorole, Obrien Muine Samahiya 
    Abstract: Using data from the Lesotho-Household Budget Survey (HBS) 2017, this paper analyses the impact of female off-farm wage employment on child school enrolment. The paper focuses on the rural areas, where 58% of the population is concentrated. The theoretical model is based on the household bargaining model. Empirical analysis employs various econometric techniques the probit model, the IV probit model and the Heckman selection model. The findings point to a positive effect of female off-farm wage employment on child schooling. Relative to their counterparts, children from households with female off-farm wage employment are 5% more likely to be enrolled in school. Other factors such as the age and gender of a child; age, education and gender of the household head are also found to be important for child schooling. Furthermore, the results show that female off-farm wage employment is more important for boys than girls. The school enrolment of boys in the rural areas of Lesotho is inhibited by various factors, which explains their low school enrolment rates vis-
    Keywords: female; off-farm; employment; enrolment; rural households; Lesotho.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEED.2023.10046508
  • High School Dropout in South Africa: Evidence from Individual-level Panel Data   Order a copy of this article
    by Godstime Eigbiremolen, Jonathan Ogbuabor, Makuachukwu Ojide 
    Abstract: This paper examines the determinants of high school dropout, using longitudinal data from South Africa. Employing a random-effects probit model, we account for possible selection bias in the decision to dropout from high school by estimating both observable and unobservable factors that determine high school dropout. We allow for both parametric and non-parametric distributions of individual-specific unobserved heterogeneity in our estimations. Empirical results show that ignoring unobserved individual differences understates the likelihood of dropping out of high school and the probability of completing high school education. Results further identify little or no mother’s education, being black or coloured, poor academic performance, low innate ability, teacher’s absenteeism, and living in an urban area as observable factors that drive selection into high school dropout.
    Keywords: high school dropout; high school completion; unobserved heterogeneity; random-effects.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEED.2023.10047827
  • Intrapreneurial intentions of undergraduate university students: A comparative study between Spanish and Nicaraguan students.   Order a copy of this article
    by Pedro Baena Luna, Isadora Sánchez-Torné, Kevin Rodríguez-Loáisiga, Esther García-Río 
    Abstract: Higher education is currently facing several challenges as a result of an uncertain environment. This has led to a demand from organisations for employees with an entrepreneurial, innovative, and risk-taking profile in a global environment. These traits are characteristic of the so-called intrapreneurs. This paper compares the intrapreneurial intentions of university students in Spain and Nicaragua by analysing the effect of the variables age, gender, previous professional experience and entrepreneurial or intrapreneurial training. Based on a total sample of 474 students, among the main results, we highlight the fact that Nicaraguan students have a higher assessment of innovation and risk-taking than Spanish students. In addition, age and professional experience are common variables that improve innovation and risk-taking for both groups. Although there is no gender gap among Nicaraguan students, in Spanish students women are rated lower than men.
    Keywords: intrapreneurship; intrapreneurial intentions; entrepreneurial education; university students; prior professional experience; risk-taking; innovation; Spain; Nicaragua.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEED.2023.10047866
  • Does child labor affect school absenteeism? Evidence from some selected lower-middle-income countries   Order a copy of this article
    by Sajib Chowdhury, Mohammed Ziaul Haider 
    Abstract: This study attempts to investigate the impact of child labour on school absenteeism by using the multiple indicator cluster survey (MICS3) dataset of purposively selected five lower-middle-income countries. Logistic regression, Tobit and negative binomial regression have been used to trace out the association. The study samples include primary and secondary level students. This study finds that approximately one-fifth of the students in Bangladesh, three out of every ten students in Djibouti, and one out of every ten students in Vietnam, Nigeria, and Ukraine missed more than one-day per week. The empirical analysis suggests that age, parental education, and wealth status negatively influence school absenteeism. Interestingly, the study finds that increasing hours of child work is significantly positively related to school absenteeism for all the countries. Therefore, this study recommends strengthening the cash transfer program and focusing on parental involvement in children’s education to address the problems.
    Keywords: absenteeism; child labour; student; MICS3; lower-middle-income country; LMIC.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEED.2023.10048396
  • Minding the challenges: exploring the meaning of practicum for development of student teachers’ self-efficacy beliefs   Order a copy of this article
    by Elmedina Nikoçeviq-Kurti 
    Abstract: The purpose of this study was to understand the perceptions of student teachers, mentor teachers, and university supervisors about mentoring practices and their relevance to the level of student teachers’ self-efficacy. The survey was conducted with a sample of 110 third-year student teachers. The survey completed was the TSES instrument. Interviews were conducted with five student teachers, five university supervisors, and five mentor teachers. The thematic analysis method was used for analysing qualitative data. Student teachers reported the lowest levels of self-efficacy beliefs in the classroom management domain. 90% of students surveyed felt more effective in adjusting lessons to the proper level for students, while only 64% of them indicated that they can control disruptive behaviour in the classroom. Qualitative data reported that respondents valued regular student monitoring, providing feedback and an evaluation based on reflection and concrete tasks as the main promoter of student teachers' self-efficacy in teaching.
    Keywords: teaching practicum; teaching self-efficacy; student teacher; mentor teacher; university supervisor.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEED.2023.10048437
    by Nguyen Thi Khanh Chi, Nguyen Duc Trung 
    Abstract: Social responsibility is an important element in any organisation because it brings benefits not only to the organisation itself but also to society, social well-beings and economic development. For universities that are seeking to create and enhance their reputation and service quality, implementing social responsibility becomes a prerequisite. By applying the quantitative research method, the data was collected by launching surveys to students who are studying at bachelor program and learning master programs at five universities in the north of Vietnam. Structural equation modelling through SPSS AMOS 20.0 was employed to analyse data. The results suggest that building responsible education training, managing the internal organisation, and social engagement are the essential elements in implementing social responsibility. This study also presents the important role of university commitment in enhancing the relationship between social responsibility, service and university reputation.
    Keywords: social responsibility; university policy; university reputation; service quality.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEED.2023.10048572
  • The effect of education and investment on per capita GDP   Order a copy of this article
    by Dani Rahman Hakim, Iin Rosini 
    Abstract: This study analysed the effect of education and investment on per capita GDP in Indonesia. This study used mean years of schooling, national secondary school test score, and secondary school student enrolment as education proxies. Meanwhile, the investment in this study was proxied by foreign and domestic investment (DI). This study employed panel data from 34 Provinces of Indonesia during the 2013 to 2019 period with a one-way error component regression model. This study revealed that education could positively affect per capita gross domestic product (GDP) if it were proxied by mean years of schooling and secondary school student enrolment. This study also found that DI proved to have a positive and significant effect on per capita GDP. The results of this study are robust after controlling the incremental capital-output ratio (ICOR) and Gini ratio.
    Keywords: education; GDP; investment.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEED.2023.10048573
  • Crafting future entrepreneurs from emerging adults: what matters more personality or context?   Order a copy of this article
    by Tamara Jovanov Apasieva, Mila Mitreva, Katerina Fotova Cikovic 
    Abstract: This paper analyses the effect of an integrated set of factors personality traits and contextual variables on the entrepreneurial intention (EI) of emerging adults. Data were analysed with confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) for evaluating the model and stepwise multiple regression analysis for hypotheses testing. The key personality trait variable associated with the intent of emerging adults to open a business in future is the internal locus of control. (LOC) Two additional variables with significant association with EI are contextual variables: perceived barriers (PB) (a negative association) and perceived support factors (PS) (a positive association). Contrary to other studies, the authors did not find risk-taking propensity (RTP) to be associated with EI. This calls for additional research. The increase in emerging adults social inclusion through self-employment is of great importance, so policymakers and the scientific community should search for the underlying factors that promote or hinder the entrepreneurial intentions of these young people.
    Keywords: entrepreneurial intentions; personality traits; contextual variables; emerging adults.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEED.2023.10048768
  • Efficiency and its affecting factors in the Faculties of Urmia University of Medical Sciences: DEA approach and Tobit regression   Order a copy of this article
    by Bahram Nabilou, Hassan Khorsandi, Ali Reza Chavshin, Aram Feizi, Hasan Yusefzadeh 
    Abstract: Evaluating the performance of universities has a major effect on improving the quality of the university. This study aimed to investigate the performance and efficiency of the faculties of Urmia University of Medical Sciences and its effective factors in the education and research sectors. The average technical efficiency of the studied faculties in the research and education sectors were 0.71 and 0.6, respectively. According to the Tobit model, the highest contribution and importance in the efficiency of faculties among the input and output variables of the research and education were identified. Increasing the efficiency of faculties in the fields of education and research indicates the use of new educational technologies by faculties and also the use of experienced and motivated professors. The results can be used as a framework to connect the performance indicators and efficiency of faculties with their budgets.
    Keywords: data envelopment analysis; DEA; technical efficiency; faculty; education; research.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEED.2023.10048926
  • The Effect of Educational Mismatch on The Turkish Manufacturing Industry   Order a copy of this article
    by Halit Yanikkaya, Pinar Tat 
    Abstract: This article explores the educational mismatch for 23 Turkish industries using all available the household labour force surveys (LFSs) and annual industry and service statistics from 2004 to 2015. The main aim of this paper is first to evaluate the educational mismatch levels in the Turkish industries and then analyse its effects on the industrial total factor productivity (TFP), labour productivity, and wages. For the industrial TFP, the dynamic panel data estimations suggest that the mean value of over education years decreases the growth rate of TFP. Therefore, the widespread existence of educational mismatch implies an efficiency loss in Turkish manufacturing industries from the period 2004 to 2015. For industrial labour productivity, the modal value of education increases the labour productivity whereas there is no significant effect on industrial wages. This means that the Turkish manufacturing industries could benefit by employing more workers with the required level of schooling. This paper also controls for the birth cohort of workers to check the sensitivity of the results. These sensitivity checks consistently imply that the conclusions of this study are substantially robust to the utilisation of different specifications.
    Keywords: educational mismatch; total factor productivity; TFP; labour productivity; wages; Turkey; industries.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEED.2023.10048927
  • Culture and Education as Factors Affecting Entrepreneurship in Spain: an Analysis of Expert Opinion   Order a copy of this article
    by Jesús García-Álvarez, Ana Vázquez-Rodríguez, Daniel Sáez-Gambín 
    Abstract: This article focuses on the Spanish context, which is characterised by high rates of unemployment and social exclusion, in which entrepreneurship can drive innovation and economic growth. The objective was to analyse culture and education as factors affecting entrepreneurship from expert opinion on the subject. The study used the most recent data on Spain in the global entrepreneurship monitor (GEM) database. Following a descriptive analysis, quantitative analyses were performed using non-parametric tests. The results indicated that the experts were not optimistic that culture or education were factors that would encourage entrepreneurship. Our findings support the view that the evaluation of entrepreneurship is affected by variables such as gender, the type of degree obtained, and professional area. The findings of the study indicate the need to reinforce entrepreneurship education and training (EET) in order to compensate for social inequalities that affect the decision to start a business venture.
    Keywords: entrepreneurship; entrepreneurship education and training; EET; culture; education and training systems; gender; degree type; professional area; global entrepreneurship monitor; GEM.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEED.2023.10048928
  • Re-thinking human capital acquisition for entrepreneurship: A holistic multidimensional approach   Order a copy of this article
    by Otitooluwa Dosumu, Nadia Simoes, Nuno Crespo 
    Abstract: Given the substantial interest around the study of entrepreneurship, understanding the intricate network of factors that explain the decisions about human capital is of critical importance. Decisions concerning knowledge, skills and abilities are multidimensional since there are many modes, categories, and components of human capital acquisition. Human capital may come from a set of choices or a set of processes. The choices and processes are disaggregated into four categories: 1) what human capital entrepreneurs choose to acquire 2) where they want to acquire such human capital 3) how they want to acquire the human capital 4) when they want to acquire human capital. Furthermore, it is also important to understand the drivers/motivations of entrepreneurs regarding human capital acquisition. This paper is an in-depth organisation and review of the existing literature. We present a roadmap connecting the points that remain disperse and fragmented. In addition, suggestions for future research are provided.
    Keywords: entrepreneurship; human capital; learning; choices; investment; knowledge.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEED.2023.10049724
    by Fidan Ibrahimi 
    Abstract: The aim of the study was to find out whether there is a relationship between school grades and high school student motivation. Participants of this study where 11 and 12 grade students (N = 152) in three high schools: Sami Frasheri, Xhevdet Doda and Dr. Ali Sokoli in Kosovo. The data was collected by questionnaire that was created for the purpose of this study and that was based on motivation theories. The data was analysed by factor analysis. Also in this study for further analysis were used inferential statistics such as correlation, ANOVA and multiple regression analysis. Four factors were extracted by analysing the questionnaire, using the common factors method: intrinsic motivation, parents as an incentive, rating as an incentive and teacher as an incentive for teaching engagement. The correlation results show that school success is significantly associated with all of the factors and therefore we can conclude that there is statistically significant association between school grades and motivation. Also, the results from multiple regression show that as an incentive and teacher as an incentive for teaching engagement have a statistically significant effect on school grades.
    Keywords: motivation; school grade; assessment; correlation; high school student.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEED.2024.10049996
  • Reality of distance learning facing educational caused by Covid-19 pandemic among Jordanian university students with disabilities   Order a copy of this article
    by Worud Awamleh  
    Abstract: The current study aimed at identifying the reality of distance learning facing the educational crisis caused by COVID-19 pandemic among university students with disabilities in Jordanian universities. To achieve the aims of the study, the researcher designed a questionnaire of four domains: (distance learning services provided to students with disabilities, technical challenges bounding the application of the distance learning process on students, challenges facing faculty members, and appropriate solutions for the success of the effectiveness of distance education). The study tool, the questionnaire, was distributed to a sample of (440) students with disabilities (motor, auditory, and visual) in three Jordanian universities. The results indicated that the reality of distance learning facing the educational crisis caused by COVID-19 pandemic among Jordanian universities’ students with disabilities was relatively average. Further, they concluded that there was a realisation of distance learning among university students with disabilities, which does not meet the desired degree of efficacy and influence.
    Keywords: distance learning; the educational crisis; corona pandemic; COVID-19; students with disabilities.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEED.2024.10050572
  • Mapping the intellectual structure of Non-Performing Assets: A Bibliometric Study   Order a copy of this article
    by Biswajit Prasad Chhatoi  
    Abstract: The rising non-performing assets (NPAs)/non-performing loans (NPLs) have become an economic predicament and an alarming factor for developing economies in India. With a purpose to quantitatively assess the progress of the field of research on NPAs, the authors of this work have deployed bibliometric technique to 785 documents retrieved from the Scopus citation database. Analysing the data obtained for a period 2000 to 2019, we explored trends of citations, prominent authors and journals, emerging fields of study within NPAs and keyword analysis. The network analysis has been performed using VOSviewer to exhibit bibliographic coupling of authors and keywords. The study found that NPA has drawn significant attention by the scholars, and Ghose was found to be highly productive among them. Similarly, journal Bank and Bank Systems was ascertained as the most contributing journal to this field. The European Central Bank was most influential through its promising output and publications.
    Keywords: non-performing assets; NPAs; non-performing loans; NPLs; bibliometric analysis; VOSviewer; bad loans; credit risk; credit pollution.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEED.2023.10050758
  • Impact of Academic Support on Students’ Intrinsic Motivation: A Transition Economy Perspective   Order a copy of this article
    by Julie Jacob, D. Asokk, Prasanna S 
    Abstract: It is debatable whether the cross-cultural relevance of academic support has universal implications for students’ achievement and cognitive learning processes. The salient features of doctoral education include faculty mentorship that fosters intellectual advancement and progressive freedom. This prospective study applied self-determination theory to investigate the impact of supervisor support on students’ motivation in transitioning collectivistic educational settings. The study includes self-reported measures of doctoral students (n = 400) from various higher education institutions in India. According to the results, the supervisor’s research-related support and voice autonomy support appeared to have a significant impact on students’ intrinsic motivation. The study provides valuable insights into faculty mentoring and student professional socialisation. The article addresses the implications of the findings for educational research and contemporary scholarly practices.
    Keywords: self-determination theory; SDT; higher education; academic support; supervisor support; personal support; autonomy; intrinsic motivation; transition economy.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEED.2024.10050908
  • Students' Satisfaction from Online Learning: Structural Equation Modeling Analysis Based on Students' Perception in Higher Educational Institutions in India   Order a copy of this article
    by Manoj Panwar, Pankaj Kumar, Ramesh Kumar Garg, Parveen Kumar, Vaibhav Aggarwal 
    Abstract: This study examines the foremost antecedents of students’ satisfaction with online learning in higher educational institutions (HEIs) in northern India during the COVID-19 pandemic. Data was collected through an online Google form from 2,658 (2,597 considered usable) enrolled students in HEIs in northern India using the purposive sampling technique. The data were analysed using exploratory factor analysis and structural equation modelling (SEM) using AMOS. Results revealed that learning environment, barricades, and advantages to learner are positively and significantly correlated with students’ satisfaction, whereas challenges had a negative and insignificant correlation with students’ satisfaction. Most notably, the significant impact of the learning environment on students’ satisfaction is major, followed by barricades, advantages to learners, and challenges. This study will contribute to future research for measuring the student’s perception of the adoption of online learning in diverse educational institutions.
    Keywords: India; online learning; students’ satisfaction; higher educational institutions; HEIs; structural equation modelling; SEM.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEED.2024.10050911
  • Entrepreneurial University Ecosystems: Does it matter the country’s development in the Entrepreneurial Intention of a Public University   Order a copy of this article
    by Delia Lizette Huezo Ponce, Ana Montes-Merino, Paola Isabel Rodríguez-Gutiérrez, Margarita Orozco-Gómez 
    Abstract: Entrepreneurial ecosystems in universities are a framework to understand since entrepreneurship is a viable career option after a crisis. However, public universities are vital institutions that provide education in all disciplines and receive most young people interested in learning. Thus, one question comes to mind when the unit of analysis is the public university in a developed country. Does the entrepreneurial university ecosystem matter to improve the entrepreneurial intention of their students? This research frames a global sample of 436 students, 220 (Spain) and 216 (Mexico), students suitable for structural equation modelling. Findings suggest a significant relationship between entrepreneurial university ecosystems and the public university; the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) is a crucial mediator and the kind of country not moderate. It contributes to understanding the entrepreneurial contexts for public universities and allows to follow a classification of entrepreneurial university ecosystems as the university-based entrepreneurial ecosystems (U-BEEs).
    Keywords: entrepreneurial university ecosystems; European university; entrepreneurial intention; public university; Spanish university.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEED.2023.10051053
  • Entrepreneurs’ perceptions of their entrepreneurial process: a qualitative analysis of in-depth interviews with Education graduates in the Basque Country, Spain   Order a copy of this article
    by Jessica Panos-Castro, María José Bezanilla, Leire Markuerkiaga 
    Abstract: Entrepreneurship is necessary for the economic development of societies. Universities play a key role in this process by fostering entrepreneurship and promoting entrepreneurial skills. Studies show that entrepreneurship is largely mainstreamed into economics faculties; however, a multidisciplinary approach should be adopted to work across different fields. The aim of this study is to explore how graduates from faculties and schools of education in the Autonomous Region of the Basque Country (Spain) perceive the factors that have influenced their entrepreneurial process, in order to establish good practices, and to highlight strengths and weaknesses. A qualitative methodology was used by conducting and analysing 20 in-depth interviews. The main conclusions point to the lack of development of entrepreneurial skills in universities, the use of traditional methodologies by teaching staff, entrepreneurs’ passion and their desire to create companies that possess specific hallmark characteristics, among others.
    Keywords: graduates; faculty of education; entrepreneurship; entrepreneurs; Basque Country; self-perception; qualitative analysis; interviews; Entrepreneurial University; case analysis.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEED.2023.10051448
  • Weaknesses of Entrepreneurship Education in Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics Education in Developing Countries: Empirical Evidence of Kosovo   Order a copy of this article
    by But Dedaj, Mjellma Carabregu Vokshi, Gokcen Ogruk-Maz, Adel Ben Youssef 
    Abstract: Science, technology engineering and mathematics (STEM) students are supposed to be better equipped to use the new technologies and to customize them for the local needs. But most of STEM students are not 'born for entrepreneurship '. Their low level of entrepreneurship awareness may be due to lack of entrepreneurship education. Determining a way to establish an entrepreneurship education, especially for STEM students, and evaluating its impacts on economic and social change is complex, particularly in developing countries (DCs). Our paper seeks to contribute to this debate by examining the case of Kosovo. The objective is to understand the reasons of the lack of entrepreneurship education for STEM students and to review the current strategy of Kosovo in tackling the entrepreneurship education for STEM students. The paper stresses at least three complementary reasons linked to the entrepreneurial ecosystem, the behaviour of higher education institutions (HEI) and the behaviour of the students.
    Keywords: entrepreneurship education; STEM; curricula; Kosovo; developing countries.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEED.2023.10051536
  • Role of Education Human Capital in ICT-Trade Relationship   Order a copy of this article
    by Md. Shariful Islam, Md.Ziaul Haque, Syed Nazrul Islam, Abir Hassan, Md. Mahbubul Alam 
    Abstract: The study investigates how ICT affects trade because of prior effect of education human capital on ICT using gravity panel model for the period 2000 to 2018 including 130 countries. First, we find positive and significant relationship between ICT use and bilateral merchandise exports flows. Second, the findings indicate that higher ICT use by both the exporting and importing country has a positive impact on exports of countries with higher education human capital. The effects of interaction between ICT and human capital on exports flows from low-and middle-income to high income countries as well as trade between low and middle-income countries are positive and significant for the exporter country. The interaction terms on trade flows involving high-income countries as exporters, in contrast, are negatively significant. For importers, interaction has positive and significant effects except trade flows from high-income to low-and middle-income countries, where it asserts positive but insignificant effect.
    Keywords: education human capital; ICT; gravity model; panel data; bilateral exports; high-income countries; low and middle-income countries; Poisson pseudo maximum likelihood; interaction effects.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEED.2024.10051654
  • Digital Technologies adopted by universities to support entrepreneurial students’ spin-offs   Order a copy of this article
    by Ronnie Figueiredo, Álvaro Dias, Maria José Sousa 
    Abstract: This paper presents a theoretical approach based on the systematic literature review (SLR) method. The objective of the study was identifying the digital technologies adopted by universities to support entrepreneurial students ' spin-offs. We identified 98 studies in the first round of Scopus database, in the period from 2004 to 2022, and conclude the analysis with 42 papers, after others rounds. Data collection was performed using the Boolean technique, using the adopted the initial keywords 'digital innovation' and 'university '. The results point to several technologies, in special MOOCs and mobiles application. The study contributes significantly to future research in the field of entrepreneurial universities, which encourage the generation of digital businesses, from the development of spin offs working to the entrepreneurial students.
    Keywords: innovation; spin offs; entrepreneurship; university; management; digital; systematic literature review; SLR.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEED.2023.10051770
  • The role of research-based spin-offs in innovation ecosystems   Order a copy of this article
    by Oscarina Conceição, Cristina Sousa, Margarida Fontes 
    Abstract: The objective of the paper is to contribute to a better understanding of the various roles played by research-based spin-offs (RBSOs) in knowledge dissemination. It investigates if RBSOs act as connectors and knowledge translators, both between different types of organisations within an innovation ecosystem and across different geographical scales and knowledge environments. This latter role has been relatively less investigated but is important to open local innovation ecosystems. The paper analyses the networks formed by Portuguese RBSOs in the context of research, technology and product development projects. The results suggest that RBSOs play an intermediary role in the country’s innovation ecosystem, which can assume different forms. In the national networks, they frequently bridge between research and downstream organisations, contributing to the dissemination of knowledge within the ecosystem. In the international networks, their most important role may be as connectors to and conveyors of advanced knowledge produced in external knowledge environments.
    Keywords: spin-offs; innovation ecosystems knowledge dissemination; inter-firm relationships.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEED.2023.10051997
  • The Influence of Marketing Skills, Entrepreneurship Education, and Entrepreneurial Motivation on the Entrepreneurial Intention of the Students of Universitas Jambi   Order a copy of this article
    by Suratno Suratno, Kuswanto Kuswanto, Yantoro Yantoro, Hidayatul Arief 
    Abstract: This study examines the effect of entrepreneurship education, marketing skills, and entrepreneurial motivation on students’ entrepreneurial intentions. The population in this study were undergraduate students at Jambi University in the final semester of the 2020-2021 academic year. Data were collected using a questionnaire and then analysed using the SEM-PLS model approach. The results of the study indicate that marketing skills and entrepreneurship education directly and indirectly affect entrepreneurial intentions through entrepreneurial motivation. The analysis of the structural equation model that has been determined can be the basis for policy makers at Jambi University to create an entrepreneurial climate through the learning process and other programs to increase student entrepreneurial interest.
    Keywords: marketing skills; entrepreneurship education; entrepreneurial motivation; entrepreneurial intention.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEED.2024.10052043
  • Education and economic growth in Morocco: A causal analysis approach   Order a copy of this article
    by Hicham GOUMRHAR 
    Abstract: This work consists in establishing the nature of the long and/or short term relationship as well as the causal inference between human capital and economic growth in Morocco. In this respect, we adopted an appropriate methodological approach, in particular the dynamic ARDL model, in multivariate analysis, the Cointegration test (Pesaran et al., 2001) as well as the Granger causality test according to the Toda-Yamamoto approach (1995). The results show that investment in human capital, through education, does not seem to have an immediate effect on economic growth in the case of Morocco, but rather is represented as a positive and significant factor for long-term economic growth. Moreover, the causal relationship for the case of Morocco is expressed from production (or growth) to education and that it is not simply a mutual causality relationship.
    Keywords: education; economic growth; GDP per capita; ARDL model; Granger causality; Toda-Yamamoto approach.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEED.2024.10052881
  • Training in social entrepreneurship using educational videos. Description of two different learning experiences   Order a copy of this article
    by Tiziana Priede-Bergamini, Cristina Lopez-Cozar-Navarro 
    Abstract: Due to the situation caused worldwide by the pandemic, many people 's habits and ways of life have been modified. One of the main changes is related to high university learning, which has gone from being face-to-face, to telematics in many cases. This has led to changes in the teaching methodologies and, of course, in the learning resources used by the staff. This paper aims to show, through real experiences developed in two different universities in Madrid, the benefits and the generation of value that the use of information and communication technologies (ICT)-specifically focused on the generation and sharing of teaching videos on social entrepreneurship can contribute to on-line university education. Teaching social entrepreneurship should be based on active learning methodologies and through the interaction between theory and practice. We consider especially important that young university students acquire the entrepreneurial spirit linked with ethical behaviour at work and corporate social responsibility. The experience described in this paper show that these resources from ICT especially educational videos are appropriate for the teaching of social entrepreneurship in the XXIst century under uncertain conditions.
    Keywords: social entrepreneurship; higher education; skills; competences; technologies; university; learning methodologies; ethics; responsibility.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEED.2023.10053103
  • The impact of green human resource management on employee green behaviour in higher education institutions: the mediating role of green self-efficacy.
    by Chetna Sachdeva, Tripti Singh 
    Abstract: The paper uses ability-motivation-opportunity (AMO) theory and social cognitive theory (SCT) to explore the effects of green human resource management (GHRM) on employee green behaviour (EGB) and green selfefficacy (GSE) and examine a mediating effect of GSE in the relationship between GHRM and EGB in higher education institutions in India. An empirical study is undertaken using questionnaires amongstacademicians (n = 175) working in higher education institutions (HEIs) in India. Subsequent hypothesis testing is done through structural equation modelling in AMOS 22.0 version. The findings indicate that GHRM is asignificant predictor of EGB and GSE. Furthermore, GSE demonstrated partial mediation in GHRM-EGB relationship. The results suggest that policymakers in higher education institutions must introduce and appreciate systems to promote green behaviour in individuals. This study contributes to GHRM and EGB literature in the context of HEIs in India and is the first to consider GSE as a mediating instrument.
    Keywords: green human resource management; GHRM; green self-efficacy; GSE; employee green behaviour; EGB; higher education institutions; HEIs.

    by Mukul Bhatnagar, Sanjay Taneja, PAWAN KUMAR, Ercan Özen 
    Abstract: Small and medium-sized enterprise plays a significant role in economic development by creating jobs, increasing wealth, and reducing poverty. The present study was conducted in the industrial area of Chandigarh, Mohali and Panchkula (India). Data was collected from entrepreneurial and managerial classes of the SME sector through a questionnaire through direct personal investigation. The survey was conducted using the questionnaire’s non-probability purposive sampling method. The findings indicate that financial education is the most significant factor affecting SME success, followed by access to financing, which considerably affects SME performance. The data suggests that financial risk has a negative effect on SME performance, although the impact is not statistically significant. Furthermore, the significance of a variable’s power may be determined by examining whether the sample means fall within confidence intervals. SMEs should be well educated to access alternative funding channels to the banking system that provide feasible alternatives for accomplishing value creation objectives.
    Keywords: small and medium-sized enterprises; SMEs; financial literacy; access to finance; financial risk.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEED.2023.10053629
    by Tatjana Cvetkovski, Ana Langovic Milicevic, Violeta Cvetkovska Tomanovic, Zlatko Langovic 
    Abstract: Organisations need to have continuity in knowledge development. This means that they have to engage existing staff, who unfortunately retire or leave organisation due to better job opportunities. This is especially true for Serbia. From the other side, negative population growth, high brain drain and not so great educational structure of working-age population are reality. This can lead to knowledge risks associated with the organisations inability to reach competent staff in the future. Therefore, solution could be found in recruitment of final year students. We conduct student surveys at two universities in Serbia, one private-owned and one state-owned and found that students in Serbia have clear expectations of future employers in terms of recruitment and job characteristics. They pretty much rely on new technologies in the recruitment process and want similar things as their colleagues from abroad. Research gave us opportunity to provide insights in students' expectations and employer opportunities in Serbia.
    Keywords: Students' expectations; recruitment; employer; labour market; human resources; Serbia.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEED.2024.10054059
    by Tabassum Sherwani Khan, Muhammad Bashir Gondal 
    Abstract: The study aimed to determine relationship between academic stress and academic achievement of the students at formal operational stage. The study also identified students’ perceptions about academic stressors. 10th grade students from 36 schools, selected under stratified cluster random sampling technique, formed the sample of the study. To assess the perception of students about their academic stress, a scale was developed by the researchers. The academic achievement of the students was measured by their scores in 9th grade BISE examination. The study found a moderate negative correlation between academic stress and academic achievement of students. The results showed no significant difference in the academic stress as reported by the students on the basis of gender, however, the students studying science subjects reported higher academic stress as compared to the students studying arts subjects. The participants perceived workload, COVID-19 and exam pressure as major academic stressors.
    Keywords: academic stress; academic achievement adolescence; COVID-19; formal operational stage; academic stressors; correlational research.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEED.2024.10054714
  • Assessing developing countries students' achievements in international educational testing by socio-economic status across regions, areas, and gender: a case of Vietnam Participating in PISA 2012 and 2015   Order a copy of this article
    by Thi Hong Thu Nguyen, Pierre Lefebvre 
    Abstract: The literature shows the absence of international educational testing regimes of low-income developing countries. This paper addressed three neglected issues related to Vietnamese students' achievements: 1) the link between family background measured by socio-economic status (SES) and educational skills measured by PISA test scores; 2) the association between low and high-parental SES and students' skills; 3) the link between proficiency levels and SES gradient - the issue more important to the success of young adults. Findings presents distributions of SES gradient in academic skills across Vietnam, regions and gender in 2012 using a comparable measure between parental SES and the 2015 reiteration of test scores. A cross-areas variation identifies indirectly the differences in regional school resources that may lead to inequalities of opportunity. The SES gradient estimations not only relate to math, reading and science skills, but also to proficiency levels in the same cognitive domains at different years.
    Keywords: socioeconomic inequalities; PISA; literacy skill; numeracy skill; science skill; proficiency scales; education attainment gradient; region; rural-urban area; gender.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEED.2023.10048670
  • Does PhD enrolment improve the research efficiency of educational institutes? A comparative assessment of Indian universities using data envelopment analysis   Order a copy of this article
    by Sushant Malik, Nisha Bharti, Varnika Gupta 
    Abstract: Today, there is an increased focus on research in Indian universities. The objective of this paper is to determine the research efficiency of the universities and the effects of PhD enrolments on the same. The study uses the National Institutional Ranking Framework (NIRF) data. Two models were used to analyse and compare the research efficiency of universities. The results indicate, to increase the efficiency, the output from the PhD scholars needs to be improved. The results imply that some universities have a high count of PhD students, but their contribution to research is insignificant, resulting in poor research efficiency scores in Model 2. This study concludes that proper policy needs to be framed for minimum research outputs as part of PhD programs. Public and private universities in India should monitor the number of PhD scholars and their output.
    Keywords: higher education; Indian universities; research efficiency; data envelopment analysis; DEA; NIRF.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEED.2023.10043402
  • Improving operational - developmental connections: foregrounding an alignment - dealignment - realignment perspective   Order a copy of this article
    by Eglantina Hysa, Russell Foote 
    Abstract: On the basis of our administrative experiences and gaps in the literature, the authors develop a very practical theory, namely the (ADR) alignment-dealignment-realignment perspective. Using a sample of 80 questionnaires targeting university administrators in Albania, the authors hypothesise direct linkages between education process, quality of support services, achieving sustainability in higher education. The SSPS statistical package was employed to receive reliability analysis, Spearman's correlation, and Chi-square test results. If from one side, budgeting, research, human resource issues, and student's matters are found to have a strong positive monotonic correlation between both, quantity-quality aspects, and information given on a timely basis, the academic policies and degree programs are showing a weak relationship. Additionally, different management categories have different opinions regarding the reasons for which the problem in the HE system occurs. The survey analysis provides valuable insights regarding the existing communication gap among the university administrators and the challenges of HEIs.
    Keywords: sustainability; HEIs; model; perspectives.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEED.2023.10043670
  • Assessing and ranking the performance of higher education institutions: a non-radial super efficiency DEA approach   Order a copy of this article
    by Mushtaq Taleb, Ruzelan Khalid, Mamdooh Attallah, Qaiser Abdul Kareem, Razamin Ramli 
    Abstract: In this era of global competition, higher education institutions (HEIs) are important institutions for social development and economic sustainability of a country. Thus, the efficiency of HEIs should always be evaluated to maintain their quality and improve their performance through various strategic planning. Such efficiency evaluation can be performed using data envelopment analysis (DEA). One of the prominent models of DEA is a super efficiency slacks-based measure (SE-SBM) model that can simultaneously deal with input and output slacks. However, the model has not much been used to evaluate the efficiency of HEIs. To address this gap, this paper utilises SBM and SE-SBM models to assess the efficiency of 41 research and teaching universities in Taiwan. The results showed that 25 universities achieved the super efficiency status, with the top ranked are the best DMUs consuming their educational inputs to produce their educational outputs.
    Keywords: data envelopment analysis; higher education institutions; super efficiency slacks-based measure; Taiwanese universities.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEED.2023.10044759
  • Existence of the money multiplier in a developing economy: a case of Saudi Arabia   Order a copy of this article
    by Razzaque H. Bhatti, Nassar S. Al-Nassar 
    Abstract: In this study, cointegration methods are used to test the existence of the money multiplier model in Saudi Arabia for 1997m1-2020m4 and subperiods before and after the 2008 global financial crisis. Residual-based tests support broad (M2 and M3) multipliers over the full sample and pre-crisis period, albeit the M3 multiplier performs better than the M2 multiplier. Johansen's vector autoregression (VAR) and Pesaran et al. (2001) autoregressive distributed lags (ARDL) cointegration and coefficient restriction tests reveal that broad multipliers perform well. Narrow and broad multipliers are mean-reverting in the pre-crisis period, and the M3 multiplier is mean-reverting over the full sample. These multipliers are stable in a dynamic framework. Therefore, the Saudi Arabian Monetary Authority (SAMA) can control money stock and inflation by controlling base money. Narrow and broad multipliers are also predictable and broad monetary aggregates can influence monetary policy.
    Keywords: monetary policy; money multiplier; bank credit channel; co integration; Saudi Arabia.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEED.2023.10045680
  • Inequality in financial attainment: an exclusion indicator to social development   Order a copy of this article
    by Dinabandhu Bag 
    Abstract: This paper focuses on inter-district inequality in financial attainment by normalising with a reference district. It suggests that the financial achievement of households is more of exclusion and geographic discrimination. The exclusion of rural hamlets from the mainstream is a socio-economic reality that has worsened with geography, socio-demographic or economic barriers. The most banked district of Kangra in Himachal Pradesh is compared against all the 30 districts of Odisha. The tests of dimension wise correlation with components of HDI show significant relations. The FEI (exclusion index) strongly correlates with HDI than the traditional CRISILX-2013. It confirms the test of discrimination. The degree of exclusivity could be lowered with higher branch network capacity.
    Keywords: index; exclusion; HDI; BFSI.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEED.2023.10045697