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International Journal of Education Economics and Development

International Journal of Education Economics and Development (IJEED)

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International Journal of Education Economics and Development (33 papers in press)

Regular Issues

  • Skills-Based Approach and learning outcomes determinants in West Africa   Order a copy of this article
    by Kadio Eric KADIO 
    Abstract: This paper analyses Skills-Based Approach implementation effect on learning outcomes in West Africa. Its expansion was made under multiple goals, including skills improvements, which are related to innovation and productivity in economic literature. However, few works have been devoted to its effect evaluation on pupils outcomes at primary education level. Moreover, the economic analysis has little to say about its contribution to learning quality. To achieve this goal, we estimate a two-level hierarchical linear model where endogeneity bias is corrected by Mundlak estimator adaptation to multilevel data. Our results show the Skills-Based Approach negative impact on achievements, but also, learning disparities related to pupil gender, school location and type, while some institutional factor and family background positively influence students outcomes.
    Keywords: Skills-Based Approach; Primary Education; learning outcomes; Hierarchical linear model; West Africa.

  • Exploring the Spatial Dimensions of College Retention within the Context of Inequality   Order a copy of this article
    by Serkan Catma, Serkan Varol 
    Abstract: Exploring the spatial dimensions of college student retention is critical in order to fully understand the motivation of students dropping out, yet the literature lacks a comprehensive spatial analysis. This study aims to assess the impact of a combination of spatial and institutional predictors on college student retention. A key finding of this research is that the geo-spatial location of a public four-year university in the US is an important determinant of student persistence. Distance to the closest metropolitan area, number of universities within close proximity and local unemployment rate where an institution is located not only impact freshman retention but also reveal important implications for barriers to equal access in higher education. We suggest that administrators and policy makers consider the spatial factors while determining the best management practices and policy tools to address problems pertaining not only to retention but also the accessibility issues in higher education.
    Keywords: student retention; spatial; inequality; affordability; selectivity.

    by Bekim Marmullaku, Avni Arifi 
    Abstract: The objective of this paper is to assess the link between higher education institution in the aspect of development of the curricula and their match with the existing requirements by the employers, which represent the labor market offer in Kosovo. The data used in the paper are gathered form the survey that was conducted by the authors during the period March October 2020, in Republic of Kosovo. The results of the testings done through our econometric models shows that there is a positive relationship in the cooperation between businesses (that is employers) and universities and other higher education institutions, in designing the curricula for study programs and in increasing the employment rates of graduates. Moreover, in the case of businesses this cooperation is positive, while in the case of universities and other higher education institutions no significant results were found.
    Keywords: employment; curricula; higher education institution; private sector.

  • Digital competition and capabilities' augmentation on international cohorts: Evidence from "Case competition 2019"   Order a copy of this article
    by Bruno F. Abrantes, Raquel Lopez Fernandez 
    Abstract: Intertwining the fields of education policy research (EPR) and educational experiment research (EER), this investigation exploits the usage of digital technologies and team-competition to test whether the phenomenon of digital competition yields a divergent (and likely more positive) impact than traditional classroom coursework, measurable on the degree of learning (criterion 1) and satisfaction (criterion 2) within a target population of international higher education students (HES). An event fashioned and simply dubbed as Case Competition, provided the context and virtual environment for a quasi-experiment which assigned participants (the experiment group) to seven teams competing for solving an industry case. Primary data obtained from the latter through an individual anonymized event.
    Keywords: digital competition; higher education; international students; student-centric learning; problem-based learning (PBL).
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEED.2023.10045918
  • Investigating Thai Lecturers Perceptions about Factors Undermined the Reliability of Summative Assessment during COVID-19   Order a copy of this article
    by Mohammed Yassin Mohd Aba Sha'ar, Phanit Singhasuwan, Chamaiporn Buddharat, Pimporn Markphan 
    Abstract: This study aims to examine the impact of COVID 19 on the assessment process in the Thai context. It investigates the factors that undermined the reliability of online summative assessment during COVID 19. 196 lecturers from five faculties voluntarily participated in questionnaires data collection, out of which 15 were conveniently selected for interviews. Descriptive statistics and qualitative content analysis were utilized for data analysis. The findings suggest that COVID 19 affected the assessment process and increased the digital divide among the students. It urges canceling and/or replacing the students assessment with assignments. The findings also show that the reliability of online assessment was undermined by three factors namely students and lecturers digital illiteracy, the possibility of cheating as the lecturers were unable to administer the assessment process, and the inefficiency of online assessment tools to assess students different skills and competencies. Overall, the findings indicate that COVID 19 critically affects the reliability of summative assessments as technology is still underdeveloped in the field of online assessment. Therefore, this study provides a clear view on how the reliability of online assessment is undermined by factors related to students, lecturers, and online assessment tools. It gives the lecturers insights into the threats and possibilities for improving the online assessment process.
    Keywords: reliability; digital literacy; digital divide; COVID 19; assessment process; scaffolding.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEED.2023.10043204
  • Assessing Developing Countries Students Achievements in International Educational Testing by Socio-economic Status across Regions, Areas and Gender: A Case of Vietnam Participating in PISA 2012 and 2015   Order a copy of this article
    by Thi Hong Thu Nguyen, Pierre Lefebvre 
    Abstract: The literature shows the absence of international educational testing regimes of low-income developing countries. This paper addressed three neglected issues related to Vietnamese students achievements: 1) the link between family background measured by socio-economic status (SES) and educational skills measured by PISA test scores; 2) the association between low and high-parental SES and students skills; 3) the link between proficiency levels and SES gradient - the issue more important to the success of young adults. Findings presents distributions of SES gradient in academic skills across Vietnam, regions and gender in 2012 using a comparable measure between parental SES and the 2015 reiteration of test scores. A cross-areas variation identifies indirectly the differences in regional school resources that may lead to inequalities of opportunity. The SES gradient estimations not only relate to maths; reading and science skills, but also to proficiency levels in the same cognitive domains at different years.
    Keywords: socioeconomic inequalities; PISA; literacy; numeracy and science skills; proficiency scales; education attainment gradient; region; rural-urban area; and gender.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEED.2023.10048670
  • Determinants of Education-Job Vertical Mismatch in Urban Ghana   Order a copy of this article
    by Prince Adjei, William Baah-Boateng 
    Abstract: The paper explores the determinants of education-job vertical mismatch in urban Ghana. It uses cross sectional data from the World Bank Skills Toward Employment and Productivity (STEP) surveys of working age urban population and applies the self-assessment method of measuring the incidence of education-job mismatch. The study employs the method of multinomial logit estimation technique to ascertain whether over and undereducated individuals possess a relatively worse bundle of skills than workers who are adequately matched to their jobs in terms of formal education. It identifies gender, marital status, education, skills, occupation and time-to-proficiency as significant determinants of mismatch. The study adduces evidence to the transient nature of mismatch as reflected in time to proficiency’s negative relationship with overeducation and positive link with undereducation. Given the competitiveness of the national and global economic environment, the study provides some policy thoughts towards addressing challenges of skill mismatch.
    Keywords: education-job mismatch; overeducation; undereducation; Ghana.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEED.2023.10042296
  • Does PhD Enrolment Improve the Research Efficiency of Educational Institutes: A Comparative Assessment of Indian Universities Using Data Envelopment Analysis   Order a copy of this article
    by Sushant Malik, Nisha Bharti, Varnika Gupta 
    Abstract: Today, there is an increased focus on research in Indian universities. The objective of this paper is to determine the research efficiency of the universities and the effects of PhD enrolments on the same. The study uses the National Institutional Ranking Framework (NIRF) data. Two models were used to analyse and compare the research efficiency of universities. The results indicate, to increase the efficiency, the output from the PhD scholars needs to be improved. The results imply that some universities have a high count of PhD students, but their contribution to research is insignificant, resulting in poor research efficiency scores in Model 2. This study concludes that proper policy needs to be framed for minimum research outputs as part of PhD programs. Public and private universities in India should monitor the number of PhD scholars and their output.
    Keywords: higher education; Indian universities; research efficiency; data envelopment analysis; DEA; NIRF.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEED.2023.10043402
  • Improving Operational- Developmental Connections: Foregrounding an Alignment- Dealignment- Realignment Perspective   Order a copy of this article
    by Eglantina Hysa, Russell Foote 
    Abstract: basis of our administrative experiences and gaps in the literature, the authors develop a very practical theory, namely the (ADR) alignment-dealignment-realignment perspective. Using a sample of 80 questionnaires targeting university administrators in Albania, the authors hypothesise direct linkages between education process, quality of support services, achieving sustainability in higher education. The SSPS statistical package was employed to receive reliability analysis, Spearman’s correlation, and Chi-square test results. If from one side, budgeting, research, human resource issues, and student’s matters are found to have a strong positive monotonic correlation between both, quantity-quality aspects, and information given on a timely basis, the academic policies and degree programs are showing a weak relationship. Additionally, different management categories have different opinions regarding the reasons for which the problem in the HE system occurs. The survey analysis provides valuable insights regarding the existing communication gap among the university administrators and the challenges of HEIs.
    Keywords: sustainability; HEIs; model; perspectives.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEED.2023.10043670
    by Hardius Usman, Nucke Widowati Kusumo Projo 
    Abstract: Our research objectives are to investigate the effect of household income, the region of residence, and gender on the opportunity of children with disabilities (CWDs) to attend school, to propose policy implications for increasing the quality of CWDs in Indonesia. Our research uses the national socio-economic survey data from BPS Statistics Indonesia in 2018 and uses sub sample of CWDs, with ages 6 to 18 years. The analysis involved is a cross-tabulation analysis and the multinomial logit model. The results highlight the positive effect of household income on the opportunity of attending school among CWD’s. The chance of CWD’s to drop out of school in rural areas is higher than in urban areas. Both boys and girls have a high risk of falling out of school. For CWDs in rural areas, the main problem is not to encourage CWDs to participate in schools, but rather to keep them in school.
    Keywords: children with disabilities; education; household income; rural; urban; gender.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEED.2023.10043823
  • Assessing and ranking the performance of higher education institutions: A non-radial super efficiency DEA approach   Order a copy of this article
    by Mushtaq Taleb, Ruzelan Khalid, Mamdooh AttAllah, Qaiser Abdul Kareem, Razamin Ramli 
    Abstract: In this era of global competition, higher education institutions (HEIs) are important institutions for social development and economic sustainability of a country. Thus, the efficiency of HEIs should always be evaluated to maintain their quality and improve their performance through various strategic planning. Such efficiency evaluation can be performed using data envelopment analysis (DEA). One of the prominent models of DEA is a super efficiency slacks-based measure (SE-SBM) model that can simultaneously deal with input and output slacks. However, the model has not much been used to evaluate the efficiency of HEIs. To address this gap, this paper utilises SBM and SE-SBM models to assess the efficiency of 41 research and teaching universities in Taiwan. The results showed that 25 universities achieved the super efficiency status, with the top ranked are the best DMUs consuming their educational inputs to produce their educational outputs.
    Keywords: data envelopment analysis; higher education institutions; super efficiency slacks-based measure; Taiwanese universities.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEED.2023.10044759
  • Existence of the Money Multiplier in a Developing Economy: A Case of Saudi Arabia   Order a copy of this article
    by Razzaque Bhatti, Nassar Al-Nassar 
    Abstract: In this study, cointegration methods are used to test the existence of the money multiplier model in Saudi Arabia for 1997m1-2020m4 and subperiods before and after the 2008 global financial crisis. Residual-based tests support broad (M2 and M3) multipliers over the full sample and pre-crisis period, albeit the M3 multiplier performs better than the M2 multiplier. Johansen’s vector autoregression (VAR) and Pesaran et al. (2001) autoregressive distributed lags (ARDL) co integration and coefficient restriction tests reveal that broad multipliers perform well. Narrow and broad multipliers are mean-reverting in the pre-crisis period, and the M3 multiplier is mean-reverting over the full sample. These multipliers are stable in a dynamic framework. Therefore, the Saudi Arabian Monetary Authority (SAMA) can control money stock and inflation by controlling base money; narrow and broad multipliers are predictable; broad monetary aggregates can influence monetary policy.
    Keywords: monetary policy; money multiplier; bank credit channel; co integration; Saudi Arabia.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEED.2023.10045680
    by Dinabandhu Bag 
    Abstract: This paper focuses on inter-district inequality in financial attainment by normalising with a reference district. It suggests that the financial achievement of households is more of exclusion and geographic discrimination. The exclusion of rural hamlets from the mainstream is a socio-economic reality that has worsened with geography, socio-demographic or economic barriers. The most banked district of Kangra in Himachal Pradesh is compared against all the 30 districts of Odisha. The tests of dimension wise correlation with components of HDI show significant relations. The FEI (exclusion index) strongly correlates with HDI than the traditional CRISILX-2013. It confirms the test of discrimination. The degree of exclusivity could be lowered with higher branch network capacity.
    Keywords: index; exclusion; HDI; BFSI.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEED.2023.10045697
  • Antecedents of satisfaction and continuance intention towards e-learning adoption in school education in India - teachers’ perspective during COVID-19 pandemic   Order a copy of this article
    by Pankaj Kumar, Parveen Kumar, Raj Kumar, Nitu Kumari, Vaibhav Aggarwal 
    Abstract: The present study examines the foremost antecedents of teachers’ satisfaction and continuance intention towards the adoption of e-learning in the school education system in India during the COVID-19 pandemic. Data was collected through an online Google form from 297 teachers (278 considered usable) of private senior secondary schools in Gurugram, Haryana, India, using the purposive sampling technique and was analysed by performing partial least squares-structural equation modelling (PLS-SEM). The study revealed that institutional support followed by computer self-efficacy, teacher-student interaction, and perceived usefulness positively and significantly impact teachers’ satisfaction towards e-learning adoption in school education in India. Notably, teachers’ continuance intention towards online teaching in private schools is significantly affected by computer self-efficacy rather than that of teachers’ satisfaction and perceived usefulness. The present study has several important administrative implications for India’s schooling system as administrators are the significant decision-makers regarding implementing online education modes.
    Keywords: India; school; e-learning; teachers’ satisfaction; continuance intention.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEED.2023.10046507
  • The Impact of Female Off-farm Wage Employment on Child School Enrolment in Lesotho   Order a copy of this article
    by ErnestNgeh Tingum, Nkhethuoa Makhorole, Obrien Muine Samahiya 
    Abstract: Using data from the Lesotho-Household Budget Survey (HBS) 2017, this paper analyses the impact of female off-farm wage employment on child school enrolment. The paper focuses on the rural areas, where 58% of the population is concentrated. The theoretical model is based on the household bargaining model. Empirical analysis employs various econometric techniques the probit model, the IV probit model and the Heckman selection model. The findings point to a positive effect of female off-farm wage employment on child schooling. Relative to their counterparts, children from households with female off-farm wage employment are 5% more likely to be enrolled in school. Other factors such as the age and gender of a child; age, education and gender of the household head are also found to be important for child schooling. Furthermore, the results show that female off-farm wage employment is more important for boys than girls. The school enrolment of boys in the rural areas of Lesotho is inhibited by various factors, which explains their low school enrolment rates vis-
    Keywords: female; off-farm; employment; enrolment; rural households; Lesotho.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEED.2023.10046508
  • High School Dropout in South Africa: Evidence from Individual-level Panel Data   Order a copy of this article
    by Godstime Eigbiremolen, Jonathan Ogbuabor, Makuachukwu Ojide 
    Abstract: This paper examines the determinants of high school dropout, using longitudinal data from South Africa. Employing a random-effects probit model, we account for possible selection bias in the decision to dropout from high school by estimating both observable and unobservable factors that determine high school dropout. We allow for both parametric and non-parametric distributions of individual-specific unobserved heterogeneity in our estimations. Empirical results show that ignoring unobserved individual differences understates the likelihood of dropping out of high school and the probability of completing high school education. Results further identify little or no mother’s education, being black or coloured, poor academic performance, low innate ability, teacher’s absenteeism, and living in an urban area as observable factors that drive selection into high school dropout.
    Keywords: high school dropout; high school completion; unobserved heterogeneity; random-effects.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEED.2023.10047827
  • Intrapreneurial intentions of undergraduate university students: A comparative study between Spanish and Nicaraguan students.   Order a copy of this article
    by Pedro Baena Luna, Isadora Sánchez-Torné, Kevin Rodríguez-Loáisiga, Esther García-Río 
    Abstract: Higher education is currently facing several challenges as a result of an uncertain environment. This has led to a demand from organisations for employees with an entrepreneurial, innovative, and risk-taking profile in a global environment. These traits are characteristic of the so-called intrapreneurs. This paper compares the intrapreneurial intentions of university students in Spain and Nicaragua by analysing the effect of the variables age, gender, previous professional experience and entrepreneurial or intrapreneurial training. Based on a total sample of 474 students, among the main results, we highlight the fact that Nicaraguan students have a higher assessment of innovation and risk-taking than Spanish students. In addition, age and professional experience are common variables that improve innovation and risk-taking for both groups. Although there is no gender gap among Nicaraguan students, in Spanish students women are rated lower than men.
    Keywords: intrapreneurship; intrapreneurial intentions; entrepreneurial education; university students; prior professional experience; risk-taking; innovation; Spain; Nicaragua.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEED.2023.10047866
  • Does child labor affect school absenteeism? Evidence from some selected lower-middle-income countries   Order a copy of this article
    by Sajib Chowdhury, Mohammed Ziaul Haider 
    Abstract: This study attempts to investigate the impact of child labour on school absenteeism by using the multiple indicator cluster survey (MICS3) dataset of purposively selected five lower-middle-income countries. Logistic regression, Tobit and negative binomial regression have been used to trace out the association. The study samples include primary and secondary level students. This study finds that approximately one-fifth of the students in Bangladesh, three out of every ten students in Djibouti, and one out of every ten students in Vietnam, Nigeria, and Ukraine missed more than one-day per week. The empirical analysis suggests that age, parental education, and wealth status negatively influence school absenteeism. Interestingly, the study finds that increasing hours of child work is significantly positively related to school absenteeism for all the countries. Therefore, this study recommends strengthening the cash transfer program and focusing on parental involvement in children’s education to address the problems.
    Keywords: absenteeism; child labour; student; MICS3; lower-middle-income country; LMIC.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEED.2023.10048396
  • Minding the challenges: exploring the meaning of practicum for development of student teachers’ self-efficacy beliefs   Order a copy of this article
    by Elmedina Nikoçeviq-Kurti 
    Abstract: The purpose of this study was to understand the perceptions of student teachers, mentor teachers, and university supervisors about mentoring practices and their relevance to the level of student teachers’ self-efficacy. The survey was conducted with a sample of 110 third-year student teachers. The survey completed was the TSES instrument. Interviews were conducted with five student teachers, five university supervisors, and five mentor teachers. The thematic analysis method was used for analysing qualitative data. Student teachers reported the lowest levels of self-efficacy beliefs in the classroom management domain. 90% of students surveyed felt more effective in adjusting lessons to the proper level for students, while only 64% of them indicated that they can control disruptive behaviour in the classroom. Qualitative data reported that respondents valued regular student monitoring, providing feedback and an evaluation based on reflection and concrete tasks as the main promoter of student teachers' self-efficacy in teaching.
    Keywords: teaching practicum; teaching self-efficacy; student teacher; mentor teacher; university supervisor.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEED.2023.10048437
    by Nguyen Thi Khanh Chi, Nguyen Duc Trung 
    Abstract: Social responsibility is an important element in any organisation because it brings benefits not only to the organisation itself but also to society, social well-beings and economic development. For universities that are seeking to create and enhance their reputation and service quality, implementing social responsibility becomes a prerequisite. By applying the quantitative research method, the data was collected by launching surveys to students who are studying at bachelor program and learning master programs at five universities in the north of Vietnam. Structural equation modelling through SPSS AMOS 20.0 was employed to analyse data. The results suggest that building responsible education training, managing the internal organisation, and social engagement are the essential elements in implementing social responsibility. This study also presents the important role of university commitment in enhancing the relationship between social responsibility, service and university reputation.
    Keywords: social responsibility; university policy; university reputation; service quality.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEED.2023.10048572
  • The effect of education and investment on per capita GDP   Order a copy of this article
    by Dani Rahman Hakim, Iin Rosini 
    Abstract: This study analysed the effect of education and investment on per capita GDP in Indonesia. This study used mean years of schooling, national secondary school test score, and secondary school student enrolment as education proxies. Meanwhile, the investment in this study was proxied by foreign and domestic investment (DI). This study employed panel data from 34 Provinces of Indonesia during the 2013 to 2019 period with a one-way error component regression model. This study revealed that education could positively affect per capita gross domestic product (GDP) if it were proxied by mean years of schooling and secondary school student enrolment. This study also found that DI proved to have a positive and significant effect on per capita GDP. The results of this study are robust after controlling the incremental capital-output ratio (ICOR) and Gini ratio.
    Keywords: education; GDP; investment.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEED.2023.10048573
  • Household demand for private tutoring in Tunisia   Order a copy of this article
    by Mohieddine Rahmouni, Neji Saidi 
    Abstract: This article is devoted to an analysis of household demand for private tutoring in Tunisia. The data come from the National Household Budget, Consumption and Standard of Living Survey. Logistic regression models are used to determine the association between family socio-economic conditions and the decision to use private tutoring. The results show that the demand for private tutoring is positively linked to a family’s patrimony and its financial capacity. The negative coefficient of the dwelling factor may seem strange given that households which own their dwelling can be considered wealthy people, but this is not the case in Tunisia. Family size is positively and significantly correlated with private tutoring. This can be explained by the particularity of the Tunisian context. Location is an important factor, and households in coastal areas are more motivated for private lessons.
    Keywords: education; private tuition; tutoring; household demand; Tunisia.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEED.2023.10048649
  • Crafting future entrepreneurs from emerging adults: what matters more personality or context?   Order a copy of this article
    by Tamara Jovanov Apasieva, Mila Mitreva, Katerina Fotova Cikovic 
    Abstract: This paper analyses the effect of an integrated set of factors personality traits and contextual variables on the entrepreneurial intention (EI) of emerging adults. Data were analysed with confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) for evaluating the model and stepwise multiple regression analysis for hypotheses testing. The key personality trait variable associated with the intent of emerging adults to open a business in future is the internal locus of control. (LOC) Two additional variables with significant association with EI are contextual variables: perceived barriers (PB) (a negative association) and perceived support factors (PS) (a positive association). Contrary to other studies, the authors did not find risk-taking propensity (RTP) to be associated with EI. This calls for additional research. The increase in emerging adults social inclusion through self-employment is of great importance, so policymakers and the scientific community should search for the underlying factors that promote or hinder the entrepreneurial intentions of these young people.
    Keywords: entrepreneurial intentions; personality traits; contextual variables; emerging adults.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEED.2023.10048768
  • Efficiency and its affecting factors in the Faculties of Urmia University of Medical Sciences: DEA approach and Tobit regression   Order a copy of this article
    by Bahram Nabilou, Hassan Khorsandi, Ali Reza Chavshin, Aram Feizi, Hasan Yusefzadeh 
    Abstract: Evaluating the performance of universities has a major effect on improving the quality of the university. This study aimed to investigate the performance and efficiency of the faculties of Urmia University of Medical Sciences and its effective factors in the education and research sectors. The average technical efficiency of the studied faculties in the research and education sectors were 0.71 and 0.6, respectively. According to the Tobit model, the highest contribution and importance in the efficiency of faculties among the input and output variables of the research and education were identified. Increasing the efficiency of faculties in the fields of education and research indicates the use of new educational technologies by faculties and also the use of experienced and motivated professors. The results can be used as a framework to connect the performance indicators and efficiency of faculties with their budgets.
    Keywords: data envelopment analysis; DEA; technical efficiency; faculty; education; research.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEED.2023.10048926
  • The Effect of Educational Mismatch on The Turkish Manufacturing Industry   Order a copy of this article
    by Halit Yanikkaya, Pinar Tat 
    Abstract: This article explores the educational mismatch for 23 Turkish industries using all available the household labour force surveys (LFSs) and annual industry and service statistics from 2004 to 2015. The main aim of this paper is first to evaluate the educational mismatch levels in the Turkish industries and then analyse its effects on the industrial total factor productivity (TFP), labour productivity, and wages. For the industrial TFP, the dynamic panel data estimations suggest that the mean value of over education years decreases the growth rate of TFP. Therefore, the widespread existence of educational mismatch implies an efficiency loss in Turkish manufacturing industries from the period 2004 to 2015. For industrial labour productivity, the modal value of education increases the labour productivity whereas there is no significant effect on industrial wages. This means that the Turkish manufacturing industries could benefit by employing more workers with the required level of schooling. This paper also controls for the birth cohort of workers to check the sensitivity of the results. These sensitivity checks consistently imply that the conclusions of this study are substantially robust to the utilisation of different specifications.
    Keywords: educational mismatch; total factor productivity; TFP; labour productivity; wages; Turkey; industries.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEED.2023.10048927
  • Culture and Education as Factors Affecting Entrepreneurship in Spain: an Analysis of Expert Opinion   Order a copy of this article
    by Jesús García-Álvarez, Ana Vázquez-Rodríguez, Daniel Sáez-Gambín 
    Abstract: This article focuses on the Spanish context, which is characterised by high rates of unemployment and social exclusion, in which entrepreneurship can drive innovation and economic growth. The objective was to analyse culture and education as factors affecting entrepreneurship from expert opinion on the subject. The study used the most recent data on Spain in the global entrepreneurship monitor (GEM) database. Following a descriptive analysis, quantitative analyses were performed using non-parametric tests. The results indicated that the experts were not optimistic that culture or education were factors that would encourage entrepreneurship. Our findings support the view that the evaluation of entrepreneurship is affected by variables such as gender, the type of degree obtained, and professional area. The findings of the study indicate the need to reinforce entrepreneurship education and training (EET) in order to compensate for social inequalities that affect the decision to start a business venture.
    Keywords: entrepreneurship; entrepreneurship education and training; EET; culture; education and training systems; gender; degree type; professional area; global entrepreneurship monitor; GEM.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEED.2023.10048928
  • Re-thinking human capital acquisition for entrepreneurship: A holistic multidimensional approach   Order a copy of this article
    by Otitooluwa Dosumu, Nadia Simoes, Nuno Crespo 
    Abstract: Given the substantial interest around the study of entrepreneurship, understanding the intricate network of factors that explain the decisions about human capital is of critical importance. Decisions concerning knowledge, skills and abilities are multidimensional since there are many modes, categories, and components of human capital acquisition. Human capital may come from a set of choices or a set of processes. The choices and processes are disaggregated into four categories: 1) what human capital entrepreneurs choose to acquire 2) where they want to acquire such human capital 3) how they want to acquire the human capital 4) when they want to acquire human capital. Furthermore, it is also important to understand the drivers/motivations of entrepreneurs regarding human capital acquisition. This paper is an in-depth organisation and review of the existing literature. We present a roadmap connecting the points that remain disperse and fragmented. In addition, suggestions for future research are provided.
    Keywords: entrepreneurship; human capital; learning; choices; investment; knowledge.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEED.2023.10049724
  • A comparative view of the educational systems of Greece, France and England   Order a copy of this article
    by Evaggelos Mavrikakis, Vasiliki Brinia, Andriani Gkouma 
    Abstract: This study aims to explore the dividing lines between the educational systems of three countries, Greece, France and England on the areas of public participation, staffing of structures, administration and supervision, assessment, curriculums and funding. Each of these systems has developed a different control system, established roles, frameworks as well as procedures that define to a certain degree its dimension of roles. The study was based on literature review concerning these systems, educational administration, organisational behaviour and management of school units. Basic dimensions of educational policies were studied in order to comprehend each system's approach. The study indicated basic differences between the three systems on decision making, bodies implicated, organisational behaviour and system effectiveness. These differences provide significant insights on systems' characteristics in order to enhance their future development and autonomy, as they are constantly affected by global, political, social, economic and cultural changes. Conclusions are discussed.
    Keywords: educational system; dimension of roles; administration; system autonomy; comparative view; organisational behaviour; Greece; France; England.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEED.2022.10049189
  • The macroeconomic impact of school enrolments: time-series evidence from Greece   Order a copy of this article
    by Georgios Garafas, Ioannis Sotiropoulos, Nikolaos Arnis, Georgios Kolias 
    Abstract: This paper explores the impact of human capital on economic growth. For this purpose, it employs data for Greece concerning enrolment rates in each level of the formal educational system as a proxy for human capital. It is of particular importance that the impact of vocational education is being distinguished. By applying Johansen's approach, two cointegrating vectors were identified summarising the positive long-run relationship between enrolment rates and gross domestic product (GDP). Whereas, in the short run a unidirectional Granger causality was found running from GDP to general secondary education which is an indication of the Greek household preference for general education instead of vocational training.
    Keywords: enrolment rates; human capital; economic growth; VAR.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEED.2022.10049190
  • Do demographics moderate the learning in accounting and finance courses?   Order a copy of this article
    by Mona M. ElShaabany, Moid U. Ahmad 
    Abstract: The effectiveness of technical courses such as accounting and finance depends upon an understanding of endogenous and exogenous variables and their behaviour with the teaching learning process. This paper is focused on analysing the effect of three independent variables (readiness of students, course scheduling and interest of students) upon learning in accounting and finance courses under the moderating influence of three demographic variables (gender, age and background). The research is based on a survey of respondents from three stakeholders (students, faculty and managers) and applies regression based moderation technique for analysis. One of the significant findings of the study is that at a given level of interest of students, male students are marginally better learners than female students.
    Keywords: business education; accounting courses; finance courses; moderation analysis; learning.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEED.2022.10043955
  • Increasing access but not equity: higher education policy and participation in Mexico   Order a copy of this article
    by Shaye S. Worthman, Manuel Palma-Cornejo, Adriana Rueda-Barrios 
    Abstract: Given Mexico's comparatively low coverage of higher education, concerns about inequalities in participation persist, especially between different social groups. The current study examined participation trends associated with Mexico's expansion of higher education coverage since the country's neoliberal turn in the 1990s, reviewing education policies across six presidential administrations and analysing household data provided by the National Institute of Statistics and Geography to compare socio-demographic characteristics of higher education students from 1994 to 2018. Findings indicate that although higher education coverage increased during this time period, inequalities persist between young people from different economic backgrounds, rural and urban areas, and indigenous and non-indigenous groups, thereby reproducing social disparities. Moreover, the most economically advantaged in society have most benefited from the expansion in the higher education system. The paper concludes by discussing alternative policy approaches that focus directly on disadvantaged groups to promote equity and inclusion in the higher education system.
    Keywords: higher education; higher education policy; access to higher education; inequality of opportunity; educational equity; income distribution; educational opportunity; university enrolment; Mexico; Latin America.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEED.2022.10049191
  • Impact of achievement, skills, gender and career intentions on students' perceptions of economics in the UAE   Order a copy of this article
    by Abderazak Bakhouche, Abdulaziz Almarzooqi, Welcome Sibanda, Mercy Chaita 
    Abstract: Understanding students' opinions is of substantial benefit to higher education providers with implications on students' attrition. This study examines undergraduate business students' perceptions of economics in the United Arab Emirates. The role of a host of student-specific attributes, including academic achievement, gender, career intentions and skills accumulated during preparatory education, is assessed using the logit regression analysis. The results show that students generally have positive perceptions of economics, but they consider the course to demand more concentration and time to understand. Better knowledge of maths and having an adequate level of English significantly contribute to forming better opinions towards economics. The gender effect is slightly observed in the study of economics. The course is relevant to students of all fields of study, emphasising consensus on its function as a conduit of liberal art skills. This study calls on educators and administrators to ensure that students are adequately prepared to study economics. More importantly, students shall be exposed to an awareness campaign about the importance of economic literacy for themselves and the nation's economic development.
    Keywords: higher education; locus of control; UAE; impact of GPA; skills; English competency; maths competency; students' perceptions; economics education; quantitative survey; quality of teaching; logit regression.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEED.2022.10049192
  • Digitalisation determinants and digital dividends of the higher education system (on the example of Russia)   Order a copy of this article
    by Evgeniya K. Karpunina, Asya E. Arutyunova, Ekaterina V. Sazanova, Arthur A. Maksaev, Gulnaz F. Galieva 
    Abstract: The research was based on studying the digitalisation determinants of the higher education system in Russia and evaluating the digital dividends received, which indicate the effectiveness of digitalisation processes. The digitalisation determinants of the higher education system (digital architecture, digital educational services, personnel potential and economic capital) were identified. The authors introduced the concept of 'digital dividends of the higher education system', which includes an increase in the number of students, cost reduction, enhancement of the educational process. The authors proposed a method for calculating the digital dividend ratio based on four indicators with different weights. The result of the digital dividend ratio should become the basis for making management decisions in the process of implementing the state educational policy. The proposed method for calculating the digital dividend ratio can be used to conduct a comparative analysis of the effectiveness of digitalisation of education worldwide.
    Keywords: digitalisation determinants; digital dividends; higher education system; distance technologies; e-learning; electronic learning; digital literacy; educational process effectiveness; Russia.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEED.2022.10049193