Forthcoming articles

International Journal of Education Economics and Development

International Journal of Education Economics and Development (IJEED)

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International Journal of Education Economics and Development (25 papers in press)

Regular Issues

  • Optimal levels of private tutoring investment in South Korea   Order a copy of this article
    by Patrik T. Hultberg, David Santandreu Calonge, Ty Choi 
    Abstract: During the past several decades, South Korea has transformed itselfrninto an international economic and educational powerhouse. The rapid economicrnand social achievements have largely been attributed to intentional government regulated education plans and policies. However, since the 1960s, a powerfulrnparallel for-profit private education sector (hagwons) has emerged withrnsignificant effect on families. This article adds to this growing area of researchrnby considering the importance of initial wealth, heterogeneity in timernpreferences, expected returns, and borrowing on households choice of privaternafter-school tutoring investments. The contribution of this study lies in therndevelopment of a simple two-period life-cycle model, which is applied to fourrndifferent illustrative Korean households, in order to explore its applicability. Thisrnapproach proves useful in expanding our understanding of why Korean familiesrnchoose to invest in private education.
    Keywords: Educational expenditures; Private tutoring; Economic model; South Korea.

    by Godfred Matthew Yaw Owusu, Fred Akwasi Anokye, James Kwame Otieku, Gabriel Sam Ahinful 
    Abstract: This study examines the attitudes of University students towards stock market investment and investigates the factors that influence their willingness to invest in stocks. A survey-based method of research was adopted and data was collected from 473 students from the University of Ghana Business School by means of a questionnaire. The Partial Least Square Structural Equation Modelling (PLS-SEM) technique was used to analyse the data. The results demonstrate that two dimensions of the money attitude construct: obsession and viewing of money as a good thing are important predictors of an individuals willingness to invest in stocks. The results also show that financial literacy, ethical stance towards stock market investment and financial risk attitude of an individual have important implications on willingness to invest in stocks. Given that stock market participation at the individual level is low in most countries, an understanding of the factors that influence individuals decision to invest in stocks may be useful in developing the appropriate strategies to encourage people to invest in stocks.
    Keywords: Stock Market; Money Attitudes; Financial Literacy; Ethical Stance.

  • Impact of Individualized Consideration on Transformational and Transactional Leadership Styles   Order a copy of this article
    by Irfan Ullah Khan, Hamid Khan 
    Abstract: The feelings of being part of the institution is the basic requirement for ensuring an employee that he/she is not just the part of a big machine rather indispensable to the very success of institution. This feeling comes from the attitude of the institution and behavior of the leadership. The current study presents the findings about perceptions of administrative workforces in selected universities of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan, in relation to the existing transformational and transactional leadership styles practiced by leaders at different levels in institutional hierarchy. The empirical data reveals surprising insights, like the relationship between individualized consideration and transformational leadership is positive and significant but R-value is very weak (r = .395) showing that little transformational leadership is practiced in the universities. However, the link between individualized consideration and transactional is huge in terms of R-value (-.473) with significant p-value thereby telling that transactional leadership is in vogue but negatively associated with individualized consideration. The regressions verify these assumptions with the strong statistics. Likewise, demographic impacts have also been identified. The results are an eye-opener for the concerned stakeholders of the higher education.
    Keywords: Individualized Consideration; Transformational & Transformational Leadership.

  • Perception of university students about the embodiment of Service-learning in the curriculum as Social Economy pedagogical instrument   Order a copy of this article
    by Orlando Petiz Pereira, Carlos Arriaga Costa, Thiago Leão Beresford 
    Abstract: This paper discusses the pedagogical methodology of Service-Learning and its inclusion in the university academic curriculum, to underline its importance in a fragile development society, without the structure of sustainability and regardless of "biopolitics". Society beholds in apathy the increase in social, relational and human pain and the atmosphere of uncertainty, social fragmentation, poverty and absence of feelings of harmony, cooperation, empathy and altruism. This scenario is causing humanitarian crises. Hence the need to redefine methodological guidelines for higher education so that it contributes to the common good and transform education into an instrument of inclusion, justice, equity and social responsibility. The target population of our study were students from the University of Minho, with a sample of 271. It resorts to the use of a quantitative approach and the questionnaire was used for data collection. Evidence shows that older and higher academic students are more sensitive to the integration of Service-learning into the academic curriculum. Although strangeness persists in their curricular inclusion in some courses, all students consider Service-learning as an instrument of intrapersonal and interpersonal development. The theme and objectives of the work are relevant because it is a curricular approach to the holistic development of the student and the community, through which one learns to serve and serves to learn.
    Keywords: Service-Learning; Social Economy; Humanisation; Holistic Training; Academic Curriculum; Higher Education; pedagogical instrument; Students' perception.

  • Analyzing Determinants of Student Relationship Management (SRM) Implementation: Integration of Fuzzy DEMATEL and AHP Techniques   Order a copy of this article
    by Hossein Sayyadi Tooranloo, Habibollah Mirghafoori, Marzieh Abdolhosseini 
    Abstract: Today, customer orientation and satisfaction play such critical role in organizations that failure to comply with these approaches eliminates organizations from the competitive market. Organizations accepted that in the present business environment, customer relationship creation and management are the main determinants of competition. There are few studies on student relationship management; they have focused on related concepts to this attitude but have not directly developed this concept. This study seeks to present a new method for analysis of factors affecting the implementation of the student relationship management (SRM) using the knowledge and experience of experts. In this study, we applied the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and DEMATEL to comprehensively express the mentioned factors, the factors affecting the implementation of student relationship management were divided into six categories. The results indicated that Professor-Student Interaction and Employee empowerment were effective factors considered as the cause; however, Electronic relationship, Service quality and Relationship processes were determined as the factors affected by other factors.
    Keywords: student relationship management; Fuzzy AHP; Fuzzy DEMATEL; education; universities; customer; satisfaction; quality services; SRM; commitment.

  • Key Decision-Making Factors of MOOCs Users towards Paid MOOCs   Order a copy of this article
    by Theresia Surya, Cynthia Dewi, Roozbeh Hendijani 
    Abstract: This research aims to further examine the key decision-making factors of MOOCs users towards paid MOOCs. The research intends to assist in improving and, consequently, will contribute to research and implementation of better MOOCs.rnAn online questionnaire was distributed among 202 MOOCs users who have made MOOCs purchase (purposive and snowball sampling). The respondents were asked variables considered in choosing MOOCs, including providers, price, personal factors, learning goals, course content, and environmental factors. Participants were also asked on their MOOCs experiences and demographic questions.rnThe findings indicated most participants were professionals who sought resources to develop their career in flexible manner. The ?ndings showed environmental factors are important as they affected participants learning motivation and perception.This study highlights the need to produce MOOCs to be more relevant to the audience.
    Keywords: Environmental factors; MOOCs; Motivation; Personal factors; Provider.

  • Comparative presentation of the legislative framework for the selection of staff in the Greek educational system: a critical review   Order a copy of this article
    by Vasiliki Brinia, Ioannis Koumentos, Paraskevi Psoni 
    Abstract: The present paper presents -for the first time in Greece- a critical review of the legislative framework of the selection systems of educational staff in Greece. The poor managerial educational background of staff that occupies managerial positions, the lack of assessment during the term of office, the lack of stability of the selection system are the main issues discussed with regard to the system of staff selection in the Greek educational system. The present critical review is of great significance for Greek policy makers, as it may impact and help formulate future educational policy on the selection of educational staff. It also constitutes a valuable paradigm for other countries that face similar issues with regard to the selection of staff in their educational systems. An important gap in literature is filled through this study and policies that are of great importance for the effectiveness of an educational system are brought to light in a comprehensive way.
    Keywords: educational policy; educational staff; selection system; educational management; evaluation in education; assessment in education; educational legislation.

    by Jayashree Sapra, Mona Chaudhary, Ruchika Jeswal 
    Abstract: The aim of the study was to explore the career aspirations of 547 university students of undergraduate management programme in Delhi & NCR of India so that the future career development activities could be aligned better. In the first phase, the impact of gender behavior on level and area of career aspiration was studied whereas in the second phase, influencing factors effecting career aspirations of youth were studied. In the third phase of the study, an effort to identify the volume of focus of the students towards entrepreneurship as career choice was done. In the last phase, relationship between level of career aspirations and academic performance of students was studied. Statistical methods like central tendency, correlations, and inferential statistics were used to understand relationships between study variables. There was a minimal positive relationship between career level expectations and students academic performance. The findings suggest that students have high career ambitions but are not at a reasonable level and also showed relatively low academic performance. Policy makers can develop the policies to create conducive environment for the youth of the country and their aspirations
    Keywords: career; youth; aspiration; academic performance; undergraduate students; India.

  • Image of academic researchers in public sphere "A qualitative study on social status in Pakistan"   Order a copy of this article
    by Amjad Ali Memon, Khalil Ahmed Channa, Ahsan Ali Memon 
    Abstract: Purpose: The study attempts to explore the antecedents and determinants of social position in Pakistan, particularly in the context of the social status of academicians. The purpose of this research is to open arenas of knowledge and solve problems, which are important for developing economies. Given Pakistan has produced 15000 PhD scholars since 1997, their research contribution is still under question. It is important to explore why the research is not getting rooted in Pakistan and what are the social determinants of it. Methods: To explore the proposed phenomena, the researchers adopted the grounded theory approach by collecting data using in-depth interviews via a semi-structured questionnaire. A total of 13 people from different academic and occupational backgrounds were interviewed. Interviews were then transcribed and coded using first, second and third-order coding based on InVivo coding style. The previous literature was also referred to and fro during the data analysis to achieve the data triangulation. Findings: The researchers found that Economic, Symbolic, Structural, Cultural, Interpersonal and Developmental factors are involved in creating dispositions for a person in the society. As of the PhD academicians, it was explored that the priority of the people it to attain power, influence, and security which according to them lie in Bureaucracy, Defense or Judiciary whereas working in academia and opting for PhD is not among their priorities, even those who pursue PhDs do it for promotions.
    Keywords: PhD; Academicians; Research; Social Stratification; Class Structures; Grounded Theory.

  • The nexus between education, economic growth and environmental quality: empirical evidence from Egypt and Morocco   Order a copy of this article
    by Noran Bakr, Dalia Ibraheim 
    Abstract: This study examines the relationships between education, economic growth and environmental quality in Egypt and Morocco. Auto Regressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) bound testing approach over the period 1990 to 2017 is used to investigate these relationships. The empirical findings show that the variables are cointegrated demonstrating that long-run relationship exists among those variables. In the short run, education have positive effects on amounts of carbon dioxide emissions in both countries. Though, in the long run, increasing literacy rates might lead to improve environmental quality. As for the effect of the economic growth, the results showed that carbon dioxide emissions increase as the GDP grows in both the long and short run for the case of Egypt but in Morocco, the GDP growth has no effect on the CO2 emissions.
    Keywords: Environmental Quality; Education; Economic Growth; Air Pollution; Kuznets Curve; Carbon dioxide emissions; ARDL; Egypt; Morocco.

  • Examining and Comparing Facility Management Services of Two Universities: Asia and Europe Perspectives   Order a copy of this article
    by Dilusha Kankanamge, Djoen Santoso 
    Abstract: The role of facility management (FM) is imperative in providing good and reliable services and supporting the core business of an organization. This is also applied to a university as an academic institution. This research aims at examining facility management services in two universities, one in Europe (Sweden): Uni E and another in Asia (Thailand): Uni A. A comparison of the satisfaction of the services is also carried out. From the past research, the categories and factors of FM services are identified, and a questionnaire was developed. Data collection was done through a questionnaire survey in both universities with students and staff. The survey consists of questions related to the expected frequency of the services and satisfaction of the services. The actual frequency is collected from the FM office of the universities for comparison. Uni E provided frequencies of services according to or higher than the expectations, while Uni A needed to increase the frequency of five services to fulfill the expectations of respondents. In terms of satisfaction, a few services were found to be below the satisfaction level in each university. Confidentiality, process, and response to a complaint needed improvement in Uni E. Uni A should focus on improving the efficiency of FM employees, communication skills of the cleaning and security staff, and importantly on the maintenance of facilities in the dorm room. A comparison test found some significantly different satisfactions between the two universities and, interestingly, not all with higher satisfaction for Uni E as expected.
    Keywords: Frequency of services; Satisfaction; Facility Management Services; Higher Education; Thailand; Sweden.

  • Determinants of poverty: a relative panel data analysis among African regional economic communities   Order a copy of this article
    by Tariro Madzimure, Edson Mbedzi 
    Abstract: The study compares the effects of macroeconomic factors on poverty among four African regional economic communities using panel data from 1991 to 2018. African countries experience high level of poverty but the macroeconomic factors affecting poverty in each region are often less understood with each country implementing its own poverty alleviation strategies. Performing a fixed effects model, the results indicate that from the whole sample, all variables affect poverty. However, individualistic regional economic community characteristics affect poverty differently. The results show that while all factors are important when countries are considered as a single sample, the effects of the particular factors vary from one regional economic community to another signifying the importance of regional economic community characteristics heterogeneity. This implies different policies should be implemented to reduce poverty based on regional belonging of each country. Conclusively, intervening policies implemented to reduce poverty do not yield the same results for countries in different regional economic communities, meaning this classification of countries by regions matters and thus the determinant macroeconomic factors suitable for the region need to be identified first before implementation.
    Keywords: poverty; macroeconomic factors; African regions; panel data.

  • Intergenerational Mobility of Education and Occupation in Pakistan: A Multinomial Logistic Analysis   Order a copy of this article
    by Fareed Shareef, Toseef Azid, Nasim Shirazi 
    Abstract: After the inspiring work of Schultz (1961) and Becker (1964,1975), the intergenerational transmission become the nucleus of discussion among social scientists. The genesis of all such studies has been to explore the reasons behind the persistent inequalities of opportunities or disadvantages across generations and is known as intergenerational mobility in literature. The study uses a sample of 613 households and attempts to find intergenerational transmission through non-monetary factors such as education and occupations. The results from the logistic regression models are mixtures of opposites, hence more challenges to draw a factual finding from these estimates. The findings of the model support the hypothesis related to some particular ranks of the occupation and education. For unskilled and managerial ranks of occupation the findings support the hypothesis but for skilled non- manual, it does not. The results for the other ranks turn out to be significant. For mothers, none of the results turned out to be significant and hence excluded from the analysis. Regarding the impact of parental education on the occupational placement of offspring, the findings for mothers education have been found significant for unskilled and skilled manual ranks and fathers education only for unskilled rank. However, the results of the dummy created for occupational mobility has been found significant and supporting the hypothesis for all ranks except for skilled non-manual rank.
    Keywords: Intergenerational Mobility; Education; Occupation; Multinomial Logistic Analysis; Pakistan.

  • Methodological innovations and learning outcomes in Economics Faculty Math courses   Order a copy of this article
    by Grazia Messineo, Salvatore Vassallo 
    Abstract: In this paper the authors study the relationships among the grades in the exams of Mathematics in an Economics Faculty and some external variables (for instance, gender, high school final mark, etc.). They study also the impact of some methodological innovations on these grades. Moreover, time and number of attempts to pass the exam are studied in relationship to the same variables.The authors find that the type of high school attended and the final mark achieved, the attendance of the lessons, the choice to take partialrnexams and the use of an online platform for exercises significatively influence the learning outcomes at least for the first year exam.
    Keywords: performance appraisal; math grades; linear regressionrnmodel; quantile regression model; math achievement; academic performance evaluation.

  • Rural Women Agricultural Knowledge and Information System (AKIS) about Agro-food Processing (AFP) including extension education factors   Order a copy of this article
    by Reza Movahedi, Jalileh Soleimanian-Boroujeni , Mojhdeh Ketabi 
    Abstract: This paper presents some extension and education factors which theoretically may use about agro-food processing programs. The theoretical part of the paper focuses on the importance agricultural knowledge and information system.The data gathering occurs through a researcher-made questionnaire in Gandoman District of Borujen County, Charmahal and Bakhtiari Province, Iran. The statistical population was rural women active in AFP. Of those 335 people were selected as statistical samples. The questionnaire structured in three parts, demographical questions, questions about women's AKIS, and extension-training factors. Reliability and validity of the questions calculated and confirmed using PLS method in terms of composite reliability (CR), convergent validity and divergent validity. Data were analyzed using SPSS, PLS, correlation tests and regression. The results showed that there is a significant positive relationship between rural women's AKIS about AFP and the variables extension and training factors. The results of regression analysis with regard to R2 coefficient showed that 61.8% of the dependent variable depends on extension and training factors.
    Keywords: Extension- Training Factors; Agricultural Knowledge and Information System (AKIS); Rural Women; Agro-food Processing (AFP).

    by Juluis Motala Makibinyane, Shuti Steph Khumalo 
    Abstract: For the students to perform at an institution of higher education, academic support is fundamental. The objective of this study was to investigate factors that impede student support services and through put rate. This study employed qualitative research methodology located within interpretive paradigm. Participants were student support services and academic staff at two TVET colleges in South Africa. A purposive sampling technique was used to select participants in this study. Data was collected through semi-structured interviews and analysed thematically. The study found that there are various factors that influence the students academic performance and the throughput rate such as students family background, academic difficulties, poor class attendance, poor infrastructure, lack of professional development opportunities, lack of career guidance, lack of academic support and shortage of SSS staff. The study also found that students are not making use of the student support services due to inadequate information on the SSS units of the campuses.
    Keywords: Student Support Services; Through Put Rate; Social Capital; Technical Vocational Education and Training College; Success Rate; Academic Support; Academic Difficulties; Academic Performance; Professional Development Opportunities.

  • Intergenerational Transmission of Family and Communication Social Capital in Pakistan: An Empirical Analysis   Order a copy of this article
    by Toseef Azid, Fareed Shareef, Zafar Kayani 
    Abstract: Using a sample of 613 households of district Multan a district of Pakistan, this study investigates the transmission of family and communication social capital across generations. Models of social capital transmission with core variables support the hypothesis that parental social networks determine their offsprings social capital. For general analysis, the majority of control variables relating to the socio-demographic status have remained insignificant. The study explores that the transmission of family and communication social capital from parents to their children is specific in nature, not like a hereditary process. It means that children seem to acquire particular forms of social capital from their parents, rather than experiencing any collective social capital improvement due to their parents practices.
    Keywords: Social Capital; Family Social Capital; Community Social Capital; Intergenerational Transmission; Pakistan.

  • Intergenerational Mobility in Educational Attainments: A Comparative Analysis at Provincial Level of Pakistan   Order a copy of this article
    by Malik Muhammad, Nasim S. Shirazi, Zahoor Khan 
    Abstract: Inequality in opportunity is one of the major causes of persistence in socio-economic status. In societies where opportunities are not equal, the poor remain underdeveloped, and their skills and talents are wasted. This results in the backwardness of both current and future generations. In a less mobile society, chances of success and failure are not equal for poor and rich. Incentives to work hard decrease, which leads to discouraging innovations and slows the pace of economic growth. We use a non-monetary measure, the level of education, as a proxy of socio-economic status, and investigate its mobility across the generations in four provinces of Pakistan. We use data of Pakistan Social and Living Standards Measurements (PSLM-2012-13) for our analysis. Data reveals that the percentage of fathers is greater in the lower education level than their sons in all four provinces. Further, transition matrices and multinomial logit models indicate strong persistence in educational status along with upward mobility. Sons belong to less-educated fathers are less likely to attain high levels of education as compared to the sons of high-educated fathers in all provinces. We also find that the probability of achieving high education levels increases with the increase in income and wealth. Further, large family size is a hurdle in attainments of high education levels and increases the chances of attaining a low education level or never attending school.
    Keywords: Inequality of Opportunity; Education; Intergenerational Mobility.

  • Does Public Schemes Work towards Womens Education in Uttar Pradesh?   Order a copy of this article
    by Waseem Ahmad Khan 
    Abstract: As such we know how important women's education is for economic growth. Understanding its importance, we have made an effort on the education side of women. We have tried to show the status of a very important state of our India, that state is Uttar Pradesh. In Uttar Pradesh, women have always lagged behind; therefore the government of this state has taken many steps to overcome from this inequality. In order to conduct this research, we have gathered many policies and made an effort to understand that policies is being run by the government is whether or not they are impacting on women's education and keeping this in mind, we divided this paper into 3 parts. In the first part, we have tried to show that how is the trend and pattern of expenditure on women education going. Secondly, we have tried to show the effectiveness of the educational policies. At the end, we have tried to tell whether public policies have an impact on womens education in Uttar Pradesh or not.
    Keywords: Women Education; Public Policy; Gross Enrollment; Expenditure gender budgeting; Uttar Pradesh.

  • Branding Higher Education Institutions (HEIs): Challenges and Potential Strategies   Order a copy of this article
    by Arun Vijay Subbarayalu 
    Abstract: This study is based on the general review of the challenges faced by HEIs during the branding process and further recommends suitable strategies for branding universities. The most prominent challenges facing the HEIs to brand themselves are their inability to create the brand identity, difficulties in communicating the brand through appropriate brand-building activities, cultural issues affecting HEIs, pros, and cons of making alliances and partnerships, and insufficient infrastructural facilities to showcase its brand value. The strategies suggested include (i) designing creative logos and slogans; (ii) identifying the competitive advantage and communicate it to its stakeholders through appropriate channels; (iii) inculcating Institutional brand as a culture among employees; (iv) establishing strategic partnerships with other universities and (iv) providing start-of-art digital platforms & online presence. These strategies would also help HEIs develop appropriate brand management practices and position themselves to achieve a competitive advantage in the global market.
    Keywords: Branding; Challenges; Higher education institutions; Strategies.

  • The Influence of IFAC Membership on the Implementation of Sustainability in Accounting Training Programs   Order a copy of this article
    by Obiamaka Nwobu, Collins Ngwakwe 
    Abstract: This paper presents empirical evidence of IFAC memberships influence on integrating sustainability in accounting training programs of professional accounting organisations in sub-Saharan Africa countries. The paper applies a quantitative approach and uses ex post facto research design to actualise its objective. The sample size comprises 50 sub-Saharan African countries. The study uses secondary data from the entire 50 sub-Saharan Africa countries, and analyzes data using multivariate regression analysis. The paper stands out from previous research by including three other independent control variables: country accounting system, country age since independence, and the age of syllabus. Findings show that, against expectation, membership of international accounting association (International Federation of Accountants) has no significant influence on the inclusion of sustainability in the accounting education curriculum of professional accounting organisations in sub-Saharan Africa; instead, the results show that the age of the syllabus significantly influences the extent of sustainability inclusion in the accounting curriculum. Practical implication includes the need for the International Federation of Accountants to elevate its sustainability framework guide to a mandatory status for inclusion in professional members education curriculum. This is vital for imbuing sustainability ethics in qualified accountants. The paper identifies an agenda for further research.
    Keywords: Sustainability education; accounting education; institutional theory; professional accounting organizations; sub-Saharan Africa; professional association.

  • Modeling the private for-profit higher education market with peer effects and informational asymmetry   Order a copy of this article
    by Khang Do Ba, Hoa Duong Quang 
    Abstract: We develop two models of private for-profit universities to analyze the market structure at long-run equilibrium. The first model indicates that peer effects cause the universities at equilibrium to stratify along their selectivity levels. With informational asymmetry added, the second model shows that at each selectivity level there may be so-called dishonest universities that rip off uninformed students by offering the lowest possible quality at the same high tuition as other universities. We discuss policy implications, and present new insights from the findings to help explain empirical observations and contribute to the ongoing debate on the role of for-profit sector in higher education.
    Keywords: private for-profit universities; long-run equilibrium; tuition; selectivity; peer effects; informational asymmetry; market stratification; competitive models of higher education.

    by Carlos Arriaga Costa, Orlando Pereira 
    Abstract: New teaching methodologies have sought greater integration with the learning process. Ideas of excellence and efficiency are now part of the educational objectives, whereas the result of the evaluation is a key tool in the process of selection and visibility. However, the traditional culture of knowledge transmission still seems to remain and, in a sense, hinder back these metamorphoses. This study unveils our concern about the students and teachers perceptions regarding the distribution of tasks: which ones are to be performed by each one and which ones should be shared, in the teaching-learning process. Evidence enlightens that students and teachers still assign responsibility to the teacher regarding the monitoring and evaluation of students. However, a significant number of students wishes to assume or share part of these responsibilities, in particular in what regards the definition of the work plan and evaluation criteria.
    Keywords: Tasks in the teaching-learning process; New teaching and learning approaches; Role of the student and the teacher.

  • The Impact of Online Learning on Student Satisfaction during COVID-19 Pandemic in Indonesia   Order a copy of this article
    by Jonathan Djuwandi, Al Amin Samsu Niang, Willy Gunadi 
    Abstract: Many studies have discussed the factors that influence student satisfaction in both offline and online learning. However, COVID-19 forced students in Indonesia to transition from offline to online learning. This research aims to reveal the effect of online learning on student satisfaction during this period. The authors examined the findings from university students and literature discussing online learning, and factors that influenced student satisfaction. The results gathered from the quantitative study showed that students that had a high degree of satisfaction in online learning also excelled in academic performance. The importance of the findings of this research and proof of the hypotheses are discussed.
    Keywords: Class interaction; Instructor performance; Learning convenience; Online learning; Student satisfaction.

  • University Selectivity: Does it correlate with graduates wages? Evidence from Chile   Order a copy of this article
    by Oscar Espinoza, Luis Sandoval, Luis González, Noel McGinn 
    Abstract: This paper explores the relationship between university selectivity and graduates wages. Holding other factors constant, do employers award higher salaries to graduates of universities that impose higher admission requirements? The study looks at wage returns to Chilean graduates in two different disciplines in three universities. The participants were 587 graduates. The results reveal a positive relationship between these factors at high and low selectivity, but not in the middle range. There is no concrete evidence that training in the higher selectivity university is of higher quality. The results advance our understanding of how higher education can contribute to income inequality, but are generalizable only to the two disciplines studied.
    Keywords: university selectivity; graduates; wages; income inequality; Chile.