International Journal of Education Economics and Development (14 papers in press)
EDUCATION COSTS IN BRAZIL: analysis of macroeconomic variables
by Mariana Planells, Simone Bernardes Voese, Cicero Aparecido Bezerra, Marcia Maria Dos Santos Bortolocci Espejo
Abstract: This article is meant to analyse the key macroeconomic variables that affect higher education costs in Brazil and to provide an overview of the present status of education in that country. Quantitative indicators regarding population, education, employment and economy, provided by public database bodies such as MEC, IBGE, OECD and WEF, were used. Statistical tools, such as Principal Component Analysis, Simple Regression and Clusters Analysis, were carried out. Results indicate a strong relationship between the number of Public Higher Education Institutions (HEI) and number of people who attend them. As a result of the Main Components Analysis, fifteen variables were reduced to three principal components that explain 89.109% of the total variance. Finally, as a result of the Cluster Analysis, four different clusters can be verified, with divergent situations identified between the four aggrupation of Brazilian states.
Keywords: Education costs; Higher Education Institutions; Human Capital Theory; Endogenous Growth Theory.
Structural equation modeling analysis for internship satisfaction of the Vietnam business students
by Van-Quy Le, Vinh-Long Tran-Chi
Abstract: Business internship is helpful for students' learning and career preparation. However, there is no report using structural equation modeling to analyze the relationship between the internship satisfaction and the students learning in Vietnam. This study was to (1) measure the impact level of factors that affect the internship satisfaction of business students; (2) use SEM to analyze factors that are related to internship satisfaction. Business students (male: 222, female: 74) were sampled from University of Finance and Marketing. Forty three question items were drawn from ten popular questionnaires. Six factors were found related to the satisfaction of internship: (1) University support, (2) Host Companys support, (3) academic supervisor, (4) students knowledge, (5) students skills, and (6) students attitude. However, five of the factors are not significantly related to the internship satisfaction and only the students skills factor is negatively related to the students internship satisfaction. This result suggests that students with good learning skills expect higher level of training program from the competitive company.
Keywords: business education; internship satisfaction; students.
How Does Economic Expansion React to Educational Expenditure, Financial Development, and Financial Integration? A Nonlinear Granger Causality and Quantile Regression Analysis in Asian perspective
by Amritkant Mishra, Amba Agarwal
Abstract: This empirical analysis aspires to adequately investigate the causal effect of financial integration, educational expenditure and financial development on economic growth, by exerting the nonlinear Granger-causality approach. On another hand, it additionally strives to uncover the heterogeneous effect of financial integration, academic expenditure and financial development on the economic growth of nine pertinent Asian economies by employing Quantile regression techniques. The consequence of nonlinear Granger causality analysis demonstrates that the nonlinear causality exists from educational spending towards the economic growth in the countries such as Bangladesh, India, China, and Thailand. While on the other hand, no such causality found in civilized nations like Australia, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, and Singapore. The empirical outcome also manifests that if monetary integration, financial development, and educational expenditure happen simultaneously then it leads to economic growth in Bangladesh, China, India, Japan, Malaysia, and Thailand. Additionally the outcome of Quantile regression documents that education sector outlay enhances the economic growth of underdeveloped or developing countries while it does not demonstrate a significant impact on the economic growth of the highly developed nations.
Keywords: Education expenditure; financial development; Economic growth; Quantile regression; nonlinear causality.
Between-Group Inequality in Education in India: A Sequential Logit Model Analysis
by Anjan Ray Chaudhury, Madhabendra Sinha
Abstract: The study provides an insight into the between-group educational inequality India, where the groups are defined by taking caste and religion together. We propose an index of between-group inequality applicable to ordinal categorical data, and compute the between-group educational inequality existing in Indian society and its overtime persistence. Findings reveal an overtime increase in between-group educational inequality in India. We invoke the sequential logit model of regression to assess the probability of transition from lower to higher levels of education. The results of estimation of this regression model reveal a declining trend in the rate of dropout across all levels of education for all groups, though the rate of decline is greater for the advantaged groups compared to the disadvantaged groups. This disparity in the rate of decline is the responsible factor for the rise in between-group educational inequality.
Keywords: Between-Group Educational Inequality; Transition Probability; Sequential Logit Model; India; Scheduled Castes; Muslims.
The influence of managements accounting skills on the existence of their South African Small, Medium and Micro Enterprises
by Ernest Mbumbo, Henrie Benedict, Juan-Pierré Bruwer
Abstract: In South Africa, Small, Medium and Micro Enterprises (SMMEs), are considered as imperative to the national economy due to the socio-economic value they add. Particularly, South African SMMEs assist with the reduction of unemployment and the alleviation of poverty. Prior research suggests that these business entities are not sustainable; 70% fail after being in existence for only 36 months. One probable reason for this phenomenon is the non-management of economic factors, one of which is a lack of skills. In a recent study it was found that the basic business skills evident in South African SMMEs (as possessed by management) leave much to be desired. One of the basic business skills which are seriously neglected by South African SMME management was that of accounting skills. As accounting should assist management to make economic business decisions, while simultaneously taking into account the high failure rate of South African SMMEs, the question arises: Do the accounting skills of management influence the existence of South African SMMEs? To shed light on this question, empirical research was conducted and fell within the positivistic research paradigm. Data were collected from 38 respondents by means of a questionnaire that comprised closed-ended questions. Stemming from the results it is apparent that though most respondents did not have to perform accounting-related tasks, the respective respondents of SMMEs who were equipped with two core accounting skills were more likely to remain in existence for the foreseeable future.
Keywords: Management accounting; accounting skills; SMMEs; existence.
The education policy challenge to the brain drain problem
by Akira Shimada
Abstract: In a world of increased mobility of students and workers, both developing and developed countries are attempting to prevent brain drain. This studys research question is how we can prevent it. Utilising an analytical method, this study finds that education subsidies may be implemented as a new policy option to do so. In particular, developed countries, which are faced with a small wage disparity with the destination country, can eliminate brain drain for any degree of human capital transferability by paying subsidies appropriately. However, developing countries, which are faced with a large wage disparity, cannot always alleviate brain drain. The significance of this policy lies in that education subsidies affect the choice of study location, which in turn induces individuals to work in their home countries. Moreover, education subsidies are more effective than a Bhagwati tax since individuals have less incentive to evade subsidies.
Keywords: education policy; education subsidies; brain drain; Bhagwati tax; labour migration; student migration; human capital transferability; wage disparity; developed country; developing country.
Factors influencing Omani students selection of higher education institutions: An emphasis on undergraduate and postgraduate students
by Abdelghani Echchabi, Salim Al-Hajri, Islam Tanas
Abstract: The study aims at investigating the factors that influence students selection of the higher education institutions in the Omani context. The study used mean values to rank the factors based on the students responses following Friedmans test. The study has also applied factor analysis to summarise and reduce these factors, and ANOVA (Analysis of Variance) test to investigate any differences in the selection factors across genders and education levels. The study covered a sample of 384 respondents from various Omani regions and used the mean value to examine the factors that influence students selection of their respective universities. The findings revealed that the main factors for university selection are the academic and financial benefits and advantages closely followed by the quality and reputation of the universities. In addition, the findings revealed that there is a significant difference across education levels with regards to the perception of academic quality, accommodation, as well as reference to website advertisements. These findings have significant contributions to the Omani universities, as well universities in similar contexts. Particularly, it provides the universities with insights on the main dimensions and characteristics to emphasize in order to enhance their overall performance.
Keywords: Oman; University Reputation; Academic Quality; Selection Criteria; Education Marketing; Academic Advising; University Tuition Fees.
Determinants of Academic Performance of Left-behind Children in Rural Nigeria: Quantile Evidence from Niger State
by Muktar Bala, Mohd Razani B. Mohd Jali, Nor Azam Abdul Razak
Abstract: Recently, scholars have expressed concern about the potential effects of leaving children behind by migrant parents on their academic performance, but little is known about the determinants of academic performance of the children. Using survey data from Niger State, Nigeria (N=1,140), and applying Quantile regression, this study shows that the academic performance of left-behind children is affected by the quality of parental involvement they receive in the absence of parents, their physical and mental health, the type of school they attend and their birth order. The effects are however specific to the children in the lower and upper tails of the performance distribution. Therefore, policies that ensure proper care of the children and those that enhance school quality would promote the academic performance of the children, particularly if targeted at the children who are in the lower and upper quantiles of the performance distribution.
Keywords: Rural-urban migration; left-behind children; academic performance; quantile regression; parental involvement; physical health; mental health; birth order; Nigeria.
An Investigation of the Demographic Factors affecting Financial Literacy and Its Components among Urban Indians
by SNEHAL BAWRE, SUJATA KAR
Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the impact of socio-demographic factors on financial literacy and its components, namely, financial behavior, financial attitude and financial numeracy skills. Also, the relationships between the components of financial literacy and the influence of financial numeracy skill on investment pattern is examined. The data showed that financial literacy in terms of familiarity with financial instruments and participation in formal financial system is quite reasonable at 65 percent among the participants. Socio-demographic variables like gender, age, education, income, and reliability of income are found to have significant influence on financial literacy. Further, all the components of financial literacy are found to impact each other positively. The findings also suggest that financial numeracy skill may improve overall financial literacy and secondary market participation in India. However, the use of financial websites or social media sites for investment decisions are meagre.
Keywords: Financial literacy; financial behavior; financial attitude; financial numeracy; multinomial logit model; socio-demographic factors; India.
Determinants of local public expenditures on education: empirical evidence on Indonesian municipalities between 2005 and 2012
by Ivo Bischoff, Ferry Prasetyia
Abstract: We provide an empirical analysis of the factors that drive expenditures on primary and secondary education in Indonesian municipalities. We use a panel dataset covering 427 municipalities between 2005 and 2012. We account for the impact of socio-economic, political and geographical factors on expenditures per pupil and on the share of the overall budget spent on education. Landlocked municipalities and municipalities with a low net enrolment rate to start with are found to spend less on education. In line with studies from other countries, we find educational expenditures to rise in the municipalities' fiscal capacity. The characteristics of the local municipal council are found to influence educational expenditures in coastal municipalities with expenditures increasing in the share of the Golkar Party (Suharto's former party in the authoritarian era) and decreasing in the degree of political fragmentation. Applying spatial econometrics to a subsample of four islands, we find municipalities' educational expenditures to be positively correlated with those in neighbouring municipalities. This suggests that municipalities compete for families by offering attractive schools.
Keywords: local government; educational expenditures; determinants; spatial econometrics; Indonesia.
Formal education and the contemporaneous dynamics of literacy, labour market participation and poverty reduction in Burkina Faso
by Ibrahim Niankara, Rachidatou Ingrid Traoret
Abstract: This research examines the link between education and sustainable development in Burkina Faso. We achieve this using data on 10,411 households from the 2014 National Survey on Household Living Conditions, and a statistical methodology based on fully parametric and semi-parametric recursive trivariate probit modelling. The results show that our embraced systemic approach is economically and statistically significant as shown by the 95% confidence intervals on the three correlation coefficients in the model. Furthermore, education is found to raise literacy skills by a factor of 2.233 for primary and 3.877 for secondary education. However, an improvement in literacy skills paradoxically reduces (−0.682) the likelihood of active labour market participation. Simultaneously however, active labour market participation is found to reduce (−1.384) the incidence of households' poverty. Therefore, to boost productivity, reduce poverty and achieve sustained economic growth, in addition to new industrial policies for structural transformation of the national economy, policy makers in Burkina Faso should consider education and minimum wage reforms to incentivise high skilled labour force participation in the local labour market.
Keywords: formal education; labour market participation; literacy; poverty; SGDs; trivariate probit; Burkina Faso.
A study among newly appointed principals in South African schools
by R.J. Botha
Abstract: The important role played by principals in ensuring effective management and strategic leadership in schools has long been the subject of intense debate. Crucial to this debate are the contextual development and support opportunities available to newly appointed principals. Although many such opportunities do exist, they are simply not sufficient to ensure sustainable school improvement. This article, based on a quantitative empirical study carried out in the Gauteng province of South Africa, aims to contribute to the discussion on the school principalship and the changes and improvements taking place at schools. The article concludes with empirical findings on the perceived developmental needs of newly appointed principals in Gauteng and goes on to suggest that this unique and specialised profession requires specific and appropriate preparation. The recommendations arising from the study concerning policy and practice emphasise the importance of appropriate and sustainable development and support initiatives for newly appointed school principals, not only in South Africa, but also world-wide.
Keywords: Gauteng province; newly appointed school principals; support; schools; the school principalship; school improvement; South Africa.
Differences in selection criteria between universities and TEI undergraduate departments
by Mihail Diakomihalis, Paraskevi Kosma
Abstract: The choice of a department in a University or Technological Educational Institute (T.E.I. or TEI) by prospective students for their undergraduate studies is influenced by various factors. The gravity of these factors, which we identify as criteria, will determine the department of an educational institution for tertiary level studies selected by the potential student. These criteria can be described as academic, personal, or economic, as well as based on the information the student has about the institution, along with the direct and wider environment, e.g., of the city, where the department is located. The aim of this study is therefore to investigate how much the defined criteria and sub-criteria affect the choice of a department for tertiary level studies. The results confirm that the ranking of students' selection criteria is different in the various examined groups.
Keywords: analytic hierarchy process; AHP; decision making process; university/college choices; higher education; medical; nursing; pedagogy; preschool; Greece.
Evaluating the efficiency of higher education institutions in Tunisia
by A. Bouzouita
Abstract: Due to the increase in students' number and the emergence of new activities, the efficiency of higher education institutions (HEIs) in Tunisia is receiving increasing attention in the academic as well as in the public discourse. In this paper, data envelopment analysis (DEA) was used to analyse the relative efficiency of 62 Tunisian HEIs for the academic year 2010-2011. The total number of HEIs was divided into two subsets - experimental group composed of 30 institutions and non-experimental group containing 32 - in order to minimise heterogeneity in the sample. The findings show that the technical and scale efficiency in the HEIs sample appear to be high on average. There were also small slacks in input utilisation. Also, more HEIs were operating at decreasing returns to scale, indicating a potential to downsize. DEA identifies the reference groups for inefficient institutions and indicates the direction of desirable productivity improvements. As such, the results obtained by DEA can serve as a benchmarking instrument for the leaders of the university system and contribute in more efficient allocation of scarce resources. Policy makers could distribute a share of budget according to institution performance and creating an atmosphere of competition in the Tunisian higher education system.
Keywords: data envelopment analysis; DEA; higher education institutions; HEIs; technical efficiency; scale efficiency; Tunisia.