International Journal of Education Economics and Development (18 papers in press)
Implications of Smartphone Addiction on University Students in Urban, Suburban and Rural areas
by Oliver Daoud, Jacques Bou Abdo, Jacques Demerjian
Abstract: Smartphones are excellent connection tools that can join family members, continents apart, over a chat or birthday, but can hinder the communication between people in the same room. The different reactions to smartphones can be due to personal, cultural, economic or a combination of multiple factors with variable impacts. Several studies have shown that smartphones have negative effects on mental health as well as well-being. The limitation of these studies falls in the selected sample where all the respondents are assumed to belong to a coherent society/region. In this work, we categorize each respondent, based on his/her location, into urban, suburban or rural. The outcome shows that each of the above categories has a different interaction with smartphone addiction, stress and other factors took into consideration in this study
Keywords: Smartphone addiction; Stress; Life satisfaction; Academic performance; University students.
Socioeconomic status and tertiary academic performance in Enugu State, Nigeria
by Ambrose Nnaemeka Omeje, Ogochukwu Anyanwu, Augustine Jideofor Mba, Michael Okike Ugwu
Abstract: This study tried to examine the impact of low socioeconomic status on students academic performance using tertiary institutions in Enugu State, Nigeria as a case study. The study utilised survey data generated from 468 questionnaires distributed among student in 13 higher institutions in Enugu State, Nigeria. The propensity score matching model was adopted for the study and the results indicated that students academic performances significantly decreases when the student is found to be in low socioeconomic status. The results of the model also revealed that low socioeconomic status has negative significant impact on students academic performance of those in tertiary institutions in Enugu State, Nigeria and suggested that with low socioeconomic status, academic performance of students in tertiary institutions in Enugu state would decreases by about 62.5% but will rise by about 37.5% if the student were to be in the upper echelon of the socioeconomic strata (middle and high). The study therefore recommended among others that there is need for the government, non-governmental organizations, and other philanthropist to provide education fund concession to students from poor background (low socioeconomic status), not to students from the upper socioeconomic strata (middle and high) by granting them scholarships, bursary awards, and other special education interventions funds for poor students.
Keywords: Socioeconomic Status; Tertiary; Academic Performance; Students; propensity score matching.
Exploring the professional identities of pre-service teachers studying at the University of Ghana
by Ernest Ampadu, Paul Kwame Butakor, Samuel Amponsah, Rita Yeboah
Abstract: The success and quality of any educational system depend on how well it is organised and the extent to which the stakeholders especially teachers accept and own it. Teachers perceptions of themselves and professional identities affect the quality of education. The purpose of this study was to investigate pre-service teachers (N=58) professional identities using a qualitative approach. The 58 pre-service teachers were asked to produce a pen portrait of the perceived identities using open-ended questionnaires and drawings. The analysis of the results revealed that these teachers see their professional identity as consisting of a combination of visible and invisible domains. Review of the literature suggests that contextual factors play a critical role when it comes to teacher professional identity, however, the results from this study has revealed that the individual teachers personal characteristics are paramount in shaping his/her personal identity. Teachers in our study generally perceived or described themselves as teachers who are working hard to help children understand themselves and provide effective learning opportunities for their students to excel and develop inherent capabilities. It is a great asset to have teachers who see themselves as agents of change rather than custodians of knowledge. It is therefore important to have reflective dialogues with teachers to understand these personal characteristics that shape their identities. It is therefore recommended that education authorities develop strategies and frameworks for helping teachers to develop their professional identities in line with the underlining principles of the purpose of education and school since the quality of an education system cannot exceed the quality of its teachers.
Keywords: Teacher; identity; professional; quality; reflective practitioners.
Remittance and education in recipient countries: an interdependence
by Abdur Rahman Forhad, Gazi Mahabubul Alam
Abstract: This study examines simultaneous effects between remittance-inflow and education in recipient countries. We employ a three-stage least squares (3SLS) method and find that education and remittance have positive influences on each other. We also find that tertiary education has a higher impact on remittance than secondary education, and remittance has a higher influence on secondary education in recipient countries.
Keywords: remittance; education; migration; remittance recipient country; developed country; developing country; simultaneous effects.
Assessing the effectiveness of using western movies in elucidating economic concepts
by Siew King Ting, Sze Wei Yong, Tze Wee Lai, Geetha Subramaniam, Brian Dollery
Abstract: The use of innovative techniques in teaching and learning has gained ground in Malaysian higher education institutions. Educators use a variety of modern methods to enhance the delivery of the contents of academic subjects, including economics. Among the various approaches, educators use movies to elucidate economic concepts and relate them to real-world phenomenon. Using questionnaire survey, this study aims to assess the effectiveness of using Western movies in explaining economic concepts to first semester undergraduate students who took introductory economic courses at the Faculty of Business and Management at UiTM Sarawak. Our results show positive responses on reaction levels and perceived learning outcomes by students with the average mean scores of 7.48. However, the results reveal that there was no association between students assessment marks and perceived individual achievement. Several recommendations are advanced on using digital learning in the economics education.
Keywords: economic concepts; short video clips; teaching and learning; western movies.
Are the student migrants satisfied with life? Effect of Acculturative Stress and Perceived Discrimination
by Monica Benita
Abstract: International student migrants constitute the major population of worlds leading universities and India is the second largest source of international students. Thus studying the psychological wellbeing of student migrants is imperative. This study analyses the effect of acculturative stress and perceived discrimination on student migrants life satisfaction. Students who have migrated from other parts of India to Chennai (N = 132), a metropolitan city of India and from India to other countries (N = 153) are the sample of our study. One way ANOVA and linear regression were used to test the data collected. While the stream of study significantly differs the level of acculturative stress and life satisfaction, age and gender have no differentiation over them. The results suggest that acculturative stress and perceived discrimination individually have significant negative effect on life satisfaction of student migrants. The results of the multiple regression suggested that acculturative stress is so predominant that it wipes off any impact of perceived discrimination. While there are several efforts to minimize perceived discrimination in educational institutions there is perhaps none to address acculturative stress as most often it is not considered an important issue. This study makes out a strong case to address acculturative stress as it can negatively impact life satisfaction and prevent migration of students. Practical implications to parents and educators are discussed.
Keywords: Acculturative stress; life satisfaction; perceived discrimination; student migrants; India.
Optimal levels of private tutoring investment in South Korea
by Patrik T. Hultberg, David Santandreu Calonge, Ty Choi
Abstract: During the past several decades, South Korea has transformed itselfrninto an international economic and educational powerhouse. The rapid economicrnand social achievements have largely been attributed to intentional government regulated education plans and policies. However, since the 1960s, a powerfulrnparallel for-profit private education sector (hagwons) has emerged withrnsignificant effect on families. This article adds to this growing area of researchrnby considering the importance of initial wealth, heterogeneity in timernpreferences, expected returns, and borrowing on households choice of privaternafter-school tutoring investments. The contribution of this study lies in therndevelopment of a simple two-period life-cycle model, which is applied to fourrndifferent illustrative Korean households, in order to explore its applicability. Thisrnapproach proves useful in expanding our understanding of why Korean familiesrnchoose to invest in private education.
Keywords: Educational expenditures; Private tutoring; Economic model; South
WHAT INFLUENCES THE WILLINGNESS OF UNIVERSITY STUDENTS TO INVEST IN STOCKS?
by Godfred Matthew Yaw Owusu, Fred Akwasi Anokye, James Kwame Otieku, Gabriel Sam Ahinful
Abstract: This study examines the attitudes of University students towards stock market investment and investigates the factors that influence their willingness to invest in stocks. A survey-based method of research was adopted and data was collected from 473 students from the University of Ghana Business School by means of a questionnaire. The Partial Least Square Structural Equation Modelling (PLS-SEM) technique was used to analyse the data. The results demonstrate that two dimensions of the money attitude construct: obsession and viewing of money as a good thing are important predictors of an individuals willingness to invest in stocks. The results also show that financial literacy, ethical stance towards stock market investment and financial risk attitude of an individual have important implications on willingness to invest in stocks. Given that stock market participation at the individual level is low in most countries, an understanding of the factors that influence individuals decision to invest in stocks may be useful in developing the appropriate strategies to encourage people to invest in stocks.
Keywords: Stock Market; Money Attitudes; Financial Literacy; Ethical Stance.
Impact of Individualized Consideration on Transformational and Transactional Leadership Styles
by Irfan Ullah Khan, Hamid Khan
Abstract: The feelings of being part of the institution is the basic requirement for ensuring an employee that he/she is not just the part of a big machine rather indispensable to the very success of institution. This feeling comes from the attitude of the institution and behavior of the leadership. The current study presents the findings about perceptions of administrative workforces in selected universities of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan, in relation to the existing transformational and transactional leadership styles practiced by leaders at different levels in institutional hierarchy. The empirical data reveals surprising insights, like the relationship between individualized consideration and transformational leadership is positive and significant but R-value is very weak (r = .395) showing that little transformational leadership is practiced in the universities. However, the link between individualized consideration and transactional is huge in terms of R-value (-.473) with significant p-value thereby telling that transactional leadership is in vogue but negatively associated with individualized consideration. The regressions verify these assumptions with the strong statistics. Likewise, demographic impacts have also been identified. The results are an eye-opener for the concerned stakeholders of the higher education.
Keywords: Individualized Consideration; Transformational & Transformational Leadership.
Perception of university students about the embodiment of Service-learning in the curriculum as Social Economy pedagogical instrument
by Orlando Petiz Pereira, Carlos Arriaga Costa, Thiago Leão Beresford
Abstract: This paper discusses the pedagogical methodology of Service-Learning and its inclusion in the university academic curriculum, to underline its importance in a fragile development society, without the structure of sustainability and regardless of "biopolitics". Society beholds in apathy the increase in social, relational and human pain and the atmosphere of uncertainty, social fragmentation, poverty and absence of feelings of harmony, cooperation, empathy and altruism. This scenario is causing humanitarian crises. Hence the need to redefine methodological guidelines for higher education so that it contributes to the common good and transform education into an instrument of inclusion, justice, equity and social responsibility. The target population of our study were students from the University of Minho, with a sample of 271. It resorts to the use of a quantitative approach and the questionnaire was used for data collection. Evidence shows that older and higher academic students are more sensitive to the integration of Service-learning into the academic curriculum. Although strangeness persists in their curricular inclusion in some courses, all students consider Service-learning as an instrument of intrapersonal and interpersonal development. The theme and objectives of the work are relevant because it is a curricular approach to the holistic development of the student and the community, through which one learns to serve and serves to learn.
Keywords: Service-Learning; Social Economy; Humanisation; Holistic Training; Academic Curriculum; Higher Education; pedagogical instrument; Students' perception.
Analyzing Determinants of Student Relationship Management (SRM) Implementation: Integration of Fuzzy DEMATEL and AHP Techniques
by Hossein Sayyadi Tooranloo, Habibollah Mirghafoori, Marzieh Abdolhosseini
Abstract: Today, customer orientation and satisfaction play such critical role in organizations that failure to comply with these approaches eliminates organizations from the competitive market. Organizations accepted that in the present business environment, customer relationship creation and management are the main determinants of competition. There are few studies on student relationship management; they have focused on related concepts to this attitude but have not directly developed this concept. This study seeks to present a new method for analysis of factors affecting the implementation of the student relationship management (SRM) using the knowledge and experience of experts. In this study, we applied the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and DEMATEL to comprehensively express the mentioned factors, the factors affecting the implementation of student relationship management were divided into six categories. The results indicated that Professor-Student Interaction and Employee empowerment were effective factors considered as the cause; however, Electronic relationship, Service quality and Relationship processes were determined as the factors affected by other factors.
Keywords: student relationship management; Fuzzy AHP; Fuzzy DEMATEL; education; universities; customer; satisfaction; quality services; SRM; commitment.
Key Decision-Making Factors of MOOCs Users towards Paid MOOCs
by Theresia Surya, Cynthia Dewi, Roozbeh Hendijani
Abstract: This research aims to further examine the key decision-making factors of MOOCs users towards paid MOOCs. The research intends to assist in improving and, consequently, will contribute to research and implementation of better MOOCs.rnAn online questionnaire was distributed among 202 MOOCs users who have made MOOCs purchase (purposive and snowball sampling). The respondents were asked variables considered in choosing MOOCs, including providers, price, personal factors, learning goals, course content, and environmental factors. Participants were also asked on their MOOCs experiences and demographic questions.rnThe findings indicated most participants were professionals who sought resources to develop their career in flexible manner. The ?ndings showed environmental factors are important as they affected participants learning motivation and perception.This study highlights the need to produce MOOCs to be more relevant to the audience.
Keywords: Environmental factors; MOOCs; Motivation; Personal factors; Provider.
Comparative presentation of the legislative framework for the selection of staff in the Greek educational system: a critical review
by Vasiliki Brinia, Ioannis Koumentos, Paraskevi Psoni
Abstract: The present paper presents -for the first time in Greece- a critical review of the legislative framework of the selection systems of educational staff in Greece. The poor managerial educational background of staff that occupies managerial positions, the lack of assessment during the term of office, the lack of stability of the selection system are the main issues discussed with regard to the system of staff selection in the Greek educational system. The present critical review is of great significance for Greek policy makers, as it may impact and help formulate future educational policy on the selection of educational staff. It also constitutes a valuable paradigm for other countries that face similar issues with regard to the selection of staff in their educational systems. An important gap in literature is filled through this study and policies that are of great importance for the effectiveness of an educational system are brought to light in a comprehensive way.
Keywords: educational policy; educational staff; selection system; educational management; evaluation in education; assessment in education; educational legislation.
Human capital formation and economic growth in South Asia: heterogeneous dynamic panel cointegration
by Md. Saiful Islam
Abstract: This study attempts to examine the impact of human capital formation in terms of health and education expenditure on GDP growth of five South Asian economies. It uses annual panel data of Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka for the period 2000-2017, published by the World Bank. Panel unit root test, Pedroni cointegration test, panel auto regressive distributed lagged (ARDL) model estimation, and Granger causality test are applied. The result of panel ARDL model estimation reveals that growth of GDP, health expenditure and government education expenditure have long run association, but no short run correlation among the variables. The Granger causality test reveals the existence of a bidirectional causality between GDP growth rate and health expenditure, and a unidirectional causality from education expenditure to GDP growth. It means health expenditure causes GDP growth rate and the vice versa, and government education expenditure also causes GDP growth. Therefore, the policy makers should promote human capital formation through greater budget allocations towards health and education sector, and ensure effective use of allocated expenditures on education and health for achieving sustainable economic growth through human capital formation in South Asia.
Keywords: GDP growth; health expenditure; education expenditure; cointegration; South Asia.
Undergraduate students' economic literacy, knowledge of the country's economic performance and opinions regarding appropriate economic policies
by João Martins, Linda G. Veiga
Abstract: Based on a survey of more than 400 students at the University of Minho in Portugal, we analyse the relationship of: 1) basic economic literacy; 2) knowledge of the country's economic performance; 3) opinions regarding appropriate economic policies, with previous economic training, and other socioeconomic variables. The results clearly show that economic training has a positive influence on students' economic literacy and knowledge of the country's current economic data and conditions. It also influences their assessment of how economic policy should be conducted. We argue that more training in economics, both at the high school and university levels, is necessary to improve citizens' knowledge for making personal and social decisions on economic issues. This recommendation is particularly relevant for countries that recently underwent deep economic crises.
Keywords: economic literacy; questionnaire; opinion on economic policies; training in economics; undergraduate students.
Foreign aid volatility and lifelong learning
by Simplice A. Asongu, Joseph I. Uduji, Elda N. Okolo-Obasi
Abstract: This paper has put a demand-side empirical structure to the hypothesis that foreign aid volatility adversely affects choices to lifelong learning in recipient countries. Lifelong learning is measured as the combined knowledge acquired during primary, secondary and tertiary educational enrolments. Three types of aggregate foreign aid volatilities are computed in a twofold manner: baseline standard deviations and standard errors (standard deviations of residuals after first-order autoregressive processes). An endogeneity robust system GMM empirical strategy is employed. The findings broadly show that foreign aid volatility does not adversely affect the demand-side choices of lifelong learning in Africa. As a policy implication, when faced with aid uncertainty, the demand for education would increase. This may be explained by the need for more self-reliance in order to mitigate income risks or/and the use of education as means of coping with uncertainty. More policy implications are discussed.
Keywords: primary education; secondary education; tertiary education; lifelong learning; knowledge economy; foreign aid; volatility; economic development; generalised method of moments; principal component analysis; Africa.
Higher education and entrepreneurial activities: the experience of graduates
by Simon Stephens
Abstract: This paper explores if and how the models and theories that graduates learn during their time in higher education are applied during entrepreneurial activities. The paper focuses on research that seeks to enhance the understanding of the impact higher education, specifically, the value academic theory and models have for entrepreneurs. The data was collected in two phases. Firstly, a survey was conducted of 100 academics. This survey examines how the academics conceive the relevance of their teaching, learning and assessment to the work environment and activities of entrepreneurs. Secondly, 30 graduates who are entrepreneurs were interviewed. The findings from this research indicate that participation in higher education has positive impacts for the graduates through skill/knowledge development and access to business network members. However, the graduates' perception of the benefits of entrepreneurship are different to the reality of working as an entrepreneur.
Keywords: entrepreneurship; entrepreneurial education; academics; graduates.
Effects of peer learning on learning performance, motivation, and attitude
by Chia-Yu Liu, Hung-Ling Chen
Abstract: Financial management skills are a critical and basic requirement for success across a number of professions. Thus, higher education should provide more engaging and inspiring activities to foster students' financial management skills. This study aims to propose a peer-learning teaching approach in a financial management course to assist students in discussing and learning in small groups as well as in engaging in games and tournaments to achieve their learning goals. The results show that the peer-learning group outperforms the lecture-based group in both final exam scores and semester grades. These findings also reveal that the peer-learning group reports a marginally significant higher score for learning motivation and a more positive attitude toward peer learning than the lecture-based group. Participants' qualitative feedback highlights that peer learning is the most helpful feature in enhancing students' overall learning.
Keywords: attitude toward peer learning; financial management skill; motivation; peer learning; learning performance.