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International Journal of Education Economics and Development

International Journal of Education Economics and Development (IJEED)

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International Journal of Education Economics and Development (32 papers in press)

Regular Issues

  •   Free full-text access Open AccessCan we identify the students who have success in macroeconomics depending on exam format by comparing multiple-choice test and constructed response test?
    ( Free Full-text Access ) CC-BY-NC-ND
    by Leiv Opstad 
    Abstract: The selection of assessment format in business schools and higher education has been a topic of consideration for many years. Currently, in Norway, there is a debate about replacing constructed response (CR) questions with multiple-choice (MC) questions. MC tests are popular and have been substituted for traditional exams in many fields. In the context of costs, there is obviously a gain to using MC tests. By exploring data from a macroeconomics course that applied both essay-based and multiple-choice-based tests simultaneously, it was possible to compare the two exam formats and to identify students who performed differently. By using a linear regression model, the findings revealed that there were substantial differences in the influence of the independent variables for the two methods. For CR, the result confirms prior research, while there was almost no significant connection between the chosen independent variables and the dependent variable MC. Therefore, students' background, skills and personal characteristics matter.
    Keywords: multiple-choice test; constructed response test; performance; regression analyses; economics; business students; assignment; undergraduates.

  • Comparative presentation of the legislative framework for the selection of staff in the Greek educational system: a critical review   Order a copy of this article
    by Vasiliki Brinia, Ioannis Koumentos, Paraskevi Psoni 
    Abstract: The present paper presents -for the first time in Greece- a critical review of the legislative framework of the selection systems of educational staff in Greece. The poor managerial educational background of staff that occupies managerial positions, the lack of assessment during the term of office, the lack of stability of the selection system are the main issues discussed with regard to the system of staff selection in the Greek educational system. The present critical review is of great significance for Greek policy makers, as it may impact and help formulate future educational policy on the selection of educational staff. It also constitutes a valuable paradigm for other countries that face similar issues with regard to the selection of staff in their educational systems. An important gap in literature is filled through this study and policies that are of great importance for the effectiveness of an educational system are brought to light in a comprehensive way.
    Keywords: educational policy; educational staff; selection system; educational management; evaluation in education; assessment in education; educational legislation.

  • Intergenerational Mobility in Educational Attainments: A Comparative Analysis at Provincial Level of Pakistan   Order a copy of this article
    by Malik Muhammad, Nasim S. Shirazi, Zahoor Khan 
    Abstract: Inequality in opportunity is one of the major causes of persistence in socio-economic status. In societies where opportunities are not equal, the poor remain underdeveloped, and their skills and talents are wasted. This results in the backwardness of both current and future generations. In a less mobile society, chances of success and failure are not equal for poor and rich. Incentives to work hard decrease, which leads to discouraging innovations and slows the pace of economic growth. We use a non-monetary measure, the level of education, as a proxy of socio-economic status, and investigate its mobility across the generations in four provinces of Pakistan. We use data of Pakistan Social and Living Standards Measurements (PSLM-2012-13) for our analysis. Data reveals that the percentage of fathers is greater in the lower education level than their sons in all four provinces. Further, transition matrices and multinomial logit models indicate strong persistence in educational status along with upward mobility. Sons belong to less-educated fathers are less likely to attain high levels of education as compared to the sons of high-educated fathers in all provinces. We also find that the probability of achieving high education levels increases with the increase in income and wealth. Further, large family size is a hurdle in attainments of high education levels and increases the chances of attaining a low education level or never attending school.
    Keywords: Inequality of Opportunity; Education; Intergenerational Mobility.

  • Does Public Schemes Work towards Womens Education in Uttar Pradesh?   Order a copy of this article
    by Waseem Ahmad Khan 
    Abstract: As such we know how important women's education is for economic growth. Understanding its importance, we have made an effort on the education side of women. We have tried to show the status of a very important state of our India, that state is Uttar Pradesh. In Uttar Pradesh, women have always lagged behind; therefore the government of this state has taken many steps to overcome from this inequality. In order to conduct this research, we have gathered many policies and made an effort to understand that policies is being run by the government is whether or not they are impacting on women's education and keeping this in mind, we divided this paper into 3 parts. In the first part, we have tried to show that how is the trend and pattern of expenditure on women education going. Secondly, we have tried to show the effectiveness of the educational policies. At the end, we have tried to tell whether public policies have an impact on womens education in Uttar Pradesh or not.
    Keywords: Women Education; Public Policy; Gross Enrollment; Expenditure gender budgeting; Uttar Pradesh.

  • Branding Higher Education Institutions (HEIs): Challenges and Potential Strategies   Order a copy of this article
    by Arun Vijay Subbarayalu 
    Abstract: This study is based on the general review of the challenges faced by HEIs during the branding process and further recommends suitable strategies for branding universities. The most prominent challenges facing the HEIs to brand themselves are their inability to create the brand identity, difficulties in communicating the brand through appropriate brand-building activities, cultural issues affecting HEIs, pros, and cons of making alliances and partnerships, and insufficient infrastructural facilities to showcase its brand value. The strategies suggested include (i) designing creative logos and slogans; (ii) identifying the competitive advantage and communicate it to its stakeholders through appropriate channels; (iii) inculcating Institutional brand as a culture among employees; (iv) establishing strategic partnerships with other universities and (iv) providing start-of-art digital platforms & online presence. These strategies would also help HEIs develop appropriate brand management practices and position themselves to achieve a competitive advantage in the global market.
    Keywords: Branding; Challenges; Higher education institutions; Strategies.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEED.2022.10039130
  • The Influence of IFAC Membership on the Implementation of Sustainability in Accounting Training Programs   Order a copy of this article
    by Obiamaka Nwobu, Collins Ngwakwe 
    Abstract: This paper presents empirical evidence of IFAC memberships influence on integrating sustainability in accounting training programs of professional accounting organisations in sub-Saharan Africa countries. The paper applies a quantitative approach and uses ex post facto research design to actualise its objective. The sample size comprises 50 sub-Saharan African countries. The study uses secondary data from the entire 50 sub-Saharan Africa countries, and analyzes data using multivariate regression analysis. The paper stands out from previous research by including three other independent control variables: country accounting system, country age since independence, and the age of syllabus. Findings show that, against expectation, membership of international accounting association (International Federation of Accountants) has no significant influence on the inclusion of sustainability in the accounting education curriculum of professional accounting organisations in sub-Saharan Africa; instead, the results show that the age of the syllabus significantly influences the extent of sustainability inclusion in the accounting curriculum. Practical implication includes the need for the International Federation of Accountants to elevate its sustainability framework guide to a mandatory status for inclusion in professional members education curriculum. This is vital for imbuing sustainability ethics in qualified accountants. The paper identifies an agenda for further research.
    Keywords: Sustainability education; accounting education; institutional theory; professional accounting organizations; sub-Saharan Africa; professional association.

  • Modeling the private for-profit higher education market with peer effects and informational asymmetry   Order a copy of this article
    by Khang Do Ba, Hoa Duong Quang 
    Abstract: We develop two models of private for-profit universities to analyze the market structure at long-run equilibrium. The first model indicates that peer effects cause the universities at equilibrium to stratify along their selectivity levels. With informational asymmetry added, the second model shows that at each selectivity level there may be so-called dishonest universities that rip off uninformed students by offering the lowest possible quality at the same high tuition as other universities. We discuss policy implications, and present new insights from the findings to help explain empirical observations and contribute to the ongoing debate on the role of for-profit sector in higher education.
    Keywords: private for-profit universities; long-run equilibrium; tuition; selectivity; peer effects; informational asymmetry; market stratification; competitive models of higher education.

    by Carlos Arriaga Costa, Orlando Pereira 
    Abstract: New teaching methodologies have sought greater integration with the learning process. Ideas of excellence and efficiency are now part of the educational objectives, whereas the result of the evaluation is a key tool in the process of selection and visibility. However, the traditional culture of knowledge transmission still seems to remain and, in a sense, hinder back these metamorphoses. This study unveils our concern about the students and teachers perceptions regarding the distribution of tasks: which ones are to be performed by each one and which ones should be shared, in the teaching-learning process. Evidence enlightens that students and teachers still assign responsibility to the teacher regarding the monitoring and evaluation of students. However, a significant number of students wishes to assume or share part of these responsibilities, in particular in what regards the definition of the work plan and evaluation criteria.
    Keywords: Tasks in the teaching-learning process; New teaching and learning approaches; Role of the student and the teacher.

  • The Impact of Online Learning on Student Satisfaction during COVID-19 Pandemic in Indonesia   Order a copy of this article
    by Jonathan Djuwandi, Al Amin Samsu Niang, Willy Gunadi 
    Abstract: Many studies have discussed the factors that influence student satisfaction in both offline and online learning. However, COVID-19 forced students in Indonesia to transition from offline to online learning. This research aims to reveal the effect of online learning on student satisfaction during this period. The authors examined the findings from university students and literature discussing online learning, and factors that influenced student satisfaction. The results gathered from the quantitative study showed that students that had a high degree of satisfaction in online learning also excelled in academic performance. The importance of the findings of this research and proof of the hypotheses are discussed.
    Keywords: Class interaction; Instructor performance; Learning convenience; Online learning; Student satisfaction.

  • University Selectivity: Does it correlate with graduates wages? Evidence from Chile   Order a copy of this article
    by Oscar Espinoza, Luis Sandoval, Luis González, Noel McGinn 
    Abstract: This paper explores the relationship between university selectivity and graduates wages. Holding other factors constant, do employers award higher salaries to graduates of universities that impose higher admission requirements? The study looks at wage returns to Chilean graduates in two different disciplines in three universities. The participants were 587 graduates. The results reveal a positive relationship between these factors at high and low selectivity, but not in the middle range. There is no concrete evidence that training in the higher selectivity university is of higher quality. The results advance our understanding of how higher education can contribute to income inequality, but are generalizable only to the two disciplines studied.
    Keywords: university selectivity; graduates; wages; income inequality; Chile.

  • Education and Economic Growth in A Developing Country   Order a copy of this article
    by Misheck Mutize, Kale Akwei, Latif Alhassan 
    Abstract: Quality education is one of the seventeen United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) for its 2030 vision to transform the world. It is assumed that, investment in inclusive and equitable quality education opens economic opportunities for all and has a long-term positive impact on economic growth. This paper thus examines the impact of education on economic growth in Togo, a developing country, using the Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) Error Correction Model (ECM) estimation method on time series data from 1971 to 2018. Results of the short-run estimations show a significant positive relationship between education and GDP per capita. However, long-run estimations results show a negative relationship between education and GDP per capita growth. Thus, the study recommends governments to increase investment in education in the short term.
    Keywords: SDGs 2030; education; economic growth; GDP per capita; United Nations.

  • Modeling the Economic Reciprocal Relationship between Student Learning and Professor Teaching: An Economic Theoretical Study and Application   Order a copy of this article
    by Tin-Chun Lin 
    Abstract: This research is to model the economic reciprocal relationship between student learning and professor teaching. We use a game theoretical model to study the effort provision by a professor and a student in knowledge production. We solve for the Nash equilibrium efforts analytically and to obtain the algebraic expressions for the players equilibrium payoffs. Analysis suggested that two parties effort investments (and payoffs) in teaching and learning are endogenously and positively correlated and simultaneously determined. This model is the most appropriate for studying independent study classes and thesis supervision as one-on-one experiences. We suggest that the university authority considers providing extra incentive-pay to professors who teach independent study classesdoing so would motivate faculty to increase their efforts toward student knowledge acquisition. More importantly, the theoretical model developed here may be useful in constructing empirical models for future investigation on this educational research and innovation problem.
    Keywords: Economic behavior; Static games of complete information; Producer choice theory; Nash equilibrium; Independent study classes.

  • Effectiveness of Training Program on Workers Commitment in the Education Subsector in Malaysia   Order a copy of this article
    by Noorazeela Zainol Abidin, Nurliyana Mohd Basri, Hafizah Abdul Rahim 
    Abstract: The study aims at analyzing the effectiveness of training program towards worker commitment in the education subsector in Malaysia. The effectiveness is measured through the use of three main elements, namely training course content, role of the trainer and support from top management. The analysis is based on data from 237 workers involved in the education subsector and sourced through questionnaires distributed throughout a few selected states in 2016. The study employed the Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) approach which applied the software model SmartPLS 3 for analyzing the relationship between the three elements on the effectiveness of the training program and workers commitment. Results showed that the training course content construct produced a non-significant and negative relationship. Whereas the other two constructs, namely role of the trainer and support from top management gave significant and positive worker commitment in the education subsector in Malaysia.
    Keywords: Training; Course Content; Education Subsector; Structural Equation Modelling.

  • The Correlation between Education Expenditure and Higher Education in Pakistan   Order a copy of this article
    by Gulzar Ali 
    Abstract: Higher education is considered as one of the essential factors that enables people to increase better aptitudes and learning that in turn progressively affects humans capital in the development, growth, and prosperity of a country as well as in poverty reduction, skill development and provision of important services. Knowing the importance of higher education, this study empirically examines the correlation and impact of public education expenditure on higher education in Pakistan. The study found that public education expenditure has a positive and significant effect on higher education showing that a satisfactory share of public education expenditure brings an increase in attaining higher education in Pakistan. Moreover, the number of universities and university teachers has also a noteworthy effect on higher education in Pakistan.
    Keywords: Higher Education; Education Expenditure; No. of Universities; Universities Teachers.

  • Key Competencies Increasing Chance for Employment of Students Case Study   Order a copy of this article
    by Hana Urbancová, Pavla Vrabcová, Jan Coufal, Ji?í Tobíšek 
    Abstract: The level of competencies of university and college students, they gain during their studies, predetermine their employment in the labor market and their capabilities for their further development. In today's highly competitive environment, organizations are interested in graduates who have highly developed primarily soft competencies and at the same time have the growth potential. The survey focuses on the identification of transferable cross-sectional competencies and their measurement among students of the private university of economics. This article aims to identify transferable cross-sectional competencies of university students that contribute most to the graduate's success in the labor market and to summarize the approach to identify tasks for the development of the educational program of the private university of economics. Chi-square tests were applied to determine the dependencies, and the data were also evaluated by factor analysis to find hidden factors. Four factors were identified, namely appropriate communication style, complexity and self-management, performance individualism, and socially desirable behavior.
    Keywords: competencies; economic field; growth potential; survey; the Czech Republic.

  • Empirical Evidence on Intellectual Property Copyright: Student Perspectives on Learning Outcomes and Challenges   Order a copy of this article
    by Siew King Ting, Tze Wee Lai, Brian Dollery 
    Abstract: Universities play an important role to promote, transfer and commercialise intellectual property in the knowledge-based economy. This study aims to evaluate the perceived learning outcomes and challenges based on a self-made short video clip project. Under the project, students produced short video clips by themselves to explain economic concepts and then registered the short video clip at the Intellectual Property Corporation of Malaysia (MyIPO) in Sarawak. Using a sample of undergraduate students who took introductory economics courses at the Universiti Teknologi MARA, Cawangan Sarawak over the period September 2019 to January 2020 period, our results show that the overall mean score of perceived learning outcomes on copyright was 3.86 suggesting positive response from respondents. Respondents also confronted finance, time and procedure challenges in producing short video clips and registering their copyright. We offer several suggestions on improving quality of digital innovation and promoting importance of copyright amongst tertiary students
    Keywords: Intellectual property; copyright; innovation; perceived learning outcomes; economic concepts.

  • What Rate My Professors ratings indicate about effective teaching in Economics   Order a copy of this article
    by Junaid Jahangir 
    Abstract: Four questions pertaining to effective teaching are addressed through content analysis of student comments at the Rate My Professors website for Economics instructors at two universities in Edmonton. First, do student comments capture effective teaching? Second, why are Economics instructors rated lower than those in other social sciences? Third, do contract instructors lower teaching standards through easy classes and grade inflation? Finally, are quality instructors penalized for rigorous standards? The analysis suggests that student comments capture many attributes of effective teaching but not critical thinking. There exists some evidence on contract instructors offering easy As just as there exist individual cases of instructors being penalized for maintaining rigorous standards. These findings suggest that administration should focus on student comments instead of average numerical scores. Effective instructors should not be penalized when student comments emphasize easy grades as part of the corporate model of education instead of learning and critical thinking.
    Keywords: Rate My Professors ratings; effective teaching; easy As and corporate education; teaching Economics.

  • A Comparative View of the Educational Systems of Greece, France and England   Order a copy of this article
    by Evaggelos Mavrikakis, Vasiliki Brinia, Andriani Gkouma 
    Abstract: This study aims to explore the dividing lines between the educational systems of three countries, Greece, France and England on the areas of public participation, staffing of structures, administration and supervision, assessment, curriculums and funding. Each of these systems has developed a different control system, established roles, frameworks as well as procedures that define to a certain degree its dimension of roles. The study was based on a literature review concerning these systems, educational administration, organisational behaviour and management of school units. Basic dimensions of educational policies were studied in order to comprehend each systems approach. The study indicated basic differences between the three systems on decision making, bodies implicated, organisational behavior and system effectiveness. These differences provide significant insights on systems characteristics in order to enhance their future development and autonomy, as they are constantly affected by global, political, social, economic and cultural changes. Conclusions are discussed.
    Keywords: educational system; dimension of roles; administration; system autonomy; comparative view; organisational behaviour.

  • The macroeconomic impact of school enrollments. Time-series evidence from Greece.   Order a copy of this article
    by Georgios Garafas, Ioannis Sotiropoulos, Nikolaos Arnis, Georgios Kolias 
    Abstract: This paper explores the impact of human capital on economic growth. For this purpose, it employs data for Greece concerning enrollment rates in each level of the formal educational system as a proxy for human capital. It is of particular importance that the impact of vocational education is being distinguished. By applying Johansen's approach, two cointegrating vectors were identified summarizing the positive long-run relationship between enrollment rates and gross domestic product (GDP). Whereas, in the short run a unidirectional Granger causality was found running from GDP to general secondary education which is an indication of the Greek household preference for general education instead of vocational training.
    Keywords: Enrollment rates; Human capital; Economic growth; VAR.

  • Does demographics moderate the learning in accounting and finance courses?   Order a copy of this article
    by Mona M. ElShaabany, Moid Ahmad 
    Abstract: The effectiveness of technical courses such as accounting and finance, depends upon an understanding of endogenous and exogenous variables and their behavior with the teaching-learning process. This paper is focused on analyzing the effect of three independent variables (readiness of students, course scheduling and interest of students) upon learning in accounting and finance courses under the moderating influence of three demographic variables (gender, age and background). The research is based on a survey of respondents from three stakeholders (students, faculty and managers) and applies regression based moderation technique for analysis. One of the significant finding of the study is that at a given level of interest of students, male students are marginally better learner than female students.
    Keywords: Business Education; Accounting courses; Finance courses; Moderation analysis; Learning.

  • Increasing Access but not Equity: Higher Education Policy and Participation in Mexico   Order a copy of this article
    by Shaye S. Worthman, Manuel Palma-Cornejo, Adriana Rueda-Barrios 
    Abstract: Given Mexico's comparatively low coverage of higher education, concerns about inequalities in participation persist, especially between different social groups. The current study examined participation trends associated with Mexico's expansion of higher education coverage since the country's neoliberal turn in the 1990s, reviewing education policies across six presidential administrations and analysing household data provided by the National Institute of Statistics and Geography to compare socio-demographic characteristics of higher education students from 1994 to 2018. Findings indicate that although higher education coverage increased during this time period, inequalities persist between young people from different economic backgrounds, rural and urban areas, and indigenous and non-indigenous groups, thereby reproducing social disparities. Moreover, the most economically advantaged in society have most benefited from the expansion in the higher education system. The paper concludes by discussing alternative policy approaches that focus directly on disadvantaged groups to promote equity and inclusion in the higher education system.
    Keywords: higher education; higher education policy; access to higher education; inequality of opportunity; educational equity; educational opportunity; university enrolment; Mexico; Latin America.

  • Impact of achievement, skills, gender and career intentions on students perceptions of economics in the UAE   Order a copy of this article
    by Abderrazak Bakhouche 
    Abstract: Understanding students' opinions is of substantial benefit to higher education providers with implications on student's attrition. This study examines undergraduate business students' perceptions of Economics in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). The role of a host of student-specific attributes, including academic achievement, gender, career intentions and skills accumulated during preparatory education, is assessed using the Logit regression analysis. The results show that students generally have positive perceptions of Economics, but they consider the course to demand more concentration and time to understand. Better knowledge of maths and having an adequate level of English significantly contribute to forming better opinions about Economics. The gender effect is slightly observed in the study of Economics. The course is relevant to students of all fields of study, emphasising consensus on its function as a conduit of liberal art skills. This study calls on educators and administrators to ensure that students are adequately prepared to study Economics. More importantly, students shall be exposed to an awareness campaign about the importance of economic literacy for themselves and the nation's economic development.
    Keywords: higher education; locus of control; UAE; Impact of GPA; skills; English competency; maths competency; students' perceptions; Economics Education; quantitative survey; quality of teaching; logit regression.

  • Skills-Based Approach and learning outcomes determinants in West Africa   Order a copy of this article
    by Kadio Eric KADIO 
    Abstract: This paper analyses Skills-Based Approach implementation effect on learning outcomes in West Africa. Its expansion was made under multiple goals, including skills improvements, which are related to innovation and productivity in economic literature. However, few works have been devoted to its effect evaluation on pupils outcomes at primary education level. Moreover, the economic analysis has little to say about its contribution to learning quality. To achieve this goal, we estimate a two-level hierarchical linear model where endogeneity bias is corrected by Mundlak estimator adaptation to multilevel data. Our results show the Skills-Based Approach negative impact on achievements, but also, learning disparities related to pupil gender, school location and type, while some institutional factor and family background positively influence students outcomes.
    Keywords: Skills-Based Approach; Primary Education; learning outcomes; Hierarchical linear model; West Africa.

  • Digitalisation Determinants and Digital Dividends of the Higher Education System (on the example of Russia)   Order a copy of this article
    by Evgeniya Karpunina, Asya Arutyunova, Ekaterina Sazanova, Arthur Maksaev, Gulnaz Galieva 
    Abstract: The research was based on studying the digitalisation determinants of the higher education system in Russia and evaluating the digital dividends received, which indicate the effectiveness of digitalisation processes. The digitalisation determinants of the higher education system (digital architecture, digital educational services, personnel potential and economic capital) were identified. The authors introduced the concept of "digital dividends of the higher education system", which includes an increase in the number of students, cost reduction, enhancement of the educational process. The authors proposed a method for calculating the digital dividend ratio based on 4 indicators with different weights. The result of the digital dividend ratio should become the basis for making management decisions in the process of implementing the state educational policy (the policy for active digitalisation of higher education; the policy for restrained digitalisation). The proposed method for calculating the digital dividend ratio can be used to conduct a comparative analysis of the effectiveness of digitalisation of education worldwide.
    Keywords: digitalisation determinants; digital dividends; higher education system; distance technologies; e-learning; digital literacy; educational process effectiveness.

  • Exploring the Spatial Dimensions of College Retention within the Context of Inequality   Order a copy of this article
    by Serkan Catma, Serkan Varol 
    Abstract: Exploring the spatial dimensions of college student retention is critical in order to fully understand the motivation of students dropping out, yet the literature lacks a comprehensive spatial analysis. This study aims to assess the impact of a combination of spatial and institutional predictors on college student retention. A key finding of this research is that the geo-spatial location of a public four-year university in the US is an important determinant of student persistence. Distance to the closest metropolitan area, number of universities within close proximity and local unemployment rate where an institution is located not only impact freshman retention but also reveal important implications for barriers to equal access in higher education. We suggest that administrators and policy makers consider the spatial factors while determining the best management practices and policy tools to address problems pertaining not only to retention but also the accessibility issues in higher education.
    Keywords: student retention; spatial; inequality; affordability; selectivity.

    by Bekim Marmullaku, Avni Arifi 
    Abstract: The objective of this paper is to assess the link between higher education institution in the aspect of development of the curricula and their match with the existing requirements by the employers, which represent the labor market offer in Kosovo. The data used in the paper are gathered form the survey that was conducted by the authors during the period March October 2020, in Republic of Kosovo. The results of the testings done through our econometric models shows that there is a positive relationship in the cooperation between businesses (that is employers) and universities and other higher education institutions, in designing the curricula for study programs and in increasing the employment rates of graduates. Moreover, in the case of businesses this cooperation is positive, while in the case of universities and other higher education institutions no significant results were found.
    Keywords: employment; curricula; higher education institution; private sector.

  • Digital competition and capabilities   Order a copy of this article
    by Bruno F. Abrantes 
    Abstract: Intertwining the fields of education policy research (EPR) and educational experiment research (EER), this investigation exploits the usage of digital technologies and team-competition to test whether the phenomenon of digital competition yields a divergent (and likely more positive) impact than traditional classroom coursework, measurable on the degree of learning (criterion 1) and satisfaction (criterion 2) within a target population of international higher education students (HES).rnAn event fashioned and simply dubbed as Case Competition, provided the context and virtual environment for a quasi-experiment which assigned participants (the experiment group) to seven teams competing for solving an industry case. Primary data obtained from the latter through an individual anonymized event
    Keywords: digital competition; higher education; international students; student-centric learning; problem-based learning (PBL).

  • Perception of university students about the embodiment of service-learning in the curriculum as a social economy pedagogical instrument   Order a copy of this article
    by Orlando Petiz Pereira, Carlos Arriaga Costa, Thiago Leão Beresford 
    Abstract: This paper discusses the pedagogical methodology of service-learning and its inclusion in the university academic curriculum. Society beholds in apathy the increase in social pain and the atmosphere of uncertainty, social fragmentation, poverty and absence of feelings of harmony, cooperation, and altruism. The target population of our study were the students from the University of Minho. The study resorts to the quantitative approach and uses a questionnaire. Evidence shows that older and higher level academic students are more sensitive to the integration of service-learning into the academic curriculum. Although strangeness persists in their curricular inclusion in some courses, all students consider service-learning as an instrument of intrapersonal and interpersonal development. The theme and objectives of this work are relevant because it features a curricular approach to the holistic development of the student and the community, through which one learns to serve and serves to learn.
    Keywords: service-learning; social economy; humanisation; holistic training; academic curriculum; higher education; pedagogical instrument; students' perception; community values; cooperation.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEED.2021.10040635
  • Intergenerational mobility of education and occupation in Pakistan: a multinomial logistic analysis   Order a copy of this article
    by Fareed Shareef, Toseef Azid, Nasim Shah Shirazi 
    Abstract: The present study uses a sample of 613 households and attempts to find intergenerational transmission through non-monetary factors such as education and occupations. The results from the logistic regression models are mixtures of opposites, hence more challenging to draw a factual finding from these estimates. For unskilled and managerial ranks of occupation, the findings support the hypothesis, but for skilled non-manual, it does not. The results for the other ranks turn out to be significant. For mothers, results turned out to be insignificant and hence excluded from the analysis. Regarding the impact of parental education on the occupational placement of offspring, the findings for mothers' education have been found significant for unskilled and skilled manual ranks and fathers' education only for unskilled rank. However, the results of the dummy created for occupational mobility has been found significant and supporting the hypothesis for all ranks except for skilled non-manual rank.
    Keywords: intergenerational mobility; education; occupation; multinomial logistic analysis; Pakistan.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEED.2021.10040639
  • Rural women's agricultural knowledge and information systems about agro-food processing including extension education factors   Order a copy of this article
    by Reza Movahedi, Jalileh Soleimanian-Boroujeni, Mojhdeh Ketabi 
    Abstract: This paper presents some extension and education factors which theoretically may use about agro-food processing programs. The theoretical part of the paper focuses on the importance of agricultural knowledge and information systems (AKIS) and shows the role of information and knowledge in agricultural productions. The data gathering occurs through a researcher-made questionnaire in Gandoman District of Borujen County, Charmahal and Bakhtiari Province, Iran. The statistical population were rural women active in AFP. Of those, 335 people were selected as statistical sample. The questionnaire is structured in three parts, demographical questions, questions about women's AKIS, and extension-training factors. Reliability and validity of the questions calculated and confirmed using PLS method in terms of composite reliability (CR), convergent validity and divergent validity. Data were analysed using SPSS, PLS, correlation tests and regression. The results showed that there is a significant positive relationship between rural women's AKIS about AFP and the variables extension and training factors. The results of regression analysis with regard to R2 coefficient showed that 61.8% of the dependent variable depends on extension and training factors.
    Keywords: extension-training factors; agricultural knowledge and information system; AKIS; rural women; agro-food processing; AFP.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEED.2021.10040642
  • Exploring factors that impede student support services and throughput rate: the case of TVET colleges in South Africa   Order a copy of this article
    by Julius Motala Makibinyane, Shuti Steph Khumalo 
    Abstract: For students to perform at an institution of higher education, academic support is fundamental. The objective of this study was to investigate factors that impede student support services and throughput rate. This study employed qualitative research methodology located within interpretive paradigm. Participants were student support services and academic staff at two TVET colleges in South Africa. A purposive sampling technique was used to select participants in this study. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews and analysed thematically. The study found that there are various factors that influence the students' academic performance and the throughput rate such as students' family background, academic difficulties, poor class attendance, poor infrastructure, lack of professional development opportunities, lack of career guidance, lack of academic support and shortage of SSS staff. The study also found that students are not making use of the student support services due to inadequate information on the SSS units of the campuses.
    Keywords: student support services; SSS; through put rate; social capital; technical vocational education and training colleges; TVET; success rate; academic support; academic difficulties; academic performance; professional development opportunities.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEED.2021.10040643
  • Intergenerational transmission of family and communication social capital in Pakistan: an empirical analysis   Order a copy of this article
    by Toseef Azid, Fareed Shareef, Zafar Kayani 
    Abstract: Using a sample of 613 households of district Multan a district of Pakistan, this study investigates the transmission of family and communication social capital across generations. Models of social capital transmission with core variables support the hypothesis that parental social networks determine their offsprings' social capital. For general analysis, the majority of control variables relating to the socio-demographic status have remained insignificant. The study explores that the transmission of family and communication social capital from parents to their children is specific in nature, not like a hereditary process. It means that children seem to acquire particular forms of social capital from their parents, rather than experiencing any collective social capital improvement due to their parents' practices.
    Keywords: social capital; family social capital; FSC; community social capital; CSC; intergenerational transmission; Pakistan.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEED.2021.10040644