International Journal of Education Economics and Development (12 papers in press)
Organizational Communication in Higher Educational Institutions: Scale Development and Validation
by Kriti Priya Gupta, Ruby Sengar
Abstract: Many researchers have generated instruments to assess communication at an organizational level. Although these scales are alluring, but still, there is a scarcity of valid and reliable constructs to measure organizational communication (OC) from all perspectives. Therefore, this study is trying to deduce the factors of OC scale and develop a construct to assess communication in higher educational institutions (HEI). Item generation and scale refinement for OC construct involve a survey of faculty members working with various HEIs in Delhi-National Capital Region, followed by construct, divergent, convergent, nomological and cross-validation using 576 faculty members, resulting in an organizational communication scale for higher educational institutions (OCHE). The empirical results indicate that the OCHE scale consists of 4 dimensions namely communication structure, style, behavior, and barriers. The proposed OCHE scale can serve as an indicative tool that enables the authorities of HEIs to monitor and manage the internal communication practices within their organizations.
Keywords: Organizational communication; communication structure; communication behavior; communication styles; communication barriers; higher educational institutions; India.
Returns to Schooling in Palestine: A Bayesian Approach
by Mohsen Ayyash, Tareq Sadeq, Siok Kun Sek
Abstract: This paper presents an empirical method to find more efficient estimates of returns to schooling using Bayesian linear regression instead of OLS method. The private returns to schooling in Palestine using the Palestinian Labour Force Survey (PLFS) for the year 2017 have been estimated, where on average, males earn 40.7% more than females. Separate regressions have been performed for males and females, in which the returns to schooling for females are found higher than their males' counterparts. Bayesian inference has also been applied into Heckman two-step procedure with logit and probit models to correct self-selection bias for females' sample. It is found that logit Heckman correction yields positive and higher coefficient of years of schooling than probit and OLS. The wage disparities in Palestine have been found influenced by various factors like age, sex, and occupational groups. These findings are useful for policymakers to plan for future investment in higher education.
Keywords: Bayesian linear regression; wages; returns to schooling.
Factors influencing students motivation to study at a university
by Hana Urbancova, Adela Fajcikova
Abstract: One of the main priorities of universities today is to determine the motivating factors influencing students attitude towards their studies and whether they successfully graduate or not. The aim of the paper is to identify selected attributes influencing student motivation and evaluate their impact on the learning process. The results were obtained through a quantitative survey (n = 293) and were evaluated using descriptive and multi-dimensional statistics. The survey identified 2 main factors influencing the motivation to study (quality of teaching and teacher, personal aspirations), with variable strength ranging from 0.513 to 0.836. These findings may help in targeted preparation and optimisation of study programmes that would respect the key motivations of students, and as a direction for future research, particularly aimed at student performance and teaching results comparable in the national and international academic environment.
Keywords: Higher education; learning process; motivational factors; personal aspirations; public university; quantitative survey; quality of teaching; satisfaction; students; teacher competences; teaching methods.
Implementing Pragmatism and John Deweys Educational Philosophy in Emirati Elementary Schools: Case of Mathematics and Science Teachers
by Adeeb Jarrah, Omar Khasawneh, Yousef Wardat
Abstract: The purpose of this study is to determine the extent to which John Deweys philosophical pragmatic thoughts are implemented in Emirati Elementary schools from the perspectives of mathematics and science teachers. Data were collected from 87 teachers using a descriptive analytical approach. The study findings indicate a general agreement among teachers who believed that Pragmatism is implemented in the United Arab Emirates Elementary schools from moderate to strong degree. The findings also reveal that there was no statistical significant difference between public and private school teachers perspectives, and no statistical difference between teachers teaching experience in terms of their views on the implementation of John Deweys educational pragmatic principles. The recommendations arising from the study emphasize the importance of conducting workshops about educational philosophy to ensure that school teachers believe that the teaching profession must stem from an educational belief, which would help in an improved job performance.
Keywords: Elementary Teachers; Pragmatism; John Dewey; Educational Philosophy; Emirati Schools; Mathematics and Science Teachers.
Effects of Classroom Experiments on Student Learning Outcome and Attendance
by Tin-Chun Lin
Abstract: We examined three hypotheses: engagement in classroom experiments (game-play experiments in classroom) enhances students attendance; weaker students are most likely to increase their attendance when engaged in these experiments; and classroom experiments improve students learning outcome. Our findings sustain these hypotheses, suggesting that classroom experiments are a fun, lively, and creative method of teaching students, increasing their motivation to learn and improving their lecture attendance and learning outcome. While the design and offering of these experiments may require instructors to spend less time on lectures, overall, this activity may be a worthwhile way to enhance students attendance, participation, and learning.
Keywords: Classroom experiments; lecture attendance; student learning.
Work-integrated learning: a powerful connecting tool between classroom and industry
by Mamorena Lucia Matsoso, Olumide Henrie Benedict
Abstract: Academics believe that work integrated learning (WIL) is no longer essential and that it takes up a lot of teaching and learning time. They also believe that teaching time should be extended and that students would seek employment on their own upon completion of their diplomas and degrees. However, we are of the opinion that WIL is vital to the growth and career development of students. We determined the students-employer perceptions on the benefits, expectations and experiences of WIL in higher education. Data that were collected through questionnaires were analyzed with the use of statistical tools. We then obtained trends from the findings. We discovered that WIL is beneficial in bridging a gap between the class room and then industry. Exchange lecturers and guest lecturers from the industry may be a plausible way to supplement WIL. Lecturers need to keep abreast of industry expectations and acclimatize their curriculum as some theories maybe obsolete and detached from practice.
Keywords: Work integrated learning; co-operative learning; higher education; experiential training; University of Technology.
Education and Aspirations in a Capability-Based Approach: The Case of Talib
by Jerome Ballet, Augendra Bhukuth, Bilal Hamzetta, Robin Vos
Abstract: The debate surrounding education in developing countries has mainly centred on the respective importance of school-related and family-related factors to both academic access and academic success. Studies on developed countries have already highlighted issues regarding the aspirations of children. In developing countries these issues are still under study. Our study fills in this gap. The aim of this article is to present an analysis of the determinants of childrens aspirations. For this we use the theoretical framework of capabilities. This framework is innovative as it was not applied on this issue on developing countries. Our study concerns a case study of talibé children in Mauritania. We use a database on 116 children. The results indicate that cultural factors and parental involvement in childrens schooling are decisive, in contrast to the quality of education and material living conditions, which have no significant effect.
Keywords: Capability approach; Koranic school; family-related factors; aspiration; Mauritania; Aspiration.
The education policy challenge to the brain drain problem
by Akira Shimada
Abstract: In a world of increased mobility of students and workers, both developing and developed countries are attempting to prevent brain drain. This study's research question is how we can prevent it. Utilising an analytical method, this study finds that education subsidies may be implemented as a new policy option to do so. In particular, developed countries, which are faced with a small wage disparity with the destination country, can eliminate brain drain for any degree of human capital transferability by paying subsidies appropriately. However, developing countries, which are faced with a large wage disparity, cannot always alleviate brain drain. The significance of this policy lies in that education subsidies affect the choice of study location, which in turn induces individuals to work in their home countries. Moreover, education subsidies are more effective than a Bhagwati tax since individuals have less incentive to evade subsidies.
Keywords: education policy; education subsidies; brain drain; Bhagwati tax; labour migration; student migration; human capital transferability; wage disparity; developed country; developing country.
Factors influencing Omani students' selection of higher education institutions: an emphasis on undergraduate and postgraduate students
by Abdelghani Echchabi, Salim Al-Hajri, Islam Nazier Tanas
Abstract: The study aims at investigating the factors that influence students' selection of higher education institutions in Oman. For that purpose, a sample of 384 respondents was randomly selected from various Omani regions and universities. The study used mean values to rank the factors based on the students' responses following Friedman's test. In addition, factor analysis was also used to summarise these factors, and analysis of variance (ANOVA) to investigate any differences in the selection factors across genders and education levels. The findings revealed that the main factors for university selection are the academic and financial benefits and advantages closely followed by the quality and reputation of the universities. In addition, the findings revealed that there is a significant difference across education levels with regard to the perception of academic quality, accommodation, as well as reference to website advertisements. These findings have significant contributions to the Omani universities, as well universities in similar contexts. Particularly, it provides the universities with insights on the main dimensions and characteristics to emphasise in order to enhance their overall performance.
Keywords: Oman; university reputation; academic quality; selection criteria; education marketing; academic advising; university tuition fees.
Determinants of academic performance of left-behind children in rural Nigeria: quantile evidence from Niger State
by Muktar Bala, Mohd Razani B. Mohd Jali, Nor Azam Abdul Razak
Abstract: Recently, scholars have expressed concern about the potential effects on academic performance when migrant parents leave their children behind, but little is known about the determinants of the academic performance of these children. Using survey data from Niger State, Nigeria (N = 1,140), and applying quantile regression, this study shows that the quality of parental involvement that left-behind children (LBC) receive in the absence of parents, their physical and mental health, the type of school they attend and their birth order affect their academic performance. These effects are, however, specific to the children in the lower and upper tails of the performance distribution. Therefore, policies that ensure the proper care of the children and those policies that enhance school quality would promote the academic performance of the children, particularly if targeted at the children who are in the lower and upper quantiles of the performance distribution.
Keywords: rural-urban migration; left-behind children; LBC; academic performance; quantile regression; parental involvement; physical health; mental health; birth order; Nigeria.
An investigation of the demographic factors affecting financial literacy and its components among urban Indians
by Snehal Bawre, Sujata Kar
Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the impact of socio-demographic factors on financial literacy and its components, namely, financial behaviour, financial attitude and financial numeracy skills. Also, the relationships between the components of financial literacy and the influence of financial numeracy skill on investment pattern are examined. The data showed that financial literacy in terms of familiarity with financial instruments and participation in formal financial system is quite reasonable at 65% among the participants. Socio-demographic variables like gender, age, education, income, and reliability of income are found to have significant influence on financial literacy. Further, all the components of financial literacy are found to impact each other positively. The findings also suggest that financial numeracy skill may improve overall financial literacy and secondary market participation in India. However, the use of financial websites or social media sites for investment decisions is meagre.
Keywords: financial literacy; financial behaviour; financial attitude; financial numeracy; multinomial logit model; socio-demographic factors; India.
Returns to education in MENA countries: a continuing story of under-achievement
by Reham Rizk
Abstract: The paper provides a comparative study of private rates of return to education in five MENA countries to better understand the pattern of rewards to different levels of schooling. Moreover, the paper attempts to link the structure of returns to education to labour market, gender and different age groups. The findings confirm less consistency among countries and this is due to differences in education quality and supply and demand of graduates, which has a significant influence on returns to schooling. Returns to additional years of schooling are the highest for Tunisia and lowest for Egypt. On analysing the rate of return to education by socio-economic factors: returns to education for women are lower than for men, and older cohorts have highest returns particularly for Egypt and Tunisia. With respect to policymakers, MENA region should adopt education policies that target quality of education, which meets labour demand rather than expansion of education.
Keywords: rate of return to education; gender; MENA countries; cross-section analysis.