International Journal of Education Economics and Development (18 papers in press)
Organizational Communication in Higher Educational Institutions: Scale Development and Validation
by Kriti Priya Gupta, Ruby Sengar
Abstract: Many researchers have generated instruments to assess communication at an organizational level. Although these scales are alluring, but still, there is a scarcity of valid and reliable constructs to measure organizational communication (OC) from all perspectives. Therefore, this study is trying to deduce the factors of OC scale and develop a construct to assess communication in higher educational institutions (HEI). Item generation and scale refinement for OC construct involve a survey of faculty members working with various HEIs in Delhi-National Capital Region, followed by construct, divergent, convergent, nomological and cross-validation using 576 faculty members, resulting in an organizational communication scale for higher educational institutions (OCHE). The empirical results indicate that the OCHE scale consists of 4 dimensions namely communication structure, style, behavior, and barriers. The proposed OCHE scale can serve as an indicative tool that enables the authorities of HEIs to monitor and manage the internal communication practices within their organizations.
Keywords: Organizational communication; communication structure; communication behavior; communication styles; communication barriers; higher educational institutions; India.
Returns to Schooling in Palestine: A Bayesian Approach
by Mohsen Ayyash, Tareq Sadeq, Siok Kun Sek
Abstract: This paper presents an empirical method to find more efficient estimates of returns to schooling using Bayesian linear regression instead of OLS method. The private returns to schooling in Palestine using the Palestinian Labour Force Survey (PLFS) for the year 2017 have been estimated, where on average, males earn 40.7% more than females. Separate regressions have been performed for males and females, in which the returns to schooling for females are found higher than their males' counterparts. Bayesian inference has also been applied into Heckman two-step procedure with logit and probit models to correct self-selection bias for females' sample. It is found that logit Heckman correction yields positive and higher coefficient of years of schooling than probit and OLS. The wage disparities in Palestine have been found influenced by various factors like age, sex, and occupational groups. These findings are useful for policymakers to plan for future investment in higher education.
Keywords: Bayesian linear regression; wages; returns to schooling.
Factors influencing students motivation to study at a university
by Hana Urbancova, Adela Fajcikova
Abstract: One of the main priorities of universities today is to determine the motivating factors influencing students attitude towards their studies and whether they successfully graduate or not. The aim of the paper is to identify selected attributes influencing student motivation and evaluate their impact on the learning process. The results were obtained through a quantitative survey (n = 293) and were evaluated using descriptive and multi-dimensional statistics. The survey identified 2 main factors influencing the motivation to study (quality of teaching and teacher, personal aspirations), with variable strength ranging from 0.513 to 0.836. These findings may help in targeted preparation and optimisation of study programmes that would respect the key motivations of students, and as a direction for future research, particularly aimed at student performance and teaching results comparable in the national and international academic environment.
Keywords: Higher education; learning process; motivational factors; personal aspirations; public university; quantitative survey; quality of teaching; satisfaction; students; teacher competences; teaching methods.
Implementing Pragmatism and John Deweys Educational Philosophy in Emirati Elementary Schools: Case of Mathematics and Science Teachers
by Adeeb Jarrah, Omar Khasawneh, Yousef Wardat
Abstract: The purpose of this study is to determine the extent to which John Deweys philosophical pragmatic thoughts are implemented in Emirati Elementary schools from the perspectives of mathematics and science teachers. Data were collected from 87 teachers using a descriptive analytical approach. The study findings indicate a general agreement among teachers who believed that Pragmatism is implemented in the United Arab Emirates Elementary schools from moderate to strong degree. The findings also reveal that there was no statistical significant difference between public and private school teachers perspectives, and no statistical difference between teachers teaching experience in terms of their views on the implementation of John Deweys educational pragmatic principles. The recommendations arising from the study emphasize the importance of conducting workshops about educational philosophy to ensure that school teachers believe that the teaching profession must stem from an educational belief, which would help in an improved job performance.
Keywords: Elementary Teachers; Pragmatism; John Dewey; Educational Philosophy; Emirati Schools; Mathematics and Science Teachers.
Effects of Classroom Experiments on Student Learning Outcome and Attendance
by Tin-Chun Lin
Abstract: We examined three hypotheses: engagement in classroom experiments (game-play experiments in classroom) enhances students attendance; weaker students are most likely to increase their attendance when engaged in these experiments; and classroom experiments improve students learning outcome. Our findings sustain these hypotheses, suggesting that classroom experiments are a fun, lively, and creative method of teaching students, increasing their motivation to learn and improving their lecture attendance and learning outcome. While the design and offering of these experiments may require instructors to spend less time on lectures, overall, this activity may be a worthwhile way to enhance students attendance, participation, and learning.
Keywords: Classroom experiments; lecture attendance; student learning.
Work-integrated learning: a powerful connecting tool between classroom and industry
by Mamorena Lucia Matsoso, Olumide Henrie Benedict
Abstract: Academics believe that work integrated learning (WIL) is no longer essential and that it takes up a lot of teaching and learning time. They also believe that teaching time should be extended and that students would seek employment on their own upon completion of their diplomas and degrees. However, we are of the opinion that WIL is vital to the growth and career development of students. We determined the students-employer perceptions on the benefits, expectations and experiences of WIL in higher education. Data that were collected through questionnaires were analyzed with the use of statistical tools. We then obtained trends from the findings. We discovered that WIL is beneficial in bridging a gap between the class room and then industry. Exchange lecturers and guest lecturers from the industry may be a plausible way to supplement WIL. Lecturers need to keep abreast of industry expectations and acclimatize their curriculum as some theories maybe obsolete and detached from practice.
Keywords: Work integrated learning; co-operative learning; higher education; experiential training; University of Technology.
Education and Aspirations in a Capability-Based Approach: The Case of Talib
by Jerome Ballet, Augendra Bhukuth, Bilal Hamzetta, Robin Vos
Abstract: The debate surrounding education in developing countries has mainly centred on the respective importance of school-related and family-related factors to both academic access and academic success. Studies on developed countries have already highlighted issues regarding the aspirations of children. In developing countries these issues are still under study. Our study fills in this gap. The aim of this article is to present an analysis of the determinants of childrens aspirations. For this we use the theoretical framework of capabilities. This framework is innovative as it was not applied on this issue on developing countries. Our study concerns a case study of talibé children in Mauritania. We use a database on 116 children. The results indicate that cultural factors and parental involvement in childrens schooling are decisive, in contrast to the quality of education and material living conditions, which have no significant effect.
Keywords: Capability approach; Koranic school; family-related factors; aspiration; Mauritania; Aspiration.
Economically Disadvantaged Communities: A Solution-Based Study through Education and Information Communication Technology
by ALICE ETIM, James Etim
Abstract: North Carolina has had issues with student achievement and in 2018, it ranked 40th out of the 50 states in the USA in a new report card on public education. Generally, schools are graded A,B,C,D and F grades where 80 percent of school grades are based on the percentage of student tests scores that are at or above grade-level performance, and 20 percent are based on academic growth. In Economically Disadvantaged communities, specifically, those in one large county in Central North Carolina, schools that are located in Economically Disadvantaged parts of the county tend to also perform poorly, scoring D and F grades in the State Schools Report Cards. The main research question is: Do students in low performing schools also score low on the Incoming Readiness scale and what is the percentage gap for students in high performing schools versus low performing schools in the Incoming Readiness scale? Survey and secondary data (North Carolina School Report Cards for 2016-2017) were collected and analyzed. The key findings: (i) low performing schools had higher percentage of students with lower Incoming Readiness; (ii) there was a large gap in Incoming Readiness between low and high performing schools. The study covers issues of social justice and the need to improve school performance.
Keywords: Economically disadvantaged communities; Information and Communication Technology (ICT); high performing schools; incoming readiness; low performing schools; North Carolina Schools’ Report Cards; poverty reductionCarolina Schools’ Report Cards; poverty reduction.
EXPLORATORY ANALYSIS OF UNIVERSITY-INDUSTRY INTERACTIONS: THE CASE OF NIGERIAN OIL SECTOR
by Yusuf Akinwale
Abstract: This paper examines the extent and nature of interaction between the university and firms in the Nigerian oil sector. The study through the use of questionnaire elicits information from 150 indigenous oil firms operating at the upstream subsector of the industry. Path analysis and correlation analysis were used to determine the weights and the significant impact of the industrial relationship with the university. The result revealed that there is a low level of interactions between the indigenous firms in oil industry and university in Nigeria. The outcome of this study further showed that engagement of academic staff in project/consultancy, joint research between university and oil industry, attendance of training program/workshops and student internship are found to have more effect in contributing to university-industry interactions; and these factors are positively and statistically significant to university-industry interaction. However, while licensing of university held patents and the use of university laboratory have weak correlations to university-industry interaction, path analysis further showed that the use of university laboratory was not statistically significant to university-industry interactions
Keywords: University-industry interactions; innovation; oil sector; research and development; Nigeria.
Higher Education Enrolment in Sub-Saharan Africa: Determinants and Policy Implications
by Josue Mbonigaba, Akinola Gbenga
Abstract: This paper investigates the factors that determine higher education enrolment (HEE) in some selected countries of Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) over the period between 1980 and 2015. The hypothesis of this paper is that certain factors have significant positive effects on (HEE) in the region. The paper adopts panel Auto Regressive Distributive Lag (P-ARDL) as the estimating technique. The result indicates that there is no long and short-run relationship between HEE and GDP per capita. While the impact of variables such as Secondary school output (SSG), Population growth rate (PGT) and Employment rate (EMR) are significantly positive in the long-run on HEE, reverse is the case for Population age group (PAG). Again, Short-Run Causality Tests are conducted with the aim of detecting if pairs of independent variables would jointly affect higher HEE in the SSA countries under investigation: the result is found to be robust and plausible. The ECM value of -0.024202 suggests a possible 2.4% speed of adjustment in the system from the short run deviation to the long run equilibrium. Having passed panel regression diagnostic test, the paper, therefore, concludes that improvement in the long-run HEE is obtainable and, therefore, education should be supported with strong education policy implementation, as this could have a positive impact on the transmitting effects of higher education in the SSA economic growth
Keywords: Sub-Sahara Africa; P-ARDL; Higher Education Enrolment.
Understanding Mentoring Role as a Step towards Improving Quality of Teacher Education: Kosovo Experience
by Majlinda Gjelaj, Fjolla Kaçaniku, Blerim Saqipi
Abstract: This research aimed at investigating how mentor teachers perceive their role as mentors of student teachers in an education system that is undergoing transition and faces significant challenges in quality of teacher education. The study was conducted in Kosovo and involved 220 mentor teachers trained at the University of Prishtinas Faculty of Education and an analysis of the course syllabi that intended to prepare students for school placement. This research concluded that mentor teachers are aware of their roles but prioritize tasks related to classroom management rather than broader roles of teachers in the school system. Also, the course syllabi indicated a general link with anticipated teacher roles while there is a need to ensure a better coherence between the school placement and university input. The research concludes that developments in teacher professionalism in the system should be a driving force behind the preparation of mentor teachers.
Keywords: Mentoring; pedagogical knowledge; mentor teacher training; student teachers; teacher education; mentor teacher roles; quality; context; school placement; Kosovo.
The importance of education in the context of innovation and competitiveness of nations.
by Alcides Barrichello, Rogério Scabim Morano, Paulo Roberto Feldmann, Rafael Ricardo Jacomossi
Abstract: There are many studies indicating the relation between innovation and competitiveness, and the importance of education for both. In addition, such issues are on the United Nations agenda for the millennium goals until 2030. There is little research seeking to establish the relations between these three elements. The objective of this study was to investigate the education as a determining factor for a countrys competitiveness, and to understand its role in the context of the innovation generation. The research used structural equation modeling and data from 138 countries included in the Global Competitiveness Report of the World Economic Forum 2016/2017. The results showed that education is the predecessor of innovation and competitiveness and it comprehends basic education and technical training provided by companies. The study contributes mainly to develop and test education, innovation and competitiveness through a unique integrated structural model.
Keywords: competitiveness of nations; innovation; education; structural equation modeling; millennium development.
Geographic Region, Student Loans, and College Graduation Rates
by Jon Mohundro, Steve Joanis, James Burnley
Abstract: Student loan debt has become an increasingly important topic among American students, families, politicians, and economists. These student loans are even more concerning for those who do not complete their course of education and are left with reduced earning potential. Although an expansive collection of scholarly research has examined the outcomesboth financial and psychologicalof student debt burdens, very few studies have considered the combined effects of endogenous and exogenous characteristics on graduation likelihood. To this end, we conducted a series of analyses to test multiple environmental variables influence on graduation rates and student loan levels. We found out that school size and type, student background, and regional factors all heavily influenced both graduation rates and student loan debt.
Keywords: student loans; default; graduation rates; higher education; debt.
LEARNING AND EARNING IN NIGERIA: WHO WORKS FOR LESS?
by Ben Ozougwu
Abstract: This study quantitatively analyses the differences in levels or size of financial returns to education, by gender in the Nigerian labour market with particular emphasis on estimating gender earning differentials across the country, at zonal levels and at different levels of educational attainments. The analysis is static, employing Mincers wage equation on a cross sectional data set. An attempt is made at solving the endogeneity problem that often arise from the violation of the strict exogeneity assumption associated with education, using instrumental variable. The study finds skewed earnings against the female gender, especially in Northern Nigeria. Private returns at all levels of education are lower in the Northern region. Based on the findings, the study suggests that developmental programs aimed at curbing gender and regional inequalities in returns especially for the Northern part of Nigeria be encouraged.
Keywords: Nigeria; Financial Returns; Education; GMM; Mincer; Instrument; 2SLS.
Teaching the Greek Financial Crisis in an Introductory Macroeconomics Course: University Students Perceptions
by John Marangos, Eirini Triarchi
Abstract: The same survey of a self-administered questionnaire was handed out to introductory macroeconomics students in Spring 2014 and Spring 2015 at a university in Greece, to determine students perceptions of how including the Greek Financial Crisis in the teaching of introductory macroeconomics benefits students. The methodology of the survey is quantitative in nature based on descriptive statistics and t-tests were carried out for each variable of interest. The research questions under examination are: 1) Did the incorporation of the GFC in the teaching of Introductory Macroeconomies influence university students perceptions about the course? 2) Did the evaluations of the course by the two cohorts of students change as the crisis intensifies in a statistically significant manner. The innovation of the study is determining students perceptions of the value of incorporating the GFC in the teaching of macroeconomics and the statistical evaluation of responses of two cohorts of students as the crisis intensifies. Overall, students evaluated positively the incorporation of the GFC in their learning in the introductory macroeconomics course. From 2014 to 2015 the student level of understanding of the GFC incorporated in the teaching of introductory economics increases. Nevertheless, students are not interested in employment as economists.
Keywords: Teaching Economics; Teaching Introductory Macroeconomics; Greek Financial Crisis; Global Financial Crisis; Teaching the Global Financial Crisis.
An Innovative Approach to Entrepreneurship in Higher and Secondary Education: Cultural Routes and Economy of Experience - A case study
by Vasiliki Brinia, George Economou, Georgios Gialos, Angeliki -. Rafailia Panagiotopoulou, Marianna Spanidi, Maria Beloyianni
Abstract: The aim of the present study is to present how social entrepreneurship can find its place in higher and secondary education by involving students, through experiential learning, in the creative development of solutions for sustainable development of an area with rich cultural heritage. To this end, it followed the qualitative research method and constitutes a case-study of the town of Orchomenus in Boeotia, Greece. This case-study is based on field-research at the important historical monuments of the area organized by the DIAZOMA Association and the Teacher Education Program of Athens University of Economics and Business. Proposals were formed through the research method and aimed at exploiting the rich heritage of the area in favor of its financial and cultural development. The study is the first of its kind in Greece and abroad, as it introduces the way students can learn the notions of social entrepreneurship and cultural sustainability through field-research and the project method.
Keywords: Entrepreneurship in Higher Education; Experiential learning; Orchomenus Archaeological Park; Case Study; Economy of Experiences; Cultural Routes; Cultural Promenades.
Is there a productivity growth in private universities in Vietnam? Revisiting the 2005 Higher Education Reform Agenda
by Carolyn-Dung Thi Thanh Tran
Abstract: Since the undertaking of the reform policy, the Vietnamese private higher education has made remarkable contributions to a nations socio-economic development via providing high qualified human resources to the labour market. In the integration of the worlds higher education, the 2005 Higher Education Reform Agenda (HERA) has proposed an increase in private enrolments to 40% of total tertiary enrolments by 2020. Whether this target could be achievable as planned is still questionable. This paper aims to measure the productivity growth of private universities using the Malmquist productivity index under the non-parametric Data Envelopment Analysis framework and examine if they can obtain the target of the higher education reform agenda. The findings indicate that private universities have regression in productivity at 8%. The main source of this regression results from a decline of technological innovation at 14% albeit private universities have made improvements in pure technical and scale efficiency at 2% and 5%, respectively. It is found that private universities could potentially fail to obtain the target of the 2005 HERA and that private higher education enrolments are projected to achieve only 22.5% of total tertiary enrolments, given their available production capacity. Policy and managerial implications are suggested for the aim of enhancing the efficiency and productivity of private universities.
Keywords: Data Envelopment Analysis; Malmquist index; efficiency; private universities.
Return to schools and work in a war hit city: impact of sociocultural events
by Ejaz Gul, Suriati Ghazali
Abstract: Role of cultural activities in social development of communities has recently been the subject of interest for social scientists. Many big and small cities that suffered from artificial and natural devastations have been successfully rehabilitated with boost in cultural and recreational activities. These activities act as catalyst for boosting socioeconomic growth of communities. This was successfully demonstrated in case of Tubmanburg, located in Bomi County Liberia; a city that remained in crisis for last couple of decades. This paper examines role of cultural events in reviving social life of population particularly its influence on school attendance and per capita income of households. After 2004, school attendance and per capita income of people in Tubmanburg started improving significantly and a perception developed that probably it happened due to greater social interaction in cultural events. In essence this paper is a reality check of this perception. Primary data on school attendance (male and female), per capita income and cultural events was collected from 2004 to 2016 (13 years). Data was analyzed statistically with latest statistical analysis software (SAS). Correlation between the three variables was found and then with the help of dynamic time variant model (DTVM) catalyst effect of cultural events was determined. It was concluded that cultural activities played significant role in social awareness of population, consequently school attendance by students and per capita income of population increased in war hit city of Tubmanburg.
Keywords: cultural; events; catalyst; effect; education; per capita; income; computational; dynamics.