International Journal of Environmental Engineering (5 papers in press)
Treatment of 4-hydroxyphenylazobenzene (yellow azo dye) using microwave-photocatalyzed reactor
by Vitthal Gole, Archana Nagawade
Abstract: Present work investigates the treatment of environmentally hazardous and persistence 4-hydroxyphenylazobenzene (yellow azo dye) using the intensified technologies such as photocatalysis (UV), microwave (MW) and successive effects of microwave and photocatalysis (MW-UV). The treatment studies were further investigated in the presence of hydroxyl radical promoters such as hydrogen peroxide, copper oxide and titanium oxide. Our results confirmed that the maximum degradation was obtained for MW-UV compare to individual effects of MW and UV. The maximum degradation was obtained in the presence of titanium dioxide (91.6
Keywords: Yellow azo dye; Microwave; Photocatalysis; Hydroxyl Radicals; Wastewater treatment.
The Selection of Palm Oil Mill Effluent for Phytoremediation Treatment System Using Cyperus alternifolius
by Siti Kamariah Md Sa'at, Nastaein Qamaruz Zaman, Mohd Suffian Yusoff, Hossein Farraji
Abstract: Phytoremediation approach attains more attention recently due to the sustainable and green technology requirement. This technology promotes the utilisation of various aquatic macrophytes in agricultural, domestic, and industrial effluent treatment. In order to enhance the water quality of palm oil mill effluent (POME) ponds, the phytoremediation potential of Cyperus alternifolius, also known as umbrella sedge, was studied using different sources and concentrations of POME. The plant was selected due to their tolerance in high concentration of pollutants, extensive root systems, and aesthetic appearance as an ornamental plant. The phytoremediation of C. alternifolius was tested with aerobic, facultative, and polishing pond POME for 30 days of batch treatment in 6 L buckets for chemical oxygen demand (COD), total suspended solids (TSS), ammonia (NH3-N), and total phosphorus (TP) removal. For aerobic pond POME, the removal achieved 94.7% of TSS, 95.5% of COD, 92.7% of NH3-N, and 99.3% of TP. Meanwhile, for facultative pond POME, the removal of TSS, COD, NH3-N, and TP was 86.5%, 85.6%, 90.7%, and 99.5%, respectively. The removal for polishing pond POME was slightly lower than aerobic and facultative pond removal, except for TP, where the polishing pond showed a great removal of TP with 99.8%. The study suggests C. alternifolius as a macrophyte in the phytoremediation treatment of POME, particularly for the polishing step of treatment with a promising prospect.
Keywords: Phytoremediation; Water Quality; Palm Oil Mill Effluent; Aquatic plant; Cyperus alternifolius.
Sub- Surface Constructed Wetland System as Alternative Treatment for Effluent Discharge from Atenda Abattoir, Ogbomoso Southwestern Nigeria
by Oladipupo Seun Oladejo, Adewoye Olanipekun, Olayemi Samuel Diekola, Olasunkanmi Habib Olaniyan
Abstract: Abattoir is a slaughter house constructed for killing and dissecting animals for human consumption. Location within residential neighborhoods posed dangers on their immediate environment due to abattoir wastes and threat to available surface water bodies. The phyto-treatment of effluents from the Atenda abattoir in Ogbomoso, western Nigeria was investigated. Two cells were planted with Typha Orientalis and Sorghum Arundinaceum. The unplanted cell served as control. Wetland cells were fed with wastewater from abattoir and treated effluents were collected for analyses during a retention period of 10 days. Results showed Typha Orientalis has better contaminants removal ability (59.3- 99.9%) than Sorghum Arundinaceum (32.0- 98.65%), except in TDS where Sorghum has highest removal percentage (99.9%). Phytoremediation reduced 89.8% Turbidity, 99.89% Phosphate, and 99.5% of Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD). Heavy Metals in treated wastewaters were reduced within range of 83.5- 99.8% by Typha Orientalis, and 59.5- 84.9% by Sorghum Arundinaceum. The control cell has a competitive remediation efficiency with Typha. Quality of treated effluent proved phytoremediation as effective technology for abattoir wastewater treatment using locally available macrophytes and eventual application for irrigation purpose.
Keywords: Constructed Wetland; Abattoir wastewater; Phyto-removal; Typha Orientalis; Sorghum Arundinaceum.
E-waste Generation Level and Characteristics in the City of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
by Abenezer Wakuma Kitila
Abstract: This study examined the e-waste generation level and characteristics in the city of Addis Ababa the case of households, educational institutions, and government sector offices. The findings revealed that the households have generated substantial number of e-waste (non-functional=4,010, obsolete=2,077, and broken = 1,856). Similarly, the educational institutions and government sector offices generated about 11,153 non-functional, 15,911 obsolete, and 11,360 broken e-waste. The study found that household income has significantly affected the e-waste generation level while the family size, gender, and education level were insignificant. It appears that the changes in the lifestyle escorted by scale economies, a switch to modern technology, and rapid obsolescence rate considerably encourages the recurring purchase of electronic equipment. The study has identified electronic equipment with a longer and shorter lifespan. The prolonged storing of e-waste is caused by lack of e-waste policy, absence of proper management methods, and the absence of recycling centers in the city.
Keywords: edisposal; e-waste; electronic equipment; e-waste generation; obsolete; recycling; Addis Ababa; households; educational institutions.
A Review of Biodegradable Films from Industrial by-products for Food Packaging
by N.U.R. ASSYIQAH SYUHADA MOHAMAD ASRI
Abstract: Increasing amount of consumer demand for convenient and high-quality food product leads to the development of creative approaches in food packaging technology. Food packaging plays an important role in maintaining the quality of packaged food from any chemical, physical and environmental damage. Among the packaging materials, usage of plastic material is commonly used in the food industry due to large availability and excellent mechanical performance at a low cost. However, the usage of plastic packaging in huge amount creates the environmental and health issues since it is non-degradable and capable to release a toxic compound to landfill and water supplies. Utilization of renewable and biodegradable industrial by-product as a raw material for food packaging is promising as an alternative to reduce the environmental impacts and contribute to sustainability. Since the availability of industrial by-products are relative abundance in nature with lower cost compared to the plastic material, reusing of these by-products had gained high interest for researchers to develop new materials and innovate film that meets food protection and preservation requirements. The addition of a natural bioactive compound such as antioxidant, antimicrobial and pigment also increase the functionality of the film in terms of quality, safety and providing intelligent communication with the consumer. This review will be focusing on the utilization of industrial by-products from the agricultural and pharmaceutical industry as the source of biopolymer and additives in the development of biodegradable packaging film. Their properties are reviewed along with their potential application in the food packaging industry.
Keywords: Food packaging; petroleum-based plastic; biodegradable films; pharmaceutical; and agricultural waste.