International Journal of Environmental Engineering
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International Journal of Environmental Engineering (4 papers in press)
The Study on the Drive Mechanism and Prediction of the Impervious Surface Expansion with Index of Entropy by Guilin Wang, Jia Xiang Abstract: Index of entropy was adopted to mine the drive mechanisms for Impervious Surface (IS) expansion. With rapid urbanization, the effects of the spread and growth of the impervious surface on eco-environmental are profound. Thus, studying the interior mechanism of impervious surface expansions have becoming more significant. The results show that the number of neighborhood impervious surface is of the overriding factor with the influence weight of 0.057554; The second are GDP and housing price with the weight of 0.037747,0.036875, respectively; The thirdly factors are population density and DEM with the effect weight of 0.026878 and 0.020955, respectively. It can be deduce that the main factors of the impervious surface expansion are social-economic factors. Finally, we predicted the expansion of the impervious surface from 2002 to 2020. Compared with the classification map of the impervious surface, the simulation accuracy is 82.36% using the point to point model. And the accuracy of the Kappa coefficient is 87.15% about impervious surface, and 89.31% for pervious surface, indicating that the model is relatively reliable to simulate the impervious surface expansin, and the spatial distribution of simulation results are consistent with the actual classification of the impervious surface in the Dianchi Lake basin. Keywords: Index of Entropy; Impervious Surface; Dian chi Lake Basin.
Comparison Performances of the Optimization Models for the Multi-Objectives Reservoir by Nurul Nadrah Aqilah Tukimat,, SOBRI HARUN Abstract: The reservoir systems require a continuous development tools in the optimal operation for a sustainable and long term reservoir system planning and management. Insufficient water supply from the reservoir especially during dry season could affect the paddy production, consumers and industrial needs. Thus, the aims of this study is to optimize the water releases from the Pedu-Muda reservoirs and at the same time to maximize the water storage for other purposes. The optimization model that been used comprises the Nondominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm type II (NSGA-II) and Linear Programming (LP) to optimize multi-objectives reservoirs. This comparison performances were evaluated by reliability, resiliency, and vulnerability indices. Results revealed both models were capable to provide sufficient water for the irrigation demand without shortage. Unlike LP, NSGA-II was also successfully to maximize the water storage for another purposes. It provided a set of alternative solutions that were presented in the Pareto optimal curves depending on the climatic pattern. The finding was also supported by the reliability (91.7% excessive water and 8.3% meet the demand), resiliency (100%), and vulnerability (null) indices which better than the LP performances. Keywords: NSGA-II; linear programming; optimization; reservoir; water demand.
Development of Bermuda Grass (Cynodon dactylon) Seedlings in Diesel-Contaminated Soil by Yu-Hong Lin, Jiunn-Jyi Lay, Wen Shieh Abstract: Bermuda grass was considered for ground cover applications at the diesel-contaminated sites, and the development of its seedlings was evaluated. It took 7 days for the seedlings to emerge out of the soil that was unchanged at the diesel concentrations as high as 40 mg TPH/g soil (TPH: total petroleum hydrocarbons). At 10 mg TPH/g soil the seedlings developed continuously at a reduced rate through the 6-week period, but the established seedlings failed to remove diesel in soil. Sporolactobacillus sp., Prevotella sp., and Clostridium sp. were effective diesel degraders, however, their additions to the soil did not boost the development of seedlings. Hydrocarbons with > 7 carbon atoms per molecule were likely to remain in the bacteria-treated soil, and the interference on seedlings could emerge as their overall concentration exceeded 4 mg TPH/g soil. Soil pH at 7.2 to 7.4 did not have an effect on the development of seedlings. Keywords: Bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon); diesel; germination; seedlings; soil.
Stabilization of Lateritic Soil with Pulverized Ceramic Waste for Road Construction by Adeyemi Adeboje Abstract: Lateritic soil is used for the construction of road pavement layers in the tropics. The engineering properties of lateritic soil can be improved by using additives in order to make it suitable for road pavement construction. Such additives can be agricultural waste or other suitable materials. In this research, the influence of adding varying proportions of pulverized ceramic waste (PCW) to lateritic soil was evaluated. The materials used for the study were lateritic soil and PCW samples. The control and lateritic soil samples with addition of 5, 7.5, 10 and 12.5 % PCW were considered for specific gravity, grain size analysis, Atterberg limits, compaction, California bearing ratio and unconfined compressive strength tests. The plasticity index reduced from 12.17 to 11.98 % from the control (0 %) to 12.5 % addition of PCW; the maximum dry density increased from 1.76 to 1.95 kN/m3 while the corresponding optimum moisture content of the lateritic soil decreased from 14.76 to 11.63 %. The specific gravity of the lateritic soil and PCW were 2.63 and 2.82 respectively. Addition of 12.5 % PCW increased the California bearing ratio and the unconfined compressive strength of the lateritic soil by 129 and 175 % respectively. Keywords: California bearing ratio; Lateritic soil; pulverized ceramic waste; soil index properties; soil stabilization; unconfined compressive strength.