International Journal of Environmental Engineering (9 papers in press)
ASSESSMENT OF THE WATER QUALITY OF RAINFALL COLLECTED FROM STATE UNIVERSITY OF RIO DE JANEIRO IN THE MARACAN
by Gabrielle Silva, Isabella Santos, Rayssa Jacob, Roberta Souza, Lívia Ganem, Daniele Bila, Sergio Corrêa, Alfredo Ohnuma Jr.
Abstract: The composition of rainwater is influenced by natural and anthropogenic sources. Here we evaluate the water after passage through a rainwater capture system (SAP) installed in the State University of Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), Rio de Janeiro. In the period from November 2016 to April 2017, at points defined as first-flush 1, first -flush 2 and dead water. The fundamental parameters were pH, conductivity, total dissolved solids and turbidity by turbidimeter and multiparameter probe. It is verified that the quality of the rainwater is changed after passing through the catchment system, the results of the physical-chemical analysis indicated nonconformity with the Municipal Law of Niter
Keywords: Water quality; rainwater harvesting; first flush.
Treatment of Textile Effluent Using Solar Photo Fenton Process with Bio synthesized nZVI
by Sosamony K. J, Soloman P. A
Abstract: One of the major industries causing environmental pollution is textile industry. As the biodegradability of textile effluent is low, direct biological treatment is not feasible. Hence, steps are to be taken to enhance the biodegradability before biological treatment. This study has been focussed on solar photo Fenton-like process (nZVI in place of Fe2+), named as advanced solar photo Fenton (ASPF) process, in which biologically produced nano zero valent iron (nZVI) used. The results prove that nZVI can be synthesised successfully from Amaranthus Dubius leaf extract and it can be used effectively in the ASPF process for textile effluent treatment. Response surface methodology (RSM) with Box Behnken design (BBD) has been used for the analysis and optimisation of the proess parameters in ASPF process. The biodegradability index (BI) improved from 0.21 to 0.40 under optimum conditions of pH 2.6, H2O2 62.6 mM, nZVI 38.7mg/l and contact time 15 minutes.
Keywords: advanced solar photo Fenton; ASPF; biosynthesis; nano zero valent iron; nZVI; Box Behnken design; BBD; biodegradability index; BI.
Performance of Locomotive Air Conditioning Using Heat Recovery by Exhaust Gas of C.I Engine.
by Subhash Kumar, Vaijanath Raibhole
Abstract: This paper focuses on the working of a two fluid gas absorption refrigeration unit, intended to operate in an atmospheric environment, with a compartment temperature of 15 degrees centigrade. Gas absorption systems, unlike vapour-compression systems, use a waste heat source from multi-cylinder CI engine to facilitate refrigeration. Two fluid gas absorption refrigerators use electric based heater installed generator and no moving parts, such as pumps and compressors, and operate at a single system pressure. Unlike the vapour-compression cycle, which utilises pressure gains and drops to produce refrigeration, the three fluid gas absorption cycles uses the principle of partial pressure between two fluids to create the cooling effect. In this paper compares the performance of absorption refrigeration cycles that are used for refrigeration temperatures under atmospheric temperature. The corresponding results can look that the coefficient of performance (COP) directly proportional to the growing generator and evaporator temperatures however reductions with increasing condenser and absorbent temperatures, the COP of the system varied between 0.6 to 0.86.
Keywords: coefficient of performance; COP; vapour compression refrigeration system; VCRS; vapour absorption refrigeration system; VARS; NH3-H2O; Tg; Tc; Te.
ACUTE AND CHRONIC TOXICITY OF DIFENOCONAZOLE FUNGICIDE ON FRESHWATER SHRIMP, Macrobrachium lanchesteri
by Harlina Ahmad
Abstract: The toxicity of difenoconazole, a fungicide belonging to the triazole group of compounds, upon the freshwater shrimp (Macrobrachium lanchesteri sp.) was assessed within a laboratory setting. Shrimps were exposed to five different concentrations (0.33, 0.65, 1.30, 3.25, and 6.50 mg/L) of difenoconazole. The lethal concentration for 50 percent mortality in the population (LC50) determined the acute toxicity level of the compound, whilst chronic toxicity was derived from its no-observed effect concentration (NOEC). Subsequently, the LC50 and NOEC values observed for M. lanchesteri were determined to be 2.91 mg/L and 0.79 mg/L, respectively. This study demonstrated that aside from the intended anti-fungal effects of difenoconazole fungicides, they may also be toxic to off-target organisms, particularly M. lanchesteri.
Keywords: Difenoconazole; acute toxicity test; chronic toxicity; Macrobrachium lanchesteri,LC50.
Study on the planning and design of land use in villages and towns based on GIS technology
by Chun Yi
Abstract: Population growth and limited livable land lead to the contradiction between man and land. Land use planning and design can alleviate the contradiction to a great extent. This paper briefly introduced geographic information system (GIS) technology. It then analysed the local land ecological sensitivity and the spatial coincidence of land use planning and design of Anxiang County, Changde, Hunan using GIS technology, and the data collected from Land and Resources Bureau. The results showed that the local land ecological sensitivity of Anxiang County was slightly high; therefore, it is necessary to pay attention to the local environmental protection when carrying out land planning. The index measurement and the distribution of spatial coincidence both demonstrated that Anxiang County protected the farmland well in the execution of land planning in 2019. Still, the excessive development of transportation and water conservancy invaded other building lands. Several improvement suggestions were put forward against the analysis results.
Keywords: geographic information system; GIS; land planning; spatial coincidence; ecological sensitivity.
The Natural Way for Water Quality Improvement using Effective Microorganism
by Nur Asmaliza Mohd Noor, Sharifah Abdullah, Dhabitah Mohammad Isa, Herda Balqis Ismail
Abstract: Effective microorganisms (EM) have been used for the treatment of the various types of wastewater through the enhancement of the microbes activities, ecofriendly materials and are suitable for the removal of organic pollutants. The objectives of this study are to determine the optimum dosage of EM in mudballs and to analyse their efficiency as wastewater quality improvement. The water quality samplings were taken from the nearby Sewage Treatment Plant and the tested parameters were BOD, COD, SS and turbidity. The results indicated the optimum number of the mudballs were two and six which produced by fruit, vegetable waste and yeast which depending on the water quality parameter contribute higher percentage in the reduction of SS, Turbidity, COD and BOD. EM has shown the great potential as water quality improvement in wastewater and it can be used as a bioremediation product. Thus, this is part of government aspirations towards environmentally friendly.
Keywords: effective microorganism; water quality improvement; environmentally friendly; bioremediation; mudball.
Assessment of the Tannery Wastes Impact in the Soil Properties of the disposal site In Sudan
by Mahdi Haroun, Abdelazim Altawil, Gamma Osman
Abstract: Present study aims to examine chemical characteristics and heavy metal of tannery wastewater and sludge and to assess their influences on alterations in soil properties of disposal areas in terms of degree of heavy metal contamination and soil solution. Result revealed that soil layers exhibit greater values of soluble cations, anions, and electrical conductivity in tannery wastewater, sludge. Unlimited fluctuation in concentrations of heavy metals in soil profile was detected. Depending on estimated contamination factor (CF) and enrichment factor (EF), soil samples were found to be enriched and polluted with chromium. Simple correlation analysis showed significant progress between heavy metals and soil solution composition parameters. This proposes that both wastewater and sludge of tannery activities are accountable for altering properties of soil solution in term of chemistry and metal toxicity inducement into the soil atmosphere. Accordingly, tannery effluents, wastes, and sludge should not allow to dispose to the environment without proper treatments.
Keywords: tannery wastewater; tannery sludge; metals contamination; enrichment factor; contamination factor; Sudan.
Sorption of copper and zinc in metabasalt powder at different pH and contact times
by Luana Dalacorte, Edson Campanhola Bortoluzzi
Abstract: Metabasalt powder has been suggested as an agent to fix metals. The present study aimed to test the metal sorption onto metabasalt powder at different pH conditions and contact times in order to define the optimal conditions to ad/desorb copper and zinc. A competitive assay was performed using 8,945 mg/kg of copper and 11,518 mg/kg of zinc. Copper adsorption was 40.8% and 99.1% of the total concentration at pH 4.0 and 7.0, respectively, while the amounts of adsorbed zinc were 58% and 68% of the total
concentration at pH 6.0 and 7.0. The maximum copper and zinc desorption magnitudes from the metabasalt were observed at pH 6.4 and 7.0, respectively, but the amounts did not represent half of the total adsorbed. These findings allow choosing effective parameter levels when metabasalt is used as an absorbent agent.
Keywords: metabasalt; sorption; remediation agent; contaminated environments.
Special Issue on: Sustainability of Environmental Engineering in the 21st Century
Sustainability Development in Geotechnical Conceptual Design
by N.U.R. IRFAH MOHD PAUZI, Zakaria Che Muda, Mohd Shahril Mat Radhi
Abstract: The sustainability development in geotechnical conceptual design is to be developed for future generation. A tool box which consist of materials selection for construction, cost factor, life cycle cost analysis, construction method, technical, time, safety and public health, societal, culture, legal, environmental control are developed for sustainability in geotechnical area. This concept is critical when planning for the sustainability in the geotechnical conceptual design. The geotechnical work is the first stage in construction that will determine the success of the project in preserving the environment. Geotechnical for the earthwork design will decide the appropriate platform levels and profiles for the construction site which to reduce the environmental impact. In conclusion, the sustainability of the geotechnical engineering must take into account the eco-centric, techno-centric and socio-centric aspect of its development. The development in construction usually consider the technology but impacting the environmental and societal requirement. For the future generation benefit, the present resources should be preserved from depleting to maintain the sustainability needs of the later generations.
Keywords: Sustainability development; environmental control; societal impact; geotechnical conceptual design.