International Journal of Environmental Engineering (7 papers in press)
The Study on the Drive Mechanism and Prediction of the Impervious Surface Expansion with Index of Entropy
by Guilin Wang, Jia Xiang
Abstract: Index of entropy was adopted to mine the drive mechanisms for Impervious Surface (IS) expansion. With rapid urbanization, the effects of the spread and growth of the impervious surface on eco-environmental are profound. Thus, studying the interior mechanism of impervious surface expansions have becoming more significant. The results show that the number of neighborhood impervious surface is of the overriding factor with the influence weight of 0.057554; The second are GDP and housing price with the weight of 0.037747,0.036875, respectively; The thirdly factors are population density and DEM with the effect weight of 0.026878 and 0.020955, respectively. It can be deduce that the main factors of the impervious surface expansion are social-economic factors. Finally, we predicted the expansion of the impervious surface from 2002 to 2020. Compared with the classification map of the impervious surface, the simulation accuracy is 82.36% using the point to point model. And the accuracy of the Kappa coefficient is 87.15% about impervious surface, and 89.31% for pervious surface, indicating that the model is relatively reliable to simulate the impervious surface expansin, and the spatial distribution of simulation results are consistent with the actual classification of the impervious surface in the Dianchi Lake basin.
Keywords: Index of Entropy; Impervious Surface; Dian chi Lake Basin.
Comparison Performances of the Optimization Models for the Multi-Objectives Reservoir
by Nurul Nadrah Aqilah Tukimat,, SOBRI HARUN
Abstract: The reservoir systems require a continuous development tools in the optimal operation for a sustainable and long term reservoir system planning and management. Insufficient water supply from the reservoir especially during dry season could affect the paddy production, consumers and industrial needs. Thus, the aims of this study is to optimize the water releases from the Pedu-Muda reservoirs and at the same time to maximize the water storage for other purposes. The optimization model that been used comprises the Nondominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm type II (NSGA-II) and Linear Programming (LP) to optimize multi-objectives reservoirs. This comparison performances were evaluated by reliability, resiliency, and vulnerability indices. Results revealed both models were capable to provide sufficient water for the irrigation demand without shortage. Unlike LP, NSGA-II was also successfully to maximize the water storage for another purposes. It provided a set of alternative solutions that were presented in the Pareto optimal curves depending on the climatic pattern. The finding was also supported by the reliability (91.7% excessive water and 8.3% meet the demand), resiliency (100%), and vulnerability (null) indices which better than the LP performances.
Keywords: NSGA-II; linear programming; optimization; reservoir; water demand.
Development of Bermuda Grass (Cynodon dactylon) Seedlings in Diesel-Contaminated Soil
by Yu-Hong Lin, Jiunn-Jyi Lay, Wen Shieh
Abstract: Bermuda grass was considered for ground cover applications at the diesel-contaminated sites, and the development of its seedlings was evaluated. It took 7 days for the seedlings to emerge out of the soil that was unchanged at the diesel concentrations as high as 40 mg TPH/g soil (TPH: total petroleum hydrocarbons). At 10 mg TPH/g soil the seedlings developed continuously at a reduced rate through the 6-week period, but the established seedlings failed to remove diesel in soil. Sporolactobacillus sp., Prevotella sp., and Clostridium sp. were effective diesel degraders, however, their additions to the soil did not boost the development of seedlings. Hydrocarbons with > 7 carbon atoms per molecule were likely to remain in the bacteria-treated soil, and the interference on seedlings could emerge as their overall concentration exceeded 4 mg TPH/g soil. Soil pH at 7.2 to 7.4 did not have an effect on the development of seedlings.
Keywords: Bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon); diesel; germination; seedlings; soil.
Stabilization of Lateritic Soil with Pulverized Ceramic Waste for Road Construction
by Adeyemi Adeboje
Abstract: Lateritic soil is used for the construction of road pavement layers in the tropics. The engineering properties of lateritic soil can be improved by using additives in order to make it suitable for road pavement construction. Such additives can be agricultural waste or other suitable materials. In this research, the influence of adding varying proportions of pulverized ceramic waste (PCW) to lateritic soil was evaluated. The materials used for the study were lateritic soil and PCW samples. The control and lateritic soil samples with addition of 5, 7.5, 10 and 12.5 % PCW were considered for specific gravity, grain size analysis, Atterberg limits, compaction, California bearing ratio and unconfined compressive strength tests. The plasticity index reduced from 12.17 to 11.98 % from the control (0 %) to 12.5 % addition of PCW; the maximum dry density increased from 1.76 to 1.95 kN/m3 while the corresponding optimum moisture content of the lateritic soil decreased from 14.76 to 11.63 %. The specific gravity of the lateritic soil and PCW were 2.63 and 2.82 respectively. Addition of 12.5 % PCW increased the California bearing ratio and the unconfined compressive strength of the lateritic soil by 129 and 175 % respectively.
Keywords: California bearing ratio; Lateritic soil; pulverized ceramic waste; soil index properties; soil stabilization; unconfined compressive strength.
Synthesis, Characterization and Application of Quaternized Pectin as Flocculant in Wastewater Treatment
by Lem Khe Sin, Yahya Mohd Firdaus, Amir Talebi, Norli Ismail
Abstract: Citrus pectin is modified using quaternization and named with quaternized pectin (QP) to enhance the flocculating efficiency of pectin. QP was characterised by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), gel permeable chromatography (GPC) and zeta potential. The results of QP characterisation revealed that functional groups are hydroxyl, carboxyl and amino group, the molecular weight is 380188 Da, and zeta potential is in range of 24.68 to 33.95mV. Jar test was used to evaluate the coagulation-flocculation properties of QP with prior addition of ferric chloride as a coagulant. Three factors (pH, [FeCl3] (mg/L) and [QP] (mg/L)) were found essential for removal of turbidity, suspended solids (SS), chemical oxygen demand (COD) and colour of anaerobic-aerobic treated palm oil mill effluent (AATPOME). Response surface methodology (RSM) was used for optimisation, and the results of central composite design (CCD) for the optimum conditions were pH 5, the dosage of FeCl3 at 927 mg/L, and the dosage of QP at 6.4 mg/L.
Keywords: wastewater treatment; pectin; natural polymer; flocculation.
Sustainable use of packaging from recycled Cupuassu shell
by Marilene Costa, Raimundo Vieira, Shirley Silva, Simonica Sidrim
Abstract: There is growing pressure on organizations to deliver environmentally sustainable development, and this requires innovation in technologies, processes, and services. This paper explores an example of such development, looking at the use of sustainable packaging from recycling discarded organic materials. It draws on experience in the Amazonia region of Brazil using the shell of the cupuassu fruit. The paper begins with a discussion of the theoretical context around sustainable development and recycling, and the particular context of recycling using agro-industrial residues. It then presents a case study focused on mapping key steps of the current and the improved packaging manufacturing processing the new material. It is followed by a discussion of the benefits offered by the improved sustainable packaging production process, with particular emphasis on meeting global sustainability standards, reduction of solid waste and improved profitability.
Keywords: Innovation; Packaging; Waste; Sustainability.
In-situ biochemical process monitoring and spatial variation of micro-environmental condition in constructed wetland
by Shashibhushana H S, Lokeshappa Bassapa, Nishchay Malhotra
Abstract: The purpose of research was to study spatial micro-environmental condition variation in rhizosphere of uniform size root zone media of horizontal flow constructed wetland for pH, temperature, Dissolved Oxygen and Oxidation Reduction Potential using in situ electrode based measurement system and evaluate Oxidation Reduction Potential for process monitoring and design application. Micro-environmental conditions and their interactions within the microcosm planted with Vetiveria Zizanioides was studied using design of experiment methodology. Spatial variation of oxidation reduction potential was found to be in range of -72mV to -172mV, pH in range of 7.0 to 7.8 and temperature variation from 25.6
Keywords: Horizontal flow constructed wetland; micro-environmental condition; root zone; phytoremediation; Oxygen reduction Potential;.