International Journal of Economics and Business Research (107 papers in press)
Influence of credit access on the total sales of household non-farm enterprises in Nigeria: evidence from binary logit regression
by Obed Ojonta
Abstract: This study examined the influence of credit access on the total sales performance of non-farm enterprises in Nigeria. We adopted the binary logistic regression model approach and used cross-sectional data from the general household survey (GHS) conducted in Nigeria in the period 2017/2018. Apart from the core variables, other covariates included in the analysis are official registration with the government, employee gender and age of enterprise. The findings indicate that credit access positively and significantly influences the total sales of household non-farm enterprises in Nigeria. Interestingly, the study established that official registration with government significantly impedes the total sales performance of the enterprises. This suggests that the Nigerian bureaucracy significantly retards the performance of household non-farm enterprises. The study, therefore, concludes that there is need for policies that will not only enhance credit access by these enterprises, but will also reform the Nigerian bureaucracy so that they can actively support the growth and development of these enterprises.
Keywords: credit access; enterprise performance; household non-farm enterprises; HNEs; binary logit regression model; Nigeria.
Who Escapes from Poverty? Understanding the Link Between Environmental Stress, Adaptation Choices and Poverty Dynamics in Ethiopia
by Mulat Goshu Gebeyehu
Abstract: This study aims to examine the link between environmental stress, adaptation options and poverty dynamics in Ethiopia. The study relies on three-year panel data collected by ECRC from 825 rural households in the Nile Basin of Ethiopia. Using the linear fixed effects model, the paper finds that weather variability significantly impacts households welfare. Initially, rising average rainfall positively influences households per capita spending, while extreme rising average rainfall measured by a squared average rainfall negatively affects per capita expenditure. The anomalies of precipitation and temperature have a significant adverse effect on the total per capita and food expenditures. Findings from multinomial logit model estimation prove that an increase in average rainfall would reduce the likelihood of households falling into transient poverty. In contrast, an increase in temperature would cause an increase in the probability of families falling into transient and chronic poverty. The findings suggest that policymakers and agriculture experts should strive to increase the effectiveness of existing adaptation practices and introduce new adaptation options to protect households from the devastating effects of weather variability.
Keywords: climate shocks; welfare; dynamics of poverty; Ethiopia.
Technical Analysis Forecasting and Evaluation of Stock Markets: The Probabilistic Recovery Neural Network Approach
by Andreas Maniatopoulos, Alexandros Gazis, Nikolaos Mitianoudis
Abstract: The market efficiency theory suggests that stock market pricing reflects all publicly available information regarding a given stock. To outperform the market, a shareholder must study the markets price volume patterns and predict human behaviour and tendencies. Except for conventional approaches based on fundamental or technical analysis, new tools are currently proposed using big data and artificial intelligence. This publication analyses and evaluates four commonly used deep-learning artificial neural network models. Then, it proposes a new method by adopting the probabilistic recovery algorithmic approach. The dataset used consists of 501 unique company names based on real data derived from US Dow Jones. This method closely follows the markets behaviour, providing daily upwards-downwards data trends. The proposed system can be used as a tool for technical analysis regarding the prediction accuracy of trading strategies, providing approximately 60% future movements accuracy, over 90% relative price prediction and annual investment return slightly over 60%.
Keywords: technical analysis; probablistic neural network; neural networks; stock market prediction; stock market forecast; stock market dynamics; stock market neural networks forecasting; algorithmic trading.
INTEREST RATE LIBERALIZATION TO BANKS RISK RESISTANCE: MODERATOR OF STRATEGIC LEADERSHIP AND MEDIATOR OF MONETARY POLICY TRANSMISSION
by Sze Ting Chen, Zijing He, Kai Yin Allison Haga, Yao Jun Fan
Abstract: This paper aims to investigate the influence of two missing aspects and to explore whether the liberalisation has had any influence on commercial banks risk resistance capacity? This article considers 288 data. Analyses include the Sobel test, the ADF stationarity test, and the VAR model co-integration test. Our results show that Chinas interest rate marketisation reform has a positive effect on reducing bank risk. Commercial bank anti-risk capabilities can improve both Chinas monetary policy transmission and strategic leadership capabilities. This article showing that appropriate laws and regulations should be strengthened to reduce the risk of bankruptcy that commercial banks may face as a consequence of interest rate liberalisation. This paper contributes to the theory of interest rate liberalisation and anti-risk capability, by conceptualising from strategic leadership and monetary policy transmission theory. It finds that market-oriented rate reform has increased interest rate risk.
Keywords: interest rate liberalisation; monetary policy transmission; risk resistance; strategic leadership; VAR.
Funding Higher Education as a Strategic Good of a Nation
by Mahmoud Askari, Ghaleb A. El Refae
Abstract: In this paper, we propose that higher education should be seen as a strategic good of nations. We argue that higher education is neither a private, nor a public good, and that its facilitation by governments, and its attainment of citizens is critically required for the wellbeing of a nation. As well, we use the partnership funding model of higher education as a framework to facilitate the strategic investment in higher education by economically capable governments. We used enrollment and funding data from Al Ain University, UAE as a case to examine the percentage of students who were able to secure government funding to pay their tuition fees. Result from this paper shows that higher education is considered as a strategic good in the UAE, and that all willing and able citizens can benefit from the availability of tuition free higher education at three publicly-funded academic institutions. As well, the UAE Government is providing funding to almost half of the students who choose to attend other tuition-based colleges and universities.
Keywords: strategic goods; higher education funding; the partnership funding model; public vs. private good; UAE.
The Extent of Awareness for the International Public Sector Accounting Standards (IPSAS) In the United Arab Emirates Emerging Market
by Khulood Salem Alshehhi, Jawaher Sultan Alteniji, Shaikha Khamis Alshamsi, Walaa Wahid ElKelish, Iman Hani Iwhish
Abstract: This paper explores the extent of the International Public Sector Accounting Standards (IPSAS) awareness and determinants in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) emerging market. Data was collected using a survey instrument. This paper uses the multiple regression analysis (OLS) to test the study hypotheses. The results show that respondents have a moderately high awareness of the IPSAS adoption. The implementation of IPSAS improves the decision-making quality, reporting transparency and efficiency. Respondents indicate low IPSAS adoption costs and support the IPSAS adoption preparation. Besides, IPSAS awareness depends on the perceived benefits of decision-making and reporting quality improvements and organisation size. The respondents work experience, organisation service activities and type are vital determinants of the IPSAS benefits. This paper provides useful guidelines for professional accountants, managers and organisations to improve the IPSAS adoption process.
Keywords: International Public Sector Accounting Standards; IPSAS; awareness; emerging markets; United Arab Emirates; UAE.
Nexus among foreign direct investment, domestic investment, financial development and economic growth: a NARDL approach in Pakistan
by H.M. Sohail, Zengfu Li
Abstract: One of the most recent issues has been the relationship between foreign direct investment and economic development in host economies. This paper examines the nonlinear relationship between economic growth, foreign direct investment, domestic investment, and financial development using annual time series data from 1970 to 2019. We used the nonlinear auto-regressive distribution lag (NARDL) co-integration technique. The results show the positive effects of FDI and DI are more significant than the negative effects and follow a nonlinear direction. As a result, policymakers should tighten their hold on FDI channeling and effectively enforce regulations in order to boost Pakistans economic development.
Keywords: economic growth; foreign direct investment; domestic investment; nonlinear ARDL; Pakistan.
The Role of Logistics Performance Index on Trade Openness in Europe
by Mahmoud Barakat, Tarek Madkour, Abeir M. Moussa
Abstract: Logistics performance index is essential for local and regional economic development. Emerging research investigated the impact of logistics services on international trade at both company and country levels. However, there is a lack of studies that focus on the relationship between logistics and trade openness. This paper seeks to shed light on the role of logistics performance index with its six dimensions on trade openness in European countries. For this purpose, panel data are used to determine the effect of logistics performance index in these countries trade openness, taking as control variables the macroeconomic indicators. The results show that logistics performance index is significantly affecting trade openness in the European continent. This means that better logistics performance can be considered one of the important reasons for increasing trade openness in all European countries and reducing trade costs.
Keywords: logistics performance index; LPI; trade openness; Europe; panel data; econometrics.
The Business and Environmental Impacts of the Canadian Mandatory Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program
by Keith Brouhle, Donna Ramirez Harrington
Abstract: This research investigates the impact of Canadas mandatory greenhouse gas reporting program on firms share price and future environmental performance. First, we examine whether stock market prices are affected by investors response to publicly disclosed greenhouse gas (GHG) information. Second, we test whether abnormal stock price changes lead to lower GHG emissions. We find that investors punish firms whose emissions intensity increased but their losses are mitigated with previous voluntary GHG reporting. Observed improvements in environmental performance were small and limited to the dirtiest firms. These findings imply a narrow scope for information provision as a GHG mitigation policy tool.
Keywords: information disclosure; event study; climate change; GHG emissions.
The nexus of financial liberalization and economic growth: Is Vietnam different
by Thi Thuy Hang Le, Nga Hang Thi Phan, Xuan Dung Nguyen, Vu Than Nguyen
Abstract: This paper explores the relationship of economic growth and financial liberalisation in Vietnam, an emerging economy with remarkable changes since 2000. By drawing the quarterly dataset over the period 20-year starting from 2000 and the vector error-correction model estimation, our findings support the causal relationship among the set of macroeconomics determinants, such as credit rate, money supply as well as exchange rate. After controlling rigours determinants, we found that these two factors exhibit the causality in short-term and long-term. From this starting point, the relevant policy implications are drawn to highlight the process of liberalising the financial system as well as the list of non-conforming reservation measures (NCM) during the proposed negotiation process.
Keywords: economic growth; financial liberalisation; Vietnam.
Drug Overdose Deaths and Economic Factors: An Empirical Analysis of US Counties, 2008-2018.
by Suzan Odabasi
Abstract: Drug abuse has grown to be a very serious public health and economic problem in the USA. Economies are greatly impacted by drug abuse because of the financial costs of prevention programs, treatments, and rehabilitations. This study investigates the impacts of county-level economic and social conditions on the drug overdose deaths in the USA. Using data from the US Centres for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the US Census Bureau, and the Centres for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) from 2008 to 2018, this study modelled associations between drug overdose deaths and socioeconomic and medical factors. Count data using Poisson regression is employed for four observation groups: females, males, individuals higher than 45 and, individuals under 45. The average county-level drug overdose deaths were relatively higher among males by nearly 25.6 deaths in 100,000 populations. The results show that drug overdose deaths significantly increase with higher uninsured population for each observation groups. In addition, among socioeconomic factors, median household income and social participation are negatively related to drug overdose deaths in per 100,000 people.
Keywords: well-being; health economics; economic development.
A Conceptual Framework of the Entry Mode Choices Determinants : The Ownership- Location-Internalization Approach
by Sujinda Chemsripong
Abstract: Entering the international market is a crucial strategy for foreign direct investment. Difference market entry models, such as exports, licensees, franchises, complete management, affiliated companies, and venture capital will affect investments in terms of risk, return, and corporate governance for a successful international business. This research aimed to study the key factors influencing the decision to choose a model and the expected returns using a crucial concept of ownership advantage, location advantage, and internalisation advantage (OLI) advantage to describe international entry patterns. This paper used the multinomial logistic regression model and categorical regression to estimate regression model in hypothetical tests, utilising data from 125 Thai companies that invested in Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar, and Vietnam. Based on Thailands investment model and their international relationship, this paper will focus on the conceptual framework variables such as firm size, international experience, the ability to develop differentiated products, market potential, investment risk, and contractual risk.
Keywords: conceptual framework; entry mode choice; foreign direct investment; FDI; OLI approach.
An analysis of Asia-Pacific regional integration: Time-varying SVAR approach
by Essahbi Essaadi, Awatef Ourir
Abstract: Regional economic integration in East and Southeast Asia has reached considerable transformation in a few years. Considering the critical role of trade integration in the integration process, we study whether East and Southeast Asian countries are influenced by specific, regional, or global shocks. The novelty of the paper is that we look after regional integration as an evolutionary process. To detect dynamic changes in the variance decomposition analysis, we apply a time-varying SVAR model. Our main finding is that when we consider the nonlinear aspect of the integration process in East and Southeast Asia, conclusions about its suitability for currency union change completely. TVP-SVAR model is used to revisit the economic integration process in the East and Southeast Asian region. Japan outperforms China and the USA as a regional anchor for most countries in the last dates. The large specific shock brings us to the point that the region is neither a yen nor a yuan nor a dollar block, but is tending towards a yen block.
Keywords: East Asia; Southeast Asia; monetary union; TV-SVAR model.
An Analysis of Intra-SAARC Trade Relations
by Nikhat Khalid
Abstract: World is composed of geographical regions comprising clusters of countries having physical contiguity. This premise motivated the South Asian countries to form SAARC in 1985. SAARC envisioned to enhance trade and commerce among the member states. In 1993, they initiated SAPTA to liberalise tariff barriers and created SAFTA in 2004 to make South Asia a trading zone. Despite these initiatives, many pitfalls and hiccups did not allow SAPTA and SAFTA to bloom. This paper attempts to empirically examine intra-regional trade among SAARC countries through their bilateral trade intensity index, intra-regional trade intensity index and intra-regional trade share. The study found that most SAARC countries have their trade priorities outside the region. Their intra-regional trade stands at just 5.8%. To reduce this economic disconnect, SAARC countries need to come forward to enhance cross border trade, for which an open and more inclusive trading system and political will is required.
Keywords: South Asian Association of Regional Cooperation; SAARC; intra-regional trade; regional integration; trade responsibility; welfare state; geographical contiguity; economic cooperation.
Financial Sector Development and Credit Risk: An insight of BRICS countries using Continuously Updated Fully Modified and Continuously Updated Bias Corrected Methods
by Aamir Syed, Mohd. Kamal
Abstract: The impact of financial sector development on non-performing loans (NPLs) among emerging countries is inconclusive. For this purpose, the study investigates the relationship between financial sector development and NPLs among BRICS countries, covering the period from 1995 to 2018. The study has used a novel continuously-updated fully-modified (CUP-FM), and continuously-updated bias-corrected model (CUP-BC) for long-run estimation, together with CIPS, CADF second-generation unit root test, and Westerlund cointegration analysis. The findings infer that financial intermediation in terms of banks deposits to GDP ratio and private credit to GDP ratio negatively impact NPLs in the long run. Furthermore, financial sector efficiency, financial sector stability, and regulatory capital help in reducing NPLs in the long run in BRICS countries. However, the study highlight that financial sector liberalisation in terms of foreign banks presence has an insignificant relationship with NPLs in BRICS countries in the long run. This study offers useful policy implications.
Keywords: financial sector development; credit risk; CUP-FM; CUP-BC; BRICS; non-performing loans; NPLs.
Scale of Cultural Values of Generation Y: The case of Aburra Valley -Colombia
by Sandra Milena Palacio López, Yuri Lorene Hernández Fernández, Javier A. Sánchez-Torres, Oscar Velez
Abstract: Generation Y is increasingly influencing society through its purchasing power and as an entity influencing other generations, so understanding its behaviour is relevant for designing strategies in different socio-economic fields. This article seeks to identify the inventory of values that regulate the behaviour of generation Y. The study used a mixed research approach. The collage technique and in-depth interviews were used for the qualitative approach, and a questionnaire applied to 330 participants was used for the quantitative approach. The results show a generation that seeks independence and stimulation, and its life guidelines are the values related to affection and the environment. These results are relevant for designing strategies in different socioeconomic areas.
Keywords: culture; values; cultural dimensions; cultural behaviour; cultural values; personality; consumer behaviour; young boys; generation Y; Colombia.
Current Assets Management: A Comparative Study between Nascent and Established Entrepreneurs
by Najib H. S. Farhan, Ebrahim Al-Matri, Eissa A. Al-Homaidi, Fozi Belhaj, Waleed M. Alahdal
Abstract: This study aims to find out how current assets are being managed by both Nascent and established entrepreneurs in India. Moreover, it attempts to investigate the effects of current assets management on the profitability of the firms. The examination of this paper is depending on a panel data method of 1,371 Indian entrepreneurs, for the period from 2016 to 2017. Least square regression models are used for estimating the results. The study found that net trade cycle positively and significantly affects established entrepreneurs liquidity. Furthermore, current assets to total assets ratio significantly impact entrepreneurs profitability and nascent entrepreneurs profitability. This study is motivated to bridge an existing gab in the literature by finding out how current assets are being managed by both nascent and established entrepreneurs in India which has not been considered yet as per the knowledge of authors, which makes this study of novel contribution to the literature.
Keywords: current assets management; net trade cycle; liquidity; nascent entrepreneurs; established entrepreneurs.
From the university ecosystem to the entrepreneurial ecosystem - the way for developing of the local economy
by Walter Vesperi, Ineza Gagnidze
Abstract: The modern world faces a number of significant economic and social challenges. It is essential to find the key tools, which will contribute to mitigate the expected problems. The authors suggested that education (human capital) represents one of these tools. In this context the way from the university ecosystem to the entrepreneurial ecosystem is discussed as a tool for developing the local economy. The experience of 40 countries in the process of forming entrepreneurial universities has been studied and eight main challenges have been identified. To achieve this, the study uses a qualitative exploratory methodology. Specifically, it was decided to analyse the country Italy. The results offer a theoretical framework on the concepts of entrepreneurial students and university ecosystem.
Keywords: entrepreneurial universities; university ecosystem; entrepreneurial ecosystem; entrepreneurial students; local economy; business incubators; academic entrepreneurship; knowledge transfer system.
Assessing Socio-demographic Characteristics of Fintech Users: An Empirical Study on Mobile Money in Pakistan
by Misbah Noreen, Md. Shahin Mia, Zahiruddin Ghazali
Abstract: In Pakistan, the usage of FinTech particularly mobile money services is very poor. In addition, the socio-demographic characteristics of the mobile money users in the country has not been studied well. Therefore, this study aims to examine the socio-demographic characteristics of FinTech users, particularly the mobile money users in Pakistan. The study conducted a cross-sectional survey to collect the data at the household level. It was found that an overwhelming portion of the mobile money users in Pakistan are males (93%) while females are very few (7%) in numbers. The study also found that the majority of the respondents (67%) are from the urban locality. The study provides an insight into socio-demographic profiling of the mobile money users that might help the policymakers to design a policy to enhance the usage of mobile money services in Pakistan.
Keywords: socio-demographic characteristics; FinTech; mobile money users; Pakistan.
Perceived Fundamental Characteristics for Successful HR Managers: A Qualitative Thematic Study within Organisations Operating in the United Arab Emirates
by Fadi Sakka, Mohammed Ghadi
Abstract: This paper examines the required characteristics for successful HR managers within the context of the UAE. The research undertakes an exploratory study to investigate the required characteristics as described by industry experts working in firms operating in the country. It identifies 57 firms from various industries in the UAE. The results indicate that successful HR managers in the UAE should have an education, vocational certification in human resources management, fit in the organisation culture, agile and people-oriented person and trustworthy. The results obtained are going to be helpful and realistic for a newly appointed HR manager to be active managers immediately once hired. This is the first study to be conducted in the UAE. It produces knowledge and understanding of the unique characteristics of successful HR managers narrowing it down to the UAE context as compared with common ones fragmented generally in research.
Keywords: HR managers; successful characteristics; emerging economies; UAE.
Related Party Transactions, Earnings Management and Governance Mechanism in Emerging Markets: The Case of GCC Countries
by Gehan Mousa, Abdelmohsen M. Desoky, Mohamed Yassin
Abstract: The main purpose of this study is to examine the impact of earnings management (EM) and some governance mechanisms on related party transactions (RPTs) of listed firms in four emerging stock markets which are members of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC). A sample of 454 firm-year observations is used during a four-year period (2016-2019). Four models of hierarchical multiple regression (HMR) are performed to regress five independent variables (firm EM, AC independence, the number of AC meetings, AC size and EXQ) on RPTs which are represented by two main transactions (purchases of goods from RP and sales of goods to RP). Linear HMR regression models indicate that only two independent variables (firm EM and EXQ) are significantly explaining both dependent variables of RPTs, and they are not explained by any AC independent variable. Findings of this study suggest that the mere presence of RPTs does not necessarily suggest that firms management engage in greater earnings management. This study may afford additional valued insights on factors affecting RPTs.
Keywords: related party transactions; earnings management; audit committee attributes; external audit quality.
The mediating effect of digital supply chain management among the relationship between lean management and supply chain operations
by Ghufran Hijjawi, Mohammad Mousa, Ali Al- Quran, Hanan Almomani, Mohammad Alhalalmeh, Sulieman Al-hawary
Abstract: The study aimed at examines the mediating effect of digital supply chain management among the relationship between lean management and supply chain operations of the manufacturing companies operating in Jordan. The population of the study consists of the managers of the manufacturing sector of Jordan which includes garments, electronics, automobiles, and electronics. The sample size was 445 participants belonging to the manufacturing industry of Jordan. The analysis was carried out using structural equation modelling (SEM) technique on smart PLS. It was identified based on the analysis that technology has a significant impact on the supply chain operations of the companies. On the other hand, the communicative and structural dimensions were also found to have a positive and significant impact on supply chain operations. With respect to the mediation, the partial mediation of digital supply chain was determined among the relationship between lean management and supply chain operations of the company in the context of technology and communicative and structural dimensions.
Keywords: supply chain operations; digital supply chain; lean management; manufacturing companies; Jordan.
THE RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN CANADIAN FIRMS LOBBYING ACTIVITIES AND THEIR MARKET AND ACCOUNTING PERFORMANCE
by Saidatou Dicko
Abstract: The main objectives are to highlight the nature and scope of lobbying activities carried out by Canadian firms, and analyse the link between these activities and firm market and accounting performance indicators. Data on companies listed on the S&P/TSX index were analysed, covering the period from 2009 to 2018, inclusive. The main findings show that 26.6% of the firms under study have engaged in lobbying, with this proportion consisting, on average, of larger firms. The two industries at the forefront of these activities were mining, oil and gas, and manufacturing. Most of the lobbying activities under study focused on economic and multiple issues. While bivariate analyses (ANOVA and correlations) show that these activities in their scope and nature are significantly related to market and accounting performance indicators, multivariate GLM analyses demonstrate that only the variable
Keywords: lobbying activities; economic lobbying; environmental lobbying; social lobbying; multi-issue lobbying; firms; market and accounting performance.
DYNAMIC VOLATILITY SPILLOVER ACROSS STOCK MARKETS OF INDIA AND ITS TRADING PARTNERS- AN EMPIRICAL INVESTIGATION
by Ruchika Kaura, Namita Rajput
Abstract: This study investigates the nature of volatility transmissions between India and its 14 major trading partners based on their benchmark stock market indices covering time period from January 2013 to May 2020. The results of EGARCH model provide that significant bi-directional volatility spillover exists between India and 4 of its trading partners; unidirectional volatility spillover exists from 6 of its trading partners towards India; unidirectional volatility spillover exists from India towards three of its trading partners and volatility spillover between India and one trading partner is not found significant. The results of DCC-GARCH model reveal that time-varying/dynamic nature of the conditional correlation exists for all the pairs of stock market indices. The findings of the study have useful implications for portfolio managers, international investors and regulators for devising diversification strategies and for policy arrangements to bring stability of an economy from international financial shocks and crisis.
Keywords: volatility spillover; financial markets; DCC-GARCH model; India; EGARCH model.
Comparative Role of Income and Social Inequality in Migration Decision Making: A Household Level Analysis of India
by Debasis Chakraborty
Abstract: This paper tries to analyse the relative role played by income and social inequality in rural-urban migration decision-making, exploring household level primary data of India. The study has used various income and social inequality indices, namely, economic well-being, Gini coefficient, multidimensional poverty index (MPI), etc. Results show that income factors, specifically absolute income differences rather than relative income inequalities, are the most dominant reason. Rural people are least bothered about multidimensional deprivation as result shows that less multidimensionally poor are migrating in higher numbers. While comparing the pre- and post-migration scenario, it has been found that the rural out-migrants have become more multidimensionally poor once they migrate into urban areas. Hence rural-urban migration is found to be welfare reducing. The logistic regression results show that families from scheduled castes and scheduled tribes are more multidimensionally poor and distance from nearby market is one of the key determinants of multidimensional poverty.
Keywords: migration; income inequality; social inequality; deprivation; multidimensional poverty index; MPI; India.
Exiting the Market by Mergers and Acquisitions. Does the Crisis Matter
by RICCARDO CAPPELLI, Marco Cucculelli
Abstract: M&A have been extensively and thoroughly studied as a result of a decision on exiting the market. Most attention has been directed to M&A occurring during business booms when numerous deals take place and prices are high. Conversely, least attention has been devoted to M&A during a crisis or just after recessionary periods. Using a sample of 358 mergers that occurred in Europe before (145) and after (213) the financial crisis, this paper explores if and to what extent the innovation profile of incumbents affects the exit decisions through M&A before and after the crisis. Internal R&D and product innovations are major drivers of deals in young industries, whereas process innovation plays a crucial role in mature industries. Patents are the only key innovation drivers of M&A after the crisis, both in young and mature industries. We furnish here some explanations of the mechanisms behind these emergent behaviours.
Keywords: mergers and acquisitions; firm exit; financial crisis; R&D; product innovation; process innovation; patent; economic cycle; industry life-cycle; uncertainty.
Accounting Standards and External Corporate Governance. The effect of mandatory IFRS adoption on Analyst Coverage.
by Mohammed Almaharmeh, Ali Shehadeh
Abstract: This study investigates whether mandatory adoption of International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) affects financial analysts decisions to cover the firms with their earnings per share forecasts. The results suggest that mandatory adoption of IFRS attracts more security analysts to follow the firms. Where the IFRS variable records a significant positive effect on the analyst coverage variable, this result is robust with ordinary least squares and fixed-effect models based on ten years before and ten years after the adoption data.
Keywords: International Financial Reporting Standards; IFRS; financial analysts; analyst coverage; corporate governance; external corporate governance; the UK.
The Linkage among Socio-economic Indicators and Life Expectancy in Selected ASEAN+3 Countries
by Noorazeela Zainol Abidin, Mai Syaheera Miau Shaari
Abstract: The improvement in medical technology indirectly contribute to increasing life expectancy. Besides, a good health service system can also help to overcome the various health problems. However, the rising on treatment costs, levels of education, standards of living and the drop of mortality rates can lead to a decline in life expectancy. Therefore, this study was conducted to investigates the linkages between socioeconomic indicators and life expectancy in selected ASEAN+3 countries from 1991 to 2019 by using panel static method. The results obtained show that there are significantly positive relationships between education and health spending on life expectancy while interaction between dummy country and life expectancy show a negative relationship. Therefore, these findings are important for policy makers to formulate policies in increasing life expectancy based on socioeconomic indicators for each countries.
Keywords: life expectancy; education; ASEAN+3; health spending.
Moderating Impact of Innovation Work Behaviour on the Relationship between Entrepreneurial Leadership and Competitive Advantage: An empirical study on Retail Industry of Jordan
by Mohammad Alhalalmeh, Essa Al Tarawneh, Mohammad Eldahamsheh
Abstract: The study aims to examine the moderating impact of innovation work behaviour on the relationship between entrepreneurial leadership and competitive advantage. A survey questionnaire and primary quantitative study were designed with the sample size of 560 carried out for the purpose of data collection. The researchers used SEM techniques for the determination of the model. The findings section consists of various tests such as measurement model and structural model executed through AMOS. The analysis determined that there is a partial effect of entrepreneurial leadership over the cost advantage, service variety advantage and service quality advantage. Moreover, the moderation of idea exploration was significant in the case of service quality advantage with entrepreneurial leadership. Lastly, the moderation of idea implementation was insignificant as to the relationship of entrepreneurial leadership with cost advantage and service quality advantage while it was statistically significant with the service variety advantage.
Keywords: innovative work behaviour; IWB; entrepreneurial leadership; competitive advantage; retail industry; Jordan.
Respecting the Principles of Competition and Consumer Protection in Liquidation Sales: A Comparative Study
by Tariq Kameel, Nour Alhajaya, Fayez Alnusair, Mohammad Alkrisheh
Abstract: This article discusses the most relevant restrictions placed upon liquidation sales to respect the principles of competition, avoiding involvement in anti-competitive practices, mainly as liquidations involve the reduction of the prices of goods. Additionally, the article discusses the assurances placed when obtaining authorisation for liquidation sales that seek to protect consumer rights, concluding with a description of the researchs most important results and recommendations. Its connection and impact the realm of consumer protection but are also relevant to the principles of fair market competition. Its significant effect on consumers to exercise their freedom choice freely and transparently without any restrictions. Laying safeguards to protect consumers within the principles of free market. The paper aims is examine the legal framework of liquidation sales in the legal systems of the countries understudy and its impact on consumers interests the precautions and safeguards within the legal systems understudy.
Keywords: liquidation sales; consumers; competition laws; suppliers.
Examining and Analyzing the Determinants of Non Performing Assets in Public and Private Sector Banks in India
by Swati Singh, Manpreet Arora
Abstract: No doubt that the Indian financial sector is growing at an efficient rate but at the same time growth rate of non-performing assets (NPAs) of the banks are also increasing. There is a high variation of growth of these NPAs among different groups of banks. This paper examines the effect of various important variables on net NPAs. Panel data regression is used for analysing the data. For the analysis purpose, dataset of 20 public sector banks and 18 private sector banks from year 2009 to 2019 is considered. Data is collected from various reports of RBI. GMM model is applied to solve the problem of endogeneity. Results and analysis showed that capital adequacy tier I, net interest margin, burden ratio and bank size have negative and significant effect on NPA, whereas intermediation cost showed positive and significant effect on NPA.
Keywords: banking sector; non-performing assets; NPAs; generalised method of moments; GMM; endogeneity; India.
The impact of gender on financial performance: Evidence for Portuguese SMEs
by Luis Pacheco
Abstract: The relationship between gender and profitability in the context of small and medium enterprises (SMEs) is a less studied topic in the broader context of performance determinants. Thus, the objective of this paper is to examine whether womens leadership of the firms board of directors and senior management teams enhances financial performance. Contributing to fill this research gap and based on the agency and stakeholder theories, it is used a balanced panel data of 4,806 Portuguese SMEs for the period from 2010 to 2019. The results from the random-effects model evidence the absence of a broad significant relationship, albeit with some slight evidence of a negative relation, moderated by firm age and present in some specific sectors of activity. Given the SMEs importance in the majority of countries, the results and implications of this paper can be generalised to other economies, albeit country specific cultural and legal issues should be taken in consideration.
Keywords: financial performance; gender diversity; SMEs; agency theory; stakeholder theory.
Brand Index: A New Suggestion for Stock Market Indices
by Semra Bank, Evrim Erdogan Yazar
Abstract: The aim of this paper is to propose a new index for stock markets called the brand index. The paper measures the performance of the brand index in terms of return and risk and compares this performance with the performance of other indices. The brand index is calculated for the period of 20072018; it is composed of the firms included in Brand Finance Turkey 100 annual reports published by Brand Finance and also listed on the Borsa Istanbul (BIST). The performance of the brand index is compared with the performance of three alternative share indices (BIST30, BIST50 and BIST100). The results show that the brand index has the highest performance in all performance measures compared to benchmark indices, yielding higher returns with lower risk. Accordingly, the brand index could be an alternative index for investors willing to invest in an index mutual fund or exchange traded funds. This is the first paper to propose a brand index in terms of an emerging market. This index consisting of strong brands is proposed as an alternative index that can be calculated in the capital markets, especially since the index is advantageous for investors in index funds.
Keywords: brand index; brand equity; brand value; performance measures; emerging markets.
Foreign Direct Investment, Business Extortion and Drug Trafficking
by Rafael Espinosa Ramirez
Abstract: We develop a theoretical model in which a country hosts foreign investment in the presence of a drug dealer, acting as leader, and a drug seller, acting as a follower. A policy addressed to eradicate drug trafficking encourages the business extortion activity, and increase the extortion cost of firms. When the drug is not consumed in the host country the best policy is not to fight against drug trafficking. When the drug is consumed in the host country the optimal policy depends on the social marginal disutility of drug consumption concerning extortion paid by firms. In this case, when social marginal disutility is sufficiently larger than extortion payment, the government combats drug trafficking, otherwise, there is no policy at all.
Keywords: drug trafficking; foreign direct investment; FDI; business extortion; public policy; crime economy; drug consumption disutility; extortion payment; social marginal disutility; extortion cost.
Challenging Factors Influencing University Students' Intention and Experience on Online Learning: An Analysis Using Berge Model
by Azleen Ilias, Nasrudin Baidi, ERLANE K. GHANI, Fazlida Mohd Razali
Abstract: This study examined the Malaysian university students experience of online learning (OL) usage challenges during the COVID-19 pandemic using Berge model among gender, experience, and intention. It examined the association between experience of online learning usage and intention to use online learning. This study surveyed 436 students via the electronic questionnaire. The view on technical skills and learner motivation are different among genders. Furthermore, students with experience and no experience on online learning have different views on academic skills. Students that have intention and no intention to use OL have different views on social interactions, academic skills, time and support for studies, cost and access and technical problems. The experience of OL usage has shown an association with intention to use OL. This study contributes to the implementation of OL that involves instructors and students and the motivation to use OL with instructors preparedness, teaching content, time, and voice usage.
Keywords: online learning; OL; COVID-19; Malaysia; survey; university students; Berge model.
The impact of corporate long term tax avoidance and tax uncertainty on cost of equity capital: evidence from Korea
by Minjo Kang
Abstract: This study aims to investigate the impact of Korean firms long-run tax avoidance on the cost of equity capital. To the end, we examine whether long-term tax avoidance and tax uncertainty are associated with the cost of equity capital. According to the implicit tax theory, tax-favoured investments can decrease the firms expected operating income. Besides, implicit taxes generated by tax credit can have distributional effects: the tax benefits shift to other stakeholders than the shareholders of the firms opting for the legitimate tax avoidance. We find results that, controlling for firms various risk factors, Korean firms long-run tax avoidance is positively associated with higher cost of equity capital. The results suggest that the unfavourable implicit tax effects of long-run tax avoidance dominate the favourable tax saving effects for the part of shareholders.
Keywords: cost of equity capital; long-run tax avoidance; implicit tax; tax uncertainty; Korea.
Role of Real Estate in Financial Instability: French Evidence
by Asma Saad, Muhammad Arslan, Ahmad Alqatan
Abstract: This paper evaluates the place of residential real estate in the stability of the French financial system. By employing three-stage least-squares (3SLS), we analysed the dynamic interaction between the real estate credit market and the evolution of real estate prices. This interaction creates a destabilising spiral that expounds the housing bubbles formation. In France, as in most developed countries, the increase in real estate credits was accompanied by an increase in property prices. Our estimate shows that an increase in home credit increases home prices and vice versa. Therefore, we conclude that there is a relationship of interaction between the two markets leading to a destabilising spiral. The study has important implications for policymakers and investors. The use of macroprudential policy is justified by the ineffectiveness of micro-prudential policy and monetary policy alone in ensuring the stability of the financial system. Monetary policy, via the interest rate, could not prevent the development and subsequent outbreak of the 2007 financial crisis. Existing studies are limited in exploring the interaction between the growth rate of real estate prices and the number of loans to housing in the French context. This study adds value to existing literature and confirms this interaction.
Keywords: housing; financial; macroprudential; 3SLS; monetary; French.
Management of innovative development of the national economic system in conditions of global acceleration of scientific and technological progress
by Aleksandr GERSHANOK, Evgeny MALYSHEV
Abstract: The problems of innovative development of countries in terms of accelerating scientific and technological progress have been studied in this article. The authors identified five main factors having a major impact on the success of the innovative economy. The authors introduce the concept of the quality of the economic and political system to assess the conditions of innovative business. The necessary requirements to the quality of the national economic system in the conditions of the innovative economy development have been defined. For the first time, the authors introduced a system of assessing the quality of the economic and political systems of the country in the innovative economy. The authors propose a multi-factor model of managing the countrys innovative development using the integral quality factor of the economic system. The model is based optimal conditions for the successful functioning of the innovative companies in the national economic environment.
Keywords: innovation; quality; development; conditions; psychology; rationality; responsibility; self-organisation; motivation; management.
A Spatial bivariate copula regression analysis of youths access to ICT resources and subjective well-being in the Middle East
by Ibrahim Niankara, Ghaleb A. El Refae, Amer Qasim
Abstract: This study relies on a spatial bivariate copula regression analysis of data on youth respondents from five Middle Eastern countries, extracted from the 2018 wave of the Program for international students assessment (PISA) survey. Focusing specifically on evaluating the availability of ICT resources to the youth population, and also identifying the impact of ICT resources on youth subjective well-being in the region, we find that only the UAE and Qatar have above OECD average ICT resource index value. The within region cross-country comparative analysis also highlights significant ICT access heterogeneity across the five countries. Furthermore, controlling for not only cross-country spatial correlations, and factors such as economic and socio-cultural status, we find that every standard deviation increase in youths access to ICT resources in the region raises their subjective well-being by 1.88% standard deviations.
Keywords: Copula Regression; ICT resources; Middle East; Spatial Analysis; Students Well-being; Sustainable Development Goals.
Investors Decision-making in Equity Crowdfunding
by Nabila Allouche, Abdelfettah BOURI
Abstract: Equity crowdfunding is a way to finance new businesses. Given that the means of communication are limited, this study relies on signalling theory to examine the signals that may influence the decision of investors to invest in equity financing through crowdfunding platforms. This study used a sample of 320 projects listed on crowdcube between April 2017 and December 2018 regarding equity crowdfunding campaigns in the UK. The relationship between each type of signal and the level of success of equity crowdfunding has been tested empirically using binary logistic regression, ordinary least squares regression analysis, and negative binomial regression. The results of our research show that higher retention of equity shares by entrepreneurs, board experience and/or education and the information about the companys strategy to distribute dividends have a positive impact on the success of the financing of a project. In addition, financial forecasts and rewards contribute to a higher probability of success. In contrast, exit strategy, social media, and the duration of the company have little or no impact on funding success.
Keywords: equity based crowdfunding; signaling mechanism; entrepreneurial finance; information asymmetry; crowdfunding platform.
Value preferences for rewards and loyalty programmes of South African financial institutions
by Johan Coetzee, Louis Raubenheimer
Abstract: This study investigates the impact of value preferences on relational outcomes such as loyalty and repeat purchase behaviour that customers of financial institutions (FIs) have towards their rewards and loyalty programs (RLPs). Using a structural equation model, the results indicate that utilitarian, hedonic and symbolic value drivers are all positively associated with perceptions of delight, satisfaction, trust, attitudinal and behavioural loyalty. Symbolic value drivers were found to have a particularly strong association with perceptions of delight and satisfaction. Although a strong positive relationship was found between attitudinal loyalty and repeat purchase behaviour, no significant relationship was found between behavioural loyalty and repeat purchase behaviour. The findings suggest that if RLPs provide a comprehensive ecosystem reflecting aspects of all the value drivers, customers will be more likely to exhibit true loyalty towards the program of the FI if symbolic rewards are particularly prominent due to eliciting higher-order psychological relational outcomes.
Keywords: rewards and loyalty programs; RLPs; financial institutions; banks; attitudinal loyalty; behavioural loyalty.
Technical Efficiency of Smallholder Sunflower Farmers in Singida, Tanzania: the Application of the Zero-Observations Approach
by Felister Tibamanya, Mursali Milanzi
Abstract: Improving agricultural productivity is crucial for enhancing income and alleviating poverty for the majority of farm households in sub-Saharan Africa. However, fostering productivity requires a good understanding of farm-level technical efficiency (TE). While earlier studies have examined TE across the globe, the current study applies rarely used the Zero-Observation Approach to compare the performance of the Translog and the Cobb-Douglas stochastic frontier models, based on 269 randomly selected smallholder sunflower farmers in Singida, Tanzania. The findings suggest that the Translog stochastic production frontier model fits our data better than the Cobb-Douglas stochastic production frontier model in the context of the zero-observation approach. The zero-observation inputs such as improved sunflower seeds and non-zero observation inputs such as land significantly influence sunflower output and technical efficiency. In addition, using this approach, some sunflower farmers were found to be fully technically efficient. Thus, suggest that the provision of improved sunflower seeds is imperative.
Keywords: technical efficiency; zero-observations approach; smallholder sunflower farmers; stochastic frontier; Tanzania.
Transmission of the 2010 Greek sovereign debt crisis to Asia-Pacific stock markets: A copula-based approach
by Salma Jayech, Emna Abdennadher
Abstract: The objective of this paper is to detect the contagion effect of the 2010 sovereign debt crisis in the euro area on the stock markets of 12 countries in Asia-Pacific. We have used a new approach based on the copula theory. The obtained results show the transmission of this crisis by pure contagion of the American index to the share indices of Australia, Hong Kong, the Philippines, Singapore and Taiwan, which is not the case for the Greek share index where we have noticed the existence of a strong interdependence between markets after the crisis, and not a contagion. Contagion has fundamental importance in the financial markets because of these consequences on the global economy in terms of monetary policy, international diversification, risk measurement and assets valuation.
Keywords: Greek sovereign debt crisis; Financial contagion; Asia-Pacific stock markets; Copula theory.
The Returns to Field of Study in Turkish Labor Market: A Pseudo-Panel Approach
by Bilge Eris Dereli
Abstract: This study employs pseudo-panel fixed-effects approach to estimate the returns to field of study in Turkey. Repeated cross sections of Turkish Labor Force Surveys between 2016-2019 are used. Year of birth and region are used as grouping variables. The results indicate significant earnings differences across field of study when cohort-fixed effects are controlled. Relative to the base field, Education Sciences, there are higher returns to Environmental Sciences & Mathematics & Statistics and Engineering & Manufacturing & Architecture and Health & Welfare. On the other hand, there are lower returns to Social Sciences & Journalism. The earnings differences are insignificant for the fields Art & Humanities & Languages and Business Administration & Law and Agriculture & Veterinary. These findings are important both for an individuals subject choice at university and education policies targeting to allocate resources more effectively to tertiary education.
Keywords: Keywords: Returns to field of study; pseudo-panel; Turkey.
Increasing the Rigor and Relevance of Elementary Microeconomics
by Brett D. Steele
Abstract: This paper redresses analytical weaknesses in elementary microeconomics from both short-run and long-run perspectives. By assuming variable production-time periods, the U-shaped average variable-cost curve in the short-run is shown to be valid only for perishable or non-storable products. The J-shape production curve, by contrast, is more appropriate for durable products that account for the vast majority of industrial production. While its validity has long been acknowledged in neoclassical economics, this paper subjects it to a graphical profit-maximisation analysis under both rigid- and flexible-production assumptions. To redress the reticence in elementary microeconomics to offer a profit-maximisation analysis under the long-run condition of variable investment factors, a basic profit equation is presented in terms of production/sales rate, production-system investment, and advertising investment. Profit-maximising production rate and investments are then determined graphically, leading to a rigorous explanation of economies of scales. The paper concludes by highlighting the role elementary microeconomics can play in introducing undergraduate students to strategic reasoning by integrating analytically the supply side and demand side of business management.
Keywords: U-shaped curve; J-shaped curve; knife-shaped curve; production-time periods; flexible production; profit maximisation; production-system investment.
Data envelopment analysis for decision-making units: a comparison of the relative efficiency of banks in the Kingdom of Bahrain
by Minwir Al-Shammari, Mohamed Sayed Abou Elseoud
Abstract: The study aims to measure and compare the relative efficiency of conventional retail and Islamic banks in the Kingdom of Bahrain over the period 2017 to 2019. The study adopts the input input-oriented CCR and BCC models of data envelopment analysis to compute both the aggregate efficiency scores of each banks group and the efficiency score of each bank. The sample of banks includes six conventional banks and six Islamic banks. At the same time, the selected inputs are total deposits, fixed assets, and owners equity, whereas outputs are credits facilities, total operating income, and net profit. The main findings show that both banks groups are efficient during the study period. At the level of individual banks, the conventional retail banks are more efficient than the IRBs in 2017 and 2019, while there are no significant differences between the efficiency in 2018. Finally, the study identified input and output slacks of inefficient banks, and it suggested the efficient input and output targets for improvements.
Keywords: Islamic banks; conventional banks; data envelopment analysis; DEA; CCR; BBC; relative efficiency; comparative efficiency; Bahrain.
Economic determinants of the crisis phenomena in modern Russia: endogenous and exogenous approach
by Alla B. Meshcheryakova, Tatiana A. Sapunova, Andrey V. Sapunov, Samvel S. Malkhasyan, Elina R. Rafikova
Abstract: The research is aimed at identification the economic determinants of the crisis phenomena of modern Russia in terms of endogenous and exogenous approaches. The authors proved that at each stage of the development of society, the economic crisis acquires unique properties that are characteristic of this particular period of time and the established social way of society life, the political regime and state administration. The authors confirmed three research hypotheses: 1) infrastructure and price fluctuations in the most important sectors of the economy can lead to crisis consequences regardless of the dynamics of changes; 2) the current economic situation in Russia has all the signs of an overproduction crisis; 3) the development of foreign trade under the influence of pandemic and epidemiological risks is a determining factor that strengthens the crisis trends in the Russian economy.
Keywords: economic crisis; causes of the crisis; overproduction; endogenous approach; exogenous approach; Russia.
Analysis of the Main Problems and Issues in Arbitration of the Foreign Investment Disputes: The Concept of Investment Dispute and Multiciplity of Arbitration Disputes Relating to the Same Investment
by Nour Alhajaya, Ramzi Ahmad Madi, Tariq Kameel
Abstract: Perhaps the most important problem with arbitration as a means of settling investment disputes, is to identify the concept of the investment dispute, identify parties, and indicate the criteria that are adopted to determine whether we are going to invest or not. Accordingly, we have identified in this research what is meant by an investment dispute, the parties to that dispute, and the criteria upon which to determine whether there is an investment or not, including: 1) the capital contribution to the host countrys economy over a certain period of time that allows for the building of continuous links between the investor and the host country; 2) giving the investor the right to exercise real influence and control over the management of his investment project; 3) this investment generates income; 4) investment is at particular risk and 5) stimulating the economic development of the host country. We have also identified the other problem facing arbitration in investment disputes, namely, the multiplicity of arbitration disputes relating to the same dispute, and the need to apply the positive and negative impact of binding force of res judicata and to deny other solutions to this problem.
Keywords: arbitration; investment dispute; foreign investor.
Genders and sexual harassment: the perception of Vietnamese employees via Sexual Experience Questionnaire
by XUAN QUYET PHAM, Viet Tien Ho
Abstract: Sexual harassment is a hidden problem of any workplace, not only in Vietnam but also worldwide. Sexual harassment commonly happens in the service industry since the employees frequently contact different guests or partners. Understanding sexual harassment and the levels of perceptions in different genders in the service industry will help to justify the solutions for upcoming problems. Using the sexual experience questionnaire of 390 respondents in Vietnam, the article reveals that females more significantly perceive sexual harassment than males in terms of gender harassment and sexual coercion. In contrast, both genders generally tolerate unwanted sexual attention. The results support the previous research in the same area since females are still the primary victims of sexual harassment at work. The recommendations help each company focus more on the employees to prevent any negative impacts from sexual harassment and purify the entire service workspace.
Keywords: sexual harassment; genders; Vietnamese employees; sexual experience questionnaire; SEQ.
ANALYZING COSTS AND MARGINS OF SMALLHOLDER FARMERS IN THE COFFEE VALUE CHAIN: M4P APPROACH
by ThiHong Nguyen, Dang Trung Tuyen, Nguyen Ngoc Trung, Tran Cuong
Abstract: The study attempted to analyse costs and margins of smallholder
farmers involved in the coffee value chain in Dak Lak province the coffee
capital of Vietnam. Data was collected through a survey and assessed by
applying M4P approach. ARIMA model was used for forecasting the costs and
margins over time. The results revealed that coffee growing households receive
the highest profits and create the highest value added in the chain. In the shortterm, coffee farmers bear less price volatility risk than coffee manufacturing
and exporting enterprises, but in the long-term, this risk will gradually shift
from manufacturing and exporting companies to them.
Keywords: ARIMA model; coffee value chain; costs and margins; Dak Lak coffee; M4P approach.
Health and Time Allocated to Market and Household Work in Turkey
by Burcu Duzgun Oncel
Abstract: I examine the association between health and time allocation to market work and household work by using Turkish Time Use Survey in 2014. I define household work as the sum of time devoted to non-market work and leisure. In supplement to previous studies on the subject regarding Turkey, I consider two new aspects. One of these aspects I assess is the intertemporal component of time allocation decisions. The other aspect I cover is the potential selection bias of health status in time allocation decisions. For the former purpose, I focus on non-student, non-retired individuals. For the latter, I apply propensity score matching (PSM). Examining these two aspects, I find that as health improves, time devoted to market work significantly rises and time devoted to leisure falls for both males and females in this group. I also find that the association between health and time use on non-market activities is insignificant for males.
Keywords: health status; time use; propensity score matching; PSM; Turkey.
Reforms and Political Instability in Attracting Foreign Direct Investment: A simoultaneous equations approach
by Walter Morales, Javier Barbero, Fernando Ubeda
Abstract: present work aims to identify the elements that condition the attraction of foreign direct investment (FDI) to Latin America, a region that has achieved heterogeneous results under different reforms to improve its economic growth but that has not been exempt from political instability. In this regard, we first estimate this phenomenon through a probit model as a latent variable and then estimate a simultaneous equation model to describe the relationship between FDI, economic growth and political instability, addressing the problems of endogeneity and reverse causality, which are common in these dynamics. The procedure used also allows us to correct the problems related to heteroskedasticity and autocorrelation. The results show that FDI is conditioned by political instability and the latter by the reforms and their momentum. In addition, a favourable institutional framework of freedom and economic growth complements the attraction of FDI.
Keywords: simultaneous equations; political instability; foreign direct investment; FDI; reforms and economic growth.
Effect of Deal Size on M&A outcome on HR parameters : An empirical analysis
by VIRENDER SINGH, Girish Chandra Maheshwari, Rajan Yadav
Abstract: Mergers and acquisitions (M&A) are critical to achieving growth in intense globalisation for healthy and inorganic expansion of business firms. However, a relatively large number of M&A fail or can achieve suboptimal results. Previous studies that have attempted to analyse failed cases of M&A have focused on financial or strategy perspectives, thus not being able to explain the causes of failure. This accentuates the need to shift the focus to more qualitative human aspects that drive the social-cultural adjustment process in M&A. Our analysis of the impact of size on M&A (HR) outcomes shows a significant influence on the deal size. The content analysis and regression results of 48 cases show that large firms are able to better integrate, though the outcome varies across acquirer country-developed and developing. Tranching and deal size customisation can be strategic for optimal M&A HR outcomes.
Keywords: merger and acquisition; size; takeover; synergy; satisfaction; human integration; affective commitment; culture; achievement; change management and turnover.
Financial Development and Banking Industry Stability
by Rexford Abaidoo, Elvis Kwame Agyapong
Abstract: The banking industry plays an important role in the development of economies globally. This study examines the importance of the banking industry to the development of the financial system in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) by specifically verifying the effect of four bank stability variables on development of the entire financial system. Data for the study were compiled from 19 countries in the sub-region from 2001 to 2018; and the empirical estimates performed using the Prais-Winston panel corrected standard errors (PW-PCSE) estimation technique. The results suggest that bank liquid reserves and bank Z-score have significant positive effect on financial development. Growth in non-performing loans on the other hand is found to be inimical to the development of the financial sector all things being equal. The results further show that inflation uncertainty has significant positive moderating influence on bank liquid reserves financial development and non-performing loans financial development nexuses.
Keywords: financial development; banking industry stability; Prais-Winston panel corrected standard errors; PW-PCSE; governance quality; inflation uncertainty.
The antecedents to efficient working capital management (EWCM): Evidence from Turkish manufacturing sector
by Mumtaz Ali, Mehdi Seraj, Hüseyin Özde?er
Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to empirically analyse the influence of endogenous and exogenous factors on efficient working capital management (EWCM) of the Turkish manufacturing sector and analyse the impact of components of cash conversion cycle (CCC) on the performance, i.e., return on assets (ROA). Two-step generalised moment method (GMM) is used to extract the results using penal data of 133 firms in the manufacturing sector listed on Borsa Istanbul Turkey, consisting seven industries for the time period of eight years from 2012 to 2019. Results evidenced significant influence of endogenous (firm size, profitability, leverage, cash flow ratio) on CCC for manufacturing sector, while industry results are mixed. In addition, results of components of CCC and performance are significant. The sample has been taken from Turkey, and the results are generalisable in the emerged economy only. Therefore, comparative analysis of emerged and emerging economy can be done in future.
Keywords: working capital management; WCM; generalised moment method; GMM; manufacturing sector; Turkey.
Credit Risk and Bank Specific Factors: an Empirical Study using Panel GMM
by Renuka Sharma, Kiran Mehta
Abstract: The issue raised in current research has significant implications for the banking sector. Banks across the world are highly exposed to credit risk. The current situation of the banking sector in all major markets and the recent financial crisis of 2008 intensified the concern of economists to improve the credit risk management policies of banks. The increasing default rate in corporate loan portfolios and consumer loan portfolios increase the non-performing assets, which can lead to the banking crisis. The current study has explored the extant literature to identify the bank-specific factors affecting the credit risk of banks. The study under consideration is based on secondary data and has applied dynamic panel GMM regression to examine the impact of bank-specific factors on credit risk on Indian banks. The results thus obtained are useful for managers responsible for controlling the credit risk of bank, regulators, policymakers and researchers.
Keywords: credit risk; bank-specific factors; dynamic panel GMM regression; Indian bank.
Novel approach to consumer loyalty: A case study of hospitality service organisations among Generation X and Y
by Mei Kei Leong, Kamelia Chaichi
Abstract: Consumer loyalty is considered one of the significant factors that affect market growth and consumer behaviour. Regardless of the numerous studies on customer loyalty, the authors found no empirical study that elaborates on the importance of customer loyalty across generations. The majority of previous studies have proposed customer engagement and customer involvement as one construct in predicting customer loyalty. Thus, the current research tries to fill this gap in the literature by proposing a new model of customer loyalty blends multidimensional consumer involvement as predictors, multidimensional consumer online engagement as a mediator, and finally the moderating role of different generations (X and Y) in the hospitality services context. Present research collected (N = 390) data from Malaysia hospitality service organisations and the data were analysed using structural equation modelling. The results approve all the direct relationships as well as the moderating effect of generation generations X and Y. Moreover, the results confirm the mediating role of consumer online engagement among consumer involvement dimensions and consumer loyalty. The current study highlights significant implications to facilitate and increase consumer loyalty in the hospitality services context, especially in the airline, and hotel industries.
Keywords: consumer loyalty; consumer involvement; consumer online engagement; airlines; hotels; hospitality industry.
Examining the association between Corporate Social Responsibility and Corporate Financial Performance: A scientometric analysis
by Dipanita Deb, Anupam DE, Philippe Gillet
Abstract: The association between corporate social responsibility (CSR) and corporate financial performance (CFP) has been subject to extensive empirical enquiry. Previous studies have shown an equivocal association. The article aims to review the relationship between CSR and CFP and the factors determining this relationship. A new methodology has been proposed in the study to enhance the knowledge in CSR and CFP. Previous studies have performed co-citations examination. But there are no studies which used; 1) Topic mapping; 2) co-citation analysis; 3) co-authorship analysis; 4) overlay visualisation. Apart from this, there are no investigations on the sources, keywords, growth trend, countries, and co-authorship analysis to link the association between CSR and CFP for the time frame of 1984 to 2020. The findings of this study show positive relationship between CSR and CFP; and the size of a business is the main factor which influence the relationship between CSR CFP apart from other factors.
Keywords: bibliometric analysis; CSR; CFP; citation analysis; scientometrics; literature review.
New Dynamics of e-Commerce on the Retail Industry: Analysis of the Purchase Process of Fashion and Electronics Products
by Rui Gonçalves, Catarina Dias, Leandro Ferreira Pereira, Renato Lopes Da Costa, Álvaro Dias, Rui Vinhas Da Silva
Abstract: The technology-mediated environment promoted the creation of new dynamics in the retail sector. To understand how the emergence of e-commerce has impacted the retail sector, this study analysed two distinct product typologies: fashion and electronics. Among the various conclusions of this work, we highlight a clear resistance to the emergence of e-commerce, even though a considerable part of the sample declares that the frequency of visits to physical stores has decreased, and the total frequency of purchases has increased after the appearance of e-commerce. The probability of completion of the purchase occurring on either platform increases when the search for information occurs on the same platform, however, possibly justified by the level of complexity of the product, the probability of the customer staying on the same platform during the electronics purchase process is marginally inferior to the fashion product model.
Keywords: e-commerce; retails; stores; fashion; electronics.
Theory and Fact of Japanese Capital Investment: Has the Japanese capital investment been made optimally?
by Kan N. Nakajima, Yasuhiro Yonezawa, A. Azeez
Abstract: The capital investment decision by the company should be made in a way that maximises its stock price. From this point of view, based on Tobins q theory, we examine the capital investment trends of Japanese companies using panel data after the burst of the bubble economy. The novelty of our paper is that the optimal capital investment is derived from clarifying the adjustment cost of capital investment in the analysis. Based on the derived adjustment costs, we investigate whether the capital investment has been optimal, using a sample of Japanese companies from 1990 to 2014. We find that the Japanese companies have been under investing for most of the period analysed. Our results indicate that the underinvestment by Japanese companies is not because of their strict financial constraints but because their capital investments are determined based on the return on equity (ROE) of the previous year. It should be emphasised that the capital investment decision is not made based on Tobins q. We conclude that Japanese companies do not make investment decisions from the perspective of maximising shareholder value.
Keywords: capital gain; capital investment; adjustment cost; corporate governance.
Do cryptocurrency and commodities markets affect stock market performance in South Asia? An empirical investigation during the COVID-19 pandemic
by Aamir Syed, Mohd. Kamal
Abstract: The emergence of cryptocurrencies, as well as global commodity price volatility, have affected the global stock market performance. The recent pandemic outbreak has exacerbated the situation. Against this backdrop, we sought to explore the relationship between cryptocurrencies, commodity, and stock market performances in South Asia, by segregating the data into two timelines. The results of GMM and fixed effects models reveal that cryptocurrencies and gold prices have a significant and negative impact on stock market performance. In addition, empirical findings also highlight that during COVID-19, the influence of cryptocurrencies and gold prices on the stock market was much greater (1.5% cryptocurrencies and 1.7% gold prices) compared to the pre-COVID-19 timeline (1.3% cryptocurrencies and 1.1% gold prices). The study also concludes that only Bitcoin and Ethereum have a significant impact on the stock market performance of South Asia. The findings offer several policy implications.
Keywords: cryptocurrency; stock market; oil prices; gold prices; IV-GMM; South Asia.
Amicable Settlements for Civil and Commercial Disputes: A Comparative Study of Emirati and Egyptian Legislations
by Moustafa Elmetwaly Kandeel, Ali Massadeh, Firas Massadeh
Abstract: Non-compulsory amicable dispute resolutions were examined by reviewing the legal nature and concept of mediation and conciliation within the legislations of the UAE and Egypt, in line with contemporary international legislations, such as that of France. We considered those civil and commercial law disputes which may be subject to amicable dispute resolution in pre-trial proceedings, including labour and family law matters and intellectual property rights. Within the latest legislative amended provisions, we also focused on whether the role of the judiciary within the amicable dispute resolution process is an efficient means of conciliation/mediation, and found that some modification of the respective Egyptian and Emirati judicial roles concerning the appointment of a conciliator/mediator is required. With regard to reaching an independent agreement, we present a potential model for doing so via amicable dispute resolution which is based on judicial procedures and strict binding stipulations.
Keywords: amicable dispute resolutions; conciliation; meditation; arbitration; civil procedures law; civil law; labour law; United Arab Emirates; family law Egypt.
Best performing stock market sectors of COVID-19 era: factors behind the success of Healthcare and Consumer Staples sectors
by Sahnaz Kocoglu, Aybuke Yalcin, Cemre Eda Erkilic
Abstract: In the study, we investigate the impact of S&P500 index, the number of COVID-19 cases, VIX index and oil prices on the stock market performance of Healthcare and Consumer Staples sectors during the pandemic as these sectors have emerged as the best performing sectors in the USA in the era of COVID-19. We employ ARDL approach and Granger causality over the period 6 April-30 October 2020. ARDL Bounds test results reveal that the number of cases had a positive effect on both sectors while the financial markets were adversely affected by the increasing number of cases. Moreover, decreasing oil prices driven by the negative economic expectations positively affected the sectors. The number of cases and VIX index granger cause the healthcare sector index while both sector indices cause the oil prices. This study is the first to investigate the factors behind the success of healthcare and consumer staples sectors.
Keywords: S&P 500; COVID-19; consumer staples; healthcare; stock return; consumer behaviours; ARDL approach.
Antecedents of Construction Project Performance And Contingent Role of Prosocial Behavior
by Syed Arslan Haider, Mário Nuno Mata, Shehnaz Tehseen, José Martins
Abstract: The purpose of this research study is to empirically test the impact of mastery climate (MC) on project performance (PP) through the mediating role of collaboration in team (CIT) and moderating role of prosocial behaviour (PSB). The probability random sampling technique and two-time lags T1 = 327 and T2 = 300 was used to collect data from employees working in project-based construction companies of Pakistan. Partial least squares-structural equation modelling (Smart PLS SEM v.3.2.8) software was used to test hypotheses. The result indicates that MC has a significant and positive impact on PP. Also, CIT is considered as a potential mediator between MC and PP. However, findings indicate that PSB positive effects on project performance at T1 but after passing time at T2 negative effects on project performance. Furthermore, study significantly contributes to the area of research in the domain of project management. In the end, the implications for project managers and future research are discussed.
Keywords: mastery climate; collaboration in team; CIT; prosocial behaviour; project performance.
The performance of Italian and French listed companies during the financial crisis period 2008-2017
by PANAGIOTIS CHARALAMPAKIS, Antonios Georgopoulos, ILIAS MAKRIS, George Mavridoglou, Stavros Stavroyiannis
Abstract: The purpose of this research is to evaluate the French and Italian publicly listed companies performance, analysing data from 322 and 68 companies respectively, during the recessionary period 2008 to 2017. The proposed methodology utilises variable-reduction principal component analysis (PCA) firstly and then panel data analysis. PCA aims to reduce a more extensive set of indicators, to a smaller set of principal components that account for most of the original variables variance. The initial data refer to a time-series of 14 financial indicators, collected from world scope database. Four new components arose, and were analysed using a panel data model for the decade 2008 to 2017. The research contributes to the existing literature as it studies the effect of the combination of three specific components (market, debt, internationalisation) on the performance of companies and extends the study to France and Italy, two of the largest economies in Eurozone.
Keywords: financial performance; listed companies; France; Italy; principal component analysis; PCA; panel data analysis.
Investigating the impact of organization culture, personal-job fit and employee engagement on turnover intention: An assessment of IT sector from an emerging market perspective
by Viral Bhatt, Sujo Thomas, Dhruti Chauhan, Ritesh Patel
Abstract: This study investigates into the influence of organisation culture (OC) and personal-job fit (PF) on employee engagement (EE) and its resultant impact on turnover intention (TI) in the lower and middle level employees of information technology (IT) sector. This study was undertaken due to the paucity of literature with respect to TI in the public domain, especially related to the IT sector from emerging market perspective. The results indicate that OC and PF are positively associated with employee engagement (EE) but EE negatively affects TI. This research further demonstrated the mediating role of EE, such that the higher level of OC and higher PF led to high EE and subsequently, resulted in lower TI. The findings of this study offers practical insights to HR professionals associated with the IT sector, to effectively design engagement and retention strategies. Additionally, it assists HR managers of IT sector to design long-term strategies by acknowledging the vital role of EE and its key influence on TI.
Keywords: organisation culture; personal-job fit; employee engagement; turnover intention; IT sector; India.
FinBERT and LSTM based novel model for Stock price prediction using technical indicators and financial news
by Gaurav Bathla, SUNIL GUPTA
Abstract: Stock price movement is highly nonlinear, volatile, and complex. Traditional machine learning techniques are employed by researchers for stock price prediction, but due to shallow architecture, adequate accuracy is not achieved. In this paper, recently introduced Bidirectional Encoder Representations from Transformers (BERT) and Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) hybrid model is utilised for stock price prediction. BERT model is used for financial news sentiment analysis. The sentiment score is merged with technical indicators of stock prices. In our approach, FinBERT is used which is specifically trained on financial corpus. Stock market prices were highly fluctuated in March 2020 due to lockdown. Thus, it is essential to predict high variation which existing works have not experienced due to lack of availability of highly fluctuated dataset. In our approach, the effect of financial news on stock indexes is analysed. Experiment analysis validates that our proposed approach outperforms existing approaches significantly.
Keywords: financial market; stock market; deep learning; data analytics; BERT; long short-term memory; LSTM; MAPE.
Modelling and Forecasting Intraday Volatility with Range Based GARCH Models for Indian Stock Market
by Moonis Shakeel, Himani Arya
Abstract: This paper focuses on the range-based volatility estimations with standard GARCH, EGARCH and TGARCH models to analyse how the performance of the models changes in different range-based analysis. The idea is to check the suitability of these models on a unique 7 months 30-minute intraday Nifty data with different measures of range-based volatility measures such as Parkinsons, Garman-Klass, Garman Klass-Yang Zhang and Yang Zhang for their appropriateness on the Indian stock market. Robust empirical analysis and comparisons give two significant performance-based results: 1) range-based volatility forecasting models appear to perform better as compared to the return-based models; 2) asymmetric GARCH models are found to be a better fit for the Indian stock market vis- à-vis the basic GARCH model. Another major outcome shows that the GKYZ volatility estimator comes out to be the best for accurately forecasting the current period volatility of the Indian stock market with having the minimum forecast error. Also, the positive size test significance suggests that the magnitude of the good news has a larger impact on volatility as compared to the impact of the magnitude of the bad news for Nifty 50.
Keywords: volatility forecasting; GARCH; TGARCH; EGARCH; range-based estimations.
A New Dimension In Exploring Stock Price Movement
by Umer Ilyas, MATTI ULLAH BUTT, MUHAMMAD GULZAR, Muhammad Umer Quddoos
Abstract: This study unfolds the deficiencies of traditional index base studies and explores the macroeconomic determinants of stock price movement in Pakistan with the aid of panel ARDL model with co-integration and with the objective to provide knowledge platform applicable beyond the geographical boundaries by overcoming the deficiencies of traditional index base studies. Monthly data for the period of 2005 to 2020 were collected for exchange rate, foreign direct investment, interest rate, foreign exchange reserve and exports along with month end share price for analysis. This study captures the impact of these variables first on overall each sector and then on each individual firm within same sector to analyse is there any difference in response for both. The results of the study rejected the conventional methods of adopting stock index for decision making as for most cases the overall sector response found different as compared to firms within same sector.
Keywords: stock price determinants; macro-economic variables; stock market performance; sector analysis; firm analysis.
The Mediating role of Organization Engagement and Job Engagement in the Relationship between Job Satisfaction and Turnover Intention: A Study in Service Organisations
by Ayushi Tyagi, Geeta Mishra, Amirul Hasan Ansari
Abstract: Employee engagement has gained the interest of researchers and academicians in the last few years. However, job engagement and organisation engagement as different concepts has been studied by only few researchers and not much is explored about their mediating effects parallelly between the two organisational constructs. The purpose of this paper is to explore the relationship among job satisfaction, organisation engagement, job engagement and turnover intention. Additionally, mediating effect of organisation engagement and job engagement in the relationship between job satisfaction and turnover intention is also examined. This the first study to investigate the mediating impact of organisation engagement and job engagement in the relationship between job satisfaction and turnover intention. This work would also add to the engagement literature and eventually help potential researchers in recognising the connection of organisation engagement and job engagement with other key organisational variables.
Keywords: job satisfaction; organisation engagement; job engagement and turnover intention; structural equation modelling.
Leadership Styles and Innovative Work Behavior: The Role of Work Engagement
by Udin Udin
Abstract: Organisations face many challenges that should be met to accomplish a competitive advantage. Hence, this studys fundamental purpose is to test the leadership styles effect (i.e., transactional and transformational) on innovative work behaviour by examining the work engagements role in the stone milling companies located in Central Java Indonesia. The questionnaire targeting 200 respondents resulted in 107 appropriate questionnaires with a response rate of 53.5%. To test the proposed research hypothesis, a structural equation model based on SmartPLS 3.0 was utilised. The results showed that transactional and transformational leadership positively and significantly affected innovative work behaviour and work engagement. In addition, this finding also reinforces the argument offered that work engagement plays as a mediator in the association between transactional and transformational leadership on innovative work behaviour.
Keywords: leadership styles; work engagement; innovative work behaviour.
A Hypothesis on Rationalizing Decisions by Constructing Personal Realities
by Mahmoud Askari, Ghaleb A. El Refae
Abstract: In this paper, we propose a hypothetical model to show how people construct their realities, and how they subjectively rationalise their decisions and actions. We hypothesise that when making individual decisions, what matters is the reality as perceived by individual decision makers, regardless of the objective or subjective approach to reality. The paper attempts to study the link between perceived reality (subjective reality), and how people rationalise their decisions and actions. The paper sheds light on how people know what they know, and how that might affect their sense of rationality when making decisions. The paper explains that people come across knowledge in a daily basis, and that they decide to accept, reject, or adjust that knowledge, using their subjective validation process that is guided by their experiences, biases, and beliefs.
Keywords: perceived reality; subjective validation; construction of personal reality.
A Universal Financial Inclusion Index covering Banking, Insurance and Pension Services in India
by Anand Pandey, Ramasamy Murugesan
Abstract: To create a universal social security system for all Indians, especially the poor and the under-privileged, three social security schemes namely, Pradhan Mantri Suraksha Bima Yojana, Pradhan Mantri Jeevan Jyoti Yojana, and Atal Pension Yojana were initiated by the Government of India in 2015. In the paper, a new universal financial inclusion index (FIU) covering banking, insurance, and pension parameters in India are developed. Given that all parameters used in financial inclusion index have separate units, all parameters are normalised using the min-max method of normalisation. The Euclidean distance method is used to assess the distance between any two points in an n-dimensional space. FIU is compared to the financial inclusion index covering banking parameters only. The FIU is a multi-dimensional index that captures values of various banking, insurance, and pension dimensions on the scale of 0 to 1, where 0 indicates complete financial exclusion and 1 indicates complete financial inclusion.
Keywords: universal financial inclusion; PMJDY; PMJJBY; PMSBY; APY; multi-dimensional index.
The impact of ISO 26000 social responsibility standard adoption on Stock Market Liquidity: Evidence from Saudi Arabia
by Hisham Barrak, Mounir Sarraj, Sourour Ben Saad, Aymen Ajina
Abstract: This paper aims to investigate the relationship between disclosure about corporate social responsibility through ISO 26000 and stock market liquidity in Saudi Arabia. The study uses a sample of 122 listed firms on the Saudi stock market between 2012 and 2017. Our result shows a positive association between CSR disclosure and stock market liquidity. Specifically, while the CSR index is correlated negatively with quoted and effective spreads, illiquidity ratio is positively correlated with trading volume. So, a higher level of CSR disclosure tends to ameliorate the illiquidity of Saudi firms. These findings are in line with the stakeholder theory and the legitimacy theory that a high level of CSR disclosure is viewed as a positive signal to setup confidence between stakeholders and attract investors to exchange in a transparent market. According to our findings, Saudi regulators should consider the level of CSR disclosures as a serious component to improve market liquidity.
Keywords: corporate social responsibility; CSR; ISO 26000; stock market liquidity; the opportunistic disclosure hypothesis; legitimacy theories; Saudi Arabia.
New Framework as Risk-Vulnerability Index (RVI) in Commercial Banking System
by Dayanand Pandey, Surender Kumar
Abstract: Risk management in commercial banking has been facing great challenges due to dynamic changes occurring both within and outside the system. This study focuses on the adoption of new frameworks to explain the measurement of risk in the commercial banking system. The study introduces new parameters of vulnerability in combination with external risk to gauge the potential threat of a commercial bank. The study presents a theoretical framework to construct a risk-vulnerability index (RVI), in the context of commercial banking operations. For this purpose, the existing parameters of risk (as per Basel III), financial stability indicators of commercial banks, and expert opinions are taken into consideration. It may help stakeholders detect potential threats more precisely and enable banks to take corrective measures in time to avert the threat.
Keywords: risk; vulnerability; framework; commercial banks; potential threat; Basel III; risk-vulnerability index; RVI.
ASYMMETRIC VOLATILITY SPILLOVERS BETWEEN BITCOIN, OIL AND PRECIOUS METALS
by Houda BenMabrouk, Imen BenKhalifa
Abstract: This paper examines the asymmetric spillovers between Bitcoin, oil and four precious metals (silver, gold, platinum and palladium) on daily returns from 18 August 2011 to 2 October 2019. Using a modified version of the Dieblod and Yilmaz (2012, 2014) index and a similar approach to Barunik (2017), our results indicate slight volatility spillovers between the whole system. Moreover, the results show that gold is the most influential market since it shifts the highest proportion of volatility. Furthermore, we find that oil, Bitcoin and platinum can serve as a hedge and a diversifier as they are neutral in terms of spillovers. Moreover, we find evidence of asymmetric volatility spillovers since good spillovers dominate bad one, which proves the optimistic mood of the whole system. More interestingly, our results shed light on the ability of Bitcoin, the digital gold, to serve as a hedge and diversifier in both good and bad innovations.
Keywords: volatility spillovers; asymmetric volatility; spillovers; Bitcoin; oil; precious metals; good innovations; bad innovations.
Revival of the Waqf-based Takaful Model in Malaysia: Issues and the Way Forward
by Muhammad Ikhlas Rosele, Abdul Muneem, Abdul Karim Ali, Noor Naemah Binti Abdul Rahman, Nor Fahimah Binti Mohd Razif
Abstract: This study finds that the waqf-based takaful model ought to be implemented in Malaysia to eliminate some issues related to the current practice of tabarru (donation), waklah (agency), and murabah (profit-and-loss sharing) within the takaful system. There are, however, legal issues, related to waqf-based takaful that should be solved through a proper and comprehensive waqf (endowment) act by the authority. Otherwise, a subsidiary of the State Islamic Religious Council may act as a takaful operator providing waqf-based takaful services. Above all, the takaful operator is required to establish a Sharah-compliant mechanism for managing the fund while strictly avoiding the risk of losing the capital of the waqf fund and providing the takaful services as needed by the participants. Nevertheless, some constraints and challenges for the implementation of the waqf model in Malaysia may remain, and such constraints should be addressed by all parties involved in order to make this takaful model a reality in Malaysia.
Keywords: takaful; takaful model; waqf; cash waqf; tabarru; Malaysia.
CRM purchase intentions and attitude toward the brand: Exploring fit, longevity, firm motives, brand attractiveness and moderating role of WOM
by Suraj Shah, Maurvi Vasavada, Mahendra Sharma
Abstract: Cause-related marketing (CRM) phenomenon consists of three integrated components (cause, company and consumer) and is a widely recognised promotional strategy adopted by numerous Indian organisations. CRM activity by a company involves engaging with a charity organisation yielding mutual gains for cause, company and consumer. In first phase of the proposed theoretical framework, we investigate the impact of fit, longevity, firm motives, and brand attractiveness on attitude toward brand and in second phase, we further examine the impact of attitude toward brand on CRM purchase intention. Moreover, we investigate the moderating role of word-of-mouth (WOM) and its impact on attitude toward brand and CRM purchase intention. This study would aid CRM marketers to frame promotion strategies based on the understanding of fit, longevity, firm motives and brand attractiveness in the CRM context. The insights would help the marketers to design an effective campaign and influence the behaviour intentions of CRM consumers.
Keywords: cause-related marketing; CRM purchase intentions; attitude toward brand; fit; longevity; firm motives; brand attractiveness; word-of-mouth; WOM.
Productivity Improvement in Stitching Process: A Six Sigma Case Study of Footwear Industry
by Indu Uprety
Abstract: This paper introduces the concept of Six Sigma in footwear industry. Various Six Sigma tools and techniques have been applied for measuring and analysing the reasons for defects in the shoe-making process. DMAIC was applied in the footwear manufacturing industry and sigma level observed was 3.77. The efforts have been made to reduce the defects and improve the sigma level with the help of Six Sigma DMAIC methodology. However, further improvements in the process are subject to following the various control measures suggested in the paper. With the help of general factorial design and Taguchis experiments, the key influence factors of the optimal combination for cooling time, temperature, viscosity have been obtained to analyse their effect on adhesive strength of the material used in the shoe-making process. Key techniques used in the analysis are Pareto analysis, cause and effect diagram, nested ANOVA, Duncans test and Taguchis design of experiments (DoE).
Keywords: DMAIC; process improvement; Six Sigma; Pareto analysis; Duncans test; nested ANOVA; Taguchis design of experiments; design of experiments; DoEs.
The effects of reductions in working hours on automation
by Ji Hyeon Ma, Jung Joo La
Abstract: This study uses a simple model to empirically analyse how reductions in working hours influence automation in the labour market. Previous studies focus on analysing the effects of reductions in working hours on factors such as actual working hours, wages, employment, and life satisfaction. We use panel data from 25 Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development countries over the 2011 to 2017 period. Our empirical findings show that a 1% decrease in the working hours of simple labourers increases automation by 1.13% to 1.15%.
Keywords: working hour reduction; automation; simple labourers.
Exploring UAEs female leadership styles in the digital era: Motivators and barriers
by Wejdan Farhan, Iffat Chaudhry, Jamil Razmak, Ghaleb A. El Refae
Abstract: Womens participation in decision-making roles is increasing in the patriarchal society of the UAE. An empirical investigation has been undertaken to determine the differences in leadership styles adopted by women compared with those adopted by men in both the public and private sectors of the UAE, as well as the motivators and barriers faced by women in their leadership roles. A mixed-method approach survey and interviews was used to collect data from leaders working in various government organisations and private businesses. Responses from 409 surveys and 24 interviews were analysed using SPSS and thematic analysis, respectively, to test the study hypotheses. The survey found that women leaders mostly adopt a transformational leadership style along with a contingent reward strategy (transactional) to lead employees at their respective workplaces. They mostly avoid a passive approach to leadership compared with their male counterparts. Interviews with female leaders identified how self-development, social impact, and collaborations motivate them, and how a lack of authority, vigilance, and gender stereotypes inhibit them in their leadership roles. The study results have implications for industrial practitioners as well as policy-makers in the UAE Government departments concerned with womens empowerment.
Keywords: female leaders; female empowerment; transactional; transformational; laissez-faire; barriers; United Arab Emirates; UAE.
Controls and Processes to Prevent Employees from being bribed by Third Parties
by Marianne Rexer, Woojun Lee, Dawn Burdsall
Abstract: This study focuses on employee bribery by third parties and summarises the state of third-party anti-bribery processes and the companys confidence to assess third-party bribery and corruption risks. A qualitative research approach was utilised to interview internal auditors and managers and asks open-ended questions to understand the internal controls in place to prevent or detect the bribery of employees, the internal audit process, and the types of frauds witnessed. The findings show all respondents acknowledge the risk of employee fraud and bribery by third parties and utilise internal audits along with preventive and mitigating controls to manage risks. Based on the findings, we identified themes that mirror the assessment of risk that third parties could bribe employees and the development of controls to limit the employee with or without regard to third parties.
Keywords: internal audit; third party; bribery of employees; corruption.
THE ROLE OF IMPLIED VOLATILITY IN VOLATILITY COMBINING FORECASTS
by Jen Sim Ho, CHOO W.E.I. CHONG, BOON SHUI HOOI, W.A.N. CHEONG KIN, Yuruixian Zhang
Abstract: This study explores the role of implied volatility (IV) in volatility combining forecasts for S&P 500 and DAX markets. A range of GARCH models, ad hoc models and STES models were developed to identify the best performing model that served as a base model for subsequent combining process, of which GJRGARCH model appeared to be the superior model among all the individual models. A total of eight combining models based on Bates and Granger as well as Granger and Ramanathan theories were designed to examine the efficiency of IV in the volatility combining forecasts. The empirical results suggest that IV improves the predictive power of volatility combining forecasts, but the assigned weights were seen less inclined to IV. The inclusion of constant and unconstrained models performed the best. Besides, the study has also addressed the robustness of STES models in volatility forecasts. MCS tests were conducted and further reinforced the superiority of the empirical results.
Keywords: implied volatility; volatility combining forecasts; GARCH; smooth transition exponential smoothing; STES.
Incorporated opportunistic informal institutions
by Ruben Gevorgyan, Gayane Gevorgyan
Abstract: The article introduces the concept of incorporated informal opportunistic institutions, discusses their structure, the forms of existence and functioning, as well as the principles of management and obtaining benefits. Incorporated informal opportunistic institutions are organised groups of people within an institution that creates unwritten rules, specific roles, monetary and information flows, leechlike on the formal rules of the institution in order to obtain joint benefits. The article fully considerate the special aspects of formation of incorporated informal opportunistic institutions and its affiliation with such concepts as the institution dysfunction and the state capture. The concept of incorporated informal opportunistic institutions that we introduce implies purposeful actions within a formal institution and differs from both the concept of institution dysfunction and the concept of state capture. It was demonstrated that formal institutions with incorporated informal opportunistic institutions can be captured far easier.
Keywords: informal institutions; institution dysfunction; state capture; opportunistic behaviour; incorporated institutions.
The interaction among FDI, trade openness, and economic growth in Asian economies
by Must. Ayesha Shahrin, Saeed Sazzad Jeris
Abstract: This research analyses the correlation between foreign direct investment, trade openness, and economic growth in ten Asian nations from 1980 to 2019. ARDL bound and Granger causality tests have been utilised to evaluate both the short-run and long-run correlations among foreign direct investment, trade openness, and economic growth. The findings show that foreign direct investment and trade openness influence the growth of all economies in the long run except for the Philippines, Thailand, and Singapore. Trade openness and foreign direct investment are also crucial to boosting the economy in the short term. Also, trade openness has a short-term casual correlation with economic growth in Bangladesh, China, and Thailand, where the trade of the Korea Republic, Singapore, and Hong Kong largely depends on GDP growth in the short-run. However, trade openness does not have a long-run association with economic growth in Asian countries apart from Thailand and Hong Kong.
Keywords: economic growth; foreign direct investment; trade openness; ARDL; bound test; Granger causality; FDI.
The impact of Economic Policy Uncertainty on the real exchange rate: Evidence from the UK
by Paula Moldovan, Sérgio Lagoa, Diana Mendes
Abstract: The world economy has been punctuated by uncertainty in recent years, as a result of the 2008 subprime crisis, the European sovereign debt crisis, Brexit, and the 2016 US presidential elections, to mention but a few of the reasons. This study explores how the UK real exchange rate reacts to economic policy uncertainty (EPU) shocks using monthly data for the period 1998 to 2020. We contribute to the literature by identifying the long-run and short-run impacts of EPU using a cointegrated ARDL model, and by studying a country that has been through periods of both relatively low and high uncertainty. Results confirm that EPU has an important effect in the long run by depreciating the exchange rate. In addition to urging policymakers and regulators to keep policy uncertainty to a minimum as a way of sustaining exchange rate stability and thus promoting long-term economic growth, further evidence is provided on exchange rate fundamentals.
Keywords: real exchange rate; economic policy uncertainty; EPU; ARDL model; Brexit; UK.
Local Governments during the pandemic: shifting the S.M.A.R.T paradigm
by Francesca Loia, Gennaro Maione
Abstract: Due to the pandemic, new challenges and opportunities are emerging for local governments (LGs) in terms of digital growth for smart, sustainable, accountable, and interconnected cities. Starting from these considerations, the paper aims to contribute to the debate on the new connotations of the smart city paradigm due to the spread of COVID-19, by identifying new key elements and common areas of application of smart cities initiatives coming out in the current scenario, in addition to those identified by the consolidated literature. The study in based on a qualitative investigation approach that employs the multiple case study methodology. Interviews with directors, managers and technicians of LGs shed light on new categories connected to the smart city paradigm due to the pandemic situation which, combined, allow transforming the acronym of S.M.A.R.T. into a new one here proposed: safety; mitigation; accountability; resilience; and traceability.
Keywords: LGs; smart city; digital technologies; COVID-19; pandemic; multiple case study; safety; mitigation; accountability; resilience.
Extension of Technology acceptance model: Considering Cultural Values and Expectations with special reference to Telemedicine in India
by Sourabh Bhatt, Gurcharan Singh, Wajeeha Aslam
Abstract: The study makes effort to extend the technology acceptance model (TAM) with additional variables, namely, expectations and Hofstedes cultural values in a context of telemedicine. 370 respondents were gathered from people with telemedicine experience, living in Delhi and partial least square-structural equation modelling (PLS-SEM) technique was employed. The results suggest that attitude towards telemedicine is strongly influenced by expectations, followed by perceived ease of use (PEOU) and perceived usefulness (PU). Moreover, behavioural intention to use telemedicine is largely influenced by expectations, followed by attitude and PU. Also, collectivism positively affects PU whereas masculinity negatively affects PU. Collectivism, power distance, and long-term orientation only found significant on PEOU. The study also confirms a significant positive effect of PEOU on PU of telemedicine. This study provides a comprehensive view of telemedicine adoption and provides guidelines to developing countries for the effective introduction of telemedicine services.
Keywords: technology acceptance model; TAM; Hofstede culture; expectation; telemedicine.
Purchase Intention and Attitude towards Advertisements on Instagram - An Empirical Study using Instagram Stories
by Augustin Suessmair, Lisa-Julie Woo
Abstract: Since regulations require paid promotions to be disclosed, consumers awareness of advertisements has changed. That requires more focus on assessing influencing factors when it comes to evaluating the effectiveness of an advertisement. This empirical study investigates the effectiveness of advertisements based on the type of influencer and product illustration on an Instagram Story. An experimental design with a total of 308 participants is used to examine consumers attitudes toward advertisements and purchase intention. In addition, the mediating role of source credibility is investigated. The findings show that a product, advertised in a context-based setting on an Instagram Story, has a positive effect on consumers attitude towards the advertisement and their purchase intention. There is no significant effect in the use of a micro-influencer compared to a macro-influencer. In terms of advertisement effectiveness, source credibility can be identified as a mediator for positive consumers responses.
Keywords: influencer marketing; Instagram Story; influencer type; product illustration; advertising.
PERFORMANCE EXPECTANCY OF GENERALIZED AUDIT SOFTWARE: A DEVELOPING COUNTRY PERSPECTIVE
by Rindang Widuri
Abstract: This study investigates the perceived benefits to Indonesian audit firms using generalised audit software (GAS). This studys results are based on semi-structured in-depth interviews with external auditors from firms of all sizes. The finding of this research shows that the GAS utilisation affects the competitiveness, improves efficiency, increases audit quality, productivity, and uniformity as the performance of GAS usage shown from several interviewed participants involved in this study. This study contributes to providing insights into GAS usages perceived benefits in the external audit setting in firms of all sizes in a developing economy context.
Keywords: audit software; generalised audit software; GAS; use; audit quality; Indonesia; computer-assisted audit techniques; CAATs; audit technology; external auditor.
The Impact of Investor Sentiments on Stock Returns and Volatility: Do Economic Forces and Herding Behavior Matter
by Sana Masood, Umar Farooq, Mosab Tabash, Suhaib Anagreh
Abstract: This study examines the relationship between investor sentiments, stock returns and stock volatility. Herding behaviour and macroeconomic forces are also used as explanatory variables in this study. Stock returns and stock volatility are used as dependent variables. The main objective of this research is to examine the impact of investor sentiments, macroeconomic forces, and herding behaviour on stock returns and stock volatility. The data of the non-financial sector of Pakistan has been collected from 2010 to 2019. Panel quantile regression has been used for determining the relationship among dependent and independent variables of the study. Different quantiles i.e., 0.25, 0.50 and 0.75 are used for desired results. Results of this study suggest that investor sentiments affect stock returns and stock volatility at different quantiles. Macroeconomic forces also affect stock returns and volatility at different quantiles. This research will aid managers, and policymakers in future investments.
Keywords: investor sentiments; macroeconomic forces; stock volatility; stock returns and herding.
EU International Trade Impact on Regional Retail Markets of Neighboring Countries
by Anatolii Vdovichen, Olha Vdovichena, Iryna Losheniuk, Yurii Chaplinskyi, Oksana Losheniuk
Abstract: A better understanding of regional market structure influenced by international market trends can be used to determine the characteristics and concentration of local retail markets, as well as retailers reactions to import- export relations and changes influenced by cross-border factors. The purpose of the research is to develop and analyse a model of the impact of the internal and external indicators on the structure and state of the domestic regional market with the use of the structural equation modelling analysis. Analysis determined that retail domestic trade is the main source of household income of the Ukrainian part of the Carpathian area. The development of the economic level of households is important for the development of the domestic trade structure and ensuring further economic integration of Ukraine into the EU. The results of our study provide a practical opportunity to predict possible scenarios and key factors of such integration.
Keywords: retail trade; regional market; structural equation model; border regions; import-export relations.
Integration of talent management and intellectual management in organization: talent-centred approach
by Song-Nam Hong, Jong-Chol Jin, Chol-Min Kang, Chol-Song Jong
Abstract: In the era of knowledge-intensive economy talent and knowledge are main strategic resource to support sustainable development of organisations. Talents develop through knowledge acquisition and knowledge is continuously processed, created and updated to improve competitiveness of organisation. Therefore, integration of talent management (TM) and intellectual management (IM) provide fundamental condition to increase competitiveness of organisation and support sustainable development. The main purpose of this paper is to suggest an integration model of TM and IM in enterprises and analyse its effectiveness. We have suggested an integrative model including nature, structure, mode, method, target. Also, the effectiveness of integration of TM and IM is proved through case study. In this part, real survey data is used to analyse effectiveness of integration and provide application problems. Finally, we have statistically proved competitive advantage of enterprises doing integrate of TM and IM using several methods of statistics.
Keywords: knowledge management; character management; talent management; intellectual management; integration model; knowledge-intensive economy.
The impact of organisational structures on management compensation packages and investment decisions - a principal-agent approach investigating formula apportionment and separate accounting
by Hülya Çelebi
Abstract: This study investigates managerial effort choices, compensation and investment decisions by differentiating between: 1) centralised and decentralised organisational structures; 2) corporate income taxation schemes [separate accounting and formula apportionment (FA)]; 3) different FA schemes, which has not been undertaken hitherto. A principal-agent approach of a LEN model is applied within the framework of a multijurisdictional entity. The outcomes reveal the neutral impact of separate accounting on investment decisions, agents efforts and compensation packages under both organisational structures, whereas investment decisions under centralised structures and management compensation packages (under both organisational structures) show distortions caused by FA. The extent of these distortions depends on the apportionment factors used and organisational structures. Interestingly, the Massachusetts formula signals that the formula allocation factors used not only distort firm-internal contracts on management compensation packages, but can also affect the extent of decisions delegated.
Keywords: organisational structures; principal-agent theory; formula apportionment; investment; nonlinear programming.
Decision-Making Modes and Decision-Making Biases. Improving decisions in escalation of commitment situations by triggering considerations
by Peter Kotzian
Abstract: Escalation of commitment is a persistent problem in managerial decision-making. Purpose of this study is an experimental test of an alternative debiasing strategy with regard to the continuation of failing, but also of successful projects. According to the dual processing approach to decision-making, biases are linked to operating in a spontaneous low-effort cognitive mode. Thus, one remedy is getting decision makers to shift in an elaborate mode of thinking. This experimental study investigated, whether calling for an explicit evaluation of benefits and risks before actors make their decision improves decision-making about a projects continuation in the sense that sunk costs are less relevant and available economic information is more relevant for the decision. Effects of triggering considered decision-making on successful and unsuccessful projects are investigated. The findings indicate substantial differences between considered and spontaneous decisions with decision makers actively considering projects before deciding actually making worse decisions.
Keywords: decision making; escalation of commitment; sunk cost bias; dual processing approach; system 1; system 2; decision quality; information usage; debiasing.
How Covid19 affected Academic Performance and Job Readiness in Higher Education
by Meryana Haddad, Yee Mei Heong, Habeeb Ur Rahiman
Abstract: COVID-19 pandemic has created a serious impact on human life in different ways and modes. Higher education is one such area where many students struggle to meet their intentions and be efficient in their studies. The current study aimed to investigate the impact of the pandemic on higher education academic performance and job readiness in the gulf region. A mixed-method research strategy was administered in performing the research. The quantitative data were collected employing online survey instruments from 1,750 respondents from various parts of the gulf region. The data were analysed by applying statistical tools like SPSS and AMOS and finding revels that the COVID-19 pandemic adversely impacted higher education in the Gulf. The study also identified that assessment and evaluations, students engagement and overall academic performance, and job readiness were the most adversely affected areas due to pandemics. The conclusion of the research will support government and higher education facilitators to examine and implement guidelines for teaching and learning in disaster situations.
Keywords: COVID-19; anxiety; job readiness; assessment; academic performance.
Multidimensional Energy Poverty and its Determinants
by Muhammed Abrar Ul Haq, Najma Rasheed, Abid Rashid Gill, Qaiser Munir
Abstract: The current study aims to identify the factors affecting multidimensional energy poverty in Pakistan. For this purpose, information about 2013 households has been taken from the Pakistan Demographic and Health Survey 2017 to 2018. The study uses multidimensional energy poverty index as a dependent variable composed of five dimensions: communication facilities, entertainment/education, household appliances, lighting, and cooking. The logistic regression technique has been applied to scrutinise the results for Punjab and its nine divisions separately to analyse the factors affecting Punjabs multidimensional energy poverty index. Empirical findings indicate that age of the head of the household, no education, incomplete primary, complete primary, incomplete secondary, wealth statuses of the families, and rural residence are statistically significant factors affecting multidimensional poverty in all nine divisions of Punjab. The study recommends that the government frame specific policies to improve education levels and create more opportunities for wealth generation that ultimately affect energy poverty.
Keywords: multidimensional energy poverty; education of household head; household wealth index; place of residence; Pakistan.
Financial knowledge and Financial Behavior Among Micro Business: the Mediating Role of Pro-growth Mental Accounting
by Wirawan Endro Dwi Radianto, Tommy Christian Efrata, Liliana Dewi
Abstract: This study examines the effect of financial knowledge, pro-growth mental accounting, and financial self-efficacy on financial behaviour. A model is developed to solve research gaps regarding the relationship between financial knowledge and financial behaviour, which has been inconsistent and weak. The number of respondents is 314 micro businesses and the data analysis method used is structural equation method. The finding of this study is that pro-growth mental accounting has a greater effect than financial self-efficacy on financial behaviour. The pro-growth mental accounting mindset makes micro-business manage their finances more carefully. Another finding is that pro-growth mental accounting encourages the creation of reserve funds while increasing the chances of achieving its financial goals. Micro business whose financial management is simple has a greater chance of having financial resilience in the future.
Keywords: pro-growth mental accounting; financial knowledge; financial behaviour; financial self-efficacy; micro business.
Conditional Volatility and Correlations Between Sukuks, Stocks and Gold in the GCC region
by Walaa Hammad, Qaiser Munir, Tamara Teplova, Muhammed Abrar Ul Haq
Abstract: Financial markets around the world have suffered significantly during the current COVID-19 pandemic. This study presents an important view of the predictive capacity of COVID-19 for the correlation between Islamic bonds, equity markets, and precious commodities in the GCC region. Specifically, this study investigates whether the volatility and co-movements behaviours between Sukuk, conventional stocks, Islamic stocks, and gold are correlated before and during the pandemic. Our analysis uses a dynamic conditional correlation (DCC) multivariate generalised autoregressive conditional heteroskedasticity (MGARCH) model from the period 30 August 2013 to 31 January 2022. Our results suggest that there is a strong correlation between Sukuks, conventional stocks, and Islamic stocks before and during the crisis. However, we have observed that the correlation decreases during the pandemic. With regards to correlation, Sukuk and conventional stocks along with Sukuk and Islamic stocks maintained a low correlation, while the conventional and Islamic stocks have a high correlation.
Keywords: Sukuk; stock markets; gold; dynamic correlations; conditional volatility; DCC-MGARCH.
Portfolio Diversification and Dynamic Hedging among BRICS stock markets and Cryptocurrencies
by Audil Rashid Khaki, Nasser Elkanj, Somar Almohamad, Sara Omran, Mohamed M. Sraieb
Abstract: This present study explores the potential of cryptocurrencies in the diversification of a portfolio of rather integrated financial markets or instruments, such as BRICS by employing the mean-variance optimisation approach and the higher-order moments approach. The results indicate that while the theoretical implication of both the mean-variance approach and higher-order moments approach point in the same direction, the latter is more efficient in capturing the asymmetry and the tail risk of the returns, besides the investors risk-aversion. The results suggest that ETH is the most popular cryptocurrency for portfolio diversification followed by BTC, almost receiving the same asset allocation in different portfolio optimisation strategies. The results also indicate that the potential of cryptocurrencies in portfolio diversification is rather marginal or limited to a risk-averse investor while they may offer an alternative investment avenue for risk-seeking investors. While cryptocurrencies may promise to offer a considerable diversification potential, the allocations to cryptocurrencies must conservatively be made, given the explosive price behaviour of cryptocurrencies in recent times.
Keywords: cryptocurrencies; portfolio optimisation; FINTECH; BRICS; portfolio diversification.
Synergetic Impact of Knowledge Management and Access to Finance over Open Innovation for Performance of SMEs
by Muzaffar Asad
Abstract: Access to finance has widely been accepted as a mean of gaining performance for SMEs, likewise, knowledge management for achieving performance is gaining importance especially in the SMEs of developing economies. Similarly, role of open innovation has also been well established in several prior studies, however, the major contribution of the research is the identification of mediating role of open innovation between resources and performance. For testing the developed framework based on knowledge management theory and resource-based view, the author used structural equation modelling. The study was cross-sectional survey design has been applied using a sample of 364 owners and managers of SMEs. The findings confirmed that both the resources create synergy and significantly enhance performance in the presence of open innovation. The study along with supporting knowledge management theory and resource-based view of the firm also holds significant policy implications.
Keywords: knowledge management; access to finance; open innovation.
Monetary valuation of the amenity forest ecological conservation and management attributes in Malaysia
by Chin Kee Tom, Nitanan Koshy Matthew, Ahmad Bin Shuib
Abstract: Incorporating users' preferences, expectations and demands when designing, planning and managing forest reserves for recreational purposes is crucial to success. This is particularly important in countries that have gazetted the forests as recreational forests for the public. This study aims to determine visitors' preferences on ecological and management recreational forest attributes, the levels of attributes and their preferences for particular forest attributes using the choice experiment method. The results indicated that visitors felt the number of workers in the park is sufficient, followed by more information boards (IB) (80% coverage) in the park being needed. Regarding facilities (IF), respondents were looking forward to seeing an improvement in up to 90% of the park's current facilities. In addition, respondents felt that park management should enhance their ecological management efforts in the park. The findings revealed in the AKRF that 83.6% of the respondents were willing to donate on ecological conservation and management. The quantity that participants were willing to donate amounted to RM44/year/family based on the random parameter logit model. The findings may assist policymakers in investigating the relationship between visitors and conservation and management in the AKRF.
Keywords: choice experiment; recreational forest; ecological conservation and management attributes; willingness to donate; WTD; Malaysia.
The impact of digital transformation on media industry
by Renato Lopes Da Costa, Luis Cabral, Leandro Pereira, Álvaro Dias, Rui Gonçalves
Abstract: The media industry is currently in the process of adapting digital transformation. As the industry is increasing its volume, due to the fact that the consumers are consuming more media than before, it is important to guarantee the fulfilment of consumer needs. After the literature review, the present article studied the opinions of some authors through a questionnaire that was used to comprehend the benefits that the digital transformation brought to the media industry, as well as understand how consumer behaviour has changed over the past years. In this sense, a new consumption style was identified, which is the involuntary one, where people really do not have the intention of using a content. To sum it up, the present article pretends to characterise the media industry and the consumer behaviour, in a digital context, where processes must be changed in order to adapt to imminent changes.
Keywords: digital transformation; media industry; consumer behaviour; digital business.
The impact of a high influx of foreign workers on the Beveridge curve relation – evidence for Malta from an ARDL approach
by David Baldacchino, Ian P. Cassar
Abstract: In the context of a buoyant economic expansion and labour market tightening coupled with a huge influx of foreign workers in recent years, an analysis of the matching process between unemployed people and vacant jobs is deemed pivotal. The analysis presented in this study utilises an ARDL model to test for the existence of the Beveridge curve, and for relative shifts in the curve, and limited dependent variable models to test for the underlying factors behind the observed shifts, for the sample period 2002Q1 to 2019Q4. This study establishes that there exists a negatively sloped Beveridge curve, and that there have been two inward shifts in the Beveridge curve, with the first occurring during 2012, and a second, more pronounced shift, occurring during 2016. Both shifts were predominantly driven by the influx of foreign workers, with a positive output gap also having an effect during the second inward shift.
Keywords: Beveridge curve; foreign workers; unemployment rate; vacancy rate; Malta; ARDL.
Business practice via social media platforms in the Emirate of Dubai as a model
by Murad Al Mawajdeh
Abstract: The use of social media websites such as Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, and Snapchat have gained increased popularity in recent times. However, the lack of detailed legislation regulating the practice of business activities via social media may give rise to many difficulties, especially concerning the suitability of the current legal framework and whether such framework copes sensibly with the needs of online consumers. This paper thus explores how UAE laws engage with businesses conducted via social media to determine whether or not these laws give due attention to consumer protection in an online environment. Furthermore, this paper briefly addresses the main challenges that may be confronted when licensing e-merchants to practise their commercial activities via social media.
Keywords: social media; consumer protection; Dubai; marketing.
The influence of the absorptive capacity and the position of the firm in the cluster on coopetition
by Sérgio Begnini, Silvia S. Simi, Carlos Eduardo Carvalho
Abstract: This research investigates the influence of absorptive capacity (ACAP) and the cluster's position on firm coopetition. The academic investigation of the relationships established between firms is fundamental. Three hypotheses were tested from the original data collection. The sample consisted of 77 firms from an agribusiness cluster. Structural equation modelling was used through SmartPLS 2.0 software. It is concluded that: 1) firm's ACAP influences its coopetition, that is, the more ACAP, the more coopetition will be generated; 2) relationships established in the cluster enable firms to maintain/improve their position; 3) the relationships held by the firm with other firms will impact its position in the cluster, and this position will influence its ability to cooperate. On practical issues, companies that participate in a cluster develop their capacity to act cooperation, becoming competitively stronger as they invest in learning.
Keywords: coopetition; competition; cooperation; absorptive capacity; position in the cluster; agribusiness; firms; strategic actions; external information; managers.
Measuring the access of Greek agricultural cooperatives to the supermarket channel
by Panagiotis Kotsios, Maria Kontitsi
Abstract: As the Greek economy is slowly starting to recover from the recent economic crisis, there are high expectations from the country's agrifood sector. On the centre of this sector are 608 agricultural cooperatives, which have undertaken the role of strengthening agricultural production and improving sales for farmers. Meanwhile, the supermarket sector in Greece has recorded impressive growth during the last decades and remains the primary channel through which food products reach final customers on a daily basis. The aim of this research was to investigate the access of Greek agricultural cooperatives to the supermarkets shelves. The results show limited access and low percentage of sales to the supermarket channel. The most important challenges faced by the Greek agricultural cooperatives in accessing supermarkets were the payment methods, promotion, cost of access, and quality certifications.
Keywords: agricultural cooperatives; supermarket chains; questionnaire; access.