Forthcoming articles

International Journal of Economics and Business Research

International Journal of Economics and Business Research (IJEBR)

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International Journal of Economics and Business Research (50 papers in press)

Regular Issues

  • Attitude towards Foreign Product Purchase: Malaysian Consumers Perspective   Order a copy of this article
    by Khairul Anuar Mohammad Shah, Hazril Izwar Ibrahim, Nurliyana Maludin, Zurina Ismail 
    Abstract: This study examines the Malaysian consumers attitudes towards foreign purchase products. Specifically, this study investigates the consumers attitude whether they have the feeling of boycott, animosity, ethnocentrism, patriotism and worldmindedness towards foreign made products. It also has examined how these constructs can affect the foreign product judgment and their willingness to purchase such products. This study surveyed on 512 consumers from Penang, Kuala Lumpur, Melaka and Terengganu (East Cost). Methodology and practical implications were discussed at the end of this study. The findings show that consumer patriotism and consumer worldmindedness mediates the relationship between product judgment and purchase willingness of foreign made products. The results also indicated that consumers with the attitude of animosity and ethnocentrism was negatively judge foreign made products and consumer worldmindedness was positively judge of foreign made goods and products. Surprisingly, only consumer worldmindedness was positively related to purchase willingness of foreign made goods. In conclusion, this model of study s was performed well by testing the goodness of fit analysis. Discussion of findings and direction of future research are highlighted.
    Keywords: boycott; animosity; ethnocentrism; purchase willingness; product judgment.

  • Online Financial Reporting Disclosure in Islamic Banking: Evidence from Bahrain   Order a copy of this article
    by Adel Sarea, Azam Khalid, Amanuddin Bin Shamsuddin, Iqbal Hawaldar, Zakir Hossen 
    Abstract: This study aims to investigate the level of disclosure of Islamic banking in Bahrain by the web-based disclosure. The web-based disclosure method was implemented to determine the quantity of the level of web-based disclosure of Islamic banks in Bahrain by using index consists of 90 items. The findings of the descriptive analysis indicated that the overall level of web-based disclosure was 73.3 %. The regression results showed a positive relationship between the independent variables (firm size, age, and profitability) and the level of web-based disclosure. The results of this paper help the Islamic banking in Bahrain to increase the level of web-based disclosure to reach full Online Financial Reporting Disclosure (OFRD) to satisfy the stakeholders. The outcomes of this study will be useful elsewhere.
    Keywords: Online Financial Reporting Disclosure (OFRD); Islamic banking; Bahrain.

  • An Exploratory Study Identifying Motives and Barriers to Ethical Consumption for Young Indian Consumers   Order a copy of this article
    by Swetarupa Chatterjee, Naman Sreen, Pradip Sadarangani 
    Abstract: In recent times, there has been a huge uproar in the media about ethical consumerism. Ethical products can help corporations to build positive brand image and improve bottom line and can help consumers feel proud by contributing to the well-being of people, planet and animals. The purpose of this study is to check the drivers and the barriers of ethical consumption. The study incorporates focus group discussions for learning about the factors propelling the growth of the consumption of ethical products, as well as those that are hindering the growth. We identified personal values, habit, social guilt, separate categorization of ethical products in retail stores, need for a certification, source credibility and government policies as the motivators of ethical consumption. We identified dearth of knowledge, willful ignorance, high price, and green scepticism (or cynicism), tragedy of commons, quality of the product and the product category as barriers to ethical consumption.
    Keywords: Ethical Consumption; Barriers; Motives; Focus Group Discussion; Millennial.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEBR.2021.10031629
  • Brand Liking and Consumer Gratitude effects on Consumer-Brand Love Relationships and Repurchase Intention   Order a copy of this article
    by Prapatsorn Suetrong, Guilherme D. Pires 
    Abstract: This paper extends understanding of consumer-brand love relationships by examining the effects of brand likeability and consumer gratitude, as antecedents of brand love, on brand love creation and consumer repurchase intention. This is examined for service-products characterised relative to the dominance of their intangible elements, hence accounting for their search, experience and credence qualities. Using PLS-SEM and empirical data from an online survey, results indicate that brand likeability and consumer gratitude are directly related, and both constructs are positively associated with brand love for the three types of service-products, such that consumer gratitude is a significant mediator in the relationship between brand likeability and brand love. Examining brand likeability and gratitude effects on brand love narrows the knowledge gap in the brand love literature leading to important managerial implications, allowing for the development of effective brand strategies for strengthening consumer repurchase intention.
    Keywords: consumer-brand love relationship; gratitude; likeability; repurchase intention; service-product category.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEBR.2021.10032246
  • Eco-Friendly Products Purchase Intention: Comparison of Theory of Planned Behavior and Social Cognitive Theory   Order a copy of this article
    by Swetarupa Chatterjee, Naman Sreen, Pradip Sadarangani 
    Abstract: The present study uses Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) and Social Cognitive Theory (SCT) to examine the eco-friendly purchase intentions of individuals. This study also examines the role of knowledge as a predictor and as a moderator in the theories inspected for determining individual’s eco-friendly purchase intention. Data is collected in India using a survey method from 456 respondents. AMOS 25.0 and SPSS 16.0 is used to analyze the data to ensure reliability, validity, and model fit, and to compare the theories The results of the study indicate that TPB is a better predictor of eco-friendly purchasing intentions than SCT. Additionally, knowledge significantly influenced eco-friendly purchase intentions directly (i.e. as an extension variable in both theories) but failed as a moderator to significantly influence the relationships in the theories. These results provide empirical guidelines to policymakers and practitioners for promoting eco-friendly products.
    Keywords: Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB); Social Cognitive Theory (SCT); Knowledge; Eco-friendly Purchase Intention.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEBR.2021.10032701
  • The Economic and Psychological Effects of Cash Transfers in Development Cooperation   Order a copy of this article
    by Konstantin Muenchau, Augustin Suessmair 
    Abstract: Against the backdrop of increasing popularity as an instrument of international development cooperation, our paper examines the economic and psychological effects of cash transfers. At this moment, this paper specifically focuses on the reaction of local markets and the structural conditions for a successful implementation as well as the effects of cash-transfers on their recipients’ self- esteem and on the self-actualisation of women in developing countries. While the data was collected via semi-standardised guideline interviews with experts, the interpretation was carried out in accordance with Philipp Mayring’s Qualitative Content Analysis. Our study finds that cash transfers seldomly cause inflationary effects while they particularly require functioning markets, existing value chains and fulfilment of governmental support functions for a successful implementation. While the impact of cash transfers on the psychological constructs in question is generally assessed positively by the interviewed experts, several implications and potential psychological downsides are addressed.
    Keywords: Development cooperation; cash transfer; unconditional cash transfer programs; cash benchmark; impact evaluation; income; poverty alleviation; direct investment; human capital.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEBR.2021.10032836
  • Towards the innovation of High-Tech Small-Medium Enterprises (SMEs)- the interview approach   Order a copy of this article
    by Wei Xue, Yijie Chen, Qianwen Xu, Victor Chang 
    Abstract: With the fierce competition in the global market, the Chinese government pays more and more attention to the innovation of SMEs, especially to the innovation activities of high-tech SMEs. The research concludes the model-factors influencing the innovation of SMEs, which is based on the past literature research and collect the primary information through the face to face interview. In this research, 50 employees from 10 SMEs around Suzhou, including ten officers from the government, were interviewed. The research result indicated that the key factors influencing the innovation of SMEs are government incentive policies, entrepreneurship, competition, and demand from the market. And based on the research result, the paper constructs the SMEs Innovation Model (SIM), which would be used for further research.
    Keywords: Innovation; High-Tech; Small-Medium Enterprises (SMEs); High-tech SMEs.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEBR.2021.10032839
  • Institutional distance and foreign direct investment: An asymmetric approach   Order a copy of this article
    by Marcelo P. Duarte, Fernando Carvalho 
    Abstract: This paper analyses the effects of distance asymmetries on Portuguese inward foreign direct investment (FDI) from relatively more, and less, developed countries through the lenses of institutional distance. We developed a panel dataset composed of 35 origins of Portuguese FDI during the period 20032015 and analysed it through a series of multiple regression techniques. Results suggest that, when investing in Portugal, countries with lower levels of development are not affected by distance variations. Conversely, it seems that FDI from more developed countries is influenced by several dimensions of distance. This paper contributes to the understanding of asymmetries in institutional distance, emphasising the need for purely asymmetric distance constructs in IB research. Also, it provides the framework for assessing asymmetries with traditional, absolute measured, distance constructs.
    Keywords: Asymmetries; country development; cross national distance; distance; distance asymmetries; FDI; foreign direct investment; multiple regressions; panel data; Portugal.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEBR.2021.10033537
    by Linh Duy Bui, Hoang Huy Nguyen 
    Abstract: Using sensory marketing, which engages a customers five senses (sight, sound, smell, touch and taste), businesses aim to approach customers on an emotional rather than on a rational level, thus bringing them satisfaction and influencing their behaviour. This paper aims to examine the impact of sensory marketing on customer satisfaction with coffee shops in Hanoi, Vietnam. Previous research in this field has been conducted and has proven that marketing appeals to the five senses can influence customers emotions and behaviour. However, Vietnams potential coffee shop market has not yet been investigated. This study employs a quantitative approach using an online survey of 255 Hanoi coffee shop visitors to examine the influence of sensory marketing. The findings indicate that the sensory marketing factors of sound, touch and taste, in descending order of impact level, have a positive impact on satisfaction, while sight and smell have no effect.
    Keywords: sensory marketing; five senses; customers’ satisfaction; coffee shops.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEBR.2022.10033606
  • Examination of the relationship between different commodity indices   Order a copy of this article
    by Subhakara Valluri 
    Abstract: Our research aims to examine the relationship between different sectors of commodity indices The Standard & Poor's Goldman Sachs Commodity Index (SP-GSCI) is used to find the relationship between inter-sector commodity sub-indices of agriculture, energy, and precious metals. There is no significant research done by analysing the links between commodity sectors like agriculture, energy, and precious metals. S&P GSCI Agriculture Index (SGK), S&P GSCI Energy Index (SGJ), and S&P GSCI Precious Metals Index (SGP) with daily values from October 2001 till December 2016 are taken to represent the data in the regression analysis. Toda and Yamamoto (1995) procedure is used to find the causal links between commodity sectors like agriculture, energy, and precious metals. In our analysis, the price movement in the energy is affecting both the agricultural index and precious metals index Price movement in the agricultural index is also affecting the precious metals index.
    Keywords: Commodity Markets; Commodity Indices; Causal Analysis; Toda and Yamamoto (1995) Procedure; S&P GSCI Index.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEBR.2021.10033721
  • Managing Employees’ Turnover: Findings from AHP Model   Order a copy of this article
    by Sumit Kumar, Priyanka ., Akhilesh Tiwari 
    Abstract: The confluence of economic liberalisation, globalisation, and rapid technological change during recent past has driven the industries to capitalise on possession of unique and inimitable resources so as to gain the competitive edge in the fiercely competitive landscape. Needless to say, it is the human resource which is responsible for effective utilisation of all the physical resources. The study is an attempt to compare and evaluate the relative significance of myriad HR issues leading to a better management of the employees’ turnover problem. To attain the objective Analytical Hierarchy Process was used. The factors in the decreasing order of their importance are: Compensation and Reward Mechanism, Nature of work, career growth, camaraderie and communication. The results of the AHP analysis revealed that a sincere effort is required to reformulate the salary and reward mechanism for the employees working at the front-end level. The study has both practical and theoretical implications.
    Keywords: Retail Industry; Turnover; retention; Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP).
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEBR.2021.10034020
  • Analyzing Interlinkages of Indian Stock Market with Other Emerging Asian Markets   Order a copy of this article
    by Himanshu Goel, Narinder Pal Singh 
    Abstract: With the advent of globalization and privatization, the financial or stock markets are becoming integrated. Thus, it is imperative to study the interlinkages of the Indian stock market with its world counterparts. This study aims to analyze the international linkage of BSE Sensex with the fastest emerging markets namely China, Korea, and Taiwan and for this purpose, Johansen’s cointegration, Granger causality, Impulse Response Function (IRF), and Forecasted Error Variance Decomposition (FEDV) have been employed on monthly data for the past ten years. The results of the Johansen cointegration test reveal there exists no significant cointegration among the selected markets. Granger causality test reveals unidirectional causality between India and China and bidirectional causality between India and Korea. The results of FEDV and IRF reveal all the four indices are majorly impacted by their own shocks. The results of this study may prove significant for retail investors in designing the optimal portfolio.
    Keywords: Cointegration; causality; Sensex; international linkage; variance decomposition.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEBR.2021.10034296
  • Content Modification in Operation Management Over the Last Three Decades   Order a copy of this article
    by Pini Davidov, Shlomo Globerson 
    Abstract: The objective of this research is to carry out a content analysis of Operation Management (OM) textbooks during the last three decades. Three sets of eleven text books each, were included. The sets are compared in terms of the major topics represented. Detailed analysis of the text books identified twenty-one core OM topics, six methodological topics and six other general topics. Findings show that coverage of some OM related topics, were changed significantly over time, as well as the extent of coverage intensity. Also, a significant drop in in the coverage intensity of methodological topics such as linear programming, queuing and simulation was identified.
    Keywords: Operations Management; Content; Modification; Textbook.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEBR.2022.10034476
  • Is Refugee Influx a Cause of Economic Vulnerability: an Empirical Study of Jordan (1990-2018)   Order a copy of this article
    by Ahmed Alrefai 
    Abstract: Jordan received thousands of refugees over the last thirty years. Engulfed by regional turbulence, holding limited resources and reliant on foreign aid, Jordan stands vulnerable to external shocks. Given such volatility, this study will examine how refugees affect the real per capita income, per capita government spending and unemployment. This will be done using Vector Autoregressive model (VAR). The data used accounts for a time series annual data for the period of 1990-2018, obtained from CEIC and Jordan’s Department of Statistics. The study found that there is no causality between refugee influx and the unemployment rate, per capita income and per capita government spending. These results indicate that refugee intake may not be a crippling element on Jordan as capital inflow from donors, humanitarian agencies and the assistance in cash and kind may compensate Jordan’s public. Further, refugees usually work in informal sectors in which Jordanians are reluctant to accept.
    Keywords: Keywords: Refugees; Jordan Economy; Economic Vulnerability; Host Country; Granger Causality; Co-integration.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEBR.2022.10034497
  • Mediating Role of Job Embeddedness in the relation between Work Engagement and Organisational Citizenship Behaviour   Order a copy of this article
    by Rajesh Kumar Upadhyay, Amar Kumar Mishra, Khyati Kapil 
    Abstract: Every organisation seems to be struggling to sustain its competitive advantage in such a turbulent scenario. Organisations need a workforce that displays high organisational citizenship behaviour (OCB) that refers to Employees who choose what they choose to do spontaneously and at their own discretion, often outside the scope of their specified contract. Researchers still have a long way to go and continue to demand further empirical investigation, especially to determine how job embeddedness (JE) has evolved so that employees and organisations can be psychologically connected. Subsequently, the current study proposes to add to the extant literature on work engagement (WE), JE, and its role in promoting OCB by employing the conservation of resource theory. Considering the sample of IT sector organisations of India, structural equation modelling was used to analyse the nested relationship of WE, JE, and OBC. The result indicated a significant relationship and high influence of WE and JE on OCB.
    Keywords: organisational citizenship behaviour; OCB; work engagement; job embeddedness; conservation of resource theory; Indian IT sector.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEBR.2022.10034980
  • An Empirical Investigation of Value Co-Creation on Customer Loyalty: Mediating Role of Customer Trust   Order a copy of this article
    by Tehreem Pervez, Kausar Fiaz Khawaja, Muddassar Sarfraz 
    Abstract: This research investigates the mediating role of customer trust between value co-creation (enjoyment, economic, relational) and customer loyalty. For this study, a survey was conducted, and data were collected from the 354 customers who visit different restaurants, cafes, and hotels of Islamabad and Rawalpindi (Pakistan). Confirmatory factor analysis, reliability and validity analysis, and mediation analysis were conducted for hypothesis testing. The results show that value co-creation (enjoyment, economic, relational) positively influences customer loyalty; and is mediated by customer trust. Hence, all hypotheses were approved. The future research direction and study limitations are mentioned.
    Keywords: value co-creation; VCC; customer trust; customer loyalty; enjoyment value; relational value; economic value.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEBR.2022.10034981
  • Corporate Governance, Working Capital Management and Profitability: Empirical Insights of Indian Pharmaceutical Firms   Order a copy of this article
    by Najib H.S. Farhan, Mosab Tabash, Faozi Almaqtari, Amgad S. D. Khaled 
    Abstract: The current study examines the inter-relationships between working capital management (WCM) and the profitability of Indian pharmaceutical firms. The impact of corporate governance on the link between WCM and profitability is also addressed. The financial data of 82 Indian pharmaceutical firms for the period from 2008 to 2017 are used. Fixed and random effect regression models are used for estimating the results. Findings show that there is a negative and significant impact on the number of days’ payable deferral period, number of days’ collection period, number of days’ inventory holding period, and operating cycle on the profitability of Indian pharmaceutical firms. Moreover, findings reveal that board of directors’ composition does not moderate the association between working capital components (WCCs) and the profitability of Indian pharmaceutical firms. The researchers believe that this study perhaps is the first study that evaluates the impact of corporate governance on the association between WCCs and firms’ profitability in the Indian context.
    Keywords: profitability; moderation effect; India; working capital management; WCM; Pharmaceutical firms.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEBR.2022.10034982
  • An Application Of Pannel ARDL Model With Co-Integration for Portfolio Management   Order a copy of this article
    Abstract: The aims of this study are to explore the impact of macroeconomic variables on stock performance and to provide a knowledge platform with international applicability with the application of panel ARDL model with cointegration on Pakistan Stock Exchange (PSX) not only to have better development of portfolio but to overcome the deficiencies of conventional index base studies as well by finding this impact on not only every sector of PSX but upon each individual firm of the sector as well. For this purpose, monthly data for first quarter of 2005 until first quarter of 2020 was employed for exports, foreign direct investment, foreign exchange reserves, interest rate and inflation as independent variables and monthly stock prices as dependent variable. The results indicate that impact and response was significantly different for overall sector as compared to firms from within same sector for change in independent variables. This opens a new dimension of knowledge for portfolio managers.
    Keywords: portfolio; sectorial analysis; macroeconomic variables; MEVs; stock market performance; SMP; panel ARDL model.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEBR.2022.10035211
  • The determining factor of foreign direct investment: How significant are institutional aspects in developing countries?   Order a copy of this article
    by Ali Lamouchi, Abdelkader Mohamed Sghaier Derbali 
    Abstract: Since the 1980s, the attractiveness of FDI has always been one of the growth drivers for most developing countries. The economic literature highlights the expected benefits of FDI in terms of job creation, currency inflows and spillovers. One of the questions at this level is the factors that determine the attractiveness of FDI. This paper is an empirical contribution in this topic. It covers a panel of 46 developing countries over the period from 1996 to 2018. Our empirical results show that, in addition to some classic determinants of FDI attractiveness, institutional factors, particularly those related to economic freedoms available to investors, are also of great importance. We find that economic freedoms have a significant impact on net flows of foreign direct investment. Also, we find that civil liberties, political freedoms, economic growth, and business environment have a considerable effect on net flows of FDI.
    Keywords: attraction of FDI; institutional factors; economic freedoms; economic growth; panel data.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEBR.2021.10035224
    by Shagun Bansal, Anjani Kumar Singh 
    Abstract: This research paper intends to understand the informality level of informal enterprises and the reason for operating informally. Research was conducted in industrial location Noida, India that provides self-employment opportunities. Sampling technique used was stratified random sampling with sample size of 125 informal enterprises. Study was conducted through structured questionnaire. Data was collected with the help of in-depth interview. Study tried to identify the factors that contribute to inception of informal business activities. Research also includes the challenges in running such enterprise. The research findings depict that majority of informal enterprises did not have access to credit through formal sources. Research concludes that informal enterprises do not have any expansion plan to grow and face major challenges relating to infrastructure and government regulations. Major reasons for informalisation were the lack of knowledge of registration, avoidance of taxes and shortage of formal employment opportunities. This research work is original and has not been published anywhere else.
    Keywords: informal enterprise; entrepreneur; informality; determinants; regulations; corruption; registration; poverty; India.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEBR.2021.10035258
  • Role of top management in business model innovation due to technological changes in emerging market   Order a copy of this article
    by Pankaj Singh, Makhmoor Bashir, Anees Ahmad 
    Abstract: To study the role of top management in business model innovation due to technological changes 14 interviews were conducted with the top management of multinational firms in India. The duration of interviews ranged from 30-60 minutes with an average time of 40 minutes per interview. The study has used a phenomenological approach for the analysis of qualitative data. The findings from the study highlighted the role of top management in business model innovation under four headings. First, when the change is incremental top management has to act as a sponsor of the change. Second, when the change is radical top management has to go for overhauling of the entire business model. Third, when the change is architectural, top management has to trigger the search for a new business model. Fourth, when the change is of Knightian Uncertainty top management has to look for the options of either a merger or acquisitions.
    Keywords: Business Model Innovation; Technological change; Phenomenology; Business Model Innovation Leadership; Business Model Environments.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEBR.2021.10035313
  • Shadow economy and foreign direct investment in Nigerian manufacturing industry   Order a copy of this article
    by Folorunsho Ajide, Temitope J. Dada, Johnson K. Olowookere 
    Abstract: In this paper, we investigate the symmetric and asymmetric effect of shadow economy on foreign direct investment (FDI) in Nigerian manufacturing sector using ARDL and NARDL estimation techniques for the period of 1975 to 2017. We find that an increase in shadow economy reduces FDI net inflow in the short run while this relationship turns to be positive in the long run. This result persists after using NARDL to re-estimate the model. Negative and positive changes in the size of shadow economy have negative and significant effects on FDI in the short run while in the long run, both changes have positive effects on FDI in the sector. The results imply that in the short run, new foreign investors would like to operate in the formal sector due to tax incentives and other financial incentives available for new entrants. However, in the long run, shadow economy attracts FDI, because incentives enjoyed have expired coupled with high cost of doing business in the country. The investors would prefer to either look for loopholes in tax laws or attempt to evade tax and cut down official remittances to the government by operating in the informal sector of the economy.
    Keywords: informality; tax; foreign direct investment; FDI; NARDL; Nigeria.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEBR.2021.10035378
  • Barriers to Career Advancement of Women: Role of Mentoring and Networks   Order a copy of this article
    by Jyoti Chauhan, Geeta Mishra 
    Abstract: Lower female representation in executive positions has been a concern across the world. However, there have been many barriers faced by women in their career ladder. This study has majorly focussed on few barriers namely; lack of mentoring, exclusion from informal networks, and demographic profile of women, and how all these factors can influence the career advancement of women. This study has collected data using a questionnaire and a final sample of 195 women in the service sector was analyzed. Inline to examine the impact, exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis has been applied to check for the reliability and validity of data and constructs. Further, multiple regression has been used to test the hypotheses of the study. Results revealed that total experience and managerial position significantly impacts the career advancement of women. Mentoring and exclusion from informal networks are also found partially impacting the career advancement of women.
    Keywords: Barriers; Career Advancement; Mentoring; Networks; Women in managerial positions; Service Industry; Delhi NCR; Glass ceiling; Career Development; Leadership.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEBR.2021.10035607
  • Why Do Specific Regions Attract More FDI Inflows in India? Role of Region-specificities and Insights from the Dynamic Panel Econometrics   Order a copy of this article
    by Prajukta Tripathy, Pragyanrani Behera, Bikash Ranjan Mishra 
    Abstract: To examine the disparity in distributional inflows of foreign direct investment (FDI), the study uses Theil index as a statistical tool to verify the skewed distribution across the regions in India and confirm the same with its decomposition scores. In order to investigate the causes of such unequal distribution of FDI inflows in India, this study uses the system GMM model for 16 regional groups from 2004 to 2015 time period. With a special concern to the region-specific factors and the agglomeration effect, the uneven dummy variables are also used to capture the inequality in FDI inflow across the regions. Our findings confirm the significant role of each of them in pocketing a major chunk of FDI inflows by a few regions. To recommend the policymakers, the present study proposes a balanced growth perspective and a comprehensive framework mitigating labour reforms, industrial productivity and FDI policy.
    Keywords: foreign direct investment; FDI; regional concentration; Theil index; region-specific factors; panel data; endogeneity; system generalised method of moments.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEBR.2022.10035612
  • High-Frequency Stock Market Connectedness in G-7: Evidence from Time-Frequency Domains   Order a copy of this article
    by Onur Polat 
    Abstract: In this work, we examine stock market contagion in G-7 countries by implementing the frequency connectedness methodology. In this context, we use daily MSCI Financials indexes for G-7 countries ranging from 1995:01 to 2018:12 in the empirical model. The total spillover index computed in the 200-day moving window efficiently responses to prominent financial stress incidents over the analysed period. Furthermore, we examine the network topology of directional TO/FROM spillovers amongst G-7 stock markets. The network analysis underlines that the most advanced economies stand at the epicenter of the network and the Eurozone countries are strongly interconnected. Empirical findings of the study highlight the importance of constituting an efficacious regulatory framework for beholding the unsystematic risk.
    Keywords: MSCI Financials Index; Idiosyncratic Risk; Financial Contagion; Spectral Analysis; Frequency Connectedness.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEBR.2021.10035726
  • Does organic food consumption matters to young consumers? A study on young consumer’s of India   Order a copy of this article
    by Gyan Prakash 
    Abstract: After independence Indian lifestyle has gone through numerous changes. Indian consumers are welcoming different food options with not only ease in preparation also in the purchase. However, still, food researchers are analyzing the factors affecting and helping the consumer in choosing organic food products. To understand this current research was conducted on the young consumers of India. Data of 288 students were analysed with the help of structural equation modeling (SEM). The present study found that among all factors, health concern is highly affecting the purchase intention of young consumers. Other factors as environmental concern, attitude, subjective norms, perceived behavioural control and willingness to pay premium also significantly affect the purchase intention of young consumers. As per the managerial implication concern, the present paper can help managers in promoting organic and environmentally safe foods. This paper will help the managers in the reduction of ecological footprints.
    Keywords: Organic food Products; Purchase Intention; TPB; Indian consumers.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEBR.2021.10035727
  • Trend and Impact Analysis of Master's Theses and Doctoral Dissertations Completed in Turkey on the Topic of "Leadership"   Order a copy of this article
    by Hande Özgen, Hale Özyürek 
    Abstract: In this study, trend and impact analysis of graduate theses written in Turkey between years 2000 and 2019 on the topic of leadership is conducted. National Thesis Centre of Council of Higher Education of Turkey is searched using the keyword leader to identify a total of 877 relevant graduate theses. These theses are investigated to gather data related to general properties of the theses (such as type of thesis, university in which thesis is written, language, number of pages, and gender of author) and contents of the theses (such as variables studied, research method, data collection method, sample group and size, and references utilised). For impact analysis, search tool Google Scholar is used to determine the total number of citations for each thesis, which is then used to calculate the average number of citations per year. IBM SPSS software is used to process the gathered data.
    Keywords: leadership; master’s theses; doctoral dissertations; Turkish universities; Council of Higher Education; National Thesis Centre; impact analysis; trend analysis; citations; Turkey.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEBR.2021.10035776
  • Modelling Drivers of Millennial Green Consumption Behaviour: An Interpretive Structural Modeling (ISM) Approach   Order a copy of this article
    by Anu Gupta, Hemraj Verma, Vijay Kumar Jain, Pankaj Kumar 
    Abstract: Green consumption has occupied an important role due to the growing scarcity of natural resources and the rise in global temperatures. Increasing population and income of consumers, and wealth in the coming years are likely to put pressure on the resources. The solution to the above problem lies in the adoption of environmentally friendly products and sustainable consumption. The current study aims to identify and prioritise the enablers of green consumption behaviour among millennials. The interpretive structural modelling approach has been used to prioritise the enablers of green consumptions. A total of 13 enablers were identified based on literature and experts’ opinion on green consumption. Green product experience, customer pressure, and information utility were found to be the most important enablers of green consumption behaviour. The finding of the study would help policymakers and marketers to encourage green consumption among millennials, thereby, improving the environment, cutting down emissions, environmental degradation.
    Keywords: environmental degradation; ecological footprint; green consumptions; interpretive structural modelling; ISM.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEBR.2021.10035993
  • An Update of the Worlds of Wine: The Emerging Countries Influence   Order a copy of this article
    by Emiliano C. Villanueva, Gustavo Ferro 
    Abstract: The article re-categorises two concepts widely used in the literature of wine, old world and new world. It generates a new classification of the world of wine in terms of the up-to-date paths of production, consumption, and global trade expansion in the last decades: emerging countries competing with developed countries. While determining the temporal and geographical location of the major transformations that happened in the wine industry in the last six decades, the article opens the discussion for a better and updated characterisation of the worlds of wine. It is imperative to compare and examine wine countries within their structural local and global economic and competitive context; it is then relevant to use a 21st-century classification like the one this article proposes (developed versus emerging countries) rather than a 20th-century characterisation (old world versus new world) when describing, analysing, and defining the worlds of wine.
    Keywords: emerging countries; worlds of wine; wine global trade; wine production; wine consumption.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEBR.2022.10036082
  • A parametric model to price a portfolio of single-premium life insurance policies and to decompose its longevity risk.   Order a copy of this article
    by Rosa Ferrentino, Luca Vota 
    Abstract: In this paper, the authors propose a statistical mathematical model to price an insurance portfolio consisting of single-premium life insurance policies, to calculate its variance and its longevity risk. The novelty introduced by the authors is that in their framework it is assumed that the outflows, namely the indemnities that are paid to the insured in life when the policies expire, are discounted at an uncertain interest rate. Other relevant hypotheses are that both the premium and the indemnity established by the insurance contract are constant until expiry and that the survival function of the policyholders is exponential. The authors show that both the price and the variance of the portfolio depend mainly on the speed at which the discount rate varies between the period of subscription of the policies and their expiry date, but also on the average value of this interest rate in the same period.
    Keywords: single-premium life insurance policy; risk decomposition; longevity risk; asset pricing; mathematical methods.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEBR.2022.10036151
  • Tripartite Relationship of Ethical Behaviour, Job Involvement, and Job Performance & its relevancy in IT sector in India   Order a copy of this article
    by Kiran Dhand, Vikas Arya, Ran Singh Dhaliwal 
    Abstract: The purpose of this study is to examine the causal relationship between an employee’s ethical behaviour and their job performance and examining the mediating role of job involvement in the relationship between independent and dependent variables. This exploratory study investigated 647 respondents from different IT companies in India, using stratified random methodology. The conceptual model of various sub-constructs of ethical behaviour, job involvement, and job performance was tested using structural equation modelling. Data and hypothesis were tested using SPSS 22.0, AMOS 24.0, ADENCO and Process (Prof A. Hayes). The findings of the study support the mediating role of job involvement and depict that there is a moderating effect of respondents’ experience and their education on the relationship of an employee’s ethical behaviour and job performance. This research provides insights into understanding the impact of ethical behaviour on job involvement and job performance.
    Keywords: ethical behaviour; employee’s attitudes; job involvement; job performance; IT Industry.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEBR.2021.10036152
  • The restoration of monetary policy tools in armed conflict countries: the case of Yemen   Order a copy of this article
    by Hani Hazaa, Noori Hazaa 
    Abstract: Among the many problems facing Yemen, the disruption of the monetary policy tools remains paramount affecting millions of lives. This study aims to restore the monetary policy tools’ functions in Yemen. This is done by first identifying the reasons behind the monetary policy tools’ disruption, and then developing a new efficient monetary policies’ management system (MPMS). Semi-structure interviews are used in two different stages. First, to identify the reasons behind monetary policy tools disruption. Second, to assess the efficacy of the developed MPMS. The study reveals that a high unpredictable inflation, a sharp fluctuation in the currency value, and a loss of trust in the central bank’s functions are major reasons for the disruption of the country’s monetary policy tools. Additionally, the developed MPMS received the satisfaction of the interviewee parties who include former T-bills investors, high-level officials in the Central Bank of Yemen, and the Minister of Finance. Thus, indicating efficacy achievement to the developed MPMS. Our results achieve a restoration to the disrupted monetary policy tools in armed conflict countries (i.e., Yemen).
    Keywords: Central Bank of Yemen; CBY; monetary policy; monetary policy failure; alternative monetary policy tools; Yemen.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEBR.2022.10036243
  • Managing Incoterms® 2020 export risks   Order a copy of this article
    by Roberto Bergami, Lucie Tichá 
    Abstract: Delivery of goods across international boundaries is an important consideration for any export sales contract. To assist international traders, the International Chamber of Commerce (ICC) published a new set of delivery terms Incoterms® 2020, effective 1 January 2020. Using a practical approach, this paper considers the main Incoterms® 2020 rules through a risk management lens, highlighting major challenges and offering potential risk mitigation strategies to reduce exporter exposure in international sales contracts. The paper concludes that the exporting firm should adopt an Enterprise Risk Management (ERM) approach to effectively minimise the risks associated with the physical delivery of export consignments.
    Keywords: Incoterms® 2020; risk management; international trade; export risk; international delivery terms; international sales contracts; Enterprise Risk Management (ERM); international carriage of goods.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEBR.2022.10036282
  • Artificial Neural Networks for developing Early Warning System for Banking System: Indian context   Order a copy of this article
    by Neha Gupta, Arya Kumar 
    Abstract: This study attempts to develop an Early Warning System for the Indian banking sector using artificial neural networks (ANNs) by considering important economic variables based on detailed literature review. It takes into account an Elman recurrent neural network and a multilayered feedforward backpropagation network (MLFN). The ANNs are evaluated based on their accuracy and calibration using quadratic probability score (QPS) and global squared bias (GSB) for both within the sample and out of sample. The scores depict results with Elman recurrent network outperforming the MLFN. The uniqueness of this study lies in using and identifying pertinent macroeconomic variables to anticipate the banking sector fragility for the Indian economy using sequential feature selection algorithms. The ANN models are found to be appropriate and useful for policy planners to foresee the possibility of occurrence of banking fragility and take proactive corrective measures to minimise and safeguard the economy from adverse implications of banking crisis.
    Keywords: early warning system; EWS; banking crisis; global financial crisis; artificial neural network; ANN.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEBR.2022.10036294
  • Exchange rate stability and new entrepreneurs: An empirical evidence in Vietnam   Order a copy of this article
    by Linh Bui, Chang Won Lee, Huu Phuoc Le, Duy Duong, Ngoc Quang Anh Huynh 
    Abstract: This paper examines the macroscopic determinants such as the asymmetries of exchange rate and equity index of the number of newly established firms from Vietnam’s perspectives. Employing a rich set of econometric techniques with weekly data from the first week of 2016 to October 2018, we attempt to shed further light what drives the change of a number of Vietnamese companies registered and an amount of money invested in businesses. This paper serves as a foundation for future studies on the relationship between exchange rate stability and the decision to start up as well as a reference source for the decision-making process of both investors and policy-makers in the context of the national entrepreneurship campaign.
    Keywords: Vietnam; entrepreneurs; capital; exchange rate; stock index.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEBR.2022.10036456
  • The effects of competition intensity on corporate social responsibility of chaebols   Order a copy of this article
    by Soonwook Hong 
    Abstract: The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of competition intensity on corporate social responsibility of chaebols. Companies will choose different management strategies depending on the environments in which they are placed for their sustainable growth. There may be diverse management strategies depending on the concentration of the industries to which the companies belong, that is, the intensity of competition. Empirical analysis shows that chaebol companies belonging to industries with high competition intensity are more actively engaged in CSR. These results indicate that the CSR activities of chaebol companies are far from pure purposes or philanthropic motivations. It can be inferred that the CSR activities of chaebol companies are due to strategic or economic purposes. This study’s contribution includes the fact that it evaluated the quality of internal CSR activities rather than the quantity of superficial CSR activities of chaebol companies.
    Keywords: chaebol; corporate social responsibility; CSR; competition intensity; donation.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEBR.2022.10036495
  • “How Could I Choose My Health Insurance Plan?” Determinants of Employer-Sponsored Health Insurance Plan Selection: Application of Machine Learning Technique   Order a copy of this article
    by Yi Zhang, Jia Yu 
    Abstract: Selecting the appropriate, reasonable, and affordable health insurance plan becomes a very important question to solve for both employers and employees. Our research tries to locate the factors determining private sector health insurance plan enrolment decision, and also provides a guideline to both private companies and employees on health insurance plan selection strategies. By using Kaiser Family Foundation Annual Employer Health Benefits Survey (KFF EHBS) data, we apply random decision forest machine learning methodology to study the determinants of employees’ health insurance selection, as well as to compare the prediction accuracy among different methodologies. The results indicate: 1) the employees at large firms and the firms with higher eligible rate would tend to choose PPO plan; 2) employees who need family coverage would have different choices comparing employees who seek for single coverage only; 3) employer’s contribution and annual total contribution to the health insurance plan are the most important determinants on employees’ insurance selection. The conclusion also can provide some suggestions to insurance companies on health insurance package design for different types of employers and employees.
    Keywords: health insurance; PPO; high-deductible health plan; HDP; machine learning; random decision forest; logit regression.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEBR.2022.10036497
  • Impact of Chinese ADRs : case study of MAPPAC method analysing China dual listing companies in the US equity market   Order a copy of this article
    by Haochen Guo 
    Abstract: China concepts stock is the stock in a company that operates in mainland China, and incorporated overseas, giving Chinese businesses access to foreign investment. In the US equity market, investors may have seen China concepts stock listed on the NYSE, NASDAQ, NYSE MKT take the form of ADR (American Depositary Receipt) instead of common stock. The motivation of this paper case by historically Chinese stock exchanges have been closed to foreign investment, which has driven businesses to form China concepts stock. As the country develops its capital markets, China's concepts stocks are expected to be a key driver to China’s economic growth. This paper contributes to present the Chinese ADR has higher value investment scarcity and help new economic companies obtain reasonable valuations on the US equity market with more mature, investors are more rational and more suitable for long-term investment and value investment.
    Keywords: China concept stocks; ADR (American Depositary Receipt); dual listing; equity market; equity market liberalization; MAPPAC method.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEBR.2021.10036570
  • Livelihood Diversification of Farm Households under Rainfed Agriculture: A Case of Barak Valley of Assam, India   Order a copy of this article
    by Himanshu Narayan Prasad, Gurudas Das, Gorky Chakraborty 
    Abstract: The paper outlines the extent and pattern of rural livelihood diversification of farm households in Barak Valley of Assam, India. The study uses primary data collected from a sample of 450 farm households from the three districts that constitute the valley. We identify the major determinants of diversification towards non-farm activities by the farm households under the valley’s rainfed agriculture. We also verify the role of non-farm earnings in improving the long-run economic wellbeing of farm households. We find that, among others, the percentage of household members employed in the non-farm sector, family size, average education of male working members, age of household head and size of landholdings emerge as significant determinants of livelihood diversification. It is also established that a farm household’s non-farm earnings has a positive influence over its wealth index which is taken as a measure of its long run well-being.
    Keywords: farm household; income diversification; tobit regression; rainfed agriculture; India.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEBR.2022.10036640
  • Culture Influence in International Organizations   Order a copy of this article
    by Renato Lopes Da Costa, Leandro Pereira, Rui Gonçalves, Álvaro Dias, Carlos Jeronimo, Ricardo Santos 
    Abstract: The amount of studies that have been done through the years within the field of culture and, specifically organisational culture, says a lot regarding the important of the matter in organisations. Nowadays, it seems more and more important to demystify the concept of culture, so that organisations, especially those operating worldwide, may take the most advantage possible from it, in order to have satisfied employees, managers and sponsors. The objective of this study is to help understanding, from theory to practice, why and how important culture is for an international organisation and how important it is for an international organisation to have a common culture and to adapt and change it. For this proposes the research was conducted by an empirical study focused on 14 interviews made to top managers and directors of organisations operating internationally. The three proposed questions were answered, and it was concluded that in a common opinion, culture is important in all companies, it is in fact the DNA of an organisation being the key to its success.
    Keywords: organisational culture; adaptation; internationalisation; international organisations.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEBR.2022.10036642
  • Project Management Tacit Knowledge for Continuous Improvement   Order a copy of this article
    by Leandro Pereira, Renato Lopes Da Costa, Álvaro Dias, Rui Gonçalves, Carlos Jeronimo 
    Abstract: In an international environment of high competitive aggressiveness where markets are instable, an uncertain economic environment dominated by external variables forces our management to face a troubled period of uncertainty with the consequent need to rethink how to be in the market. It is through projects that transformation occurs, as they are the vehicle to implement the future steps of the organisation. The success of the organisations depends on the project’s success. This research includes an extensive survey to 62 project managers in the Iberia Market that face a typical project case in trouble, and asks them, based on the situation their advice using their experience. The main findings allow us to understand that successive faults in projects came from the same reasons, the mistakes are repeated, so it is critical to shared tacit knowledge of good practices to avoid it again.
    Keywords: tacit knowledge; knowledge management; project; organisational learning; best practices.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEBR.2022.10036939
  • Shadow Economy and the Efficiency of FDI Inflow: The case of ASEAN Economy.   Order a copy of this article
    by Nathapornpan Piyaareekul Uttama, Rapipong Promnart 
    Abstract: This paper focuses on the influence of shadow economy on the efficiency of foreign direct investment (FDI) inflow to the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN). The panel stochastic frontier analysis with time varying technical inefficiency is employed to evaluate the efficiency level of inward FDI in nine ASEAN countries over the 2003 to 2017 period and examine the significant determinants affecting the efficiency of FDI inflow to ASEAN. The estimated results demonstrate that the efficiency levels of the FDI in such ASEAN countries are low. They also reveal that the market size and trade openness have significantly positive influences on the efficiency in attracting FDI to ASEAN countries. Moreover, the large shadow economy tends to significantly lower the ASEAN’s FDI inefficiency, whereas a higher control of corruption significantly generates the FDI inefficiency in ASEAN.
    Keywords: foreign direct investment inflow; Greenfield investment; shadow economy; efficiency; stochastic frontier analysis.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEBR.2021.10036940
  • Impact of Destination Weddings in Tourism Economy   Order a copy of this article
    by Leandro Pereira, Sofia Mendonça, Álvaro Dias, Renato Lopes Da Costa, Rui Gonçalves 
    Abstract: Despite representing a recent world trend, wedding tourism felt a growth of 75% the past few years, which shows this market, specifically, the destination weddings niche, is proving to have an optimistic development and becoming a relevant topic in events tourism. The research objective analyses how the destination weddings have contributed for the development of events tourism in Portugal by examining what tactics are being utilised towards an international positioning. A quantitative method was used to achieve the objectives, being that two distinct surveys were elaborated, to foreign couples and another to vendors that take part in the industry. The data triangulation method was adopted with the goal of obtaining robust results by gathering a broader source of data. The results show that the destination weddings market contributes positively to the expansion of the events tourism in Portugal. Couples tend to choose Portugal for their climate, impressive sites and sense of intimacy, but the country needs to improve the transaction payments and present a wider range of advertisement. Regarding Covid-19, it had a negative influence mainly because most foreign couples decided to postpone or cancel the wedding.
    Keywords: events tourism; wedding tourism; destination weddings.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEBR.2022.10037060
  • Inward and Outward FDI and the Shadow Economy during the Greek Economic Crisis   Order a copy of this article
    by John Marangos, Eirini Triarchi, Themis Anhtrakidis, Alexandra Dimitriadou, Angeliki Nestoroudi 
    Abstract: The purpose of the paper is to discover the bearing of inward and outward FDI and the shadow economy on the Greek economic crisis (GREC) in reviving the shattered economy. Students and researchers of the global economic crisis will benefit from this novel approach in exploring the GREC from the inward and outward FDI and the shadow economy perspective. The paper establishes that inward and outward FDI and FDI stock as a percentage of GDP, after a substantial period of ups-and-downs, was on the road to recovery as the economy was coming out from the crisis. The shadow economy in Greece exhibits a paradoxical evolution, as it substantially declined due to the sharp reduction in incomes that reduced the demand for activities in the shadow economy. Economic policymakers need to exploit the recovery of inward and outward FDI and this once in a lifetime opportunity of the substantial reduction of the shadow economy.
    Keywords: inward FDI; outward FDI; shadow economy; Greece; Greek crisis; European crisis; global financial crisis.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEBR.2021.10037066
  • Cryptocurrencies and blockchain. Overview and future perspectives   Order a copy of this article
    by Helder Miguel Correia Virtuoso Sebastião, Paulo José Osório Rupino Da Cunha, Pedro Manuel Cortesão Godinho 
    Abstract: This paper presents an overview of the main developments of cryptocurrencies and discusses their future perspectives. First, it briefly reviews the history of cryptocurrencies since the creation of Bitcoin, presents the main market trends, and discusses the key features of cryptocurrencies in the context of blockchain. Second, it analyses current cryptocurrency projects, like the Libra project, and other applications of the blockchain technology. Third, it presents a systematic economics and financial literature review on cryptocurrencies. Fourth, it examines the challenges, benefits, and future perspectives of cryptocurrencies and blockchain technology, with a focus on the environmental issues and central bank digital currencies.
    Keywords: Bitcoin; blockchain; cryptocurrencies; digital coins; Libra; Ethereum; market efficiency; central bank digital currencies; survey.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEBR.2021.10034022
  • Analysing factors that affect profitability and growth in French publicly listed firms   Order a copy of this article
    by I.A. Makris, P. Charalabakis, S. Stavroyiannis 
    Abstract: The Eurozone was at the centre of the 2008 recession, and many country-members were affected by the financial crisis. France, the country with the 2nd largest GDP in the EMU (and crucial for the sustainability of the common currency area), according to some researchers it endured the economic crisis relatively well. However, recent surveys, indicate that the French economy has experienced worrying times during the economic crisis In this research work, economic data from a large number of French publicly listed firms is analysed for the last decade, to identify common characteristics that are associated with firm performance and growth, during a recessionary period and its aftermath For that reason, a panel data analysis is performed, along with the necessary unit root tests The findings indicate the crucial role of financial health, internationalisation and size of the firm, in financial performance, growth and dynamism.
    Keywords: financial performance; France; publicly listed firms; debt; profitability; firm growth.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEBR.2021.10033639
  • Methodology of creating success criteria within the business model for sustainability reasons   Order a copy of this article
    by Helena Skadina, Rosita Zvirgzdina 
    Abstract: A complex business environment, growing intensity of competition and shortening of innovation cycles bring difficulties for management and decision making. If previously companies aimed to ensure the quality of their products, now the creation of value for customers and other stakeholders is becoming the most essential element for the future of a company. Sustainability in the sense of a sustainable business model represent the value creation in the stakeholders' perception. It means that each activity while modelling a business should be checked for sustainability reasons by the company's management. In this way it would be possible to improve controlling mechanisms within the company as well. The aim of this paper is to offer a methodology contributing to creation of success criteria. As a result, there are methods presented which make the development of success criteria for management possible and sustainability controlling for business activities related to time, costs, flexibility and quality.
    Keywords: sustainability; business model; business model dimensions; success criteria; time; costs; value; flexibility indicators.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEBR.2021.10032132
  • Factors determining Z-score and corporate failure in Malaysian companies   Order a copy of this article
    by Nurul Izzaty Hasanah Azhar, Norziana Lokman, Md. Mahmudul Alam, Jamaliah Said 
    Abstract: Predicting the sustainability of a business is crucial to prevent financial losses among shareholders and investors. This study attempts to evaluate the Altman model for predicting corporate failure in distressed and non-distressed Malaysian companies based on the data of financially troubled companies which are classified as Practice Note 17 (PN17) and matching similar non-PN17 companies during the period 2013 to 2017. This study utilises panel ordinal and panel random effects regressions. Findings show that the liquidity, profitability, leverage, solvency, and efficiency ratios are negatively significantly associated with corporate failure and bankruptcy. The leverage ratio is determined to be the strongest indicator of bankruptcy, followed by profitability, liquidity, solvency, and efficiency ratios. The findings will help companies management bodies implement suitable strategies to prevent further financial leakage, thereby ensuring continuous and sustainable return on investment and profits for investors and shareholders.
    Keywords: corporate failure; financial distress; PN17 companies; ratio analysis; Z-score.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEBR.2021.10032083
  • The effects of foreign direct investment, external debts and trade openness on economic growth: evidence from the Ottoman Empire 1881–1913   Order a copy of this article
    by Lotfi Demikha, Amir Bin Shaharuddin, Abdul Rahim Ridzuan 
    Abstract: This paper empirically examines the impact of foreign direct investment, external debts, and trade openness on economic growth in the Ottoman Empire. The existing literature lacks a comprehensive quantitative analysis on this pattern. Indeed, a great focus was given to the Ottoman Empire history, but minimal attention was directed to the financial performance of the Ottoman economy during the last quarter of the 19th century. This study utilises the time-series technique ‘autoregressive distributed lag model’ (ARDL) on macroeconomic data for the period 1881–1914. The study reveals a significant positive effect of external debt, trade openness, and government expenditure on economic growth. The obtained results also highlight the fact that foreign direct investment and inflation showed a significant negative impact on economic growth. Our findings recommend on focusing on adopting economic policies that promote generating funds using local sources instead of relying on external funders to boost economic development.
    Keywords: ARDL; autoregressive distributed lag model; economic growth; Ottoman Empire; FDI; foreign direct investment; external debts; trade openness; macroeconomic; terms of trade.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEBR.2021.10032085
  • The impact of word of mouth on brand equity: a case study from the sportswear market in Vietnam   Order a copy of this article
    by Tran Trung Vinh, Truong Ba Thanh, Nguyen Hoang Ngan, Tran Thi Kim Phuong 
    Abstract: The main purpose of this study is to explore the influence of word of mouth (WOM) on brand equity in the causal relationships between its dimensions: brand awareness, brand associations, perceived quality, and brand loyalty. Sample data was collected from 335 customers in the sportswear market of Vietnam. Empirical results revealed that the model was a suitable fit with the sample. Results from structural equation modelling (SEM) show that: 1) WOM has positive effects on brand awareness, brand association, perceived quality and brand loyalty; 2) these dimensions of brand equity are interrelated. Some suggestions for future research are provided.
    Keywords: WOM; word of mouth; brand equity; brand awareness; brand association; perceived quality; brand loyalty; sportswear market; SEM; structural equation modelling.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEBR.2021.10031983