Forthcoming articles

International Journal of Cloud Computing

International Journal of Cloud Computing (IJCC)

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International Journal of Cloud Computing (29 papers in press)

Regular Issues

  • MSA: A Task Scheduling Algorithm for Cloud Computing   Order a copy of this article
    by Subhashree Mohapatra, Chhabi Rani Panigrahi, Bibudhendu Pati, Manohar Mishra 
    Abstract: Cloud computing is an effective technology to perform huge-scale and complex computing. Achieving a minimum makespan is the prime motto of any task scheduling algorithm for a cloud computing environment. This paper aims to propose a new task scheduling algorithm named as Min-sufferage scheduling. While selecting a task for execution, the Min-sufferage picks up the task with minimum sufferage value. The proposed method has been tested on numerous set of tasks and resources. The experimental results indicate that the proposed Min-sufferage algorithm results in less makespan as compared to Sufferage algorithm.
    Keywords: Sufferage; Makespan; Cloud Computing.

  • Flow-based Dynamic Load balancing algorithm for the Cloud networks using Software Defined Networks   Order a copy of this article
    by Wilson Prakash, Deepa Lakshmi 
    Abstract: In recent days, cloud computing has become an outstanding technique in all areas that provide various computing resources. The specialty of cloud computing is that it provides excellent services in monitoring, communication, software platform,and infrastructure. Basically, cloud network limits its services in a specific location on the particular zone. When the targeted area is near, the specific server completes the request generates from the user. Few servers are busy while some servers are idle when it comes to the services. In this case, the provided resources are not used efficiently. To overcome this problem, this paper proposes a concept known as flow-based dynamic load balancing algorithm in cloud networking with Software Defined Networks (SDN). The fundamental principle of this proposed algorithm is distributing client request equally to all the available servers in a specific cloud network. The main aim of load balancing algorithm is optimizing the resource utilization by increasing the throughput, increase flow completion time, decrease the response time and eliminating the overloading of any individual resource. SDN is mainly used in applying various software functionalities into the hardware devices such as routers, switches etc.
    Keywords: Load balancing; Data center; SDN; Traffic Engineering.

  • Medical Knowledge Extraction scheme for Cloudlet Based Healthcare System to avoid Malicious Attacks   Order a copy of this article
    by Anjali Chandavale, Anuja Gade 
    Abstract: Along with growth in technology, it has become the need of time that the response of doctor should be within few seconds along with his 24x7 availability. To perform this task, it is essential to share medical information that contains patients sensitive information. The medical information sharing involves information collection, information storage and sharing of this information. Security protection to this medical information is one of the concerns. As this medical information is finally stored at remote cloud, protection to the whole healthcare scheme against intrusions or malicious attacks is another important concern. Hence the current researchers are focusing on cloudlet based healthcare systems. Along with growth in technology, young generation always choose to examine health associated information and doctors recommendation for any health associated problem on web. In current question answering system, it remains challenging to extract medical knowledge from the clamorous question- answers pair and remove unwanted information. To overcome these challenges, in this paper, we propose Medical Knowledge Extraction scheme for Cloudlet based Healthcare System to avoid Malicious Attacks. In this proposed system, medical information sharing is done in energy efficient fashion using proposed modified Number Theory Research Unit (NTRU) algorithm. The proposed modified Number Theory Research Unit algorithm is used to perform the encryption of users physiological conditions i.e. body information. Collaborative Intrusion Detection System (CIDS) is used to detect and avoid malicious attacks. Medical Knowledge Extraction (MKE) method finds valid remedial triplicates from clamorous Question-Answer (Q-A) pairs and evaluate the reliability along with doctors proficiency using truth discovery method. rn Proposed modified NTRU algorithm gives 20% to 30% better delivery ratio as compared with the existing RSA algorithm. The response time of proposed system is 8 seconds which results in substantially reduction in time and cost for end user.rn
    Keywords: Healthcare; Number Theory Research Unit (NTRU); Decision Making System; Proficiency score; reliable.

  • Dynamic Energy-saving Approaches in Mobile Cloud Computing: Issues, Challenges and Approaches   Order a copy of this article
    Abstract: The use of mobile devices is ubiquitous in the current information era. However, there is a critical need for the technical integration of mobile computing with cloud computing to enhance the performance of mobile devices. Mobile cloud computing promises several efficient ways of handling various constraints such as energy consumption, data transmission, bandwidth utilization, weak network connectivity, and user mobility. This paper addresses these issues and discusses the benefits of integrating mobile communications with cloud computing. and the main focus is on computation offloading into the cloud as an effective techniquefor overcoming the energy constraints of mobile devices. The characteristics and implications of various computation offloading techniques are explored.
    Keywords: Mobile Cloud Computing; Dynamic Energy Saving; Content Offloading.

  • Secure Cloud Computing using Homomorphic Construction   Order a copy of this article
    by Swathi Velugoti, M.P. Vani 
    Abstract: When customers are transfering their private data to anyrnthird party, then there is much responsibility of both security andrncompliance. There exist hurdles in mainly two aspects - One is inrnthe users or customers point of view, where they want to ensurernthe privacy of its input parameters and results. Another is to cloudrnservers point of view, where cloud entity is worried about feasiblenessrnof encrypted/transformed inputs and operating on them. Thus, usersrnwould not like to submit their private problem data inputs to the cloud.rnencrypting the private data prior to submission to cloud is a usualrnsolution.rnHere in this paper, we have suggested a framework for cloud datarnsecurity and presented the detailed construction of our proposedrnhomomorphic encryption system. Along with that the security andrncorrectness analysis of our proposed construction is given. The schemernsatisfies both Additive and Multiplicative homomorphism properties
    Keywords: Homomorphic encryption; Privacy; Security; Cloud computing; Confidential data.

  • Optimization of Automatic Web Services Composition Using Genetic Algorithm   Order a copy of this article
    by Mirsaeid Hosseini Shirvani 
    Abstract: In recent years, with the expansion of organizations, service-oriented architecture is known as an effective tool for creating applications. Hence, the need to use web services in organizations to reduce costs is felt more than ever. The purpose of web service composition is to determine a proper mix of user requests that cannot be met by a simple web service. In this paper, a genetic-based algorithm is proposed for combining cloud services that ensures multiple clouds work efficiently. The proposed method also provides an overview of the weaknesses of other available methods in terms of computational complexity in automated selection of web services and makes it possible to fulfill the demands of the composition of web services in a more optimal way. It is worth noting that the simulation results show the superiority of the proposed method compared to other methods analyzed in the paper. Keywords: Web Service, Web Services Composition, Service-Oriented Architecture, Quality of Service.
    Keywords: Web Service; Web Services Composition; Service-Oriented Architecture; Quality of Service.

  • A Secure and efficient multi cloud-based data storage and retrieval using hash-based verifiable secret sharing scheme   Order a copy of this article
    by Majid Farhadi, Hamideh Bypour, Seyyed Erfan Asadi 
    Abstract: As the availability of many smart devices rises, fast and easy access to data as well as sharing more information is felt. Cloud computing is a computational approach that shares configurable resources such as network, servers, storage space, applications and services on the Internet, and allows the user to access services without the expertise or control of the technology infrastructure. The confidentiality, integrity, and availability of the data, reducing computational cost and communication channel between the data owner (user) and cloud service providers (CSPs) are essential parts of cloud computing. In the paper, we propose a new scheme to construct a secure cloud data storage based on the verifiable secret sharing scheme with public verifiability to protect data integrity. In the new scheme, the validity of secret shares can be publicly verified without leaking the privacy of secret shares in the verification phase. Moreover, the verification phase does not depend on any computational assumptions. Furthermore, the proposed scheme cannot only detect the cheating but also identify who are the cheaters. It is worth noting that the proposed scheme is more efficient compared with the other secret sharing-based cloud data storage since heavy and complex computation is not required.
    Keywords: Cloud computing; cloud data storage; verifiable secret sharing scheme; public verifiability; hash function.

  • Stream of Traffic Balance in Active Cloud Infrastructure Service Virtual Machines Using Ant Colony   Order a copy of this article
    by Ankita Taneja, Hari Singh, Suresh Chand Gupta 
    Abstract: Cloud load balancing is the manner of distributing computing resources and workloads over a cloud computing infrastructure. It allows an enterprise to manage workloads through appropriate resource allocation in the cloud. Various load balancing techniques in cloud computing are reviewed and the work presented in this paper thoroughly analyzes and compares two well-known algorithms in MATLAB, the Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) Algorithm and Genetic Algorithm (GA). The objective is to produce an optimal solution for cost and execution time through balancing the workload. It is observed through experimental observations that ACO based load balancing possess incurs low cost and low execution time as compared to the GA for a constant workload over a fixed number of cloud machines. However, the execution time follows a different trend when workload increases and more machines are utilized to handle the increased workload; it rises sharply in ACO as compared to the GA.
    Keywords: ACO; ant colony optimization; GA; genetic algorithm; load balancing; cloud computing; pheromone matrix; pheromone table; IAAS; infrastructure as a service.

  • Optimal allocation of cloud multi-tenant platform infrastructure resources   Order a copy of this article
    by Oleksiy Ignatyev 
    Abstract: Infrastructure resources optimisation is a significant challenge in multi-tenant cloud environment. A system and associated algorithm and processes to enable a multi-tenant platform operator or administrator to make more optimal decisions with regards to the allocation of platform infrastructure resources (such as computational capabilities, data storage, etc.) among one or more tenants or accounts are provided. In particular, we construct a data 'signature' for a set of identified users, accounts, or tenants, where the signature contains data regarding the user, account, or tenant's 'consumption' of platform infrastructure resources. Later tenants 'signatures' are being used to accomplish cloud infrastructure resources optimisation in multi-tenant environment. An innovative algorithm for cloud infrastructure resources optimisation in multi-tenant environment is introduced in current paper.
    Keywords: cloud computing; multi-tenant architecture; cloud infrastructure; software-as-a-service; SaaS; data storage; computational processing power; resources optimisation.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJCC.2019.10021214
  • An incremental and distributed inference method for large-scale ontologies over SPARK   Order a copy of this article
    by Mohamed Oubezza, Ali El Hore, Jamal El Kafi 
    Abstract: The study of the semantic interoperability and the reasoning over big data is today a major challenge for researchers, especially with the birth of semantic web and deep data. The existing solutions are not yet able to satisfy the requirements of the final user especially in terms of the consistency of the results and the request execution time. To do this we need an approach based on an ontology and a distributed and scalable system. Several studies have been done on the reasoning over large-scale ontologies, most are based on Hadoop and MapReduce or non-incremental, i.e., they recalculate the result at the arrival of new data. In this paper we propose an incremental and distributed method of reasoning over very large OWL ontologies based on SPARK, which offers a reduced execution time as it loads the RDF triplets in memory and not in disk. Our method allows creating transfer inference forest (TIF) and effective assertional triples (EAT) to reduce disk space and simplify and accelerate the reasoning process.
    Keywords: semantic web; ontology reasoning; ontology web language; OWL; OWL Horst; semantic web rule language; SWRL; SPARQL; Hadoop; SPARK.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJCC.2019.10021217
  • User support as moderator for cloud computing user satisfaction   Order a copy of this article
    by Tor Guimaraes, Ketan Paranjape 
    Abstract: Cloud computing (CC) promises to provide quicker, easier, and less expensive computing services supporting e-commerce. To ensure that CC is also able to maintain or enhance customer satisfaction, this study addresses the factors leading to higher user satisfaction with SaaS applications websites. The proposed model defines and empirically tests these relationships, including the moderating effect of user support. Data collected from 1,257 users/customers using the order entry systems of 176 client organisations available through four SaaS providers were analysed. Results confirm the importance of the proposed success factors for user satisfaction with the CC vendor websites. Management of CC application risks, knowledge about the service provider, and effective data management respectively explained significant percentages of the variance in user satisfaction with the CC vendor website. The positive impact of user support is also confirmed. The results provide the basis for several insights and recommendations for managers and future research.
    Keywords: cloud computing; e-commerce; user satisfaction; SaaS success factors; user support.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJCC.2019.10021221
  • A dynamic strategy-proof algorithm for allocation and pricing of cloud services   Order a copy of this article
    by Temidayo Oluwatosin Omotehinwa, Joseph Shuaibu Sadiku 
    Abstract: In this paper, we present a dynamic strategy-proof algorithm for allocation and pricing. The algorithm relies on market history to forecast a benchmark price to ensure truthful valuation from the market participants. The algorithm also ensures that the utility is evenly distributed between buyer and seller. The utility is the difference between the buyer's maximum offer and the seller's minimum acceptable price. The results of the experimental studies carried out shows that: 1) the budget limits of the buyers with successful allocations were not exceeded; 2) only market participants with truthful offers and bids were allocated services; 3) the utility is higher when there is no strategy-proof for preventing overbid and that there is at least a 50% increase in price per unit when there is no strategy-proof to prevent overbid; 4) in terms of computational efficiency, the algorithm converges in polynomial time with a worst-case running time of O(n2).
    Keywords: cloud computing; resource allocation; resource pricing; cloud services; strategy-proof.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJCC.2019.10021222
  • A scalable network-aware virtual machine allocation strategy in multi-datacentre cloud computing environments   Order a copy of this article
    by Marwa A. Abdelaal, Gamal A. Ebrahim, Wagdy R. Anis 
    Abstract: Virtual machine provisioning in multi-datacentre cloud computing environments is a challenging problem. However, most current virtual machine management strategies ignore their effect on cloud network. In this paper, a scalable network-aware resource allocation strategy is proposed that dynamically allocates virtual machines in cloud computing environments while minimising the overall cost. It is mainly utilised at the cloud service provider that has a large number of datacentres. Several important parameters have been taken into consideration that are mainly ignored in previous related studies. Additionally, software-defined network (SDN) has been adopted in the proposed strategy. Simulation studies have been conducted to evaluate the performance of the proposed strategy. Simulation results show a reduction in the utilisation in the valuable upper-layer links in datacentres that resulted mainly because of favouring lower-cost links during virtual machine allocation process. Additionally, the proposed strategy is able to cope with the dynamic nature of the allocation process.
    Keywords: cloud computing; multi-datacentre; software-defined network; SDN; virtual machine allocation; cloud service provider.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJCC.2019.10021226

Special Issue on: ISCSA2017 Computer Sciences and Applications

  • A hybrid method for improving quality of service in constraint-based availability in the cloud for SMEs   Order a copy of this article
    by Alireza Nik Aein Koupaei 
    Abstract: Research in cloud computing has gone through rapid development during the last decade and has emerged as a key service of utility or on-demand computing. Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) assure economic growth in the world. In the main, many SMEs are struggling to survive in an ongoing global recession and are often unwilling to use research results and new technologies for business and learning. Cloud computing provides many opportunities and could help companies expand and improve their business and use technology more resourcefully. The resource provision is an essential perspective of cloud computing technology to provide the quality of service (QoS) in cloud computing. It is used as an alternative to service level agreement (SLA). In this paper, we are going to present a new cloud hybrid method and architecture to improve, the QoS and availability under the cloud computing environment. Additionally, issues regarding the extent effect of cloud computing in SMEs have been highlighted. In conclusion, critical future challenges in the area are addressed.
    Keywords: cloud computing; small and medium-sized enterprises; SMEs; availability; service level agreement; SLA.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJCC.2019.10021211

Special Issue on: ICACB18 Advanced Computing and Communication Systems

  • Multi-Objective Optimization Techniques for Virtual Machine Migration-based Load Balancing in Cloud Data Center   Order a copy of this article
    by Meenakshi Priya, R.Kanniga Devi 
    Abstract: This paper aims to balance the load in Cloud Data Center (CDC) by migrating Virtual Machines (VM) across hosts using Multi-Objective Optimization techniques. The unpredictable rate of demand for the cloud services leads to load fluctuation and subsequently load imbalance in Cloud Data Center. Hence, to balance the load in Cloud Data Center, this work presents Multi-Objective Optimization Technique-based Load Balancing (MOOT-LB) method. This work proposes two Multi-Objective Optimization techniques namely, Multi-Objective Particle Swarm Optimization (MOPSO) and Multi-Objective Differential Evolution (MODE) for load balancing the Cloud Data Center. These techniques identify an optimal set of hosts and set of VMs to be migrated from the source hosts and identify the target hosts for migration in an efficient way. The objectives are to minimize the frequency of VM migration and migration time. To evaluate the performance of the proposed techniques ClouSim 3.0.3 simulator is used. The performance of the proposed techniques is compared, and the results show that MOPSO based load balancing technique achieves better performance than MODE based load balancing technique.
    Keywords: VM Migration; Load Balancing; Multi-Objective Optimization; MOPSO; MODE.

  • Optimized Handoff Mechanism using RFID tags for a Communication Based Train Control System   Order a copy of this article
    by Moahanasundaram Ranganathan, Kathirvel Brindhadevi, Arushi Sana, Ankit Malhotra 
    Abstract: In a Communication Based Train Control System, one of the most important aspects is ensuring that a Mobile Station is connected continuously to the Zone Controller to ensure continuous and precise transmission of the trains location, speed and other relevant information. Due to the continuous motion of the train handoffs between different APs is necessary to remain connected. This work aims to propose a location based handoff method which will minimize handoff latency and provide better connections. The location based handoff mechanism uses the concept of placing RFID tags at predetermined locations. Handoff is triggered at the location where the RFID tag is present and a connection is made to the new AP based on the channel information obtained. The architecture used in the scenario is a WiMAX architecture and connections are maintained with the help of routers contained within the mobile stations. The proposed handoff method provides better handoff latency and error free transmission in a system where precise information transmission is necessary.
    Keywords: Communication Based Train Control System; WIMAX; Access Point; RFID; Mobile Station.

  • A survey: Comparative study on IoT and CoT (Internet of Things and Cloud of Things)   Order a copy of this article
    by Kathirvel Brindhadevi, Moahanasundaram Ranganathan, Navin Kumar, Rishikesh Y. Mule 
    Abstract: In todays era, an exponential rise in technology is changing our lives essay. Tens of millions of devices are getting connected to the internet every day. This extensive growth of the internet and increasing number of interconnected devices has given a rise to many new-age technologies. The Internet of Things (IoT) provides an innovative means of communication amongst these new-age technologies and the Web world. Cloud Computing enables a convenient, on demand and scalable network access to a shared pool of configurable computing resources. Integrating Cloud computing with Internet of Things brings the concept of Cloud of Things. The Cloud of Things framework is based on a combination of ubiquitous distributed sensing units, outcomes stored in the cloud for awareness. rnThis paper surveys a comparative study on internet of things and cloud of things demonstrating how cloud of things has prevalent benefits over internet of things. Also, this paper explains how introduction of fog computing concept in cloud and IoT improves efficiency of Cloud of Things.
    Keywords: Cloud of Things; Internet of Things; Cloud computing; Fog Computing.

  • Enhanced Classification of LISS-III satellite image Using Rough Set theory and ANN   Order a copy of this article
    by Anand Upadhyay 
    Abstract: Land use and land cover classification are one of the major aspects to detect land coverage in particular area. Same goes for water, forest, and mangroves. So by keeping these parameters in mind, our objective is to identify water, land, forest, and mangroves from a LISS-III satellite image by using rough set theory and artificial neural network. LISS-III is multi-spectral camera operating in four different bands. There are many problems related to the classification of the satellite image i.e. universal classifiers, parameter setting of classifiers and features. The classification accuracy is one of the major issues related to classification of satellite image therefor in this paper rough set based artificial neural network is used for classification of the satellite image. The rough set theory is used to reduce the number of the feature vector for improved classification of satellite image using the artificial neural network.
    Keywords: LISS-III (Linear Imaging and Self Scanning Sensor); classification; satellite image; accuracy etc.

  • Analysis of Methane (CH4) and Nitrous Oxide (N2O) emission from paddy rice using IoT and Fuzzy logic   Order a copy of this article
    by Shriya A. Jadhav, Anisha Lal 
    Abstract: Most climate scientists accepted main cause of the "greenhouse effect" is human expansion. The study of rice paddy feilds revels the fact that they are the substantial sources of greenhouse gases such as methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O). So rapid increase in rice production will result in speedy rise in the level of emission of these gases. Therefore, the purpose of this research is to forecast the level of emission of methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) from the paddy farm. Internet of Things can provide an integrated solution for data acquisition, monitoring and measuring methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) concentration in air. Here we propose to define a fuzzy rule set considering the various environmental factors and conditions which are causing Greenhouse Gas emission, the fuzzy rule based system can provide a solution using linguistic variables based on which a decision support system can be designed. The combination of IoT and fuzzy logic can be used in the development of intelligent system for pattern recognition, event prediction and decision making.
    Keywords: methane (CH4); nitrous oxide (N2O); Internet of things; IoT; Fuzzy ; rice paddy.

  • A Case study for an Incremental Classifier model in big data   Order a copy of this article
    by Blessy Trencia Lincy S S, Suresh Kumar Nagarajan 
    Abstract: Big data is a term that implies enormous voluminous of data which cannot be handled by the existing traditional systems. With the evolving standards and technologies this volume has reached to a rate, such that even if provided with the huge amount of data it is a challenging task to obtain useful insights or knowledge out of it. Thus, this is a foremost and most important challenge for the researchers and scientists to transform the data or manipulate the data for analysis and processing them with the significant purpose of gaining insights out of it. Prediction plays a vital role in various applications involving business decision making processes or in healthcare industries, and many other domains. This helps in determining the future events, or to understand and analyse the events to predict the future outcome. This in turn increases the performance of the system in terms of accuracy, reduction in cost, speed and many other aspects. In this paper, a incremental classifier model is applied for performing the classification with the evolving new instances of data and analysed as a case study. The experiment is carried out with the healthcare datasets to understand and analyse the suggested model and the proposed model is said to provide better performance that deals with large data.
    Keywords: Big data; Incremental model; Classification; Predictive analytics.

    by Priyanka G, Anisha Lal 
    Abstract: As Big Data hits the maximum number of companies in all domains, secured data transfer can be done by cryptography. With increasing threats to Big Data, the security must focus on to avoid the attackers from the formation of any pattern to gain access to the information. Big data deals with the linguistic data which consists of low secured data and high secured data as well. Hence, the system should focus on providing multi-fold security and should avoid high-security common to all data categories. This paper presents a hybrid model for Big Data that ensures Data Confidentiality, Data Integrity, Access Control and Sequential Freshness by combining three symmetric key algorithms AES, DES and Blowfish for the encryption and decryption process in any desired order. Based on the level of security the combination of the algorithms can vary. This method of encryption and decryption process ensures safe data transformation between source and destination.
    Keywords: Hybrid; Encryption;Big Data.

Special Issue on: IEEE SERVICES 2018 Edges, Fogs and Clouds as Engines of IoT

  • SMIoT: A Software Architecture for Maintainable Internet-of-Things Applications   Order a copy of this article
    by Ilse Bohé, Michiel Willocx, Vincent Naessens 
    Abstract: Developing sustainable IoT applications is by far no sinecure. Many IoT apps that are currently on the market can only be coupled with a fixed set of edge devices or technologies. On the contrary, IoT sensors and actuators evolve at a fast pace degrading the attractiveness of many IoT applications over time. The vendor lock-in trap is often triggered by sensor-centric application development. This paper presents application-centric development as an alternative approach to tackle maintainability problems in IoT ecosystems. The paradigm shift is supported by a layered architecture called SMIoT, which guides the design of advanced IoT ecosystems. Applying the architectural principles result in IoT apps that can easily cope with new technologies that come to the market, hence, increasing their lifetime and offering various infrastructural alternatives to end-users. Furthermore, the architectural principles are adopted in an Android framework implementation and validated through the design of a health care ecosystem.
    Keywords: Internet-of-Things; Software architecture; Application development; Maintainable;Sustainable; Application-centric; Framework; Android; Edge devices; Tackling Vendor lock-in;.

  • Edge-centric Resource Allocation for Heterogenous IoT Applications using a CoAP-based Broker   Order a copy of this article
    by Simone Bolettieri, Raffaele Bruno 
    Abstract: The Edge/Fog computing paradigm has been recently advocated for future IoT systems to cope with the capacity and latency constraints of conventional cloud-centric IoT architectures. Fog nodes are not only needed to offload computing tasks from the centralised cloud but also to provide IoT applications with management services that facilitate deployment and improve Quality of Service. Indeed, in large-scale IoT deployments, it is expected that a large number of applications access the same resources (e.g. a sensor or an actuator), most likely hosted on constrained devices. Moreover, applications can have highly heterogeneous QoS requirements, e.g., regarding real-time constraints or frequency with which they desire to receive notifications from the monitored resources. However, IoT applications may be unable to autonomously adapt their access patterns for IoT resources to network dynamics and bandwidth limitations. To address these issues, in this work we design a fog-based broker that regulates the access to IoT resources transparently and effectively. Specifically, we develop an optimisation framework to determine the notification periods that maximise the applications' QoS satisfaction under network-related constraints. Then, we also propose practical algorithms that leverage measurements of the degree of reliability of application transmissions to infer the congestion level of the IoT resources, and adapt the notification periods accordingly. We have developed a software prototype of our broker by exploiting the standard features of the CoAP protocol. Then, we have validated the proposed solution through simulations and real experiments in an IoT testbed. Results show that, as the application demands increase, the proposed approach guarantees better QoS satisfaction, higher throughput and improved energy efficiency than a conventional CoAP proxy. Moreover, the efficacy of the optimal solution heavily depends on accurate estimates of the network capacity, which may be difficult to obtain in real-world IoT deployments.
    Keywords: Internet of Things; fog computing; resource brokering; CoAP; emulation; prototype.

  • The Edge Architecture for Semi-Autonomous Industrial Robotic Inspection Systems   Order a copy of this article
    by Ching-Ling Huang 
    Abstract: Robots have been increasingly used in industrial applications, being deployed along other robots and human supervisors in the automation of complex tasks such as the inspection, monitoring and maintenance of industrial assets. In this paper, we shared our experience and presented our implemented software framework for such Edge computing for semi-autonomous robotics inspection. These systems combine human-in-the-loop, semi-autonomous robots, Edge computing and Cloud services to achieve the automation of complex industrial tasks. This paper describes a robotic platform developed, discussing the key architectural aspects of a semi-autonomous robotics system employed in two industrial inspection case studies: remote methane detection in oilfields, and flare stack inspections in oil and gas production environment. We outline the requirements for the system, sharing the experience of our design and implementation trade-offs. In particular, the synergy among the semi-autonomous robots, human supervisors, model-based edge controls, and the cloud services is designed to achieve the responsive onsite monitoring and to cope with the limited connectivity, bandwidth and processing constraints in typical industrial setting.
    Keywords: Semi-autonomous robotics; remote methane leak inspection; Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV); HMI (Human Machine Interface).

  • In-network Processing for Edge Computing with InLocus   Order a copy of this article
    by Lucas Brasilino 
    Abstract: As sensors and smart device infrastructure grows, networks are\r\nincreasingly heterogeneous and diverse. We propose an efficient and low-latency\r\narchitecture called InLocus, which facilitates stream processing at the networks\r\nedge. InLocus balances hardware-accelerated performance with the flexibility of\r\nasynchronous software control.\r\nIn this paper we extented InLocus architecture by implementing compute\r\nnodes in a a more traditional cloud-based solution in the form of Apache Kafka\r\nand Twitter Heron framework, as well as by introducing a new runtime approach\r\nfor the previously handwritten C Server. We utilize a flexible platform (Xilinx\r\nZynq SoC) to compare microbenchmarks between the latter and High-Level\r\nSynthesis (HLS) version in programmable hardware.
    Keywords: In-network Processing; Edge Computing; Internet of Things,\r\nProgrammable Logic; FPGA; Offloading; Hardware Acceleration.

Special Issue on: ICBDSDE'19 Cloud Computing for Smart Digital Environment

  • An Improved Pricing Algorithm for Infrastructure as a Service Clouds   Order a copy of this article
    by Seyyed-Mohammad Javadi-Moghaddam, Asieh Andarzgoo, Mohsen Saberi 
    Abstract: Marketing in cloud systems enables users to trade and share resources. For the sales of services, Client applications and service providers negotiate to make a Service Level Agreement. Offering prices in the negotiation of services become one that is challenging. A federal cloud is an efficient approach of recent interest to better balance risk sharing between services provider and customer. This work presents a new algorithm to increase service provider revenue and reducing user costs simultaneously. The auction of remaining time spent on resources and interactions between federal clouds increases the profits of clouds, the number of successful requests, and reduces users' costs. The simulation results confirm the expectations of the proposed approach.
    Keywords: Federal cloud; Pricing model; Service quality; Service level agreement.

Special Issue on: Impact of Machine Learning in the Cloud Computing Revolution

  • Using Augmented Reality to Support Children With Dyslexia   Order a copy of this article
    by Majed Aborokbah 
    Abstract: This paper presents the use of interactive improved reality interface to assist and support children with dyslexia and it is one of the most common learning disabilities in the world. This is a literacy-based learning difficulty that mainly effect in reading, writing, speaking, short-term memory, spelling and etc. Many more people perhaps as many as 1520% of the population as a whole have some of the symptoms of dyslexia. This paper introduces case studies with different learning scenarios of Arabic language which have been designed based on Human Computer Interaction (HCI) principles so that meaningful virtual information is presented for dyslexic children in an interactive and compelling way. The smart phones are considered as being potentially valuable learning tools, this due to their portability, accessibility and pervasiveness. The blending of Technology and education is something that is growing rapidly and becomes most popular. Augmented Reality (AR) is recent example of a technology that has been combined into the educational field. This work aims to integrate mobile technology and AR method to improve the dyslexic children (DC) academic performance, concentration and short-term memory. The design process includes the following steps of identify the research problem and determines the requirements to overcome dyslexia problems, collect carefully the data from different sources and the collected data will be used to construct the target product based on the prototype methodology. As the output come, it will contribute in improving the learning and basic skills of children with dyslexia.
    Keywords: learning disabilities; learning tools; augmented reality;.

    by LALITHA THAMBIDURAI, SaravanaKumar R 
    Abstract: A sensor node is that the significant part of a wireless sensor network. Sensor nodes have various roles in a network includes identifying data storage, data processing and routing method. Cluster is an organizational element for wireless sensor networks. The powerful environment of this network is very essential for them to be broken down into clusters to make easier responsibilities such as communication. Cluster heads are the group head of a cluster have greater data rate match the alternative cluster member. rnThey frequently needed to associate activities within the cluster. These methods comprise but are not controlled to data aggregation and forming account of a cluster .Base station is at the upper level of organized wireless sensor network. It generates communication link among the sensor network and the end user.The data in a sensor network can be used for an enormous variety of applications. A detailed application is form use of network data over the internet retaining a personal digital assistant or desktop computer.rn This paper contributions mobility based reactive protocol named Mobility of Sink based Data Collection Protocol (MSDCP).This protocol sensor with great energy and maximum quantity information are picked as cluster heads that gather data from the common nodes between the clusters. This data is placed unless mobile sink comes within the transmission area of cluster heads and request for the gathered data. One time the request is received from cluster head and it forward data to the mobile sink.rn
    Keywords: WSN; MSDCP; Transmission Area; Cluster Head;.

Special Issue on: Big Data Computing and Sustainable Cloud Communication Systems

  • Feature vector extraction and optimization for multimodal biometrics employing face, ear and gait utilizing artificial neural networks   Order a copy of this article
    by Haider Mehraj, Ajaz Hussain Mir 
    Abstract: Cloud Computing is the rapidly growing model for providing resources to users over internet. Numerous business establishments have adopted cloud computing environment as it has low upfront costs, is scalable and provides rapid deployment. Many consumers store their sensitive information on the cloud and as such there needs to be strong authentication mechanism in place so that only authorised users are able to access the cloud. Multimodal biometrics is an upcoming research area to explore for improving the security of cloud. In this work, a novel multimodal biometric fusion system using three different biometric modalities including face, ear, and gait, based on Speed-Up-Robust-Feature (SURF) descriptor along with Genetic Algorithm (GA) for enhanced cloud security is anticipated. Artificial neural network (ANN) is utilized as a classifier for each biometric modality. Our novel fusion process has been effectively tested by means of dissimilar images analogous to all subjects from three databases including AMI Ear Database, Georgia Tech Face Database along with the CASIA Gait Database. Because of these biometric traits, the anticipated method requires no significant user assistance and also can work from a long distance. Before going for the fusion, the SURF features are optimized using genetic algorithm and cross validated using artificial neural network. The evaluations are done on a publicly available database demonstrating the accuracy of the proposed system compared with the existing systems. It is observed that, the amalgamation of face, ear and gait gives better performance in terms of accuracy, precision and recall and fmeasure.
    Keywords: Cloud Computing; Biometric Fusion; Feature Vector; SURF; GA; ANN; precision; recall; kappa; accuracy; Fmeasure.