Forthcoming and Online First Articles

International Journal of Computer Aided Engineering and Technology

International Journal of Computer Aided Engineering and Technology (IJCAET)

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International Journal of Computer Aided Engineering and Technology (18 papers in press)

Regular Issues

  • Optimization the Delay in the Portfolio construction Using GSA   Order a copy of this article
    by Kadhim R. Erzaij 
    Abstract: Construction project suspension is known to be one of the big issues that have a significant negative impact on the project and its participants. The papers key goal is to adhere to the degree to which the project achieves its goals (timely and budgetary implementation). It also helps to understand the obstacles, challenges and causes that the project faces explicitly or implicitly, thereby being a background for the delay. These factors will lead to a reduction in economic viability, forcing projects in particular in developing countries to overrun and to a decrease in growth opportunities. Finally, putting in a quantitative framework to calculate the delay effects and to predict the possible losses. Using the GSA algorithm to find the best solution for certain delays in construction projects. The unavailability of the clients serious evaluation of the bidders real technical capabilities through the tendering phase prioritizes the awarding of bids to incompetent contractors, bringing them forward and winning the bids. GSA is a very easy solution to find, as most of its velocity is about zero.
    Keywords: Delay; project ; GSA ; system.

  • A Study on Media Players in Accessibility Perspective   Order a copy of this article
    by Muralidhar Pantula 
    Abstract: Despite, the growth of media content on the web, the necessity of user-agent that renders media content is becoming prominent. Considering the needs of persons with disability, WAI recommended guidelines of how web content to specify. Along with user-agent play major role in making inaccessible content accessible. The user-agents must ensure the web content must be accessible to all users by providing the requirements through its interface and by communicating with other assistive technologies. In this paper, we have seen the problems for the persons with disabilities. we have studied the media players which are recently developed and in what way they followed the guidelines to make the content accessible to users. We designed an estimated metric based on requirement identified from the guidelines issued in WAI. Using these metrics, we have calculated the accessibility score of each player and concluded that most improvement is needed in video players designs.
    Keywords: Media Players; video; Persons with Disabilities; usability; User Agents.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJCAET.2022.10037404
  • Plates with Functionally Graded Materials under Thermo-Mechanical Loading: A Study   Order a copy of this article
    by Amandeep , Srikant Sekhar Padhee 
    Abstract: This paper discusses the gradation and thickness effect on plates made up of Functionally Graded Material (FGM) under the action of coupled thermo-mechanical loading. In this study a plate made up of FGM is applied with a coupled thermo-mechanical loading. Temperature over one surface of the plate is applied and the mechanical load which is acting in the form of pressure is applied on the same surface where higher temperature is applied. Thus the combined effect of temperature gradient along with the action of mechanical loading is observed on the FGM. The results obtained helps in determining the response of the structure for different values of the volume fraction exponent and for different values of the thickness of the plate. Thus from the obtained results a material can be tuned by varying the volume fraction exponent and thickness of plate for specific kind of applications. The same results also helps in optimizing the structure from thickness aspect by decreasing the thickness of the structure keeping in mind that the various failure limits of the structure are not reached. Further, the efforts have been made to reduce the mass of the structure preventing the failure of the FGM plate thermally and from stress point of view. The whole analysis is carried out in finite element tool ABAQUS. Results obtained can act as a guiding principle for selection of a particular type of gradation and the limiting value of thickness of the structure for a specific kind of application.
    Keywords: Functionally Graded Materials; Finite Element Analysis; ABAQUS; UMAT.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJCAET.2022.10039972
  • Digital Image Watermarking Technique based on Adaptive Median Filter and HL Sub-band of Two-stage DWT   Order a copy of this article
    by Rajeev Kumar, Piyush Kumar Singh, Jainath Yadav 
    Abstract: The digital watermarking has capabilities to sort out the matter of copyright degradation, and it is resolved by examining the imperceptibility and robustness of digital images. The robustness against geometric distortions is a crucial issue in the watermarking. In this work, the proposed digital watermarking approach uses an adaptive median filter operation and the HL sub-band of two-stage Discrete Wavelet Transforms (DWT). The cover image has been processed through an adaptive median filter to produce a smooth image. After, one-level DWT is applied to reference and watermark images. We have selected a high-frequency HL sub-band for the watermark embedding process. The second stage of DWT has been applied to obtain the modified HL sub-band. The performance of the proposed method is evaluated by computing various measures such as Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR), Mean Squared Error (MSE), and normalized correlation (NC). The proposed method is vigorous in opposition to various attacks, including the lossy JPEG compression attack. From the results, it is observed that the proposed method performs better than the recent existing methods.
    Keywords: Watermarking; DWT; IDWT; SVD; Adaptive Median Filter.

Special Issue on: ISACS'19 Advances in Applied Science and Information Technology

  • Performance analysis of WDM PON systems using PIN and APD photodiodes   Order a copy of this article
    by Hadjira Hamadouche, Boualem Merabet, Mouweffeq Bouregaa 
    Abstract: In this paper we study the quality (Q) factor used by the receivers of APD and PIN photodiodes in wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) system with 32 number of users and compare the efficiency of the bit error rate (BER). The research is conducted using avalanche photodiode (APD) P-insulator-N and PIN photodiodes receivers of different wavelengths. Interpretation and description of the Optisystem's simulation results through the optical high debit communication system, optical fibre of different lengths, bit rate, continuous wave (CW) laser power and number of users, chosen to evaluate the APD and PIN photodiodes performances in function of Q-factor and BER in order to provide new perspectives for the future transmission. The simulation values show that the performance of the APD diode and the Q and BER factor obtained from APD is better than the performance of the PIN, and could be expected because APD is more sensitive than PIN.
    Keywords: WDM PON; avalanche photodiode; APD; bit error rate; BER; positive-intrinsic-negative; PIN; Optisystem; Q-factor.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJCAET.2023.10052474
  • A computer-aided system for monitoring quality using traceable information   Order a copy of this article
    by Abdesselam Bougdira, Ismail Akharraz, Abdelaziz Ahaitouf 
    Abstract: This paper proposes the usage of traceability data to enhance the continuous evaluation and monitoring of quality. The current study focuses on processing activities where it is difficult to detect and evaluate the possible degradation of quality. It has indeed a special interest in possible gaps that are not bridged by existing quality methods and practices, especially tasks that involve significant physical contact with manual labour. Therefore, this research introduces a computer-aided system that combines ontology-based knowledge with a fuzzy-based decision-making process. The proposed model can ensure the main traceability functions, including identifying, tracing, and tracking. Also, it can handle the various attributes associated with processing activities to assess the possible loss of quality. In case of unconformity, this monitoring function enables decision-makers to intervene appropriately. The developed system has also been illustrated through a fish canning case study.
    Keywords: artificial intelligence; fuzzy computing; ontology; traceability; canning industry.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJCAET.2023.10052473
  • Optimal backstepping controller for trajectory tracking of a quadrotor UAV using ant colony optimisation algorithm   Order a copy of this article
    by Hamid Hassani, Anass Mansouri, Ali Ahaitouf 
    Abstract: This paper concerns the design of an optimal stabiliser/tracker for the quadrotor UAV. Firstly, kinematic and dynamic equations of the aerial vehicle are yielded through Newton-Euler formalism. Then, the backstepping (BS) technique is adopted to sustain a controllable and stable behaviours of the quadrotor attitude. However, designing a high-precision flight controller essentially necessitates an optimal selection of its internal parameters. The improper configuration of these parameters can negatively influence the flight performances and sometimes leads to the instability of the quadrotor system. Ant colony optimisation algorithm (ACO) is used to configure the adopted stabilised technique, and a modified cost function is proposed to improve the response of the quadrotor system. In view to corroborate the accuracy of the suggested method, a series of numerical experiments were done and comparison with other control approaches is also given.
    Keywords: quadrotor UAV; backstepping; ant colony optimisation algorithm; ACO; flight controller; modified cost function.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJCAET.2023.10052475
  • A novel face recognition approach based on strings of minimum values and several distance metrics   Order a copy of this article
    by Hicham Zaaraoui, Samir El Kaddouhi, Mustapha Abarkan 
    Abstract: This paper proposes a novel approach to face recognition using string of minimum values (SMV) as a new face feature extractor for face representation. Unlike most of the face representative methods, which focus only on micro-structures information in image analysis, by surrounding the treated pixel with a mask. The proposed descriptor uses the chains of unit vectors in four directions, by moving from the current pixel to the next one, from which to a new next pixel, and so on, in order to encode also the global appearance of the face image. Furthermore, seven distance metrics from the nearest neighbour classifier are evaluated in the classification stage. The experimental results show which metrics perform well and demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed approach in terms of recognition rate compared to the existing face recognition methods.
    Keywords: face recognition; string of minimum values; face descriptor; distance metrics; dictionary of visual words.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJCAET.2023.10036816
  • Virtual hand skinning using volumetric shape   Order a copy of this article
    by Abderrazzak Ait Mouhou, Abderrahim Saaidi, Majid Ben Yakhlef, Khalid Abbad 
    Abstract: In this paper, we propose a skinning approach for the virtual hand deformation. This is an implicit skinning approach based on the spherical primitives. Our approach presents a new idea of skinning, which aims to correct the undesirable effects introduced by geometric skinning techniques such as linear blending skinning (LBS) or dual quaternions skinning (DQS). In this paper, we propose the use of volumetric shape as a new geometric representation to better capture the behaviour of the skin. We present a real-time method producing a deformation of the mesh which takes into account the contact of the skin and the simulation of the muscles swelling. Our hand mesh is approximated with a volumetric structure which allows us to deform it in a plausible way while dealing with collisions and retaining the mesh details.
    Keywords: character animation; skinning; skeleton-based animation.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJCAET.2023.10040912
  • Optimised backstepping sliding mode controller with integral action for MPPT-based photovoltaic system using PSO technique   Order a copy of this article
    by Fatima Ez-zahra Lamzouri, El-Mahjoub Boufounas, Mounir Hanine, Aumeur El Amrani 
    Abstract: In this paper, a new optimised backstepping sliding mode controller with integral action (BISMC) is proposed to achieve maximum power point tracking (MPPT) for solar photovoltaic (PV) system. The investigated PV system consists of a photovoltaic generator (PVG) as power source, a DC-DC boost converter and a resistive load. The designed controller can allow the PV system to operate around the estimated MPPT under abrupt atmospheric conditions variation. By introducing the integral action in the sliding surface, the system presents good dynamic performances. Furthermore, the proposed BISMC controller was combined with intelligent particle swarm optimisation (PSO) algorithm to improve the controller performance in terms of transition response and tracking error. Moreover, asymptotic stability is assured using Lyapunov stability analysis and MPP is achieved under varying temperature and irradiance levels. The simulation results were reported to demonstrate the performances of the considered controller.
    Keywords: photovoltaic system; maximum power point tracking; MPPT; backstepping control; sliding mode control; SMC; integral action; particle swarm optimisation algorithm.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJCAET.2023.10052476
  • Computational methods in aerodynamics   Order a copy of this article
    by Nacer E. El Kadri E., Abdelhakim Chillali 
    Abstract: In the field of aerodynamics, numerical simulation is an effective way to reduce costs and design times. Numerical simulation is gaining importance thanks to the improvement of power and computing capabilities. However, computing powers are still too weak for the modelling of industrial problems (high Mach, turbulent regimes, etc.). To overcome this problem, aerodynamicists have developed methods to reduce the need for machine capacity by simplifying the Navier-Stokes equations, knowing that these equations accurately describe the aerodynamic flows. The objective of this research is to participate in the improvement of numerical methods in aerodynamics. Indeed, the Navier-Stokes equations are solved in conservative variables. In order to treat high Reynolds number flows, the discrete model is obtained by finite element method and a Petrov-Galerkin weighting. The developed numerical model has been used for the resolution of external two-dimensional flows around a NACA-0012 profile in the transonic and supersonic domain.
    Keywords: Navier-Stokes; Galerkin; Petrov-Galerkin; finite element method; FEM; aerodynamics; numerical simulation; machine capacity; numerical model; modelling.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJCAET.2023.10052477
  • Learn computer coding with a serious game: theoretical framework and course performance   Order a copy of this article
    by Kamal Azmi, Abderrahmane Laraqui, Faouzi Boussedra 
    Abstract: Teaching computer science to non-specialists, forms part of the Moroccan university reform perspective. So, the new purpose of the 'teacher/accompanying person' at UCD University is to accompany the learner to be auto-effective regarding a programming language. The classic modes of teaching and the classic methodologies of research on this topic are outdated. The present article tells our experience in a contextualised way, our methodological repositioning before explaining the steps of a theoretical model which reconfigures the phase of the production to favour an accompaniment stimulating the auto-efficacy of the learner. The training games and simulation environment is a better solution for this circumstance. The scenarisation tasks in this type of game are a major issue for the development of self-efficacy; and that will be the goal of this paper.
    Keywords: task-oriented approach; auto-efficacy of the learner; programming language in the Moroccan university; theoretical model; the training games and simulation.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJCAET.2023.10041591
  • Stitched image based on a real-time video conversion technique   Order a copy of this article
    by Abderrahmane Laraqui, Kamal Azmi, Mohammed Laraqui, Faouzi Boussedra 
    Abstract: Mosaic video reconstruction is a technique of assembling a video cut into frames to provide a panoramic view of a captured scene. The resulting image of this technique provides a compact representation of the entire video. In this paper we propose a technique for creating image mosaics-based video scene. This technique will be used for real-time compression of videos into mosaic images.
    Keywords: rendering; video mosaic; stitching; registration; compression; conversion; blending; matching; transformation.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJCAET.2023.10041294
  • Performance analysis of TDM PON system for 128 users using RZ and NRZ modulations   Order a copy of this article
    by Hadjira Hamadouche, Boualem Merabet, Mouweffeq Bouregaa, Samir Ghouali 
    Abstract: In this paper, we have compared the most important modulation formats used in optical communications, in terms of bit error rate (BER) and Q-factor, in the aim of assessing their weaknesses, advantages, and explore the functionality of these formats to meet potential network needs and tackle the growth of data traffic. Two basic formats in optical communication systems exist: non-return-to-zero (NRZ) and return-to-zero (RZ). Here, a device consisting of downstream optical fibre connectivity processing was used, and the system performance has been investigated using NRZ and RZ formats operating by varying bit rates, the length of the fibre, power of continuous wave (CW) laser and number of users. The analysis showed how exceptional the RZ modulation format compared with the conventional NRZ modulation design due to preferable inviolability to average peak power and nonlinearity fibre. The results were assessed by the value of the quality (Q) factor, the bit error rate of BER and average eye opening using Optisystem.
    Keywords: return-to-zero; RZ; non-return-to-zero; NRZ; Optisystem; bit error rate; BER; passive optical network; PON; quality factor; Q-factor.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJCAET.2023.10052478
  • An efficient optimisation-based design of current conveyor performances   Order a copy of this article
    by Abdelaziz Lberni, Malika Alami Marktani, Abdelaziz Ahaitouf, Ali Ahaitouf 
    Abstract: Optimisation algorithms are increasingly used by electronic circuit designers to optimally design and size the performance of their circuits. Multi-objective optimisation algorithms have a great interest, since in most cases the problems of sizing analogue, RF and mixed-signal ICs include at least two conflicting and contradictory objectives. In the present paper, we present two evolutionary algorithms (EA) well known in the literature for their better performance in solving more difficult multi-objective problems (MOP). The performances of these proposed algorithms are first applied to some well-known mathematical benchmark functions and then to deal with the optimal sizing of current conveyor transistors in the framework of 0.18 μm technology. The most important objectives are to maximise the cut-off frequency and minimise the parasitic resistance of X-port. Pareto fronts are generated, and optimised solutions are chosen. Performance metrics of the optimisation results obtained are carried out by the CADENCE Virtuoso software. This paper discusses and shows that AEs are a priori the most adapted class of metaheuristics to be used in the field of optimal electronic circuit sizing.
    Keywords: metaheuristics; optimisation algorithms; evolutionary algorithms; analogue IC design; current conveyor; multi-objective optimisation; Pareto front; CMOS technology.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJCAET.2023.10052479
  • Twisted Hessian curves over the ring 𝔽q[], 2 = 0   Order a copy of this article
    by Abdelâli Grini, Abdelhakim Chillali, Lhoussain El Fadil, Hakima Mouanis 
    Abstract: The goal of this work is to study some arithmetic proprieties of the twisted Hessian curves defined by a equation of type: aX3 + Y3 + Z3 = dXYZ on the local ring R2 = 𝔽q[X]/(X2), where p ≥ 5 is a prime number, q = pd and d ∈ ℕ*, such that -3 is not a square in 𝔽q. This paper consists of an introduction, section, and a conclusion. In the introduction, we review some fundamental arithmetic proprieties of finite local rings R2, which will be used in the remainder of this article. The section is devoted to the study the above mentioned twisted Hessian curves on these finite local rings for restriction to some specific characteristic p ≥ 5. Using these studies, we give essential properties and we define the group H2a,d, these properties, the classification of these elements and a bijection between the sets H2a,d and Ha0,d0 × 𝔽q, where Ha0,d0 is the twisted Hessian curve over the finite field 𝔽q.
    Keywords: twisted Hessian curves; finite over ring; cryptography; elliptic curves; local ring.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJCAET.2023.10052480
  • Docking study and QSAR analysis based on the artificial neural network and multiple linear regression of novel harmine derivatives   Order a copy of this article
    by Taoufik Akabli, Hamid Toufik, Mourad Stitou, Fatima Lamchouri 
    Abstract: Harmine and its derivatives are an important class of natural molecules for fighting cancer. Researching for the physical characteristics involved in this activity provides crucial keys to develop new derivatives which are more active and less toxic. For this purpose, a series of 50 harmine derivatives were studied using molecular modelling, namely 2D-QSAR analysis and molecular docking. The best 2D-QSAR model was developed correlating the three most important descriptors with the cytotoxic activity using MLR and ANN. The statistical analysis indicates high performance of the established models (R2MLR = 0.77, q2MLR = 0.73, R2extMLR = 0.81, Q2F3MLR = 0.70, r2mMLR = 0.71 and CCCMLR = 0.88, R2ANN = 0.86, q2ANN = 0.79 and R2extANN = 0.76). The analysis of the selected three descriptors showed that the lipophilicity remains the crucial property on which cytotoxic activity depends. Moreover, molecular docking of the most active compound (44) shows that it takes up a good pose into the active site of DYRKA1 kinase, as reflected by the low binding energy (-10.5 kcal/mol) and the various interactions formed with the amino acids. Thus, these results were exploited to design six new derivatives having high predicted pIC50, low binding energy and exciting pharmacokinetics properties.
    Keywords: ADME/Tox properties; artificial neural network; ANN; descriptors; lipophilicity; multiple linear regression; MLR; molecular modelling.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJCAET.2023.10052481
  • Autonomous approach for moving object detection and classification in road applications   Order a copy of this article
    by Imane El Manaa, Fadwa Benjelloun, My Abdelouahed Sabri, Ali Yahyaouy, Abdellah Aarab 
    Abstract: Our paper presents robust approaches for all moving object detection processes. First of all, we propose an automatic and non-parametric method in the segmentation phase based on Delaunay triangulation applied to the image histogram. For the feature extraction phase, we proceed by the GLCM technique for textural feature extraction and the HSV histogram method for the colour feature extraction. Those features will be used as input of the support vector machine (SVM) algorithm to design a robust classification model that will be used to differentiate between moving and static objects. Thus, static objects will be considered as a part of background, and in the other hand moving objects are surrounded by a bounding box in furtherance of careful tracking.
    Keywords: moving object detection; segmentation; classification; computer vision; training; discriminating classifier; Delaunay triangulation; SVM; GLCM; feature extraction.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJCAET.2023.10041297