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International Journal of Computer Aided Engineering and Technology

International Journal of Computer Aided Engineering and Technology (IJCAET)

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International Journal of Computer Aided Engineering and Technology (58 papers in press)

Regular Issues

  •   Free full-text access Open AccessAn enhanced RSA algorithm using Gaussian interpolation formula
    ( Free Full-text Access ) CC-BY-NC-ND
    by John Kwao Dawson, Frimpong Twum, James Benjamin Hayfron-Acquah, Yaw Marfo Missah, Ben Beklisi Kwame Ayawli 
    Abstract: Data security is a crucial concern that ought to be managed to help protect vital data. Cryptography is one of the conventional approaches for securing data and is generally considered a fundamental data security component that provides privacy, integrity, confidentiality and authentication. In this paper, a hybrid data security algorithm is proposed by integrating traditional RSA and Gaussian interpolation formulas. The integration raises the security strength of RSA to the fifth degree. The Gaussian first forward interpolation is used to encrypt the ASCII values of the message after which the traditional RSA is used to encrypt and decrypt the message in the second and third levels. The last stage employs Gaussian backward interpolation to decrypt the data again. The integration helps to cater to the factorisation problem of the traditional RSA. Comparative analysis was performed using four different algorithms: RSA, SRNN, two-key pair algorithms and the proposed algorithm. It is proven that when the data size is small, the encryption and decryption times are lower for the proposed algorithm but higher when the data size is big.
    Keywords: Gaussian backward interpolation; ASCII values; Gaussian first forward interpolation formula; GFIF; cryptographic algorithm; RSA; hybrid algorithm.

  • On generating random graphs with hard and soft constraints   Order a copy of this article
    by Mohamed Amine Omrani, Wady Naanaa 
    Abstract: Since its appearance in discrete mathematics, graphs have gained increasing importance due to their capacity to model and solve real-world computational problems. They even make it possible to handle fuzzy situations. The current research investigates the issue of generating random graphs using both hard and soft constraints. The aim of this paper is to suggest a constraint-based encoding of the cited problem in order to take advantage of the flurry of efficient solution algorithms available within the constraint programming framework. Experimental results obtained from a series of tests confirm the proposed method that lays the basis for further real world applications in different fields, such as analytical chemistry, telecommunication networks, and civil engineering.
    Keywords: Graph theory; constraint satisfaction problem; constraint programming; uncertain proximity relationship; induced subgraph; forbidden patterns; imposed patterns.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJCAET.2022.10031198
  • Performance Evaluation for Classifying Type 2 Diabetic Retinopathy using Deep Neural Network   Order a copy of this article
    by Sanikommu Vasavi, M. Likitha, L. Neeraz, Lin En Bing 
    Abstract: Now-a-days irrespective age and gender most of the people are being affected by retinal diseases. People with type 2 diabetes are more prone to blindness. Periodic check-up for diabetic retinopathy (DR) has become labour intensive task. Even though many methods based on computational intelligence are proposed for detecting diabetic retinopathy, are not efficient in classifying DR type. Early diagnosis and proper follow up treatment can prevent progressing to next stages of DR. This paper presents automatic disease detection that utilizes retinal image analysis and to accurately categorize the retinal problem as Normal, NPDR (Non-Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy) and PDR (Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy). This system uses a three step to analyze fundus images and to classify the severity grade using deep neural networks. Test results showed that our proposed system could classify the DR with 96.3 of accuracy for SVM, 95.2 accuracy for k-NN, 99.15 for ANN, and CNN scored an accuracy of 0.7998 and loss of 0.4569. ANN proved to be better when compared to existing works. Different k values are taken for k-NN and when k=5 accuracy is 95.2.
    Keywords: Type 2 Diabetic Retinopathy; Image Processing; Fundus Images; Exudates; Hemorrhages; Cotton wool spots; Lesions; Micro aneurysms.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJCAET.2023.10033944
  • Augmented Reality in Education: A Systematic study on Technical and Usability issues   Order a copy of this article
    by Neha Tuli, ARCHANA MANTRI, Shivam Sharma 
    Abstract: In recent years, Augmented Reality (AR) is being used in creating distinctive learning environments for students education. Our paper gives a systematic literature review on AR in educational environments. We considered the features, advantages and challenges of using AR in educational settings. One of the main advantage of AR is that it increases students motivation thus improving their learning experiences. Technical and usability issues are reported as the challenges experienced while using AR. There are other advantages and challenges identified from the literature survey, which are discussed in this paper. The paper also reports some of the existing studies of AR for education. Furthermore, it details the present state of art and the opportunities for additional research in AR in education
    Keywords: Augmented Reality; Education; Educational Technology; Technical issues; Usability Issues; Literature Review; Technologies for Augmented Reality Systems; Advantages; Challenges; Usability studies.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJCAET.2022.10035868
  • Designing Cassegrain Antenna with Axially Corrugated Horn Feed and Investigating the Effects of the Feed Antenna Gain on Optimum Dimensions and Specifications of the Cassegrain Antenna   Order a copy of this article
    by Alireza Sharifi 
    Abstract: In this paper, geometric dimensions of Cassegrain antenna are designed in the case of the use of axially corrugated conical horn antenna as the feed antenna. The main issue in the design of the Cassegrain antenna is to calculate the dimensions of the feed antenna and the subreflector antenna so that the amount of aperture obstruction can be minimized and the radiation efficiency is increased. After presenting the design method, an illustrative design example is mentioned. Also the effects of selecting different gain values for the feed antenna, on the dimensions and characteristics of the structure is studied.
    Keywords: Cassegrain Antenna; Axially corrugated conical horn; Cross polarization; Aperture efficiency.

  • Balancing exploration and exploitation in social spider optimization using logistic chaotic map and opposition based learning with an application to data clustering   Order a copy of this article
    Abstract: Since the last two decades, nature inspired meta-heuristic algorithms have been used by researchers to solve nonlinear problems. The performance of these algorithms depends on the balance between their exploration and exploitation capabilities. A nature inspired algorithm that maintains a balance of these two capabilities will surely avoid sub optimal solutions. The randomness present in these algorithms generally contribute more to exploration. If we produce randomness systematically, it contributes to both exploration and exploitation. Chaotic maps can be used to generate random numbers systematically. Opposition based learning improves global searching capability of nature inspired algorithms and thereby improves the exploration. Social Spider Optimization (SSO) has been getting the popularity in research community because of its applicability in a wide range of applications. The chance of getting global optimum in SSO can be improved by maintaining a balance between exploration and exploitation. In this paper, we propose a new algorithm namely Logistic chaotic map and Opposition based learning SSO for Data Clustering (LOSSODC) that maintains a good balance between exploration and exploitation in the entire search process using logistic chaotic map and opposition based learning for solving data clustering problem. We compare it with other nature inspired clustering algorithms and find that it gives better clustering results with respect to both low dimensional and high dimensional datasets.
    Keywords: Social spider optimization; Logistic chaotic map; Opposition based learning; exploration; exploitation.

  • Robust segmentation model for unshaped microarray spots using fractal transformation   Order a copy of this article
    by M.A. Sayedelahl, Roushdi Farouk 
    Abstract: DNA microarray technology has permitted the analysis of global gene expression profiles in clinical diagnosis, treatment, and environmental health researches for several diseases including cancer. Microarray images analysis, processing and segmentation are decisive steps in gene expression analysis, since any errors leads to improper diagnosis. These techniques increased and enhanced over the past few years. However, the segmentation of the unshaped spots within the microarray image still a problem due to the variations of spots in shapes and sizes. Hence, we introduce a new unshaped microarray spot segmentation model. Which focuses on spots detection and segmentation regardless of their size and shape using fractal dimensions transform. rnReal microarray images from The Stanford Microarray images Database (SMD) and Universal microarray images database (UNC) are used to evaluate the efficiency of the proposed model. The numerical and visual results show that, proposed model improve the accuracy and the efficiency of the spots segmentation process. Biological researchers can used this model in their labs and Clinics, as a free priceless software instead of using expensive one like ScanAlyze, GenePix or spot software.rn
    Keywords: Unshaped segmentation; Fractal dimensions; cDNA microarray spots analysis; cDNA microarray spots segmentation.

  • Effect of Fault Classification and Detection in Transmission Line using Wavelet Detail Coefficient   Order a copy of this article
    by Lokesh Raman, YATINDRA GOPAL, Dinesh Birla, Mahendra Lalwani 
    Abstract: This paper presents the progress of fault detection and classification analysis in transmission line using wavelet transform with high-speed protective digital relay. These techniques are applicable for real time data analysis. The MATLAB simulation model to obtained voltage and current, signals have measured in both end of the transmission line. These signals used in discrete wavelet transform to extract the original signals to measure the sharp variation of multi-resolution analysis (MRA). In transmission line to different type of faults occur with analysis fault detect, classify very quick and reliable using many protection scheme. This proposed methodology time- frequency analysis of wavelet transform. These faults classified with applied of db-4 and third level detail coefficients analyzing. These are varying fault inception angle, fault impedance and fault distance in transmission line model. This effect overcome by wavelet transforms to carry out generate time and frequency domain signal. The extensive more simulation work has been carrying to identify and classify fault are using proposed methodology more effective with suitable for high-impedance faults induced in the high-voltage transmission line. The power transmission lines are interconnected with generating station 400 kv via consumer load through 300km distance to obtain by MATLAB/SIMULINK.
    Keywords: Multi Resolution Analysis (MRA); Wavelet transform; Transient signal; Discrete wavelet transform (DWT); Fault detection.

  • Eigenvalue Fusion based Machine Learning Approach for Cooperative Spectrum Sensing in Cognitive Radio   Order a copy of this article
    by Rajendra Yelalwar, Yerram Ravinder 
    Abstract: Spectrum sensing is the most critical and fundamental function of the Cognitive Radio (CR) for dynamic spectrum usage. Machine Learning (ML) techniques that allow CRs to learn the environment adaptively are most essential in spectrum sensing. This paper proposes a novel Machine Learning based Cooperative Spectrum Sensing (CSS) technique using various ML schemes like SVM, Gaussian Naive Bayes, Gradient boosting and Extra tree to enhance the probability of detection. Here the ML classifiers used in the fusion center of the CSS schemes are trained with test statistics derived from the eigenvalues extracted from the covariance matrix of a received signal. Test statistics used are labelled with +1 for the primary user(PU) and -1 for noise. In the proposed system the classifier recognizes the received signal samples as a PU signal or a noise signal and distinguishes the PU signal from noise effectively under low SNR conditions using a threshold that possesses self learning ability. The simulation results exhibit the performance analysis of various ML algorithms for CSS under different wireless scenarios and their suitability is compared with conventional approaches.
    Keywords: Cognitive radio; Cooperative spectrum sensing; Machine learning; SVM; Gaussian Naive Bayes; Gradient boosting.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJCAET.2022.10040982
  • Optimization of Friction Stir Welding Parameters to Improve Corrosion Resistance and Mechanical Properties of AA2219 Aluminum Alloy Welds   Order a copy of this article
    by DHANAVATH BALAJI NAIK, Ch Venkata Rao, K. Srinivasa Rao, Madhusudan Reddy, G. Rambabu 
    Abstract: AA2219 Al-Cu alloy is mainly used for aerospace and defense applications. For the fabrication of lightweight structures, aluminum alloys are suitable. Welding is used in the fabrication of components made of AA2219 aluminum alloy and causes microstructural changes in fusion zone partially melted zone and heat affected zone that form during fusion welding of AA2219 alloy. These microstructural changes strongly influence the corrosion behavior and affect the corrosion resistance of the welds. Friction stir welding (FSW) is a solid-state joining method and can overcome all the problems caused by the fusion welding process. Tool pin profile is one of the important parameters that affect the microstructure and mechanical properties of friction stir welds of AA2219 aluminum alloy. The tool parameters and process of FSW plays a significant role in determining the joint strength. In this research work, the relationships between the FSW parameters (tool pin profile, rotational speed, welding speed, and axial force) and the responses (tensile strength, hardness and corrosion resistance) were studied. A mathematical model was developed to predict the welding parameters for the improvement of tensile strength, hardness and corrosion resistance of AA2219 aluminum alloy FS welds. In this work, a central composite design with four factors and five levels has been used to minimize the experimental conditions. Dynamic polarization testing was carried out to determine critical pitting potential, which is a criterion for measuring pitting corrosion resistance. Further, the response surface method (RSM) was used to develop the model. Response optimization showed that the optimum combination of tensile strength, hardness, and corrosion resistance was achieved with hexagon tool pin profile and welding parameters of rotational speed 1214 rpm, welding speed 629 mm/min and axial force 11 KN. AA2219 friction stir welds microstructural studies were carried out by using optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, Transmission electron microscopy and Electron backscattered diffraction for welds made with conical and hexagonal tool pin profiles and compared with base metal and found welds made with hexagonal tool pin profile superior properties than conical tool pin profile, as the number of flats are increasing from three (triangle) to six (hexagon), generation of heat during the welding also relatively more when compared to smooth type conical tool pin profile this may attributed to relatively more fine grain structure in hexagonal tool pin profile when compared to conical tool pin profile..
    Keywords: Tool pin profile; tensile strength; corrosion resistance; hardness; AA2219 aluminum alloy; FSW; SEM; TEM; EBSD and RSM.

  • Artificial Neural Network Tactic to Predict Interest in Majors in Computing   Order a copy of this article
    by Sahar Idwan, Shereen Ismail, Moh'd Sami Ashhab, Mohammed Awad, Izzeddin Matar 
    Abstract: In this paper, we will present the first study of using the neural network approach to predict aspects that influence school students in selecting an Information and Communication Technology (ICT) related major at their respective universities. A survey was distributed among school students to determine the factors towards choosing related fields in ICT. We trained the neural network algorithm with the available data. The input to the network stems from six factors: Curriculum, Extra-Curricular activities, Decision-makers, Teachers, Importance of ICT or computing-related subjects at school, and Infrastructure. The neural network predicts the school students behavior towards choosing the ICT major at the university level. Simulation results show the importance of these factors in predicting the students choice in majoring in ICT.
    Keywords: Artificial Neural Network (ANN); Artificial Intelligence; Information and Communication Technology; Computing majors.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJCAET.2022.10043009
  • A Privacy-Preserving Model for Cloud data storage through Fog Computing   Order a copy of this article
    by Rishabh Gupta, Ashutosh Kumar Singh 
    Abstract: Nowadays, most of the organizations are shifting their data to therncloud platform because of its flexibility, elasticity, on-demand services, etc.rnThe major concern of these organizations is to store the data on the cloudrnin a privacy-preserving manner as they lose the control rights and the datarncan be leaked/tempered during the transmission. This paper presents a privacy-rnpreserving scheme that uses the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) techniquernto store the client data on the cloud via fog computing. Encryption is performedrnat the local machine as well as fog server and then data is transferred tornthe cloud. Randomly generated files are used to perform the experiments andrnencryption/decryption time is computed. The results show an improvement ofrn80% and 88% when a file of 10 MB is encrypted and decrypted respectively asrncompared to the previous work.
    Keywords: Cloud computing; Fog Computing; Cloud Storage; Privacy Protection; AES Algorithm.

  • Hybrid Renewable Energy Resources Incorporated Optimal Power Flow Using Single Phase Multi-Group Teaching Learning Based Optimizer   Order a copy of this article
    by Sundaram Pandya, Hitesh Jariwala 
    Abstract: The latest scenario of electrical system consists of conventional generating units along with the renewable energy resources. The proposed article recommends a method for the solution of optimal power flow, integrating with wind generating units, solar photovoltaic system and hybrid solar with small hydro power that is run-of-river with traditional coal-based generating stations. The irregularity of renewable sources output intensifies the complications of the optimal power flow issue. In proposed work Lognormal, Weibull and Gumble probability density functions are also utilized for predicting power outputs of those renewables, respectively. The modified IEEE-30 bus test system is used for validate the results, which is incorporated with wind-solar-small hydro generating plants. The single phase multi-group teaching learning based optimizer is used as the optimization tool and simulation results compared with newly developed algorithm.
    Keywords: Wind power units; Solar PV energy; Small hydro power; Probability Density Function.

  • Using Neural Networks to Predict Weather Patterns and Trends - Challenges and Opportunities   Order a copy of this article
    by Sandeep Mathur 
    Abstract: Weather prediction systems today are a function of a multitude of variables, which result in complicated and convoluted systems of mathematical simulations and equations. Simulating along the lines of these systems requires enormous amounts of computational power and resources, at the scale of supercomputers and super-scalar and massively parallelized architectures. There has been a recent attempt to avoid such costly and often inefficient calculations by making use of Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) to predict future weather and climate patterns at large. This paper will explore such methods of varying complexity, and review their effectiveness as compared to Numerical Weather Predictions (NWP) models.
    Keywords: Index Terms—neural networks; weather prediction; prediction models.

  • Glucose-Insulin Dynamics: A Grey-box Analogy   Order a copy of this article
    by Vincent Omwenga 
    Abstract: Regulating plasma glucose levels for both type I and type II diabetic patients is a challenging task. Understanding the effects of meals taken, the physical exercises and stress levels will contribute significantly to the overall management of the plasma glucose levels. This paper provides an extension of the Bergman Minimal model to represent twelve-compartmental models associated with meals taken, physical exercises and stress levels interactions within a semi-closed loop system using Stochastic Differential Equations (SDE). The mathematical modelling is constructed following the Grey-box model analogy as applied on an identifiable patient. Obtained results from the study demonstrates the predictive capability of the model to be good and its sensitivity is enhanced with increased dataset.
    Keywords: Glucose-Insulin dynamics; Plasma glucose levels; Stochastic differential equation; Bergman minimal model; Grey-box model.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJCAET.2022.10034114
  • PSO-SVM based novel haptic interface controller design   Order a copy of this article
    by Naveen Kumar 
    Abstract: The key performance issues in the haptic system are stability and transparency. A systems' stability, is defined as minimum oscillations & vibration in the output response as well as in the device itself, whereas, transparency, defined as minimum error between the applied force or velocity and executed in the virtual environment (VE) of haptic system. Here, when we control the stability of the system, transparency gets hamper and vice-versa. To overcome this problem, a novel optimal Haptic Interface Controller (HIC) has been designed using modern techniques (Neural Network, Support Vector Machine, and PSO optimized SVM). This optimal HIC employs the input force provided by the user and the feedback force from the haptic device. The error between the applied force and the feedback force should be minimum to maximize transparency. Moreover, there are always some differences between the theoretical model and the physical model. To ensure the working of the designed controller in the physical device, an effort also has been made to accommodate the uncertainty and delay, which makes the major difference between simulated and physical models. The result obtained using optimal HIC has been compared with the conventional method, which improvement in transparency.
    Keywords: Stability; transparency; haptic system; neural network; SVM; PSO; HIC.

  • New modelisation for create serious game for learning java language   Order a copy of this article
    by Abarkan Ali, Saaidi Abderrahim, Ben Yekhlef Majid 
    Abstract: In this article, a new model of serious game design has been proposed. In general, the design of serious games requires from the start, chooses a model of adequate design and adapted to the idea of the proposed game, to achieve a balance between the serious and playful content, and to define the intervention of employees in each d stages of design. Our proposed model integrates the teacher into the learning process by allowing him to add, modify, and adapt new parts (exercise content) in the game. Similarly, in this work, a serious game has been implemented at the base of our model. This game aims to improve the skills of the learners, in java, by offering them a learning environment based on the spirit of challenge and motivation. The results obtained, in terms of learning rates and simplicity, showed the quality of our model and game designed.
    Keywords: Serious game; learning; java; learning skills; motivation of learners; game scenario.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJCAET.2022.10035090
  • Optimization the Delay in the Portfolio construction Using GSA   Order a copy of this article
    by Kadhim R. Erzaij 
    Abstract: Construction project suspension is known to be one of the big issues that have a significant negative impact on the project and its participants. The papers key goal is to adhere to the degree to which the project achieves its goals (timely and budgetary implementation). It also helps to understand the obstacles, challenges and causes that the project faces explicitly or implicitly, thereby being a background for the delay. These factors will lead to a reduction in economic viability, forcing projects in particular in developing countries to overrun and to a decrease in growth opportunities. Finally, putting in a quantitative framework to calculate the delay effects and to predict the possible losses. Using the GSA algorithm to find the best solution for certain delays in construction projects. The unavailability of the clients serious evaluation of the bidders real technical capabilities through the tendering phase prioritizes the awarding of bids to incompetent contractors, bringing them forward and winning the bids. GSA is a very easy solution to find, as most of its velocity is about zero.
    Keywords: Delay; project ; GSA ; system.

  • A Secure e-Exam Management System (SeEMS) in Educational Institutions   Order a copy of this article
    by Yassin Katea 
    Abstract: The advancements in Information and Communication Technology (ICT), within the previous decade, have initiated new educational methods leading to e-learning. Many educational institutions realized its importance, benefits, and role in achieving the efficiency and effectiveness of various aspects of education. The e-Examination (i.e., e-Assessment) measures or evaluates students performance, which is considered a vital process in e-learning systems. This work adopts a secure e-Exam Management System (SeEMS) as an active resolve for students' evaluation in educational institutions and has the ability to conduct multiple e-Exams simultaneously for different academic subjects based on Bank of questions with a variety of questions types. Finally, an auto-grading sub-system is invoked after the decryption of collected students' answers either after their submission or timing elapsed. Several procedures of security levels are adopted to prevent possible challenges and the different types of attacks; it is based on a Client-Server architecture and was built mainly on the basis of permissions that support users-Authentication, randomization of the pool of questions and answers sequences, image encryption based on chaotic-map that will be used as input to the proposed Spiral cryptosystem, real-time monitoring for exams-management and examines. This system solves the possible failure problems when conducting exams which provide resumption ability to them and can be used either locally inside the computer lab (Intranet) or through a remote lab via the Internet. The results prove that (SeEMS) surpass other systems when comparing them for different criteria's, and the encryption technique is very efficient according to security measurements where the average entropy of the ciphered image near 8 (7.99), a flatten histogram with correlation near zero.
    Keywords: chaos; CBT; e-Assessment; e-Exam; e-Test; Security.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJCAET.2022.10032306
  • k-means partitioning approach to predict the error observations in a small datasets   Order a copy of this article
    by Pruthviraju Garikapati, Balamurugan Karnan, Latchoumi T.P 
    Abstract: The partitioning algorithm was used to identify the uncertainty and the similarity in large sets of databases. k values are set based on the models. The effect of change in k values from the lowest to the highest level was analyzed for a small set of databases that are acquired through machining AlSi7/ 63% SiC hybrid composite. An attempt has been made to identify the correlation between the k-value clustered class and with a developed linear regression model. Further, the analysis was done to identify the critical machining observations that have a high error rate while on machining AlSi7/63%SiC hybrid composite using Abrasive Waterjet at the varied parameters condition. Taguchi L27 Orthogonal Array observations are clustered into different groups with a k-value of 2 to 8. The study was limited to k=8 because at this level clustered classes have very few observations that make unfit to predict the model.
    Keywords: Abrasive Waterjet Machine; Partitioning algorithm; K-means; Clustering; Regression.

  • A Study on Media Players in Accessibility Perspective   Order a copy of this article
    by Muralidhar Pantula 
    Abstract: Despite, the growth of media content on the web, the necessity of user-agent that renders media content is becoming prominent. Considering the needs of persons with disability, WAI recommended guidelines of how web content to specify. Along with user-agent play major role in making inaccessible content accessible. The user-agents must ensure the web content must be accessible to all users by providing the requirements through its interface and by communicating with other assistive technologies. In this paper, we have seen the problems for the persons with disabilities. we have studied the media players which are recently developed and in what way they followed the guidelines to make the content accessible to users. We designed an estimated metric based on requirement identified from the guidelines issued in WAI. Using these metrics, we have calculated the accessibility score of each player and concluded that most improvement is needed in video players designs.
    Keywords: Media Players; video; Persons with Disabilities; usability; User Agents.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJCAET.2022.10037404
  • Design and Analysis of C/Ka/V multiband miniaturized antenna for Next Generation Network Applications   Order a copy of this article
    by Umar Farooq, G.M. Rather 
    Abstract: In next generation networks, hand held devices will be operating at millimetre wave (MMW) band to support high data rate and low latency features. Also in order to coexist with current communication systems like WiFi, WiMax and 4G, these devices need to operate at low frequency bands as well. This requires the multiband antenna systems that can operate at MMW band as well as L/S/C/X band. This paper presents a novel configuration for multiband miniaturised rectangular microstrip antenna (RMSA) for 5.5 GHz (C band), 33.5 GHz (Ka band) and 62.5 GHz (V band) operations. The proposed design utilises the antenna at lower frequency band as the ground plane for a 2 ×2 Ka band antenna array. The V band is excited by incorporating the symmetrical slots at optimum position in the elements of Ka band antenna array. The antenna performs quite well with negligible interference between the three operating bands and achieves a return loss of 15.63 dB, 19.35 dB and 21.05 dB respectively. The antenna achieves a bandwidth ('S11' < 10 dB) of 6.54%, 4.78% and 3.40% at 5.5 GHz, 33.5 GHz and 62.5 GHz respectively and provides a reasonable gain of 5.23 dB at 5.5 GHz, 6.02 dB at 33.5 GHz and 5.18 dB at 62.5 GHz.
    Keywords: Millimeter Wave; Heterogeneous Networks; Next Generation Networks; 5G; Multiband antenna.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJCAET.2022.10038721
  • Plates with Functionally Graded Materials under Thermo-Mechanical Loading: A Study   Order a copy of this article
    by Amandeep , Srikant Sekhar Padhee 
    Abstract: This paper discusses the gradation and thickness effect on plates made up of Functionally Graded Material (FGM) under the action of coupled thermo-mechanical loading. In this study a plate made up of FGM is applied with a coupled thermo-mechanical loading. Temperature over one surface of the plate is applied and the mechanical load which is acting in the form of pressure is applied on the same surface where higher temperature is applied. Thus the combined effect of temperature gradient along with the action of mechanical loading is observed on the FGM. The results obtained helps in determining the response of the structure for different values of the volume fraction exponent and for different values of the thickness of the plate. Thus from the obtained results a material can be tuned by varying the volume fraction exponent and thickness of plate for specific kind of applications. The same results also helps in optimizing the structure from thickness aspect by decreasing the thickness of the structure keeping in mind that the various failure limits of the structure are not reached. Further, the efforts have been made to reduce the mass of the structure preventing the failure of the FGM plate thermally and from stress point of view. The whole analysis is carried out in finite element tool ABAQUS. Results obtained can act as a guiding principle for selection of a particular type of gradation and the limiting value of thickness of the structure for a specific kind of application.
    Keywords: Functionally Graded Materials; Finite Element Analysis; ABAQUS; UMAT.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJCAET.2022.10039972
  • Digital Image Watermarking Technique based on Adaptive Median Filter and HL Sub-band of Two-stage DWT   Order a copy of this article
    by Rajeev Kumar, Piyush Kumar Singh, Jainath Yadav 
    Abstract: The digital watermarking has capabilities to sort out the matter of copyright degradation, and it is resolved by examining the imperceptibility and robustness of digital images. The robustness against geometric distortions is a crucial issue in the watermarking. In this work, the proposed digital watermarking approach uses an adaptive median filter operation and the HL sub-band of two-stage Discrete Wavelet Transforms (DWT). The cover image has been processed through an adaptive median filter to produce a smooth image. After, one-level DWT is applied to reference and watermark images. We have selected a high-frequency HL sub-band for the watermark embedding process. The second stage of DWT has been applied to obtain the modified HL sub-band. The performance of the proposed method is evaluated by computing various measures such as Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR), Mean Squared Error (MSE), and normalized correlation (NC). The proposed method is vigorous in opposition to various attacks, including the lossy JPEG compression attack. From the results, it is observed that the proposed method performs better than the recent existing methods.
    Keywords: Watermarking; DWT; IDWT; SVD; Adaptive Median Filter.

  • Development of a priority dispatching rule and novel production scheduling algorithm for a job shop   Order a copy of this article
    by M.S. Narassima, Shriram K. Vasudevan, S.P. Anbuudayasankar 
    Abstract: The manufacturing industry plays a significant role in the economic development of a country. Efforts are being made to address complex issues and improve the functioning of the manufacturing sector. Job shop relates some such intricate problems as it handles a variety of jobs with varying demand. The current study involves improving the overall production process in a job shop handling several components. Any job shop problem involves sequencing and scheduling of incoming jobs. The study was organised into the three phases, the first phase relating to sequencing of jobs in a job shop for which a priority dispatching rule (PDR) was developed using technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS) method. The second phase involves the development of a discrete event simulation (DES) model of the press shop in order to compare the performance measures of various PDRs. The final phase deals with the development of an active production scheduling algorithm that can generate an active schedule for a job shop. All these three phases need to be integrated for better, optimised solutions as they are all interdependent.
    Keywords: production scheduling; job shop; priority dispatching rules; PDRs; technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution; TOPSIS; discrete event simulation; DES; active scheduling; production scheduling algorithm.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJCAET.2022.10048159
  • Semi-blind estimation of CFO and channels for STBC-OFDM system   Order a copy of this article
    by Mokhtar Besseghier, Ahmed Bouzidi Djebbar 
    Abstract: Space time block coding-orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (STBC-OFDM)-based multi input multi output (MIMO) system has been shown to be robust against non ideal operating conditions such as antenna correlation, channel estimation errors, and Doppler effects. But, the latter suffers from carrier frequency offset (CFO) which makes channels estimation more challenging. In this paper, we propose joint semi-blind CFO and channels estimators based on modified-multiple signal classification (M-MUSIC) algorithm for STBC-OFDM system over MIMO channels. Channel state information can be estimated at the receiver using pilot symbols embedded in each transmission block. To this end, we propose to encode pilot symbols by a specific space-time block coder (S-STBC) while information symbols are encoded by Alamouti-based space-time block coding (A-STBC). MUSIC-based estimation algorithms are characterised by a high computational complexity. To overcome this drawback, we derive an iterative algorithm which leads to low complexity, high performance CFO and channels estimation. The performance of our algorithms is compared with existing approach by simulations.
    Keywords: Alamouti; carrier frequency offset; CFO; channels estimation; MUSIC; virtual subcarriers; VSCs; pilot symbols.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJCAET.2022.10048158
  • Stable-plastic neural network, which defines several solutions and new information on its inputs   Order a copy of this article
    by Valery Dmitrievich Dmitrienko, Sergey Yurievich Leonov, Alexander Yurievich Zakovorotniy 
    Abstract: The analysis results of the discrete Hamming neural network's functioning features are presented. The above-mentioned network cannot retrain in the process of functioning, determine new information on its input layer and recognise input black and white images located at the same minimum distance from two or more reference images. The shortcomings of neural networks using the Hamming distance and solving this problem for images located on the boundaries of two or three classes of images are discussed. A modification of the Hamming neural network which does not have the aforementioned disadvantages was proposed.
    Keywords: neural network of Hamming; reference images; images on the boundaries of two or three classes; new information.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJCAET.2022.10035442
  • Power reduction of standard cells by controlling leakage current   Order a copy of this article
    by Suman Bhowmik 
    Abstract: Leakage power dissipation contributes to a considerable amount of total power dissipation for the circuit designed below 50 nm technology. In this paper two techniques are proposed to reduce leakage power as well as total power of logic circuits by circuit level modification. The techniques use extra foot transistors along with capacitor to reduce leakage power. As a basic building block, NAND and NOR gate are modified accordingly for leakage reduction. The proposed techniques have also been extended to a larger circuit to confirm its power utility. Leakage power dissipation, total power dissipation, energy and the trade-off among them of the new designs have been discussed and compared with the results of conventional CMOS circuits. The best adder configuration exhibits more than 20% saving in leakage and 28% saving in total power. For circuit design and simulation, virtuoso Cadence tool at 45 nm technology has been used.
    Keywords: leakage power; CMOS; delay.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJCAET.2022.10047263
  • Reliability allocation and optimisation by using Kuhn-Tucker and geometric programming for series-parallel system   Order a copy of this article
    by Saad Abbas Abed, Ahmed Hussein Ali, Omar Abdulwahabe Mohamad, Mohammad Aljanabi 
    Abstract: In this paper, two models are proposed to maximise the lifetime stochastically of the series-parallel system by properly allocating reliabilities for each component of the system mentioned above. The optimisation problem of reliability system was also used to calculate the best values for the reliability allocated to each system component and thus calculate the total cost. The results include: 1) a critical point in series-parallel system is a fixed point; 2) the first cost Tillman function is Euclidean convex; 3) the optimisation problem, such a cost function and constraints functions (active, inactive), associated with polynomial of reliability, leads us to adopt a geometric programming method to allocate reliability and calculate total cost.
    Keywords: reliability optimisation; reliability allocation; allocation; optimisation.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJCAET.2022.10048161
  • Secure voting system for elections   Order a copy of this article
    by Jabbar El-Gburi, Gautam Srivastava, Senthilkumar Mohan 
    Abstract: In this paper, we present a novel electronic voting system (EVS) for political and social elections based on known cryptographic schemes. In cryptography, the El-Gamal encryption system is an asymmetric key encryption algorithm which is based on Diffie-Hellman key exchange. We use the El-Gamal algorithm to generate and encrypt random keys for the voters. This scheme is designed in a way that the communication channels are anonymous and in the meantime privacy, eligibility and fairness are applied to the entire system. Encrypted receipt-free transactions are provided to the voters after they submit a vote successfully. Once the voters have completed voting, the voters can check on voting online using the encrypted receipt, their confirmed participation in the election. The voters will not be aware of the chosen candidate to prevent cheating and vote selling, common issues in elections these days. The name of the chosen candidate will be confidential. The proposed voting system efficiently gives the opportunity for people to vote via their own PCs/laptops, thus decreases the queues accumulated up at voting centres. In addition, it offers a highly dependable authentication approach by national ID or biometrically which leads to overcoming electoral fraud.
    Keywords: secure voting; online elections; encryption; cryptography.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJCAET.2022.10048162
  • A semi-automatic system of web videos annotation and retrieval: application to events detection in soccer domain   Order a copy of this article
    by Lamia Fatiha Kazi Tani, Abdelghani Ghomari, Mohammed Yassine Kazi Tani 
    Abstract: Annotations and retrieval of soccer videos on the web is a challenging task that concerns human lives including sports. In this paper, we propose a novel approach based on deep learning and ontology formalism to detect objects and to recognise events in soccer videos. To overcome the semantic gap between low and high level semantic annotation of videos, we use a deep neural network to extract low-level features through a complete method called mask R-CNN based ResNet-101 architecture as a backbone. Then, we create and populate soccer ontology in accordance to the output predictions of the mask R-CNN. We then create a smart system able to learn how to detect objects and to infer events in soccer videos. To validate our approach, we experimented on 40 soccer videos of FIFA World Cup 2018 downloaded from YouTube and we compare the obtained results with those of the state of the art.
    Keywords: soccer video annotation; event recognition; convolutional neural network; CNN; mask R-CNN; ontology; SWRL.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJCAET.2022.10026118

Special Issue on: ICEIEE 2019 Computational Engineering and its Applications

  • A Novel Design of a 1GHz Phase Locked Loop with Improved lock time for fast Frequency Acquisition   Order a copy of this article
    by Monika Bhardwaj 
    Abstract: This paper contains a low power PLL with better lock time which involves the designing of charge pump, voltage controlled oscillator, loop filter, phase frequency detector at low power. Logical expressions are developed and analyzed for the parameters of system design. System related noise model is also presented for output and internal noise. The PLL is designed to offer high speed performance at low cost. Loop filter design is the most important block in designing low noise, low cost device which helps in improving the overall system performance. The PLL is designed using 0.18 um CMOS process in Tanner design tool and 1.8v supply. It is designed to operate in the frequency range of 200MHz-1GHz which is used to generate the clock signals where the input frequency signal is synchronized. The designed PLL can be used in variety of frequency synthesizers in the field of communication and instrumentation.
    Keywords: - Phase locked loop (PLL); VCO; charge pump (CP); phase error; phase frequency detector (PFD); channel length modulation.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJCAET.2022.10042666
  • Recognition of Typewritten Gurmukhi Characters   Order a copy of this article
    by Rajan Goyal, Rajesh Kumar Narula, Manish Kumar Jindal 
    Abstract: Today, extensive research has been done on data analysis and text recognition, currently numerous Optical Character Recognition (OCR) frameworks are available by various researchers. Language scripting is considered as a challenging task due to presence of degraded characters which affects the OCR performance. In Gurumukhi content old reports are inaccessible because of its delicate condition. For the most part old archives get debased which hampers their lucidness. The utmost work is done by researchers on character recognition of Gurmukhi script deals with handwritten and printed characters. The aim of this research work is to cover blind spot area of typewritten Gurmukhi script for recognition of character. To achieve this, features are extracted using projection profiles, zoning features, transition features, distance vector and neighbouring pixels and machine learning techniques like SVM (using linear and polynomial kernel) and k-NN (with value of k = 3, 5, 7 and 11) are applied to recognize the characters. It is found that SVM linear approach provides best result in our case.
    Keywords: Feature extraction; Classification; SVM; k-NN; OCR.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJCAET.2022.10043542

Special Issue on: ISACS'19 Advances in Applied Science and Information Technology

  • A computer-aided system for monitoring quality using traceable information   Order a copy of this article
    by Abdesselam Bougdira, Ismail Akharraz, Abdelaziz Ahaitouf 
    Abstract: This paper proposes the usage of traceability data to enhance the continuous evaluation and monitoring of quality. The current study focuses on processing activities where it is difficult to detect and evaluate the possible degradation of quality. It has indeed a special interest in possible gaps that are not bridged by existing quality methods and practices, especially tasks that involve significant physical contact with manual labor. Therefore, this research introduces a computer-aided system that combines ontology-based knowledge with a fuzzy-based decision-making process. The proposed model can ensure the main traceability functions, including identifying, tracing, and tracking. Also, it can handle the various attributes associated with processing activities to assess the possible loss of quality. In case of unconformity, this monitoring function enables decision-makers to intervene appropriately. The developed system has also been illustrated through a fish canning case study.
    Keywords: Artificial Intelligence; Fuzzy Computing; Ontology; Traceability; Canning Industry.

  • Performance Analysis of WDM PON systems using PIN and APD Photodiodes   Order a copy of this article
    Abstract: In this paper we study the quality(Q) factor used by the receivers of APD and PIN photodiodes in wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) system with 32 number of users and compare the efficiency of the bit-error-rate(BER).The research is conducted using avalanche photo diode (APD) P-Insulator-N and PIN photodiodes receivers of different wavelengths. Interpretation and description of the Optisystem's simulation results through the optical high debit communication system, optical fiber of different lengths, bit rate , continuous wave(cw) laser power and number of users, chosen to evaluate the APD and PIN photodiodes performances in function of Q factor and BER in order to provide new perspectives for the future transmission . The simulation values show that the performance of the APD diode and the Q and BER factor obtained from APD is better than the performance of the PIN that could be expected because APD is more sensitive than PIN.
    Keywords: WDM PON; APD; PIN; Optisystem; Bit Error Rate; Q-Factor.

  • Optimal Backstepping Controller for Trajectory Tracking of a Quadrotor UAV using Ant colony optimization algorithm   Order a copy of this article
    Abstract: This paper concerns the design of an optimal stabilizer/tracker for the quadrotor UAV. Firstly, kinematic and dynamic equations of the aerial vehicle are yielded through Newton-Euler formalism. Then, the backstepping (BS) technique is adopted to sustain a controllable and stable behaviors of the quadrotor attitude. However, designing a high-precision flight controller essentially necessitate an optimal selection of its internal parameters. The improper configuration of these parameters can negatively influence the flight performances, and sometimes leads the quadrotor system to the instability. Ant colony optimization algorithm (ACO) is used to configure the adopted stabilized technique, and a modified cost function is proposed to improve the response of the quadrotor system. In view to corroborate the accuracy of the suggested method, a series of numerical experiments were done and comparison with other control approaches is also given.
    Keywords: Quadrotor UAV; Backstepping technique; flight controller; ACO algorithm; modified cost function.

  • A novel face recognition approach based on strings of minimum values and several distance metrics   Order a copy of this article
    by Hicham Zaaraoui, Samir El Kaddouhi, Mustapha Abarkan 
    Abstract: This paper proposes a novel approach to face recognition using string of minimum values (SMV) as a new face feature extractor for face representation. Unlike most of the face representative methods, which focus only on micro-structures information in image analysis, by surrounding the treated pixel with a mask. The proposed descriptor uses the chains of unit vectors in four directions, by moving from the current pixel to the next one, from which to a new next pixel, and so on, in order to encode also the global appearance of the face image. Furthermore, seven distance metrics from the nearest neighbor classifier are evaluated in the classification stage. The experimental results show which metrics perform well and demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed approach in terms of recognition rate compared to the existing face recognition methods.
    Keywords: Face recognition; String of minimum values; Face descriptor; Distance metrics; Dictionary of visual words.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJCAET.2023.10036816
  • Virtual Hand Skinning Using Volumetric Shape   Order a copy of this article
    by Abderrazzak Ait Mouhou, Abderrahim Saaidi, Majid Ben Yakhlef, Khalid Abbad 
    Abstract: In this paper, we propose a skinning approach for the virtual handrndeformation. This is an implicit skinning approach based on the sphericalrnprimitives. Our approach presents a new idea of skinning, which aims to correctrnthe undesirable effects introduced by geometric skinning techniques such as LBSrn(Linear Blending Skinning) or dual quaternions. In this paper, we propose thernuse of volumetric shape as a new geometric representation to better capture thernbehavior of the skin. We present a real-time method producing a deformation ofrnthe mesh and which takes into account the contact of the skin and the simulation ofrnthe muscles swelling. Our hand mesh is approximated with a volumetric structurernwhich allows us to deform it in a plausible way while dealing with collisions andrnretaining the mesh details.
    Keywords: Character Animation; Skinning; Skeleton-Based Animation.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJCAET.2023.10040912
  • Optimized Backstepping Sliding Mode Controller with Integral Action for MPPT Based Photovoltaic System Using PSO Technique   Order a copy of this article
    by Fatima Ez-Zahra Lamzouri, El-Mahjoub Boufounas, Mounir Hanine, Aumeur El Amrani 
    Abstract: In this paper, a new Optimized Backstepping Sliding Mode Controller with Integral action (BISMC) is proposed to achieve Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) for solar Photovoltaic (PV) system. The investigated PV system consists of a PV generator (PVG) as power source, a DCDC boost converter and a resistive load. Indeed, the designed controller can allow to the PV system operate around the estimated MPPT under abrupt atmospheric conditions variation. By combining the advantages of both techniques and introducing the integral action in the sliding surface, the system presents good dynamic performance. Furthermore, the proposed BISMC controller was combined with intelligent systems such swarms intelligent to improve the controller performance in terms of transition response and tracking error. Thus, in order to provide an optimal BISMC parameters, particle swarm optimization (PSO) based evolutionary algorithm was used. Moreover, asymptotic stability of the system is verified through Lyapunov stability analysis. Simulation results show that the proposed PSO-BISMC control strategy ensures better response speed and smaller steady-state error compared to the traditional SMC and BISMC control strategies.
    Keywords: photovoltaic system; maximum power point tracking; backstepping control; sliding mode control; integral action; particle swarm optimization algorithm.

  • Performance Analysis of TDM PON System For 128 Users Using RZ And NRZ Modulations   Order a copy of this article
    by Hadjira HAMADOUCHE, Boualem MERABET, Mouweffeq BOUREGAA, Samir Ghouali 
    Abstract: In this paper we have compared the most important modulation formats used in optical communications, in terms of bit error rate (BER) and Q-factor, in the aim of assessing their weaknesses, advantages, and explore the functionality of these formats to meet potential network needs and tackle the growth of data traffic. Two basic formats in optical communication systems exist: non-return-to-zero (NRZ) and return-to-zero (RZ). Here, a device consisting of downstream optical fiber connectivity processing was used, and the system performance has been investigated using NRZ and RZ formats operating by varying bit rates , the length of the fiber, power of continuous wave (CW) laser and number of users. The analysis showed how exceptional the RZ modulation format compared with the conventional NRZ modulation design due to preferable inviolability to average peak power and non - linearity fiber. The results were assessed by the value of the quality (Q) factor, the bit error rate of BER and average eye opening using Optisystem.
    Keywords: TDM PON; RZ; NRZ; Optisystem; Bit Error Rate; Q-Factor.

    by Abderrahmane Laraqui, Kamal Azmi, Mohammed Laraqui, Faouzi Boussedra 
    Abstract: Mosaic video reconstruction is a technique of assembling a video cut into frames to provide a panoramic view of a captured scene. The resulting image of this technique provides a compact representation of the entire video. In this paper we propose a technique for creating image mosaics based video scene. This technique will be used for real-time compression of videos into mosaic images.
    Keywords: rendering; video mosaic; stitching; registration; compression; conversion; blending; matching; transformation.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJCAET.2023.10041294
    by Kamal Azmi, Abderrahmane Laraqui, Faouzi Boussedra 
    Abstract: The teaching of computer science to non-specialists, as part of Moroccan University reform perspective. So, the new purpose of the teacher/accompanying person at UCD University is to accompany the learner to be auto-effective regarding a programming language. The classic modes of teaching and the classic methodologies of researches on this topic are outdated. The present article so tells our experience in a contextualized way, our methodological repositioning before explaining the steps of a theoretical model which re-configures the phase of the production to favor an accompaniment stimulating the auto-efficacy of the learner. The Training Games and Simulation environment is a better solution for this circumstance. The scenarisation tasks in this type of game is a major issue for the development of self-efficacy; and that will be the goal of this communication.
    Keywords: task-oriented approach; auto-efficacy of the learner; programming language in the Moroccan University; theoretical model; The Training Games and Simulation.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJCAET.2023.10041591
  • An Efficient Optimization-based Design of Current Conveyor Performances   Order a copy of this article
    by Abdelaziz Lberni, Malika Alami Marktani, Abdelaziz Ahaitouf, Ali Ahaitouf 
    Abstract: Optimization algorithms are increasingly used by electronic circuit designers to optimally design and size the performance of their circuits. Multiobjective optimization algorithms have a great interest, since in most cases the problems of sizing analog, RF and mixed-signal ICs include at least two conflicting and contradictory objectives. In the present paper we present two evolutionary algorithms well known in the literature for their better performance in solving more difficult multi-objective problems (MOP). The performance of these proposed algorithms are first applied to some well known mathematical benchmark functions and then to deal with the optimal sizing of current conveyor transistors in the framework of 0.18
    Keywords: Metaheuristics; Optimization algorithms; Evolutionary algorithms; Analog IC Design; Current conveyor; Multi-objective optimization; Pareto front; CMOS technology.

  • Twisted Hessian curves over the ring Fq[e],e^2 = 0   Order a copy of this article
    by Abdelâli Grini, Abdelhakim CHILLALI, Lhoussain ElFadil, Hakima Mouanis 
    Abstract: The goal of this work is to study some arithmetic proprieties of an twisted Hessian curves defined by a equation of type: $aX^{3}+Y^{3}+Z^{3}=dXYZ$ on the local ring $R_2=mathbb{F}_{q}[X]/(X^{2})$, where $p geq 5$ is a prime number , $q = p^d$ and $ d in mathbb{N}^{ast}$, such that $-3$ is not a square in $mathbb{F}_{q}$. It's consists of, an introduction, section, and a conclusion. In the introduction, we review some fundamental arithmetic proprieties of finite local rings $R_2$, which will be used in the remainder of this article. The section is devoted to a study the above mentioned twisted Hessian curves on these finite local rings for restriction to some specific characteristic $pgeq 5$. Using these studies, we give essential properties and we define the group $H^2_{a,d}$, these properties, the classification of these elements and a bijection between the sets $H ^{2}_{a,d}$ and $H_{a_{0},d_{0}}times mathbb{F}_{q}$, where $H_{a_{0},d_{0}}$ is the twisted Hessian curve over the finite field $ mathbb{F}_{q}$.
    Keywords: Twisted Hessian curves; Finite Ring; Cryptography.

  • Docking study and QSAR analysis based on the Artificial Neural Network and Multiple Linear Regression of novel harmine derivatives   Order a copy of this article
    by Taoufik Akabli, Hamid Toufik, Mourad Stitou, Fatima Lamchouri 
    Abstract: Harmine and its derivatives are an important class of natural molecules for fighting cancer. As, researching for the physical characteristics involved in this activity provides crucial keys to develop new derivatives which are more active and less toxic. For this purpose, a series of 50 harmine derivatives were studied using molecular modeling, namely 2D-QSAR analysis and molecular docking. The best 2D-QSAR model was developed correlating the three most important descriptors with the cytotoxic activity using MLR and ANN. The statistical analysis indicate high performance of the established models (R2MLR = 0.77, q2MLR = 0.73 R2extMLR = 0.81, Q2F3MLR = 0.70, r2mMLR = 0.71 and CCCMLR = 0.88, R2ANN = 0.86, q2 ANN = 0.79 and R2ext ANN = 0.76). The analysis of the selected three descriptors showed that the lipophilicity remains the crucial property on which cytotoxic activity depends. Moreover, molecular docking of the most active compound (44) shows that it takes up a good pose into the active site of DYRKA1 kinase, as reflected by the low binding energy (-10.5 kcal/mol) and the various interactions formed with the amino acids. Thus, these results were exploited to design six new derivatives having high predicted pIC50, low binding energy and exciting pharmacokinetics properties.
    Keywords: ADME/Tox properties; ANN; Descriptors; Lipophilicity; MLR; Molecular modeling.

  • Autonomous approach for moving object detection and classification in road applications   Order a copy of this article
    by Imane EL MANAA, Fadwa BENJELLOUN, Abdelouahed Sabri, Ali YAHYAOUY, Abdellah AARAB 
    Abstract: Our paper presents robust approaches for all moving object detection processes. First of all, we propose an automatic and non-parametric method in the segmentation phase based on Delaunay triangulation applied to the image histogram. For the feature extraction phase we proceed by the GLCM technique for textural feature extraction and the HSV histogram method for the color feature extraction. Those features will be used as input of the Support Vector Machine (SVM) algorithm to design a robust classification model that will be used to differentiate between moving and static objects. Thus, static objects will be considered as a part of background, and in the other hand moving objects are surrounded by a bounding box in furtherance of careful tracking.
    Keywords: Moving object detection; Segmentation; Classification; Computer vision; training; Discriminating classifier; Delaunay Triangulation; SVM; GLCM; Feature extraction.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJCAET.2023.10041297
  • Computational methods in aerodynamics   Order a copy of this article
    by Nacer E. El Kadri E., Abdelhakim CHILLALI 
    Abstract: In the field of aerodynamics, numerical simulation is an effective way to reduce costs and design times. Numerical simulation is gaining importance thanks to the improvement of power and computing capabilities. However, computing powers are still too weak for the modelling of industrial problems (high Mach, turbulent regimes, etc.). To overcome this problem, aerodynamicists have developed methods to reduce the need for machine capacity, but by simplifying the Navier-Stokes equations, knowing that these equations accurately describe the aerodynamic flows. The objective of this research is to participate in the improvement of numerical methods in aerodynamics. Indeed, the Navier-Stokes equations are solved in conservative variables. In order to treat high Reynolds number flows, the discrete model is obtained by finite element method and a Petrov-Galerkin weighting. The developed numerical model has been used for the resolution of external two-dimensional flows around a NACA-0012 profile in the transonic and supersonic domain.
    Keywords: Navier-Stokes; finite element method; Galerkin; Petrov-Galerkin.

Special Issue on: Advanced and Sustainable Solutions in Communications, Networking, Computing and Engineering Systems

  • Cost-Benefit Analysis of suggested Ramadi Barrage Hydroelectric Plant on the Euphrates River   Order a copy of this article
    by Sadeq Oleiwi 
    Abstract: In recent times, the demand for electricity have been increased in the world, and for many reasons, including the increase in the population, which in turn led to the urgent need to set up many factories to meet the basic needs. Power can be obtained from many sources. Clean energy is the focus of research in the world now. One reason is the increase in greenhouse gas emissions. Therefore, ways must be found to generate clean, environmentally friendly energy. In addition, countries with few sources such as oil are seeking a cheaper alternative. In this research we study electricity generation from low-altitude systems or barrage considering the potential profits and costs of the project, as well as support for research theories that support the idea of project success as well as the accuracy of finding costs and potential profits for the project. Ramadi barrage at Anbar province of Iraq was taken as a target in the study. A number of hypotheses were imposed, such as the number of turbines to be developed in a study area of 6 Kaplan turban. The amount of energy to be produced from Ramadi barrage would be between 12-24 megawatts at a total cost of 4,309,427$ with total benefits 7,999,018.86$/year.
    Keywords: Cost-Benefit Analysis; Euphrates River;rnRamadi Barrage; Hydroelectric Plantrn.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJCAET.2022.10045226
  • Novel Method for Strengthening Insufficient Steel Reinforcement Splice Using CFRP Sheets   Order a copy of this article
    by Ziadoon Ali 
    Abstract: A steel lap of reinforcing steel in reinforced concrete sections affects on structural performance in two different schemes: by stress concentration in section, and through the configuration of the steel-concrete bond. In this paper, a new method for increased the capacity of insufficient laps products by using carbon fiber reinforced polymer CFRP sheets on bond strength is investigated experimentally. To test the strength of new laps reinforcing bar anchorages and to quantify the effect of the bond of the bar surface on development length, reinforced concrete beams were cast having laps in reinforcing bars in the concrete for a known bending span length. Specimens were tested in four-point flexure test to assess strength and mode of failure. Results were summarized and compared within a standard lap according to ACI specifications. The new method for splicing has more efficient of insufficient splice laps when it was compared with a standard lap.
    Keywords: Insufficient laps; CFRP sheets; Reinforced concrete beams.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJCAET.2022.10045893
  • Analytical and theoretical study of vibration-based damage detection technique in a composite structure   Order a copy of this article
    by Ahmed Uwayed, Mazin Y. Abbood 
    Abstract: Abstract: In this paper, free vibration-base damage detection technique has been used to identify fibre breakage within composite beam. In general, most of this type of techniques used the reduction in stiffness of any structure that affects the dynamic response of the structure to detect damage. To simulate fibre breakage, analytical method is used to calculate the stiffness of damaged area. This technique used a certain way to localize fibre breakage and identify the size of the damage area. Furthermore, this way shows that the difference of dynamic responses between the damaged part and the intact part within the composite beam increase with increasing the distance of the damage part to the fixed end. Also, an improvement of irregularity index has been conducted to enhance the damage detection of composite structures. This technique will be applied to a simulated data to evaluate the efficiency of this technique.
    Keywords: dynamic response; mode shape; irregularity; damage detection.rnrn.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJCAET.2022.10032548
  • Numerical Analysis of Lubricant Viscosity Variations on Operating Condition of Helical Gear System   Order a copy of this article
    by Khaldoon F. Brethee, Rashaq A. Mohammed, Ghalib R. Ibrahim 
    Abstract: Abstract: This study presents dynamic model to investigate the effects of lubricant viscosity variations due to oil degradations or oxidations on both power supply parameters and vibration signals of helical gear system. The modelling has been extended to consider the effect of elastohydrodynamic lubrication (EHL) conditions to include the frictional effects between the meshed helical gear. A ten degree-of-freedom (10-DOF) model has developed to combine lateral, torsional and axial vibrations induced in helical gear transmissions with supporting bearings, powerful motor and applied load system. Additionally, it takes into accounts the effect of viscosity variations on both power supply parameters and vibration characteristics through the time-varying of EHL friction coefficient. The results conclude that an increase in the lubricant viscosity will increase internal fluid friction, which results in additional excitation of vibration, especially in the off-line-of-action (OLOA) direction. Also, the required input power of the motor is increased to overcome the higher friction power that occurred with using thicker lubricant. However, the vibration responses from both rotational and translational movements can be good indicators for lubrication conditions, where the translational one is more sensitive even though the rotational responses are generally more nonlinear. These changes mean that it is possible to use vibration signature to monitor the lubrication conditions and obtain an accurate diagnostic result for tooth surface defects.
    Keywords: dynamic model; vibration response; elastohydrodynamic friction; oil viscosity.

  • Load Deflection Behaviour and Properties of Sustainable Lightweight Aggregate Concrete Slabs   Order a copy of this article
    by Mahmoud Sheelan 
    Abstract: In this research natural aggregate was replaced once by waste walnut shell and other by lightweight porcelinate aggregate. This gives two benefits: reduce the weight of the structure and the consumption of waste by incorporating it in the concrete Percentages of replacement by volumetric rates ranging between (25%) to (100%) were adopted. Besides cement was replacement by 10% waste glass powder. Mechanical properties were invesitegated. Besides one-way slab was casted for 50% replacement and tested under four point flexural test. Results showed that that replacement of natural aggregate by lightweight aggregate regardless of it source decrease density, compressive strength, splitting strength. While an increasing in the deflection at failure was notice for slabs incorporating lightweight aggregate compared to reference one. Concrete containing 50% porcelinate demonstrated a slightly increased in strength compared with reference slab by 8.91% Concrete containing 50% WA demonstrated a clear reduction in strength compared with reference slab by 62.57% . The width of crack at failure for concrete incorporating walnut coarse aggregate was wider the for reference one. While concrete incorporating porcelinate failed with finer cracks than reference one.
    Keywords: Lightweight aggregatel; Porcelinate; rnWalnut shell rn.

  • Numerical Analysis of Reinforced Concrete Columns Strengthened By Steel Tubes Under Sustained And Short Term Loadings   Order a copy of this article
    by Zahraa Salih 
    Abstract: This paper used finite element method to predict models of strengthening R.C. columns under short term loading and long term loading. The present study is an attempt to predict time-dependent behavior of reinforced concrete columns confined by steel square tube using model proposed by ACI 209R. Comparison of calculating results using this model shows a good agreement with the test results. Based on the results of an available experimental study of concrete filled steel tube, this paper presents a parametric study using finite element models carried out with the aim of analysis the long term behavior of plain concrete columns strengthened by steel plate. The results of the study are used to analyze the effect of different factors on strengthened column (the magnitude of sustained load, the concrete compressive strength, and length/thickness ratio).
    Keywords: Concrete columns; Steel tube; Short termrnLong termrn.

  • Effect of High TemperatureOn Bond strength of concrete reinforced with 180   Order a copy of this article
    by Mohammed Qasim 
    Abstract: High temperature has a great effect on the reinforced concrete properties including the bond strength between the steel bars and concrete. There is many studies on the residual bond strength of concrete reinforced with straight bars, but according to the knowledge of authors, there is no study upon the bond strength of concrete reinforced with hooked bars after exposing to high temperature, thus make this study which investigate this property a novel one. Pull-out prism specimens used to test the residual bond strength and all specimens have the same compressive strength (30MPa). The variables are the diameter of hooked bar (10 mm and 12 mm), and the temperature levels (200
    Keywords: Bond strength; hooked bars; high temperature; Pull-out; Slip.

  • Finite Element Modelling of High-Strength Fibre Reinforced Concrete Columns Under Eccentric Loading   Order a copy of this article
    by Zaid Al-Aazzawi, Salah T. Nimnim, Shamil K. Ahmed 
    Abstract: This paper presents a numerical finite element model simulating the behaviour of high-strength fibre reinforced concrete columns under monotonic eccentric loading. The results of the numerical model in this study show very good agreement with the experimental part of the investigation which was presented previously in a separate paper. In addition to the ultimate capacity, lateral deflection and axial shortening are taken into considerations in the finite element model.
    Keywords: Columns; Eccentric loading; High-strength concrete; Fibre reinforced concrete; Finite element analysis.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJCAET.2022.10034950
  • Effect of Vehicles Acceleration and Heading on Reliability of VANET Routing Protocol   Order a copy of this article
    by Omar Alokashi 
    Abstract: Abstract. Intelligent transportation system is rapidly spreading in all vehicles which manufactured recently. Vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs) are consid-ered as a promising technology to enable communication among member vehicles (V2V) in one side and vehicles with Road side unit in other side. Most applica-tions that supported by VANETs require a reliable connection, especially safety-based application. The major challenge in VANETs environment is the high mo-bility patterns which are caused by the quick and frequent topology changes. Consequently, the disconnection of the communication links is highly occurrence in VANETs, hence, a particular research attention has been focused to achieve the reliability of routing. Getting a continuous connection through a specified time between two vehicles is defined as the route reliability. This paper suggested a new vehicle acceleration and heading based reactive routing protocol (AH-AODV) which, enhanced by the original AODV (On-demand Distance Vector) routing protocol. In addition, the stability of the route is superior computed ac-cording to vehicle acceleration and heading in urban intersection. Based on the simulation results, our proposed protocol (AH-AODV) outperforms the AODV protocol significantly in Packet Delivery Ratio and the link failure percentage metrics.
    Keywords: : route weight; next-hop; like failure; reliable route; AODV; AH-AODV.

  • Delta Robot Joints Control Based Linear MPC Controller   Order a copy of this article
    by Wesam Jasim 
    Abstract: Controlling the joints' angles of a robot is an important step lead to control the robot end effector position and/or speed. Thus, it has been a vast area of interest in research which has good investigating potentials using several control types such as classical, modern and optimal control methods. In this work, a linear Model Predictive Control MPC technique was proposed to control the joints' angle of a three degree of freedom delta robot. The inverse kinematics, direct kinematics, and dynamic model of the robot were analyzed. Then, the dynamic model represented in a linearized around an operating point state space model. In order to investigate the performance of the proposed MPC controller a simulator based MATLAB program was implemented. The simulation results have showed the efficiency of the proposed controller in joints' angles control problem. This illustrate that the MPC controller can derive the joints' angles to track the desired angles with invisible steady state error.
    Keywords: MPC technique; Delta robot; Simulation;rn Parallel Manipulatorrn.

  • Design Intelligent Solar Cell Tester System based on Microcontroller with Handling Robot   Order a copy of this article
    by Yosif Almashhadany 
    Abstract: Abstract: The electrical performance of photovoltaic cells is the best parameter for sorting the cells, the testing achieved with sunlight model. All testers have common problem about handling the small thin pieces and change its position from convey tester to storage box and via process. This paper presents an intelligent solar cell tester system with handling robot, controlled by intelligent controller based on microcontroller technique to execute all the required movement for cells through the testing process. The design built for real solar cell tester with four main types: Cadmium Telluride (CdTe), copper indium diselenide (CIS), monocrystalline, and polycrystalline. Each type of cells after testing will be distributed according to efficiency to four categories (A-D). Modeling Virtual reality (VR) was built for all system and execute the simulation according to real requirements. Two electric photo sensors are used to implement the sensing of action with microcontroller the first for controlled the process of testing and the other for controlled robot process. Robot path is controlled by microcontroller according to results of tester. Manual controllers for speed of conveying information exchange used between the results of tester and microcontroller.
    Keywords: Intelligent Solar cell tester; Modelling Virtual reality; microcontroller; photoelectric sensor; sunlight model.