Forthcoming and Online First Articles

International Journal of Business and Systems Research

International Journal of Business and Systems Research (IJBSR)

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International Journal of Business and Systems Research (52 papers in press)

Regular Issues

  • Simulate and Compare Routing Protocols for Smart Green Systems   Order a copy of this article
    by Victor Chang, Anusha Kamireddy, Qianwen Xu, Jie Li, Charalampos Psarros, Perk Lin Chong 
    Abstract: Routing protocols for smart green systems (RPSGSs) are importantly considered as one of the prime requirements for configuring the routers that help to initiate a communication between several neighboring wired or wireless routers. Although in the IoT network, it allows datagrams to travel throughout the network by following the optimal path (shortest path) for completing the data transfer session. The aim of this paper is to investigate different routing protocols which allows the advantages and disadvantages of these protocols in the IoT network can be compared with each other. Protocols such as IGRP, RIP, BGP, etc. are compared on metrics and identified predominant routing protocol. In order to implement the comparison of different RPSGSs, a network has been deployed with a Cisco packet tracer. Furthermore, the commands related to respective routing protocols are selected and used in CLI mode to configure the network. The major reason for selecting a Cisco packet tracer is that it provides a user-friendly interface on which the user can drag and drop many devices to connect together in order to perform the configuration.
    Keywords: Routing protocols for smart green systems (RPSGSs); Cisco packet tracer.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBSR.2022.10031101
  • An integrated approach for the banking intranet/extranet information systems: the interoperability case   Order a copy of this article
    by Gerasimos Razis, Sarandis Mitropoulos 
    Abstract: This paper presents a technology-driven online loan Core Banking System, designed to fully automate the loan life cycle process. Its interoperable architecture, in both external and internal facing banking components, enables the unification and seamless collaboration of previously isolated ones. The derived workflows can be used for covering aspects from the analysis of customer data for determining the creditworthiness of the applicants, till the repayment and end of the loan. Due to the restricted human intervention the probability for errors is drastically reduced, while bank resources are made available for focusing on improving business and customer needs. In order to provide a multi-perspective evaluation of the proposed technology-driven e-loan banking system, the Balanced Scorecard method is employed which, by monitoring the performance of predefined KPIs, verified the applicability and significant value of the proposed platform.
    Keywords: interoperability; payment system; loans; web banking; core banking system; balanced scorecard.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBSR.2022.10031295
  • Corporate Social Responsibility and Firm Performance of SMEs in an Emerging Economy: The Moderating Role of Business Strategy   Order a copy of this article
    by Victor Chang, Francisca N. Mapiye Dube 
    Abstract: To gain insight of how engaging in CSR influences firm performance a questionnaire survey from a sample of 100 SMEs from Zimbabwe was conducted. The proposed conceptual model was analyzed using multiple regression approach. Our results showed that corporate social responsibility relates positively with firm performance of SMEs. Our analysis confirmed that business strategy moderates relationship between CSR and firm performance. In other words, business strategy has a moderating effect on CSR and Firm performance. Our analysis also concludes that SMEs should adopt prospector strategy and analyzer strategies to effectively implement CSR initiatives. Our study focuses on how narrow the scope of the available CSR literature in the context Africa. This paper explores and fill literature gaps that currently exist and analyse data related to CSR in different contexts especially further examining under a lens the relationship between CSR and performance and variables that can moderate or mediate their correlation.
    Keywords: Corporate Social Responsibility; Firm Performance; Business Strategy; SMEs; Emerging Economy.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBSR.2022.10031869
  • Factors affecting student satisfaction in e-learning   Order a copy of this article
    by Victor Chang, Meiy Liu, Qianwen Xu, Chang Xiong 
    Abstract: The purpose of this study is to investigate the factors that influence college student satisfaction with e-learning. The author also attempts to explore the relationship between usage intention and factors affecting e-learner satisfaction. Both qualitative and quantitative methods were adopted for this study. Data were collected from a survey of 224 Suzhou undergraduates, 213 questionnaire participants and 11 interviewees. The factors affecting satisfaction with e-learning were analyzed by comparing the mean, standard deviation and t-test between satisfied and dissatisfied people. Additionally, correlation analysis and multiple regression analysis were conducted to examine relationships between factor variables (external factors, internal factors) and the usage intention of online courses. There are mainly four findings discussed and presented in this paper. Our findings may assist faculty in designing quality online courses to meet students' needs better. Adequate instructional methods, support, course structure and design can improve student satisfaction.
    Keywords: E-learning; college students; satisfaction; online course; course design; learning abilities; learning intention.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBSR.2022.10031981
  • Influential factors in decision support capabilities of a mobile-enabled interactive analytical dashboard system   Order a copy of this article
    by Bih-Ru Lea, Hokey Min, Wen-Bin Yu 
    Abstract: With the growing complexity of the decision-making process in business applications, a mobile-enabled analytical dashboard system becomes a popular visualization tool to harness the power of big data for timely and more informed decisions. To maximize the usefulness of an analytical dashboard system as a decision support tool, this paper identifies a host of factors influencing the decision support capabilities including the user’s device type, IT knowledge, daily mobile usage, country of origin, gender, number of computer classes taken, and year in school. The results indicate that a user’s device type and computer knowledge significantly influence both the efficiency and effectiveness of an interactive analytical dashboard system to enhance its decision support capabilities. The user’s country of origin also influences the effectiveness of the dashboard’s decision support capabilities.
    Keywords: analytical dashboard system; data visualization; decision support; mobile analytics; mobile devices.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBSR.2022.10033395
  • Factors that Influence Decision-making over Online and Face-to-Face Examination preparation training courses   Order a copy of this article
    by Victor Chang, Fangyu Wang, Qianwen Xu 
    Abstract: The advent of digital technology indicated that there would be an evolutionary change for education. Distance education has become a widely used means in both campus and training institutions. With the continuous development in technology, distance education has gained popularity among college students and colleges. Yet, a huge gap still exists between the market shares of online courses and traditional classroom courses. The majority of students in universities worldwide choose between online courses and traditional courses. This study seeks to investigate the factors that influence students' decisions of not accepting online courses over traditional classroom courses. The findings give an informed perspective on which option is more helpful and significant for both educational institutions and students who choose to study in these institutions.
    Keywords: e-learning; face-to-face learning; online learning; integration of online and face-to-face learning; e-learning case study.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBSR.2022.10034413
  • Using Soft Systems Methodology to Corporate Cultural Change System Analysis   Order a copy of this article
    by Maryam Ebrahimi 
    Abstract: Cultural changes in a large corporation which was split into several smaller separate corporations, under new vision, mission, and leadership, and the need of a different culture deal with a fuzzy condition. Using soft systems methodology (SSM), the cultural change is analysed in the National Petrochemical Company (NPC). After data collection by means of interviews with stakeholders involved include senior manager, middle managers, employees, and customers, the richest possible picture of the problem situation is built up, root definitions via the mnemonic CATWOE are applied to define the relevant systems including the cultural change coalition, strategy formulation, structure reorganising, human resources management system redesigning, and training managers to be coachers. Accordingly, the conceptual model declaring the essential plans for the transition from the current status to the desired status is developed. Desired state includes the cultures of goal orientation, innovation, social responsibility, and humanism.
    Keywords: soft systems methodology; SSM; organisational culture; change management; social responsibility; innovation; training; organisational strategies; human resources.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBSR.2022.10034984
  • The Effect of Underreaction and Overreaction of Firm Stocks to Firm Valuation: Data from the Indonesian Stock Exchange   Order a copy of this article
    by Puji Handayati, Lioni Indrayani, Yohanes Indrayono 
    Abstract: This study contributes to the literature on behavioural finance by providing a case study on underreaction and overreaction uses the model of investor sentiment of firm stocks firm valuation in the Indonesian listed firms. The results indicate that businesses with more intangible assets can better measure overreaction as compared to those with more tangible assets. The firms’ value is found to positively correlate with total assets and profits for companies in which their stocks are characterised by overreaction but have no correlation to book value. Financial institutions and stocks in the wholesale industry demonstrated remarkable overreactions. However, the automotive, building and construction, food and beverage, and cement industry show evidence of higher underreaction. This study identifies that most stocks are considered as the overreaction to news of a firm’s financial statements. Investors may buy stocks from the business with more tangible assets which are profitability and sales increase.
    Keywords: underreaction; overreaction; behavioural finance; sentiment; investing psychology.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBSR.2022.10035058
  • Open Innovation Implementation to Encourage Corporate Entrepreneurship Through Product-Service System to Sustain Industrial Estate Firms: An Indonesian Evidence   Order a copy of this article
    by Christina Wirawan, Gatot Yudoko, Yuliani Dwi Lestari 
    Abstract: Industrial estate firms have limited land and buildings as their main business so that they need to create a new business model and innovations. Open innovation is a concept that emphasises the external resources used for creating ideas and innovations to encourage corporate entrepreneurship. This article builds a conceptual framework about open innovation implementation to encourage corporate entrepreneurship through PSS for Indonesian industrial estate firms. This article also compared open innovations implementation between state-owned and private-owned industrial estate. To build the conceptual framework, deductive and inductive approach used. This study found that corporate entrepreneurship and open innovation concepts apply to Indonesian industrial estate firms. However, there are open innovation implementation differences between state-owned and private-owned industrial estate firms, the more outside resources involved, the more creative and variety of innovations obtained. The novelty of this article is to combine open innovation, corporate entrepreneurship and PSS concept for industrial estate firms.
    Keywords: corporate entrepreneurship; Indonesian industrial estate firms; open innovation; product-service system; PSS.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBSR.2022.10035351
  • Factors influencing innovation and operating performance in power distribution companies   Order a copy of this article
    by Tuan Le-Anh, Tam Nguyen, Hung Duong 
    Abstract: In the Vietnam economy, power distribution companies play a very important role and are responsible for distributing electricity to all consumers in Vietnam. This research analysed factors influencing management innovation and operating performance in this type of company. In this study, we tested 14 hypotheses using data collected from 130 top managers and other key personnel from power distribution companies in Vietnam. The data had been analysed using the exploratory factor analysis and PLS-SEM approach. The results confirm that organisational learning, workforce capability, and network involvement have positive influences on management innovation. Among these factors, network involvement has the highest impact. The study also shows the important roles of intra-organisational antecedents to mediate the relationships between top management support, network involvement and management innovation. A surprising result is that management innovation does not have a direct impact on operating performance, but shows an indirect influence through technological innovation.
    Keywords: management innovation; technological innovation; state-owned power corporation; impacting factors; power distribution company.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBSR.2022.10035379
  • The Effect of Experience Quality on Behavior Intention: The Mediating Role of Tourists’ Perceived Value in Subak Cultural Landscape of Bali, Indonesia   Order a copy of this article
    by Gallang Perdhana Dalimunthe, Yuyus Suryana Sudarma, Dwi Kartini, Diana Sari 
    Abstract: This article examines the relationship between international tourist’s experience quality and perceived value on behaviour intention for the subak cultural landscape as a heritage destination in Bali, Indonesia. The study focused on the impact of functional value, education value, emotional value, and novelty value together with experience quality as the driving force towards behaviour intention. A total of 250 sets of structured questionnaires were distributed to tourists who visited the subak cultural landscape. Data were analysed using structural equation modelling (SEM) to identify the relationship between three variables. The results indicate that experience quality and tourist’s perceived value have significant effect on behaviour intention. The study also reveals the tourist’s perceived value as the mediator for experience quality and behaviour intention. This study highlighting the importance of experience quality and tourist’s perceived value for heritage destination, also providing implications for the government towards the international tourists behaviour intention in heritage destinations.
    Keywords: experience quality; destination image; perceived value; behaviour intention; heritage tourism; Indonesia.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBSR.2022.10035467
  • Agency Problem, Intellectual Capital and Good Corporate Governance Model for Village-Owned Enterprises (BUMDes) in Indonesia
    by Abdul Ghofar, Hendi Subandi, Areta Widya Kusumadewi 
    Abstract: This study develops a good corporate governance model suitable for implementation in village-owned enterprises, by identifying and analysing factors contributing to agency problems found in these places as a result of their unique business characteristics. Furthermore, this study seeks to explore the intellectual capital phenomenon using a qualitative perspective to discover why and how village-owned enterprises manage their intellectual capital. This study was conducted using the grounded theory method. This study contributes to the literature on good governance and intellectual capital and provides a clear picture of corporate governance model development in village-owned enterprises. Most previous literature focuses on the implementation of corporate government model in listed companies which are different from village-owned enterprises.
    Keywords: good corporate governance; agency cost; agency problem; intellectual capital; village-owned enterprises; BUMDes; Indonesia.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBSR.2022.10035788
  • Exploring LARG Management Concepts Within Business Model CANVAS: A Theoretical Approach   Order a copy of this article
    by Maria Do Rosário Cabrita, Susana Duarte, Virgílio Cruz-Machado 
    Abstract: As the global business landscape dramatically alters, there needs to be a similar change in the way organizations are performing and in which supply chain strategies are determined. One interesting debate has centered on the relative merits of lean, agile, resilient and green (LARG) philosophies and how they can contribute to building a companies competitive advantage. Combining the existing understanding of concepts - Business Model (BM) and LARG principles - this paper focuses on the multidisciplinary area of LARG in business models and adds insights to the discussion about BM tools and particularly on the Business Model Canvas (BMC) as a framework to develop LARG principles in business settings. Although recognizing the limitations when trying to align LARG principles and the building blocks of BMC, this research aims to contribute to the discussion on creating an ideal type of BM to be adapted to LARG paradigm. To the knowledge of the authors, it is the first attempt to critically review the empirical research articles in LARG and Business Model Canvas (BMC).
    Keywords: Business Model; Business Model Canvas (BMC); LARG paradigm; Lean; Agile; Resilient and Green philosophies.

  • The Effect of Mobile Phone Penetration on E-commerce Diffusion: A Global Perspective Using Structural Equation Modelling   Order a copy of this article
    by Muftawu Dzang Alhassan, Ibrahim Osman Adam 
    Abstract: Mobile technologies especially mobile phones have become an essential part of individual lives. This has led to a swift change in people’s engagement in electronic commerce. Whilst information systems literature touts the benefits of mobile technology in propelling e-commerce, there is lack of studies that have empirically examined the dual effects of mobile infrastructure and mobile affordability on e-commerce adoption at the global level. Furthermore, on the linkages between mobile infrastructure, mobile affordability, and e-commerce adoption, the mediating role of trust has not been widely explored. To fill this gap, we develop and empirically validate an integrated e-commerce model based on the swift trust theory. We rely secondary data from 107 countries and partial least square structural equation modelling as the analytical tool. Our findings show that whilst mobile infrastructure and mobile affordability does not positively influence ecommerce uptake, trust significantly influences e-commerce adoption at the global level. Also, the mediating role of trust was not supported. We provide some directions for future research.
    Keywords: mobile infrastructure; mobile affordability; e-commerce adoption; mobile technology.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBSR.2022.10035995
  • Islamic Financial Institutions Performance Pre and Post Global Financial crisis 2007/2008: Empirical Insights from Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC)   Order a copy of this article
    by Mosab Tabash, Mohammed Alnahhal, Noushin Bagheri 
    Abstract: The current study examines the financial performance of 19 Islamic financial institutions (IFIs) in five GCC countries, namely the United Arab Emirates, Saudi Arabia, Qatar, Bahrain, and Kuwait. Return on assets (ROA) and return on equity (ROE) were examined in the period ranging from 2006 to 2016. Micro and macro variables are used as independent variables. Some financial indicators such as size, assets management, and financial risk are used as independent variables to predict the dependent variables, namely, ROE and ROA. Multiple linear regression analysis was applied. The global financial crisis 2007/2008 has affected negatively these IFIs systems not only from 2007 until 2009 but also in 2010 and 2011 at a small scale. The predicted values were compared to the real values of ROE and ROA in the period 2007 to 2011. Results showed that the effect of the global financial crisis occurs in terms of lower ROE and ROA values than predicted by the model. The results of the current study are very beneficial for policy-makers and regulators who are interested in Islamic finance industry.
    Keywords: financial crisis; regression models; Islamic finance institutions; systems; Gulf Cooperation Council; GCC.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBSR.2022.10036153
  • E-Commerce Assistant Application incorporating Machine Learning Image Classification   Order a copy of this article
    by Victor Chang, Robert Marshall, Qianwen Xu, Anastasija Nikiforova 
    Abstract: The rise of mobile applications has helped to provide information in a broader network of products remotely. They simplify the identification of products by using their barcode or even an image of the item. This paper, therefore, aims to create an e-commerce assistant Android application that incorporates machine learning, more precisely, image classification, to assist potentially disadvantaged people on a tight budget in looking to save money. This is achieved by collecting an image dataset of essential products, training a machine learning model, and applying it to the developed application. Although the proposed solution appears to be useful and consistent with all the defined goals, the available datasets are currently insufficient, taking into account both their size and quality of individual images, which negatively affect the machine learning model and limit the potential of the solution being developed. We concluded that our final product succeeds in serving the basic functionality of the app’s requirements. In the future, we will reach a wider network of users and investigate their needs, then develop these functions into the application.
    Keywords: e-commerce applications; e-commerce; electronic commerce; machine learning; image classification; disadvantaged people.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBSR.2022.10036200
  • Modelling the barriers of online shopping in the Philippines using the ISM-MICMAC approach   Order a copy of this article
    by Vanessa Grace G. Guerrero, Roy Jucip T. Basar III, Honey Rose N. Borden, Manuel Lorenzo G. Busano III, Xelani Kaye A. Gonzales, Kafferine Yamagishi, Lanndon A. Ocampo 
    Abstract: With a significant share of the Philippine population going online, online shopping has become an emerging trend. As the number of online shopping transactions increases daily, it has become increasingly important to understand the barriers that hinder the market. Despite its importance, current literature considers buyers’ perspectives with limited insights on the sellers’ perceptions. Understanding the sellers’ point of view provides a holistic analysis of these barriers for better practical insights. As a case in point, with the Philippines, this study attempts to identify the barriers of online shopping and their interrelationships, both from the sellers’ and buyers’ perspectives, using interpretive structural modelling and MICMAC analysis. Findings show that internet connection and the need for the product’s sensory experience are highly relevant barriers to the sellers. On the other hand, buyers emphasise the need for the product’s sensory experience than the rest of the barriers. The managerial implications of these findings are discussed.
    Keywords: online shopping; barriers; interpretive structural modelling; ISM; MICMAC analysis; systems; the Philippines.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBSR.2022.10036295
  • Wine preferences and perceptions during the Covid-19 pandemic: An empirical study of self-image and demographics preferences   Order a copy of this article
    by Alan D. Smith 
    Abstract: The purpose of this research is to examine the preferences, images, and attitudes held by wine consumers and the effects they have on consumer purchasing behaviour to assess potential marketing strategies for wine product companies The current Covid-19 global pandemic may have significantly impact previous patterns of wine consumption A consumer behaviour segmentation model (Johnson and Bruwer, 2007) was be used in this study to analyse consumer behaviour in wine consumption and purchasing This model provides an analytical framework that marketing efforts may use to identify wine-related purchasing behaviour It found several significant relationships among gender, age, and preferred types of wine, self-images mature wine consumers held of wine’ and the locations/occasions where wine is consumed; and several factors that influence wine purchases and their correlation with the amount spent on wine per month as well as the location where wine is purchased using MANOVA, Chi-square, and Pearson’s R techniques.
    Keywords: consumer behaviour; Covid-19; MANOVA; wine industry.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBSR.2022.10036356
    by K.R. Shriram, S. Kishore Karthiban, A. Charan Kumar, S.K. Mathiarasu, P.G. Saleeshya 
    Abstract: Industries implemented lean techniques experienced a saturation of leanness after a certain period of time. This forced them to look out for optimised lean models. The combination of lean and the internet of things (IoT) promises astonishing advances in the improvement of leanness. This paper focuses on the improvement of leanness with the aid of IoT systems. A case study was performed in a leading board paper manufacturing industry. Fuzzy logic-based lean assessment model assessed the leanness of the industry. Lean tools like value stream mapping, root cause analysis, Jidoka, etc. were performed to identify and eliminate the lean wastes. IoT-based systems were modelled. Leanness of the industry was computed before, after lean implementation and after IoT implementation. The results were used to contrast the improvements shown by lean practices and IoT systems individually, and proved that the combination of lean and IoT have a greater potential for industries in the future.
    Keywords: lean manufacturing; leanness; lean index; fuzzy logic; digitalisation; internet of things; IoT.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBSR.2022.10036457
    by Mohd Taufik Mohd Suffian, Zuraidah Mohd-Sanusi, Mohd Zulfikri Abd Rashid, Mohd Soffi Puteh, Zulkifli Mohd Ghazali 
    Abstract: Related party transactions are a common business activity with such transactions taking place in firms that have never been implicated in accounting and financial fraud. These transactions are integral to sound business exchanges that contribute to a robust financial standing of a firm. However, related party transactions can pose a threat to the performance of a business if the transaction exercises are left unchecked. This study investigated the relationship between related party transactions and firm performance between 2013 and 2017. This specific timeframe was chosen to analyse the effects of MFRS 124 (related party disclosures) on related party transactions since MFRS 124 came into effect on 1st January 2012. According to an analysis of 1,436 firms in a five-year timeframe, there is a significant correlation between related party transactions and how well a business performs. Therefore, it can be deduced that related party transactions constitute an important variable in the performance of Malaysian public listed companies.
    Keywords: related party transactions; RPTs; firm performance; return on equity; ROE; Malaysia.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBSR.2022.10036671
  • Mediating Effect of Perceived Organizational Support in the relation between Job Stress and Organizational Commitment   Order a copy of this article
    by Amar Kumar Mishra, Rajesh Kumar Upadhyay, Anjali Chaudhary, Anita Singh 
    Abstract: Every employee in some way or another feels stress in their job due to their interaction with innumerable strategy, structure, systems, and styles continuously and inevitably. The ongoing pandemic across the globe has created a sense of mistrust, suspicion, and insecurity among the employees in almost every sector, increasing job stress and eroding organisational commitment, especially affective one; putting the survival of organisations at stake in the long run. However, organisations that will stand with employees extending their support and succeed in making their employees perceive the organisational support will not only keep at a bay the threat of survival but eventually will be the one to grow and prosper in the future. In the present paper; the researchers have explored the relationship between job stress, perceived organisational support, and organisational commitment among employees of higher education institutions, India using cross sectional research design and found that the erosion of organisational commitment that has resulted due to job stress during the pandemic can be restored through organisational support.
    Keywords: job stress; organisational commitment; perceived organisational support; HEI.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBSR.2022.10037681
  • A system dynamics approach to strategy planning by small and medium-sized enterprises in the renewable energy sector   Order a copy of this article
    by Maryam Ebrahimi 
    Abstract: Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) are key drivers of sustainability. Using a system dynamics computer simulation model, this paper aims to provide a general dynamic model for strategy planning in SMEs working within Iranian renewable energy industry. The model structure covers issues related to sales and marketing, innovation, production, installation, and maintenance. Results from this research showed that as strategies SMEs should build alliances like joint ventures or mutual investment corporations, implement effective mechanisms to capture and use knowledge and experience, and provide their customers, particularly the major and profitable ones with diverse services. The main contributions of this paper are the insights into the SMEs of the renewable energy sector and designing their dynamic work structure to support chief executive officers in strategy planning, and finally, proposing general strategies for the purpose of faster dealing with inquiries and fulfilling the orders regarded as primary attributes of performance.
    Keywords: system dynamics; small and medium-sized enterprise; SME; renewable energy; strategy; performance.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBSR.2022.10037682
    by Deoclécio Junior Cardoso Da Silva, Julio Siluk, Roger Da Silva Wegner, André Brum Missaggia, Natalia Pedroso Serpa, Leoni Pentiado Godoy 
    Abstract: Civil construction projects must be evaluated to guarantee maximum assertiveness. The objective of the study was to determine the best company for the execution of a condominium expansion project, using multicriteria methods to assist in the decision-making of a condominium administrator. The analytical hierarchy process (AHP) was used to define the criteria for analysing the three candidate companies and the fuzzy TOPSIS method was used to select the company to carry out the project. The results showed that the people criterion, was the most prioritised by the manager, revealing the importance of investing in the development of employees, which is reflected in the services provided.
    Keywords: multicriteria decision making; selection of construction projects; analytical hierarchy process; AHP; fuzzy TOPSIS; sensitivity analysis.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBSR.2022.10037878
  • The Effect of IT Flexibility and IT Governance on Business   Order a copy of this article
    by Farzaneh Mardan, Neda Abdolvand, Saeedeh Rajaee Harandi 
    Abstract: Business-information technology (IT) alignment has become a very complex phenomenon, and many organisations are wondering how to achieve it. Despite the variety of methods used to address this issue, there are few studies on the impact of IT flexibility and IT governance on IT-business alignment, which is the objective of this study. The results of the study using partial least squares (PLS) method indicated that among IT governance principals the structure (path coefficient = 0.09, T-value > 1.96), process (path coefficient = 0.26, T-value > 1.96), and relational mechanisms (path coefficient = 0.20, T-value > 1.96) were effective on business-IT strategic alignment. In addition, among It flexibility components the modularity (path coefficient = 0.12, T-value > 1.96), and compatibility (path coefficient = 0.26, T-value > 1.96) had significant effect on business-IT strategic alignment. Moreover, according to the Friedman test results, relational mechanisms have the strongest impact on business-IT strategic alignment.
    Keywords: IT governance; IT flexibility; business – IT strategic alignment.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBSR.2022.10038269
  • Internationalisation business strategy via e-commerce   Order a copy of this article
    by Leandro Ferreira Pereira, Yuliya Tovstolyak, Renato Lopes Da Costa, Rui Gonçalves, Álvaro Dias 
    Abstract: E-commerce eliminated national borders between countries and provided a new dimension to the internationalisation process. Technological developments have made the study of electronic commerce in the international environment inevitable. This study highlights the possibilities and challenges of e-commerce and, consequently, the impact of this form of internationalisation on company strategy. For the development of an empirical study, five case studies were analysed with the primary objective of exploring the motivations that led companies to expand online. As the consumer is the leading player in this process, its perspective concerning ecommerce was studied. The results suggest a connection between internationalisation strategies and the adaptation to e-commerce and it makes clear that e-commerce is one of the main internationalisation strategies, characterised by a low level of risk and a low level of investment needs.
    Keywords: e-commerce; internationalisation; e-marketing; innovation; social media; strategy.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBSR.2022.10038644
  • The impact of firm-specific determinants, external factors and voluntary disclosure on capital structure: An empirical analysis of Islamic banks in Yemen   Order a copy of this article
    by Eissa A. Al-Homaidi, Mosab Tabash, Borhan Omar Ahmed Al-dalaien, Amgad S.D. Khaled, Fatehi Almugari 
    Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of firm-specific features, external factors, and voluntary disclosure on capital structure of three Islamic banks in Yemen. The capital structure is measured by banks’ leverage (LEV) was considered a dependent variable that worked against firm-specific determinants, macroeconomic factors, and voluntary disclosure. The results indicated that voluntary disclosure has a significant influence on capital structure. The results indicated that among the firm-specific variables, assets-in-place, performance, and bank size are found to have a strongly significant influence on capital structure. With regard to macroeconomic variables, the results revealed that economic activity (GDP) and inflation rate are found to have an insignificant influence on capital structure. The research paper suggested that bankers recognise voluntary transparency in a manner that would enhance financial leverage for Islamic banks. To the researcher’s best knowledge, there is no empirical evidence examined the relationship between firm-specific characteristics, external factors, and voluntary disclosure with financial leverage in the annual reports of Islamic banks’ working in Yemen.
    Keywords: firm-specific factors; macroeconomic factors; voluntary disclosure; VDI; financial leverage; Islamic institutions; Yemen.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBSR.2022.10039048
  • Evaluating Equal Employment Opportunity in Indonesian Industries to Accommodate Disability Workers   Order a copy of this article
    by Nurus Sa’adah, Ratna Sesotya Wedadjati, Ahmad Fauzan Asmara 
    Abstract: The disabled person has difficulty finding a decent job according to their skills because of no job available. To address this, the government created a regulation requiring companies to provide equal opportunities to people with disabilities. After the regulation was enacted, it was not implemented to the maximum in private and state-owned enterprises (SOEs). Therefore, the purpose of this research is to find out how employment opportunities in Indonesia for people with disabilities, what forms of equal employment opportunity (EEO) for people with disabilities, and whether Indonesian HR managers know the rules governing disability quotas. Data collection with focus group discussion (FGD) and interviews conducted by involving managers and staff members of human resources who are members of the Indonesian national movement competent. This study concluded that the quota of 1% had not been met for non-SOE companies, so it can be said that EEO is not carried out in non-SOE companies, while for state-owned enterprises has begun to be enforced primarily in the recruitment process.
    Keywords: equal; employment; opportunity; equal employment opportunity; EEO; industries; accommodate; disability workers.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBSR.2022.10039574
  • The Chinese Presence in the Arab Region: Lebanon at the Heart of the Belt and Road Initiative   Order a copy of this article
    by Mohamad Zreik  
    Abstract: In 2013, Chinese President Xi Jinping announced the launch of the Belt and Road Initiative, which aims to revive the ancient Silk Road. China uses new information technology and advanced equipment to implement projects, and the Chinese administration has allocated huge sums for the smooth running of the proposed projects. The Chinese administration has recently raised its relations with the Arab region to take advantage of its strategic geographic location along the land and sea routes for the initiative and reach Arab oil due to increasing Chinese consumption. In this paper, the researcher used qualitative descriptive analysis to explain the bilateral relationship in-depth and understand the Belt and Road Initiative in the Arab region. The paper concluded with Lebanon’s important role in the smooth running of the initiative in the Arab region. The Lebanese role will not be effective without the official decision to partner with China.
    Keywords: Belt and Road Initiative; Chinese Foreign Policy; Sino-Arab Relations; Sino-Lebanese relations; economic cooperation; China; Lebanon.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBSR.2022.10039690
  • Introducing BLOC-ICE for Exploring System Concept   Order a copy of this article
    by Shaligram Pokharel  
    Abstract: In this paper, a generic framework, called BLOC-ICE, is proposed for exploring system to develop a system diagram. The framework uses seven elements to assist in the visualisation, progressive exploration, and elaboration in order to develop the system diagram that meets the system’s stated goals. Once the system diagram is developed, each part of the system can be designed through qualitative and quantitative methods, and simulation. The application of the framework is demonstrated through simple examples. The proposed framework can be used to explore system design and development in technical, social, and business fields. The paper also provides empirical results based on the data obtained through a survey of the graduates who learned this framework with the author. The analysis shows a good value of the framework in system exploration and design. The business implication of the framework is also discussed.
    Keywords: systems; system diagram; system thinking; system concept; system exploration; system approach.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBSR.2022.10039739
    by Antonio Focacci 
    Abstract: COVID-19 pandemic and resulting global economic contraction will stress all countries’ fiscal frameworks raising several concerns about real and effective possibilities to deal with all deriving issues. The magnitude of shocks will surely affect the fiscal deficit and public debt in the majority of them. The sustainability and the survival of present worldwide economic system is severely tested. Through the application of the Granger causality methodology, the historical series of monetary aggregates and inflation are analysed for different countries. The goal of this empirical analysis to support an unconventional approach to the solution of a crisis that has pervaded all nations and economic systems.
    Keywords: inflation; money; COVID-19; SARS-CoV 2; monetisation; systems.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBSR.2022.10039807
  • Workplace: Empirical study on spiritual leadership in Pakistani Higher Education   Order a copy of this article
    by Ansar Abbas, Dian Ekowati, Fendy Suhariadi, Ayesha Anwar 
    Abstract: Management that encourages workplace support can successfully cover productive work, a sense of identity, and organisational goals. Spirituality inculcates a positive workplace environment that connects individuals and groups. It generates confidence in workers by promoting membership and meaningfulness towards corporate life. A causal framework containing hope, faith, and altruism works for individual’s well-being by imparting meaningfulness to the desire to make an undeniable impact on organisational productivity and commitment. In this study, a Likert scale questionnaire was used with public and private sector university employees in Pakistan to test the hypothetical model using convenient sampling. Overall, 232 interested employees filled out the printed questionnaire computed for completing statistical analysis consuming SPSS and Smart-PLS. We discussed the strengths and weaknesses of the causal framework through rigorous research and theoretical reasoning. Moreover, we also discussed individual well-being, psychological beliefs, and strategic directions with practical and social implications.
    Keywords: spirituality leadership; workplace strategies; productivity; commitment; strategies; workplace management; individual well-being.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBSR.2022.10039808
  • Analysis of Employee Motivation in the Service and Manufacturing Organizations: The Case of a Developing Economy   Order a copy of this article
    by Selim Ahmed, Rafikul Islam, Ahmed Al Asheq 
    Abstract: The purpose of the study is to identify the factors that motivate employees in the service and manufacturing firms in Bangladesh. In this study, 321 employees were surveyed and out of these, 256 were from the service while 65 were from the manufacturing organisations. The findings of the study indicate that job security and promotion are more influential motivating factors for the service organisations while working condition and job security are the two most important motivating factors for the manufacturing employees. In addition, the research findings also reveal that there are some significant differences between the service and the manufacturing employees’ motivating factors. Thus, it is crucial that all managers should have sufficient knowledge about their respective employees’ motivating factors in order to improve and sustain their eminent organisational performances. By and large, the findings of this study can be adopted as guidelines when formulating motivational strategies for business firms in a fast-developing country like Bangladesh.
    Keywords: motivating factors; service; manufacturing; business firms; Bangladesh.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBSR.2022.10039933
  • Mapping e-Business Competitive Priorities in the light of COVID-19   Order a copy of this article
    by Saad Zighan, Ziad Alkalha, Firas Omar 
    Abstract: This paper ascertains e-businesss competitive priorities in the light of COVID-19. Evidence was collected from 41 customers and 16 business managers. The study identified 34 operational dimensions. Nineteen dimensions are related to e-business platforms and transaction processes, and 15 dimensions are related to products or services characteristics. These dimensions were grouped into threshold resources, distinctive resources, threshold competencies and distinctive competencies. Distinctive resources and distinctive competencies are the most critical dimensions of e-business in the light of COVID-19. These dimensions are subject to the more is better rule; if they are met, they will increase the firms differentiation edge. Nevertheless, threshold resources are essential for e-business to be considered in the marketplace. It represents the must-be quality element. While distinctive competencies are essential to excel, these competencies are unexpected, where customers are satisfied if these attributes are presented but will not dissatisfied customers in their absence.
    Keywords: electronic business; e-business; competitive advantage; competitive priorities; value attributes.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBSR.2022.10039994
  • Healthcare System Innovation The Case of Adoption of Telemedicine in Ghana   Order a copy of this article
    by Anthony Asare, Richard Bannor, Robert M. Yawson, Justice Nyigmah Bawole 
    Abstract: Cell phone usage has increased substantially in Ghana. Yet at the same time, the doctor-patient ratio is extremely low and congestion in hospitals is very common. To help solve those and other healthcare challenges, this paper employs a qualitative approach to examine the use of telemedicine in Africa, with Ghana as a case study. The paper uses a hybrid approach that utilises a combination of qualitative methods to analyse data collected from in-depth interviews with medical professionals. Using the deductive thematic analysis approach, the study finds that the five main attributes of Rogers’ adoption of innovation model: relative advantage, compatibility, complexity, trialability, and observability are very crucial in telemedicine adoption in Africa. The study also employs the phenomenological approach to discover new themes, patterns, and categories about telemedicine adoption in Africa. The study found that telemedicine is critical in enhancing peer to peer support and education amongst healthcare professionals, and reducing congestion in hospitals. The study also discusses concerns about the implementation of telemedicine and solutions to those concerns.
    Keywords: healthcare innovation; innovation adoption; telemedicine; Africa; hybrid qualitative analysis approach; adoption of innovation model; AIM; deductive thematic analysis; phenomenological analysis.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBSR.2022.10040286
  • The Effect of Relational Bonds on e-Commerce Use, the Mediating Effect of Customers’ Online Trust: Evidence from Jordan   Order a copy of this article
    by Shadi Khattab, Ishaq Shaar, Mohammed Khair Abu Zaid, Fadi Qutaishat 
    Abstract: This study investigates the effect of relational bonds on the use of e-commerce in Jordan. In addition, the study examines the role of customers’ online trust in modifying the relationship between relational bonds and e-commerce use. Structural equation modelling was used to analyse the data collected from 423 customers who had bought or obtained services from online retailers. The analysis of results from this study showed that financial, social and structural bonds have affected customers’ online trust. Furthermore, the results demonstrated that the customers’ online trust has affected e-commerce use. Although it was found that structural bonds directly affected e-commerce use, financial and social bonds did not have a similar effect on e-commerce use. Finally, the study found that the customers’ online trust fully mediated the relationship between financial bonds and structural bonds on e-commerce use. However, the customers’ online trust partially mediated the relationship between social bonds and e-commerce use. The study concluded that companies can rely on relational bonds collectively as a trust-building method and using structural and social bonds, which are considered a very effective strategy to attain customers’ trust.
    Keywords: relational bonds; e-commerce use; customers’ online trust; financial bonds; social bonds; structural bonds.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBSR.2022.10041551
  • Early Warning System for preventing bank distress in Brazil   Order a copy of this article
    by Flavio Barboza, Jorge H. F. Barbosa, Herbert Kimura, Gustavo C. Santos, Paulo Cortez 
    Abstract: The global financial crisis in 2007/2008 showed how important is to be prudent with events related to the banking sector, illustrating emphatically the contagion in the financial system caused by distress in one or more banks. This issue goes beyond competitiveness and the interrelationship among its members, requiring at least signs or warnings of potential problems in such institutions. Thus, the present study presents some early warning system models for bank crises and bank distress, which are empirically tested for Brazilian banks. In addition to the traditional logit, we analyse two machine learning techniques are: random forest (RF) and support vector machine (SVM). The database of Brazilian banks covers 179 events considered as unsound bank. Our findings suggest that RF and SVM underperform the logit model. Moreover, RF models presented greater predictive capacity with the time windows of 32 and 34 months, proving adequate to the regulators’ needs.
    Keywords: early warning system; EWS; banking crisis; distress prediction; machine learning techniques; Brazil.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBSR.2022.10041872
  • Social Capital, Knowledge Sharing and Operational Performance in Supply Chain: A Buyer-Supplier Perspective   Order a copy of this article
    by Sina Zare, Kuldeep Singh, Yasaman Ghasemi, Edmund L. Prater 
    Abstract: The vast majority of literature on social capital has focused on the impact of the different dimensions of social capital on the buying firms’ performance within the buyer-supplier context. A few studies investigated the relationship between the distinct dimensions of social capital (structural, cognitive, and relational capital) and how they influence the firm’s performance outcome. Drawing upon social capital theory, this paper develops a model that examines cognitive capital’s mediating role in the relationship between structural capital and relational capital. The model also considers knowledge sharing as the outcome of relational capital, and knowledge sharing mediates the relationship between the buying firm’s relational capital and operational performance. The empirical results suggest that cognitive capital mediates the relationship between structural capital and relational capital. Relational capital significantly impacts knowledge sharing, and knowledge sharing partially mediates the relationship between the firm’s relational capital and operational performance. This study is one of the few that examines the relationship among different social capital dimensions and identifies knowledge sharing as a critical pathway between the firm’s social capital and performance.
    Keywords: supply chain; operations management; structural capital; cognitive capital; relational capital; social capital; knowledge sharing; operational performance.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBSR.2022.10042064
  • Causal Relationship among Critical Factors for Cellular Manufacturing System Using DEMATEL Approach   Order a copy of this article
    by Vikrant Sharma, B.D. Gidwani, Vikram Sharma, M.L. Meena 
    Abstract: The purpose of this research paper is to visualise the prioritisation and interrelationships among essential factors of cellular manufacturing system (CMS) implementation in a manufacturing firm located in India using the Decision-Making Trial and Evaluation Laboratory (DEMATEL) method. Based on the literature review, 17 CM factors were identified which were validated by experts. A questionnaire was created that was replied by five experts serving within the SMEs firm. Then, the DEMATEL technique was applied to clarify the complicated relationship between essential factors and evaluate their key influences. The main contribution of this study is to identify and prioritise the factors that managers are facing in CMS implementation. The result of this study indicates that training is an essential factor for the CM implementation. The strength of the present study is that it is one of the first few to be conducted in perspective for CM implementation factors analysis.
    Keywords: cellular manufacturing system; CMS; DEMATEL; essential factor; implementation.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBSR.2022.10042461
  • The Role of Strategic Flexibility on The Influence of Entrepreneurial Orientation on New Product Development   Order a copy of this article
    by Yuli Budiati, Wisnu Untoro, Lilik Wahyudi, Mugi Harsono 
    Abstract: Small and medium enterprises (SMEs) need to adapt to the changing environment in maintaining their business. Environmental turbulence can be solved by managing strategic flexibility in exploiting the company’s ability to become competitive opportunities. The purpose of the research is to evaluate the relationship between entrepreneurial orientation and strategic flexibility on new product development in furniture SMEs. The survey method used in this study, the population was carried out in the management of SME furniture in the Jepara district area. The number of questionnaires analysed was 158 with PLS-SEM. The results of the study are that there is an influence of entrepreneurial orientation and strategic flexibility on new product development. This research contribution illustrates the importance of strategic flexibility with flexible use and coordination of resources to create new products through dynamic capabilities. The spirit of entrepreneurial orientation is needed in dynamic market conditions through proactive, innovative, and courageous actions to be able to change strategies quickly by taking opportunities to develop new products so that SMEs still exist in markets that have never been explored in previous studies.
    Keywords: entrepreneurial orientation; flexibility strategy; new product development; small and medium enterprises; SMEs.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBSR.2022.10042462
    by JEEVESH SHARMA, Suhasini Verma 
    Abstract: The purpose of the study is to analyse the extent of corporate social responsibility (CSR) disclosures relating to firms environmental performance, made by leading firms indexed in BSE Carbonex in India. The duration of the study is from 2015 to 2019 and content analysis has been used. The results show that there are significant discrepancies in the spending of CSR on the listed dimensions with a relatively smaller chunk of funds being channelled towards environmental performance. It is easily ascertained by the results that some arenas are barely disclosed whereas some areas are sufficiently reported. The managerial implication of the study is that it provides a wide picture of firms' environmental and corporate social responsibility (CSR) disclosure practices. The findings may help the management to formulate strategies for better environmental performance. It also provides the policy prescription to the government to make stringent rules to arrest the erratic climate change.
    Keywords: CSR disclosure; environmental performance; carbon disclosure.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBSR.2023.10043340
  • A Comparison Between Expected Value and Realized Value of Cloud Computing: An Exploratory Study   Order a copy of this article
    by Ta-Tao Chuang 
    Abstract: The purpose of the research is to examine the business benefit of cloud computing by comparing the benefits perceived by respondents whose companies had already adopted cloud computing and the benefits expected by those whose companies had not. The motivation for the study is that while business benefits of cloud computing have been widely touted, a survey on practitioners shows that not all kinds of benefits have achieved to expectations. The study is intended to examine the realisation of claimed business benefits of cloud computing in three aspects: cost reduction, improved capability and enhanced scalability. The study shows that no sufficient evidence supports the existence of difference between realised and expected cost reductions. Furthermore, there is no difference between realised and expected improvement in IT and business capability. Nevertheless, respondents reported that their companies reaped more than expected in the aspect of enhancement of scalability.
    Keywords: Cloud computing; business benefits; cost reduction; IT and business capability; scalability.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBSR.2022.10043514
  • Testing the environmental Kuznets curve hypothesis - during the period from 1975 to 2017 in Egypt   Order a copy of this article
    by Mohamed A. Saber  
    Abstract: The study aimed to test the hypothesis of the environmental Kuznets curve in Egypt. And it has been known in the relationship between economic and growth. It is measured by per capita GDP and environmental pollution, measured by per capita carbon dioxide emissions during the period from 1975 to 2017 in Egypt. The study used the ARDL methodology to explain the relationship between the variables, and the study found that the environmental Kuznets curve hypothesis applies to the Egyptian economy and that there is a positive relationship between energy use and environmental pollution, while the relationship between urbanisation and environmental pollution was an inverse relationship. The relationship of trade openness to environmental pollution was not significant. The model’s validity was validated for estimation using the serial correlation LM test, the heteroskedasticity test, and the histogram-normality test of residuals using the Jaque-Bera test.
    Keywords: Kuznets environmental curve; economic growth; ARDL approach; environmental pollution; increase production; histogram-normality test; inverse relationship; Egypt.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBSR.2022.10043518
  • Websites Continuance Usage Intention: A Study from the Airline sector.   Order a copy of this article
    by Humera Khan, P. D. D. Dominic, Sadaf Hina 
    Abstract: Airline websites aim to provide comprehensive and timely information to customers through adoption, use and information management. Despite rapid growth in information systems (IS) research and practice, the problem of low-level airline websites uses in developing countries has not been systematically studied in IS research literature. This empirical research paper draws constructs from the expectation confirmation model (ECM) and IS continuance literature to develop a better theoretical explanation for low-level airline websites’ problem. The IS continuance research finds the substantive differences in construct between initial IS use and IS continuance over time. This paper has constructed a new research model for customers’ continuance usage of airline websites and has empirically tested it using the structural equation modelling (SEM) approach. A survey instrument was used to acquire responses from 253 usable samples from respondents. SEM results indicated that the model constructs explained 55% of the variance in airline websites continuance.
    Keywords: continuance usage intention; expectation confirmation model; ECM; online information system; airline websites; satisfaction; information quality.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBSR.2023.10043676
  • Place Matters-the spatial diffusion of contagious diseases   Order a copy of this article
    by Steffen Flessa 
    Abstract: The diffusion of contagious diseases follows a spatial pattern highly relevant for the design of intervention programs. This paper analyses the waves of a generic contagious disease in a pattern region. We develop a batch model based on a system dynamics model where the likelihood of an infection depends on distance from another person. The basic simulation shows a clear pattern of a wave sweeping over the region. Starting in one cell, the epidemic strongly depends on the proximity to his place of origin. The speed and intensiveness of the wave depends on the mobility, infectivity and contact rate, but also on the population pattern. Health policy-makers have to install early detection and sentinel systems to stop an outbreak before it diffuses spatially. If it is possible to flatten the curve and prolong the diffusion process, barriers of vaccinated could be built up. This will also require controlling national and cross-border transport.
    Keywords: contact rate; contagious disease; COVID-19; health systems research; infectivity; measles; mobility; place; quantitative techniques.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBSR.2023.10044455
  • Smart Systems Adoption in Management   Order a copy of this article
    by Sara Las Cunha, Renato Lopes Da Costa, Rui Gonçalves, Leandro Ferreira Pereira, Álvaro Dias, Rui Vinhas Da Silva 
    Abstract: Information technologies play an essential role in creating additional sources of value creation for customers. Artificial intelligence (AI) has been on the top of this technological wave and has the potential to help companies to overcome their obstacles. The goal of this article was to assess the key factors that influence manager’s intentionality to implement smart systems in their businesses. For this purpose, a quantitative approach using survey data analysed through modelling of structural equations, allowing to identify the main factors influencing manager’s decision to implement smart systems are the perception and knowledge about them, the benefits generated by the implementation of smart systems and, finally, the challenges associated. This research is truly innovative in the way that assesses the reasons that lead companies to implement smart systems in the medium term in Portugal.
    Keywords: artificial intelligence; smart systems implementation; Portuguese companies.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBSR.2023.10044711
  • The Creativity 4.0 framework: outlining the influences on creativity in the digital era   Order a copy of this article
    by Carmen Bruno, Maria Rita Canina 
    Abstract: We are in the middle of a digital transformation in which emerging digital technologies are completely reshaping the way in which people learn, work, behave and socialise. Individuals and the whole of society are living in an onlife reality, which represents a hyperconnected experience that is modelling our digital culture and impacting the social, behavioural and cognitive development, especially for the generation that is growing up with digital habits (smartphones, tablets, video games, etc.). In this transformation, creativity has been recognised as one of the most distinctive human skills, especially in the necessary collaboration between human and machine. A fundamental issue for design that arises from this context concern the impacts of the human and technological co-evolution on the creative process. The objective of this paper is to present the Creativity 4.0 framework, its structure and building process. The framework highlights the most crucial factors of creativity that support the different step of the design process and support the identification of the enabling and inhibiting condition for creativity brought by the digital transition.
    Keywords: creativity factors; creative design process; digital transition; enablers; inhibitors.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBSR.2022.10034298
  • Body adornment and interaction aesthetics: a new frontier for assistive wearables   Order a copy of this article
    by Patrizia Marti, Annamaria Recupero 
    Abstract: The paper addresses the challenge of balancing the tension between a problem-solving attitude in the design of assistive devices, with an ethical aesthetic, and cultural approach to design for people living with a temporary or permanent impairment. The topic is developed presenting two design cases. The first case addresses a permanent disability. It is a suite of smart jewels tailored for hearing impairment, which sense environmental sounds (e.g., doorbell, someone calling) and notify the wearer of their occurrence through different modalities (light patterns, vibrations, shape changes). The second case addresses a temporary impairment. It is an orthodontic facemask for the correction of malocclusions in children that has customised aesthetics and ergonomics and is associated with a digital game. The cases illustrate the experience-centred participatory design adopted to mitigate the stigma associated with current wearable assistive devices and promote a cultural shift to transform assistive wearables into beautiful, playful, gender-appropriate accessories.
    Keywords: wearables; assistive devices; experience-centred design; participatory design; disability; temporary impairment; aesthetics.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBSR.2022.10033864
  • Emergent NPD process and development risks for IoT: an exploratory case study in agri-tech   Order a copy of this article
    by Boyeun Lee, David Hands, Rachel Cooper, Paul Coulton 
    Abstract: With the emergence of internet of things (IoT) as a new source of 'big' data, businesses face new opportunities as well as emergent challenges. Recent research claims digital technology can enable new kinds of development processes that are distinctive from their counterparts in the 20th century. However, although academics and practitioners often critically debate the IoT, minimal attention has been focused on new product development (NPD) processes; arguably, one of the most critical marketing plans and implementation process activities undertaken within the organisation. Thus, this paper aims to contribute to a new understanding of IoT NPD processes. To achieve this aim, a comprehensive literature review was undertaken primarily focusing on traditional NPD design processes and reviewed against, a featured case study, IoT NPD processes. The relevance of IoT NPD against the characteristics of existing NPD processes are subsequently reviewed and critically debated. Finally, NPD processes and the meaning of design within an IoT context are critically reframed. In essence, this paper summarises how NPD processes and the role of design could be improved and proposes a set of guidelines with an accompanying conceptual framework for IoT NPD processes.
    Keywords: NPD process; internet of things; IoT; IoT development risks; IoT value creation; designing IoT.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBSR.2022.10032910
  • Reminiscence and nostalgia: designing feasible solutions for dementia care   Order a copy of this article
    by Silvia Maria Gramegna 
    Abstract: The recreation of nostalgic feelings and memories has deep psychological implications for human beings, as it can increase self-esteem, social cohesion and connectedness. Applying this approach to dementia care may enable designers and researchers to reframe the use of memories to generate new methods of intervening on/in the interiors of care homes. It suggests a therapeutic use of nostalgia in the development of environmental solutions for dementia care units. Nostalgia and archetypical elements can be viewed as the active component of therapeutic success in reminiscence therapy in dementia care home design.
    Keywords: dementia; interior design; non-pharmacological therapies; NPTs; nostalgia; reminiscence.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBSR.2022.10034299
  • Using systems thinking to investigate the sustainability of digital fabrication projects in the humanitarian and development sector   Order a copy of this article
    by Lucia Corsini, James Moultrie 
    Abstract: Recently, designers have started using digital fabrication to create new solutions to meet global challenges. However, many technology projects in the humanitarian and development sector have been criticised for failing to deliver sustainable solutions. This study responds to these concerns by investigating the sustainability of digital fabrication projects in the humanitarian and development sector. A systems approach is used to synthesise knowledge from 14 digital fabrication projects in healthcare, education and water and sanitation. Causal loop diagrams are created to investigate the relationships between the drivers and barriers to sustainability. Several systems archetypes are also identified revealing potential leverage points for driving more sustainable solutions. The paper contextualises these findings by drawing on theories from participatory development and cosmopolitan localism. It concludes that digital fabrication presents an opportunity for more local and participatory design; however, sustainability is being undermined by a tendency to seek short-term solutions.
    Keywords: systems thinking; sustainability; digital fabrication; humanitarian; development.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBSR.2022.10035578
  • Factors affecting product design process in traditional societies: a thematic content analysis of novice designers' self-reports   Order a copy of this article
    by Priyanka Rai, Prakhar Verma, Abhishek Dahiya, Jyoti Kumar 
    Abstract: New product design and dissemination in traditional societies have been reported to face resistance. The cause of resistance has not been well reported in literature. Also, in general, the product design processes for traditional societies have not been sufficiently reported in literature. This paper reports findings from qualitative research with ten novice designers who had followed a product design process for a selected traditional society in India. Also, this paper reports the details of the process of design followed. Novice designers had initially immersed in the traditional environment of rural animal husbandry practices by women for about 40 hours where they participated, observed and interviewed the women. Based on the research data, the needs were identified and later studio exercises were done to develop designs for the identified needs. At the end of the product design activity, the designers were interviewed one-on-one, using a semi-structured qualitative interview protocol.
    Keywords: social innovation; culture; design; tradition; novice designers; design thinking.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBSR.2022.10038270
  • Using human anatomy and physiology to explain business organisation effectiveness   Order a copy of this article
    by Emmanuel Osafo 
    Abstract: This article seeks to provide business and management professionals the impetus to approach leadership, organisation, and business strategy development efforts from systems theory perspective using the theories of anatomy and physiology. The cephalocaudal principle which emphasises the need for the human body to gain control of the head first, during the human development process, will be highlighted in the concluding session. Similar to the functioning of the head in the human development process, improved performance in organisations require functional leadership to inspire growth and development. Thus, to obtain optimum outcomes from available resources, organisations are encouraged to commence their strategic planning and organisational development efforts with effective leadership development. Indisputably, progressive leadership strives to adjust to both the internal and external prevailing business environment to ensure survival and remain relevant and competitive. Effective organisations function very similar to healthy human beings.
    Keywords: leadership; systems theory; organisational systems; organisational effectiveness; human anatomy; physiology.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBSR.2022.10032509