Forthcoming and Online First Articles

International Journal of Business and Systems Research

International Journal of Business and Systems Research (IJBSR)

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International Journal of Business and Systems Research (30 papers in press)

Regular Issues

  • Mapping e-Business Competitive Priorities in the light of COVID-19   Order a copy of this article
    by Saad Zighan, Ziad Alkalha, Firas Omar 
    Abstract: This paper ascertains e-businesss competitive priorities in the light of COVID-19. Evidence was collected from 41 customers and 16 business managers. The study identified 34 operational dimensions. Nineteen dimensions are related to e-business platforms and transaction processes, and 15 dimensions are related to products or services characteristics. These dimensions were grouped into threshold resources, distinctive resources, threshold competencies and distinctive competencies. Distinctive resources and distinctive competencies are the most critical dimensions of e-business in the light of COVID-19. These dimensions are subject to the more is better rule; if they are met, they will increase the firms differentiation edge. Nevertheless, threshold resources are essential for e-business to be considered in the marketplace. It represents the must-be quality element. While distinctive competencies are essential to excel, these competencies are unexpected, where customers are satisfied if these attributes are presented but will not dissatisfied customers in their absence.
    Keywords: electronic business; e-business; competitive advantage; competitive priorities; value attributes.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBSR.2022.10039994
  • The Effect of Relational Bonds on e-Commerce Use, the Mediating Effect of Customers’ Online Trust: Evidence from Jordan   Order a copy of this article
    by Shadi Khattab, Ishaq Shaar, Mohammed Khair Abu Zaid, Fadi Qutaishat 
    Abstract: This study investigates the effect of relational bonds on the use of e-commerce in Jordan. In addition, the study examines the role of customers’ online trust in modifying the relationship between relational bonds and e-commerce use. Structural equation modelling was used to analyse the data collected from 423 customers who had bought or obtained services from online retailers. The analysis of results from this study showed that financial, social and structural bonds have affected customers’ online trust. Furthermore, the results demonstrated that the customers’ online trust has affected e-commerce use. Although it was found that structural bonds directly affected e-commerce use, financial and social bonds did not have a similar effect on e-commerce use. Finally, the study found that the customers’ online trust fully mediated the relationship between financial bonds and structural bonds on e-commerce use. However, the customers’ online trust partially mediated the relationship between social bonds and e-commerce use. The study concluded that companies can rely on relational bonds collectively as a trust-building method and using structural and social bonds, which are considered a very effective strategy to attain customers’ trust.
    Keywords: relational bonds; e-commerce use; customers’ online trust; financial bonds; social bonds; structural bonds.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBSR.2022.10041551
    by JEEVESH SHARMA, Suhasini Verma 
    Abstract: The purpose of the study is to analyse the extent of corporate social responsibility (CSR) disclosures relating to firms environmental performance, made by leading firms indexed in BSE Carbonex in India. The duration of the study is from 2015 to 2019 and content analysis has been used. The results show that there are significant discrepancies in the spending of CSR on the listed dimensions with a relatively smaller chunk of funds being channelled towards environmental performance. It is easily ascertained by the results that some arenas are barely disclosed whereas some areas are sufficiently reported. The managerial implication of the study is that it provides a wide picture of firms' environmental and corporate social responsibility (CSR) disclosure practices. The findings may help the management to formulate strategies for better environmental performance. It also provides the policy prescription to the government to make stringent rules to arrest the erratic climate change.
    Keywords: CSR disclosure; environmental performance; carbon disclosure.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBSR.2023.10043340
  • Websites Continuance Usage Intention: A Study from the Airline sector.   Order a copy of this article
    by Humera Khan, P. D. D. Dominic, Sadaf Hina 
    Abstract: Airline websites aim to provide comprehensive and timely information to customers through adoption, use and information management. Despite rapid growth in information systems (IS) research and practice, the problem of low-level airline websites uses in developing countries has not been systematically studied in IS research literature. This empirical research paper draws constructs from the expectation confirmation model (ECM) and IS continuance literature to develop a better theoretical explanation for low-level airline websites’ problem. The IS continuance research finds the substantive differences in construct between initial IS use and IS continuance over time. This paper has constructed a new research model for customers’ continuance usage of airline websites and has empirically tested it using the structural equation modelling (SEM) approach. A survey instrument was used to acquire responses from 253 usable samples from respondents. SEM results indicated that the model constructs explained 55% of the variance in airline websites continuance.
    Keywords: continuance usage intention; expectation confirmation model; ECM; online information system; airline websites; satisfaction; information quality.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBSR.2023.10043676
  • Place Matters-the spatial diffusion of contagious diseases   Order a copy of this article
    by Steffen Flessa 
    Abstract: The diffusion of contagious diseases follows a spatial pattern highly relevant for the design of intervention programs. This paper analyses the waves of a generic contagious disease in a pattern region. We develop a batch model based on a system dynamics model where the likelihood of an infection depends on distance from another person. The basic simulation shows a clear pattern of a wave sweeping over the region. Starting in one cell, the epidemic strongly depends on the proximity to his place of origin. The speed and intensiveness of the wave depends on the mobility, infectivity and contact rate, but also on the population pattern. Health policy-makers have to install early detection and sentinel systems to stop an outbreak before it diffuses spatially. If it is possible to flatten the curve and prolong the diffusion process, barriers of vaccinated could be built up. This will also require controlling national and cross-border transport.
    Keywords: contact rate; contagious disease; COVID-19; health systems research; infectivity; measles; mobility; place; quantitative techniques.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBSR.2023.10044455
  • Smart Systems Adoption in Management   Order a copy of this article
    by Sara Las Cunha, Renato Lopes Da Costa, Rui Gonçalves, Leandro Ferreira Pereira, Álvaro Dias, Rui Vinhas Da Silva 
    Abstract: Information technologies play an essential role in creating additional sources of value creation for customers. Artificial intelligence (AI) has been on the top of this technological wave and has the potential to help companies to overcome their obstacles. The goal of this article was to assess the key factors that influence manager’s intentionality to implement smart systems in their businesses. For this purpose, a quantitative approach using survey data analysed through modelling of structural equations, allowing to identify the main factors influencing manager’s decision to implement smart systems are the perception and knowledge about them, the benefits generated by the implementation of smart systems and, finally, the challenges associated. This research is truly innovative in the way that assesses the reasons that lead companies to implement smart systems in the medium term in Portugal.
    Keywords: artificial intelligence; smart systems implementation; Portuguese companies.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBSR.2023.10044711
  • Re-configurable Business Process: A Constraint-based Approach   Order a copy of this article
    by Priyanka Chakraborty, Anirban Sarkar 
    Abstract: Continuous and rapid changes in the business environment and user requirements demand suitable design of business processes (BPs) to deal with the scope of adaptive, flexible, and reusable on such modifications. Most of the existing approaches either add a large number of BP elements to the existing BP or replace the current BP with a new one. Thus, those approaches are expensive and less user-friendly. Conversely, the constraint-based approach consequences the minimal amount of changes in the structure of BP. Additionally, this approach gives privilege to the stakeholders to reconfigure the BPs according to their goal requirements. In this paper, a constraint-driven approach is proposed to achieve reconfigurability in BP. Constraints like data, gateway and ordering are considered in BPs. Several real-life case studies have been described in detail. Finally, an algorithm named as reconfigurable business process achievement algorithm (RCBPA) has been proposed and implemented to achieve reconfigurability in BP.
    Keywords: constraint-based reconfigurability; gateway constraints; ordering constraints; data constraints; reconfigurable business process.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBSR.2023.10046549
  • Impact of Sales Promotion and Consumer Innovativeness on Online Impulse Buying Behavior with the Moderating Role of Buying Power   Order a copy of this article
    by Shermeen Hasan, Abdul Qayyum 
    Abstract: The current trend of online shopping has led to various shopping behaviours, both rational and irrational; impulse buying represents the latter. The study was designed to investigate the impact of situational factors like sales promotion and personality characteristics like innovativeness on online impulse buying behaviour with the moderating role of buying power. Data were collected from a few of the major cities of Pakistan, employing an online questionnaire created in Google Forms with a final sample size of 308 respondents. Partial least squares (PLS) were employed using SmartPLS 3, and the results indicated that sales promotion had a marked impact on consumer’s online impulse buying behaviour, and the buying power backed this behaviour. Consumer innovativeness also showed a positive relationship with online impulse buying behaviour; however, the relationship was weakened with increased buying power. In addition, buying power had no impact on online impulse buying behaviour.
    Keywords: sales promotions; consumer innovativeness; buying power; online impulse buying behaviour; regulatory focus theory; RFT.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBSR.2023.10046550
  • Resource Renting Problem with Discounted Cash Flows: A Genetic Algorithm Solution   Order a copy of this article
    by Amir Asrzad, Sina Shokoohyar 
    Abstract: The resource renting problem, which is a class of project scheduling problems, is very similar to resource investment problem. In the case of resource investment problems, the objective function is to make optimal resources procurement to have sufficient resources available in each period. In modelling resource renting problem, we assume that the project’s resources can be rented, making rental costs time-dependent. A standard resource renting problem tries to minimise the cost of acquiring resources, where the objective function only includes costs and does not include the interest rate. This paper has modelled the resource renting problem with discounted cash flow and solved it using a genetic algorithm. We consider the objective function to maximise the net present value of money and solve it using a genetic algorithm. The performance of the Genetic Algorithm is compared with exact methods. We have solved a set of standard project scheduling problems with both the genetic algorithm and exact methods. The test results are quite satisfactory.
    Keywords: resource renting problem; discounted cash flows; genetic algorithm; project management.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBSR.2023.10046551
  • Information discovery methods using statistical processing to facilitate innovation creation   Order a copy of this article
    by Takayuki Suzuki, Kiminori Gemba, Atsushi Aoyama 
    Abstract: In the past, products were classified by hand, using qualitative judgement. This research proposes a method of discovering information that facilitates the creation of innovation using statistical processing, and an external theory targeting information associated with products. Word-of-mouth information concerning home appliances, aggregated during a specific period, was collectively analysed without dividing the total duration of the period. It was found that information lead to the emergence of innovation. This study aimed to discover information that supplements innovation through statistical processing (i.e., principal component analysis, non-negative matrix factorisation, and latent Dirichlet allocation). In future, it will be crucial to re-examine various discussions that can be expressed in two dimensions or those that independently deal with product characteristics. Going forward, it will be essential to perform quantitative analysis of the relationship of product characteristics with each period of the product life cycle.
    Keywords: information discovery methods; statistical processing; innovation creation; product characteristics; product life cycle; aesthetics; quantitative analysis; principal component analysis.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBSR.2023.10049051
  • Does Gamification on an E-Commerce Application Lead Intention to Use the Application and Spread Word of Mouth?   Order a copy of this article
    by Kunthi Kusumawardani, Laura Fabiola Soegihono 
    Abstract: This research aims to evaluate the effect of e-commerce gamification on post-adoption behavioural intention on an e-commerce application in Indonesia mediated by flow experience, perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, and attitude. The structural equation modelling analysis was chosen to examine the data using 325 respondents who are active users who play the games in the e-commerce app. The research results found that attitude towards gamification is a strong predictor in determining continued use intention and intention to spread the WOM of the e-commerce application. Besides, flow experience, perceived ease of use, and perceived usefulness will shape a positive attitude towards gamification, leading to continued use intention and intention to spread WOM. Findings in this research provide empirical evidence of gamification’s use in an e-commerce application in a developing country. It underlines the importance of using gamification to shape the attitude to keep using the e-commerce application and spread WOM.
    Keywords: gamification; e-commerce; attitude; flow experience; continued use intention; CUI; word of mouth; WOM; Shopee; Indonesia.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBSR.2024.10049121
    by Damijan Kreslin, Stefan Bojnec, Mirko Markic, Aleksander Janes 
    Abstract: The purpose of this research is to examine the impact of used management tools (MTs) and techniques on enterprises performance. For this purpose, the structural equation model (SEM) is developed, which is based on a sample of 139 Slovenian medium and large enterprises (MLE) that completed the questionnaire. In the empirical analysis, the in-depth survey data for an enterprise are combined with the Gvin accountancy database of indicators. The MLE performance is being measured with the return on equity (ROE). The empirical results partially confirmed the impact of the used MTs on the enterprises ROE, which can be increased with the proper use and managers’ satisfaction with MTs. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, no empirical study has been conducted to examine the relationship among use of MTs and ROE for Slovenian ML enterprises.
    Keywords: enterprise performance; business and systems research; management tool; MTs; management tools and techniques; return on equity; ROE; structural equation model; SEM; Slovenia.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBSR.2024.10049723
  • Football Results Prediction and Machine Learning Techniques   Order a copy of this article
    by Victor Chang, Karl Hall, Le Minh Thao Doan 
    Abstract: In the past, machine learning techniques used to predict the outcome of professional team-based sports matches have used the number of points or goals scored as the primary metric for performance evaluation in their prediction models. However, this approach is considered outdated by industry statisticians. The final outcome of each match can fluctuate wildly from the expected outcome based on events and changes of circumstances occurring within the games. The aim of this project is to compare and contrast the effectiveness and performance of various machine learning models when predicting the outcome of football matches in the English Premier League, both to each other and other benchmarks, including bookmakers' models and random chance. In this research, the 'expected goals' metric was explored as the base of the machine learning algorithms instead of the traditional 'goals scored' metric. This was used to build a Poisson distribution probabilistic classifier to predict the results of matches in the future, achieving an accuracy of 52.3% with regard to matches that occurred during the 2020-2021 Premier League season.
    Keywords: machine learning; ML; football results prediction; predictive simulations.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBSR.2023.10051445
  • Publication Patterns of Business Analytics Faculty: Toward a Well-Founded Assessment of Productivity   Order a copy of this article
    by Hong Qin, Kai S. Koong, Zhaojun Yang 
    Abstract: In many business disciplines, impact metrics and measurements of productivity are well established, including institutionally-approved journal lists available for the use of both faculty and administration. Faculty in business analytics related fields generally have no such tool available, leading at times to confusion, undervaluing of their scholarship, and even litigation. In this study, we take the preliminary steps for establishing objective assessment tools for business analytics faculty by studying the publication patterns of the most productive current practitioners. An initial list of 700 publishing outlets was narrowed down to approximately 100 that account for 30% of all published scholarship in the field. We suggest this list can be used as an initial benchmark for future institution-based conversations about faculty review.
    Keywords: business analytics; publication patterns; faculty productivity; professional development; technology; business research; systems.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBSR.2024.10053868
  • Design an Interactive Dashboard System to Improve University Career Service: A Case Study   Order a copy of this article
    by Bih-Ru Lea, Wen-Bin Yu 
    Abstract: This research documents the process of developing a performance dashboard system for one uni-versity’s career service center to overcome challenges including lack of access to relevant infor-mation, stakeholders not taking advantage of what is being offered, and students’ anxiety about not being able to find a job, and strategic planning. Through a theory foundation grounded on the literature, this research aims to integrate data into actionable information, present the right information to the right user at the right time, provide a platform for communication between all stakeholders, and improve stakeholder satisfaction through self-service ad-hoc reporting. The de-sign principles for information organization, learnability, and user-friendly interface are present-ed. The interactive career service dashboard is then assessed based on ease of use, task effec-tiveness, and perceived usefulness.
    Keywords: Dashboard Systems; Higher Education; Data Visualization; Career Services.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBSR.2024.10054231
  • Continual Challenges of GST Regime in India from the Inception   Order a copy of this article
    by Preeti. S.Desai, S. Panneraselvam, Meena Chandavarkar 
    Abstract: It is not dramatisation if it is said that Goods & Service Tax (GST) implementation was most foreseen, demanded and at the same time most challenging tax reform which ever happened in India. It took almost a decade to build and enforce, which was a most challenging task. It was anticipated to remove all types of cascading effects present in the previous system. Most important expectation from the regime was justice in revenue distribution and bringing transparency to fullest extent. The GST regime is facing not only implementation problem but structural problem also. The present paper is the combination of theoretical and empirical study carried out from 2017 to 2020. The major focus of the study is challenges faced by GST regime from the day of its inception. The research methods used include- observation method to record the problems and hurdles faced by stakeholders of GST regime.
    Keywords: goods and services tax; GST; tax regime; paired t-test; challenges; comparison; small traders; input tax credit.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBSR.2023.10054413
    by Shilpa Mallikarjuna, Harshith L, Shobhini Sekar, Rajeshwar S. Kadadevaramath 
    Abstract: Layout planning of a facility involves the best physical arrangement of all resources within the facility. It is essential when a new facility is being constructed or when an existing facility is being renovated with focus on expansion or space reduction in the layout. It also has a profound impact on the production and sales of an organisation. One such organisation where layout planning is of utmost importance is the supermarket as there is direct customer connection. Designing the supermarket facilities according to customer preferences is of utmost significance as this has a direct impact on the productivity of the firm. This necessitates planning the supermarket layout, considering various factors influencing the sales. Various algorithms are used for this purpose and the best possible layout planning is determined. In this paper, two supermarkets, Supermarkets A and B, situated in the heart of Bangalore city are considered for the study. The existing layouts of these two supermarkets are studied and analysed; the best possible layout for both the supermarkets is determined by using computerised relationship layout planning (CORELAP) algorithm.
    Keywords: supermarket layout; facilities design; sales analysis; system improvement.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBSR.2023.10054546
  • Comparative study of methods to identify sensitive parameters for improving performance of predictive models   Order a copy of this article
    by Mohan Sangli, Rajeshwar S. Kadadevaramath, Srikanth Madaka 
    Abstract: Machine learning models map inputs to predictions. Supervised machine learning models learn from a dataset containing several samples or experiments by assigning a weightage to each of the input parameters, commonly referred as features, so as to map to the corresponding target outcome. Different algorithms are used in the learning process, each following a set of rules to achieve the stated objective of mapping features to the corresponding value of target. In this development process, algorithms assign weights to each feature and refine them iteratively to reduce the error between the predicted outcomes with the actual value in the dataset. It is observed that each type of algorithm is based on certain themes such as linear, tree-based, kernel, etc. Each adoption of each of these themed algorithms assigns different weights to features to arrive at the target outcome while reducing the error with the actual value. Iterations alter the weights of parameters until fully tuned and hence there is a need to get reliable weights early in the model development process.
    Keywords: feature importance; ranking; permutation importance; machine learning; dimensionality reduction.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBSR.2023.10054547
    by Vijayalakshmi M, Somashekar C, Preeti. S.Desai, Badri Narayan 
    Abstract: Social media is capable of providing overall connections among the academic communities by giving a structural transformational to the educational organisation by providing a open way of communication. A confirmatory research study was conducted to understand the ethical environment in online academic community towards social media platforms, their usage, and time spent, social media habits and also the social media word-of-mouth influencing factors. In the present study, a model is framed based on the previous review and field survey was conducted. Structured questionnaire was constructed having questions on demographic data, tools, social media usage and activities. Following a pilot study, the questionnaire was reframed. Main survey was conducted and data was collected from 300 samples from the academic community. Data analysis was done using IBM-SPSS 21.0. The result shows that the social media platform act as a significant role in ethical environment in online academic community and also showed that individuals spend more than two hours accessing different social media. The study confirmed factors such as information usefulness, interactivity and credibility as the determinant for social media word-of-mouth.
    Keywords: academic community; social media word-of-mouth; social media word-of-mouth adoption; interactivity; information usefulness; credibility.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBSR.2023.10054548
  • The effect of IT flexibility and IT governance on business-IT strategic alignment   Order a copy of this article
    by Farzaneh Mardan, Neda Abdolvand, Saeedeh Rajaee Harandi 
    Abstract: Business-information technology (IT) alignment has become a very complex phenomenon, and many organisations are wondering how to achieve it. Despite the variety of methods used to address this issue, there are few studies on the impact of IT flexibility and IT governance on IT-business alignment, which is the objective of this study. The results of the study using partial least squares (PLS) method indicated that among IT governance principals the structure (path coefficient = 0.09, T-value > 1.96), process (path coefficient = 0.26, T-value > 1.96), and relational mechanisms (path coefficient = 0.20, T-value > 1.96) were effective on business-IT strategic alignment. In addition, among IT flexibility components the modularity (path coefficient = 0.12, T-value > 1.96), and compatibility (path coefficient = 0.26, T-value > 1.96) had significant effect on business-IT strategic alignment. Moreover, according to the Friedman test results, relational mechanisms have the strongest impact on business-IT strategic alignment.
    Keywords: IT governance; IT flexibility; business-IT strategic alignment.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBSR.2022.10038269
  • Exploring LARG management concepts within business model canvas: a theoretical approach   Order a copy of this article
    by Maria Do Rosário Cabrita, Susana Duarte, Virgílio Cruz-Machado 
    Abstract: As the global business landscape dramatically alters, there needs to be a similar change in the way organisations are performing and in which supply chain strategies are determined. One interesting debate has centred on the relative merits of 'lean', 'agile', 'resilient' and 'green' (LARG) philosophies and how they can contribute to building a companies' competitive advantage. Combining the existing understanding of concepts - business model (BM) and LARG principles - this paper focuses on the multidisciplinary area of LARG in business models and adds insights to the discussion about BM tools and particularly on the business model canvas (BMC) as a framework to develop LARG principles in business settings. Although recognising the limitations when trying to align LARG principles and the building blocks of BMC, this research aims to contribute to the discussion on creating an ideal type of BM to be adapted to LARG paradigm. To the knowledge of the authors, it is the first attempt to critically review the empirical research articles in LARG and business model canvas (BMC).
    Keywords: business model; business model canvas; BMC; LARG paradigm; lean; agile; resilient; green philosophies.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBSR.2022.10045940
  • Abusive supervision fosters employees' silence: the mediating role of avoidance orientation and moderating role of leader-member exchange   Order a copy of this article
    by Aqsa Jalil, Muhammad Sarmad, Muhammad Qaiser Shafi 
    Abstract: This research study investigates the mediating role of avoidance orientation between abusive supervision and employees' silence. It also aims to analyse the moderating role of leader-member exchange between abusive supervision and avoidance orientation. The conservation of resource theory is utilised to predict the hypothetical relationships. Data were collected from 210 permanent employees of the hospitality sector. The data was gathered in time lags to avoid common method bias and self-serving bias. The latest statistical techniques were executed through SPSS and AMOS to analyse the data. The results disclosed that abusive supervision predicts employees' silence and avoidance orientation mediates the relationship between abusive supervision and employees' silence. Moreover, the leader-member exchange moderates the relationship between abusive supervision and avoidance orientation. Thus, the theoretical and managerial implications are deliberated for the target sector in particular and other sectors in general.
    Keywords: abusive supervision; avoidance orientation; employees' silence; leader-member-exchange; LMX.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBSR.2022.10045213
  • Analysis of employee motivation in the service and manufacturing organisations: the case of a developing economy   Order a copy of this article
    by Selim Ahmed, Rafikul Islam, Ahmed Al Asheq 
    Abstract: The purpose of the study is to identify the factors that motivate employees in the service and manufacturing firms in Bangladesh. In this study, 321 employees were surveyed and out of these, 256 were from the service while 65 were from the manufacturing organisations. The findings of the study indicate that job security and promotion are most influential motivating factors for the service organisations while working condition and job security are the two most important motivating factors for the manufacturing employees. In addition, the research findings also reveal that there are some significant differences between the service and the manufacturing employees' motivating factors. Thus, it is crucial that all managers should have sufficient knowledge about their respective employees' motivating factors in order to improve and sustain their eminent organisational performances. By and large, the findings of this study can be adopted as guidelines when formulating motivational strategies for business firms in a fast-developing country like Bangladesh.
    Keywords: motivating factors; service; manufacturing; business firms; Bangladesh.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBSR.2022.10039933
  • Early warning system for preventing bank distress in Brazil   Order a copy of this article
    by Flavio Barboza, Jorge Henrique De Frias Barbosa, Herbert Kimura, Gustavo Carvalho Santos, Paulo Cortez 
    Abstract: The global financial crisis in 2007/2008 showed how important is to be prudent with events related to the banking sector, illustrating emphatically the contagion in the financial system caused by distress in one or more banks. This issue goes beyond competitiveness and the interrelationship among its members, requiring at least signs or warnings of potential problems in such institutions. Thus, the present study presents some early warning system models for bank crises and bank distress, which are empirically tested for Brazilian banks. In addition to the traditional logit, we analyse two machine learning techniques are: random forest (RF) and support vector machine (SVM). The database of Brazilian banks covers 179 events considered as unsound bank. Our findings suggest that RF and SVM underperform the logit model. Moreover, RF models presented greater predictive capacity with the time windows of 32 and 34 months, proving adequate to the regulators' needs.
    Keywords: early warning system; EWS; banking crisis; distress prediction; machine learning techniques; Brazil.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBSR.2022.10041872
  • Is this very much a matter of faith? A monetisation approach to COVID-19   Order a copy of this article
    by Antonio Focacci 
    Abstract: COVID-19 pandemic and resulting global economic contraction will stress all countries' fiscal frameworks raising several concerns about real and effective possibilities to deal with all deriving issues. The magnitude of shocks will surely affect the fiscal deficit and public debt in the majority of them. The sustainability and the survival of present worldwide economic system is severely tested. Through the application of the Granger causality methodology, the historical series of monetary aggregates and inflation are analysed for different countries. The goal of this empirical analysis is to support an unconventional approach to the solution of a crisis that has pervaded all nations and economic systems.
    Keywords: inflation; money; COVID-19; SARS-CoV 2; monetisation; systems.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBSR.2022.10039807
  • Workplace: an empirical study on spiritual leadership in Pakistani higher education   Order a copy of this article
    by Ansar Abbas, Dian Ekowati, Fendy Suhariadi, Aisha Anwar 
    Abstract: Management that encourages workplace support can successfully cover productive work, a sense of identity, and organisational goals. Spirituality inculcates a positive workplace environment that connects individuals and groups. It generates confidence in workers by promoting membership and meaningfulness towards corporate life. A causal framework containing hope, faith, and altruism works for an individual's well-being by imparting meaningfulness to the desire to make an undeniable impact on organisational productivity and commitment. In this study, a Likert scale questionnaire was used with public and private sector university employees in Pakistan to test the hypothetical model using convenient sampling. Overall, 232 interested employees filled out the printed questionnaire computed for completing statistical analysis consuming SPSS and Smart-PLS. We discussed the strengths and weaknesses of the causal framework through rigorous research and theoretical reasoning. Moreover, we also discussed individual well-being, psychological beliefs, and strategic directions with practical and social implications.
    Keywords: spirituality leadership; workplace strategies; productivity; commitment; strategies; workplace management; individual well-being.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBSR.2022.10039808
  • Social capital, knowledge sharing and operational performance in the supply chain: a buyer-supplier perspective   Order a copy of this article
    by Sina Zare, Kuldeep Singh, Yasaman Ghasemi, Edmund L. Prater 
    Abstract: The vast majority of literature on social capital has focused on the impact of the different dimensions of social capital on the buying firms' performance within the buyer-supplier context. A few studies investigated the relationship between the distinct dimensions of social capital (structural, cognitive, and relational capital) and how they influence the firm's performance outcome. Drawing upon social capital theory, this paper develops a model that examines cognitive capital's mediating role in the relationship between structural capital and relational capital. The model also considers knowledge sharing as the outcome of relational capital, and knowledge sharing mediates the relationship between the buying firm's relational capital and operational performance. The empirical results suggest that cognitive capital mediates the relationship between structural capital and relational capital. Relational capital significantly impacts knowledge sharing, and knowledge sharing partially mediates the relationship between the firm's relational capital and operational performance. This study is one of the few that examines the relationship among different social capital dimensions and identifies knowledge sharing as a critical pathway between the firm's social capital and performance.
    Keywords: supply chain; operations management; structural capital; cognitive capital; relational capital; social capital; knowledge sharing; operational performance.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBSR.2022.10042064
  • Healthcare system innovation - the case of adoption of telemedicine in Ghana   Order a copy of this article
    by Anthony K. Asare, Richard Bannor, Robert M. Yawson, Justice Nyigmah Bawole 
    Abstract: Cell phone usage has increased substantially in Ghana. Yet at the same time, the doctor-patient ratio is extremely low and congestion in hospitals is very common. To help solve those and other healthcare challenges, this paper employs a qualitative approach to examine the use of telemedicine in Africa, with Ghana as a case study. The paper uses a hybrid approach that utilises a combination of qualitative methods to analyse data collected from in-depth interviews with medical professionals. Using the deductive thematic analysis approach, the study finds that the five main attributes of Rogers' adoption of innovation model: relative advantage, compatibility, complexity, trialability, and observability are very crucial in telemedicine adoption in Africa. The study also employs the phenomenological approach to discover new themes, patterns, and categories about telemedicine adoption in Africa. The study found that telemedicine is critical in enhancing peer to peer support and education amongst healthcare professionals, and reducing congestion in hospitals. The study also discusses concerns about the implementation of telemedicine and solutions to those concerns.
    Keywords: healthcare innovation; innovation adoption; telemedicine; Africa; hybrid qualitative analysis approach; adoption of innovation model; AIM; deductive thematic analysis; phenomenological analysis.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBSR.2022.10040286
  • Introducing BLOC-ICE for exploring system concept   Order a copy of this article
    by Shaligram Pokharel 
    Abstract: In this paper, a generic framework called BLOC-ICE is proposed as an exploring system in order to develop a system diagram. The framework uses seven elements to assist in the visualisation, progressive exploration, and elaboration in order to develop the system diagram that meets the system's stated goals. Once the system diagram is developed, each part of the system can be designed through qualitative and quantitative methods, and simulation. The application of the framework is demonstrated through simple examples. The proposed framework can be used to explore system design and development in technical, social, and business fields. The paper also provides empirical results based on the data obtained through a survey of the graduates who learned this framework with the author. The analysis shows the importance of the framework in system exploration and design. The business implication of the framework is also discussed.
    Keywords: systems; system diagram; system thinking; system concept; system exploration; system approach.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBSR.2022.10039739
  • Lean manufacturing implementation challenges: a case study of pharmaceutical industries in Himachal Pradesh (India)   Order a copy of this article
    by Anbesh Jamwal, Rajeev Agrawal, Monica Sharma, Govind Sharan Dangayach, Sumit Gupta 
    Abstract: Growth of pharmaceutical industries in India plays an important role in the Indian economy. Increasing customer choices, government policies concerned with environment and competition around the globe have forced industries to adopt new manufacturing strategies in India. This study aims to find the barriers of lean manufacturing for pharmaceutical industries in Himachal Pradesh, India, which is a highly important sector for the economy of the region that suffers from too traditional manufacturing systems. An interpretive structural modelling (ISM) is used to establish the relationship between the barriers identified. These barriers influence and explain the way pharmaceutical industries in the Himachal Pradesh region try to implement the lean philosophy in their manufacturing system. It was found in the study that labour uncertainty is the main driving barrier which affects the implementation of lean manufacturing.
    Keywords: lean manufacturing; pharmaceutical industries; interpretive structural modelling; ISM; India.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBSR.2023.10047153