International Journal of Biomedical Nanoscience and Nanotechnology (5 papers in press)
Preparation and characterisation of nanofibres from biocellulose and neem-AgNP biocomposites for wound healing
by Pandimadevi Muthuraman
Abstract: Bacterial cellulose (BC) is secreted by a few strains of bacteria and consists of a cellulose nanofibre network with unique characteristics. In this study, Gluconoacetobacter xylinus was used to isolate bacterial cellulose. Moreover, microbial cellulose have proven to be a remarkably versatile biomaterial and can be used in the paper industry, electronics, wound healing and biomedical devices. The cellulose isolated from G. xylinus was confirmed by biochemical tests. The parameters for the production of cellulose, such as pH, temperature, carbon source, nitrogen source, and growth factor under both static and shaking conditions, were optimised. The obtained cellulose was observed by phase contrast microscopy. The isolated bacterial cellulose is impregnated with silver nanoparticles synthesised by neem leaves extract. The biocellulose and neem-AgNPs were converted into nanofibres by the electrospinning technique. The cellulose-PVA and was analysed by SEM, zeta potential and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. This approach can be easily used in the large scale production of silver nanoparticles loaded biocellulose fibres. These fibres can be used in wound dressing and as a biomaterial for scaffolds in tissue engineering.
Keywords: biocellulose; nanoparticles; neem leaves; PVA; SEM; zeta potential; FTIR.
The simple method of extra virgin olive oil nanoemulsion for oral consumption: the chance for enteral nanonutrition production
by Anna Veterini, Nancy Rehatta, Heni Rachmawati, Annis Adi
Abstract: Olive oil phenolic compounds have positive effects on various physiological biomarkers, implicating phenolic compounds as partially responsible for health benefits associated with the Mediterranean diet. The small fraction of extra virgin olive oil was expected to improve the pharmacokinetics of giving olive oil to a critically ill patient. The aim of this research was to improve extra virgin olive oil pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics for the critically ill patient who has enteral nutrition absorption disturbance. The nanoemulsion was prepared with self-nano emulsification method by mixing extra virgin olive oil, chremofor RH40, and PEG 400. The optimum formula was obtained from extra virgin olive oil, chremofor RH40, PEG 400 in the ratio of 1: 8 :1. Hence, nanoemulsion is a promising strategy to enhance the potency of extra virgin olive oil .
Keywords: extra virgin olive oil nanoemulsion; ultrasonication-mild agitation; nanonutrition.
A review of the traditional uses, phytochemistry and pharmacological activities of Acacia nilotica (Indian babool)
by M. Janani, M.I. Niyas Ahamed
Abstract: Plants play an inevitable role in human life by providing the basic needs for livelihood and serving as a source of medicine from ancient civilisation. Traditionally, plants play a significant role in alleviating and treating various infections and diseases. Globally, the majority of the population rely on phytomedicine as a source of primary healthcare, and the demand for plant-based medicine has increased owing to the low side effects, ease of availability and affordability. Babool or Kikar, scientifically known as Acacia nilotica, is a perennial tree belonging to the family of Fabaceae, well adapted to dry climate conditions, distributed mainly in the tropical and subtropical regions of countries. It is a tree of multipurpose. The whole plant part is loaded with therapeutic potential and used as folk medicine since hundreds of years ago. Commercially, it is a good source of food, fodder, timber, gum and tannin. The tannin obtained from the bark and pods is used in dyeing and leather industries. The tree is also a rich source of carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, vitamins and minerals. The presence of certain active secondary metabolites, such as alkaloids, glycosides, tannins, phenol etc., contributes to its therapeutic value. In Indian Ayurveda and other traditional medicinal systems, A. nilotica plays an immense role in treating and curing various infections and diseases, such as diarrhea, dysentery, eye infection, bleeding, burns, tonsillitis, sterility and sexually transmitted diseases. The present review briefly provides up-to-date information on the morphology, phytochemistry, therapeutic potential and other information on A. nilotica
Keywords: Acacia nilotica; phytomedicine; multipurpose; phytochemicals; therapeutic potential; Indian babool.
Nanobioconfinement mediated water purification strategies: from primary to application
by V. Ragul, VishnuPriya Veeraragavan, Krishna Mohan Surapaneni, Niyas Ahamed
Abstract: In the past few decades, significantly increasing levels of fluoride and heavy metals in drinking water show a severe ecological threat to all the living organisms. For the development of the teeth, adequate concentration of fluoride plays a key role but if it increases it may lead to non-treatable diseases named fluorosis, which directly affect muscles, bones and teeth. A number of conventional and non-conventional methods, such as bone char, reverse osmosis, kikar leaves, activated alumina, nalgonda technique, neem leaves, rice husk, chalk powder, orange peel powder, and many adsorption processes, have been used to effectively eliminate the fluoride-like heavy metals from contaminated water. A vital advance towards the genuine use of different nano-biomaterials in water purification strategies is to restrict large substrates. This extended exposure of heavy metals interestingly guides researchers to develop innovative, novel, cost-effective and easily available strategies to remove the excess amount of fluoride-like heavy metals from the water. The significant proposition will make future investigations dependent on the excluded relationship between the nanoconfinement impacts and water purification innovations. The present review focuses on some effective adsorbents that eliminate excessive amounts of fluoride-like heavy metals and shows expressive elimination with basic, cost-effective adsorbents with easy availability as well as accessibility by the common people.
Keywords: fluorosis; nanotechnology; defluoridation; adsorption; nanoconfinement.
Functional tests of an in vitro maintenance system prototype type organ-on-chip for skeletal muscle
by Diana Sofia Ruvalcaba Martinez, Christian Chapa González, Eduardo Ivan Acosta Gómez, Esmeralda Sarai Zuñiga Aguilar
Abstract: Owing to the necessity to develop new systems that maintain the proper conditions for cell growth and cell interaction in vitro, this work is focused on the characterisation of two models of maintenance system prototypes type Organ-on-Chip (OoC) skeletal muscle tissue of neonatal mouse. Cell growth was monitored for 4 days. The images of the cells were obtained through an optical microscope to measure the variations of the alignment angle, and the analysis was performed using the ImageJ software. It is concluded that the two OoC prototype models delimit and help cell alignment, but because the surface of the microchannels was not homogeneous or completely flat, adding to this the depth factor, the cell proliferation was affected. As a result, we demonstrated that the proposed OoC system promotes cell alignment.
Keywords: organ-on-chip; cell alignment; microchannels.