International Journal of Biomedical Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
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International Journal of Biomedical Nanoscience and Nanotechnology (5 papers in press)
Recent advances in chemical functionalisation of graphene and sensing applications by Geoffrey Ijeomah, Fahmi Samsuri, Mohamad Adzhar Md Zawawi, Felix Obite Abstract: Graphene, a one-atom-thick, sp2-hybridised allotrope of carbon, has attracted massive interest owing to its outstanding electrical, mechanical, thermal and optical properties. The material of graphene is remarkably stable, with a huge potential for developing various types of sensor, including biomedical sensing where enhanced specificity, sensitivity, label-free nature and cost effectiveness for rapid point-of-care detection of diseases are paramount. This is due to the simplicity with which its electronic properties can be modified since each atom in the structure directly interacts with the sensing environment. These unique characteristics can be exploited for several kinds of sensing application, such as electrochemical and electrical sensors as well as optical sensors. While pristine graphene is desirable for applications that require high electrical conductivity, many other applications require functionalised graphene for optimal performance. Therefore, the functionalisation of graphene is a significant step towards tuning its structure for various sensing applications. In this review, we report recent technological progress in the chemical functionalisation of graphene and its sensing applications. Keywords: graphene; sensors; biosensors; functionalisation; point-of-care detection.
Ameliorative effects of selenium nanoparticles on letrozole-induced polycystic ovarian syndrome in adult rats by Maisra Azhar Butt, Asad Ullah, Mubin Mustafa Kiyani, Sarwat Jahan Abstract: Selenium (Se) is an essential trace element playing vital role in the physiological processes. It was ignored as a therapeutic agent in the past, but in 1950s it was revealed that it must be obtained from diet as it cannot be produced by organisms. The present study was designed to investigate the anti-androgenic and metabolic effects of selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs) on letrozole-induced PCOS using female rats. All rats were administered orally with letrozole (1 mg/kg) in CMC (0.5%) for 36 days. Rats were provided with metformin (2 mg/kg), Se-I (250 mg/kg), Se-II (500 mg/kg), SeNPs-I (50 mg/kg) and SeNPs-II (100 mg/kg) for 15 days. On the 37th day animals were sacrificed and biochemical tests, antioxidants and histopathological analysis were performed. The results of the current study depict the anti-androgenic potential of Se and SeNP for the treatment of PCOS that can be a new drug in the management of PCOS. Keywords: selenium nanoparticles; biochemical tests; histology.
Different strategies to synthesise gold nanoparticles and their applications by Fatima Javeria, Shazma Altaf, Alishah Zair, Rana Khalid Iqbal Abstract: Nanotechnology is a science that deals with particles of nanometre size. They are made from different metals such as copper, silver, zinc, gold, and platinum. Gold nanoparticles (NPs) have been synthesised at large scale owing to their wide applications in diagnostics, treatment, food safety and forensic areas. NPs are synthesised using different strategies such as chemical synthesis, biogenic synthesis and via biological sources such as plants, bacteria, algae, and fungi. They are used because of their low toxicity and biocompatibility. Chemical synthesis methods have problems such as toxicity, so the stimulus of synthesis has shifted from physical and chemical processes towards green chemistry and bioprocesses. Keywords: biosynthesis; AuNPs; plant extract; diagnostics.
Preparation and characterisation of nanofibres from biocellulose and neem AgNP biocomposites for wound healing by Pandimadevi Muthuraman Abstract: Bacterial cellulose (BC) is secreted by a few strains of bacteria and consists of a cellulose nanofibre network with unique characteristics. In this study, Gluconoacetobacter xylinus was used to isolate bacterial cellulose. Moreover, microbial cellulose has proven to be a remarkably versatile biomaterial and can be used in the paper industry, electronics, wound healing and biomedical devices. The cellulose isolated from G. xylinus was confirmed by the biochemical tests. The parameters for the production of cellulose such as pH, temperature, carbon source, nitrogen source, and growth factor both static and shaking conditions were optimised. The obtained cellulose was observed by phase contrast microscope. The isolated bacterial cellulose was impregnated with silver nanoparticles synthesised by neem leaves extract. The biocellulose and neem AgNPs were converted into nanofibres by electrospinning technique. The cellulose PVA and was analysed by SEM, zeta potential and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). This approach can be easily used in the large scale production of silver nanoparticles loaded biocellulose fibres. These fibres can be used in the wound dressing and as a biomaterial for scaffolds in tissue engineering. Keywords: biocellulose; nanoparticles; neem leaves; PVA; SEM; zeta potential; FTIR.
Modelling of transport properties of graphene field-effect transistor for sensor application by Geoffrey Ijeomah, Fahmi Samsuri, Mohamad Adzhar Md Zawawi Abstract: A dual-gated ultra-thin graphene field effect transistor (GFET) suitable for electronic sensing application is modelled. The applied simulation approach reproduces accurately the transport properties of the GFET characteristics and enables investigation of the influence of the different physical, biological and chemical factors. The simulation readouts and additional charges in the system are interpreted in the form of current-voltage characteristics and shift in Dirac peaks. These features could be extracted to predict the sensing mechanism of the GFET. Keywords: graphene; GFET; sensor; current-voltage characteristics.