International Journal of Biomedical Nanoscience and Nanotechnology (8 papers in press)
Preparation and characterisation of nanofibres from biocellulose and neem-AgNP biocomposites for wound healing
by Pandimadevi Muthuraman
Abstract: Bacterial cellulose (BC) is secreted by a few strains of bacteria and consists of a cellulose nanofibre network with unique characteristics. In this study, Gluconoacetobacter xylinus was used to isolate bacterial cellulose. Moreover, microbial cellulose have proven to be a remarkably versatile biomaterial and can be used in the paper industry, electronics, wound healing and biomedical devices. The cellulose isolated from G. xylinus was confirmed by biochemical tests. The parameters for the production of cellulose, such as pH, temperature, carbon source, nitrogen source, and growth factor under both static and shaking conditions, were optimised. The obtained cellulose was observed by phase contrast microscopy. The isolated bacterial cellulose is impregnated with silver nanoparticles synthesised by neem leaves extract. The biocellulose and neem-AgNPs were converted into nanofibres by the electrospinning technique. The cellulose-PVA and was analysed by SEM, zeta potential and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. This approach can be easily used in the large scale production of silver nanoparticles loaded biocellulose fibres. These fibres can be used in wound dressing and as a biomaterial for scaffolds in tissue engineering.
Keywords: biocellulose; nanoparticles; neem leaves; PVA; SEM; zeta potential; FTIR.
The simple method of extra virgin olive oil nanoemulsion for oral consumption: the chance for enteral nanonutrition production
by Anna Veterini, Nancy Rehatta, Heni Rachmawati, Annis Adi
Abstract: Olive oil phenolic compounds have positive effects on various physiological biomarkers, implicating phenolic compounds as partially responsible for health benefits associated with the Mediterranean diet. The small fraction of extra virgin olive oil was expected to improve the pharmacokinetics of giving olive oil to a critically ill patient. The aim of this research was to improve extra virgin olive oil pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics for the critically ill patient who has enteral nutrition absorption disturbance. The nanoemulsion was prepared with self-nano emulsification method by mixing extra virgin olive oil, chremofor RH40, and PEG 400. The optimum formula was obtained from extra virgin olive oil, chremofor RH40, PEG 400 in the ratio of 1: 8 :1. Hence, nanoemulsion is a promising strategy to enhance the potency of extra virgin olive oil .
Keywords: extra virgin olive oil nanoemulsion; ultrasonication-mild agitation; nanonutrition.
A review of the traditional uses, phytochemistry and pharmacological activities of Acacia nilotica (Indian babool)
by M. Janani, M.I. Niyas Ahamed
Abstract: Plants play an inevitable role in human life by providing the basic needs for livelihood and serving as a source of medicine from ancient civilisation. Traditionally, plants play a significant role in alleviating and treating various infections and diseases. Globally, the majority of the population rely on phytomedicine as a source of primary healthcare, and the demand for plant-based medicine has increased owing to the low side effects, ease of availability and affordability. Babool or Kikar, scientifically known as Acacia nilotica, is a perennial tree belonging to the family of Fabaceae, well adapted to dry climate conditions, distributed mainly in the tropical and subtropical regions of countries. It is a tree of multipurpose. The whole plant part is loaded with therapeutic potential and used as folk medicine since hundreds of years ago. Commercially, it is a good source of food, fodder, timber, gum and tannin. The tannin obtained from the bark and pods is used in dyeing and leather industries. The tree is also a rich source of carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, vitamins and minerals. The presence of certain active secondary metabolites, such as alkaloids, glycosides, tannins, phenol etc., contributes to its therapeutic value. In Indian Ayurveda and other traditional medicinal systems, A. nilotica plays an immense role in treating and curing various infections and diseases, such as diarrhea, dysentery, eye infection, bleeding, burns, tonsillitis, sterility and sexually transmitted diseases. The present review briefly provides up-to-date information on the morphology, phytochemistry, therapeutic potential and other information on A. nilotica
Keywords: Acacia nilotica; phytomedicine; multipurpose; phytochemicals; therapeutic potential; Indian babool.
Nanobioconfinement mediated water purification strategies: from primary to application
by V. Ragul, VishnuPriya Veeraragavan, Krishna Mohan Surapaneni, Niyas Ahamed
Abstract: In the past few decades, significantly increasing levels of fluoride and heavy metals in drinking water show a severe ecological threat to all the living organisms. For the development of the teeth, adequate concentration of fluoride plays a key role but if it increases it may lead to non-treatable diseases named fluorosis, which directly affect muscles, bones and teeth. A number of conventional and non-conventional methods, such as bone char, reverse osmosis, kikar leaves, activated alumina, nalgonda technique, neem leaves, rice husk, chalk powder, orange peel powder, and many adsorption processes, have been used to effectively eliminate the fluoride-like heavy metals from contaminated water. A vital advance towards the genuine use of different nano-biomaterials in water purification strategies is to restrict large substrates. This extended exposure of heavy metals interestingly guides researchers to develop innovative, novel, cost-effective and easily available strategies to remove the excess amount of fluoride-like heavy metals from the water. The significant proposition will make future investigations dependent on the excluded relationship between the nanoconfinement impacts and water purification innovations. The present review focuses on some effective adsorbents that eliminate excessive amounts of fluoride-like heavy metals and shows expressive elimination with basic, cost-effective adsorbents with easy availability as well as accessibility by the common people.
Keywords: fluorosis; nanotechnology; defluoridation; adsorption; nanoconfinement.
Functional tests of an in vitro maintenance system prototype type organ-on-chip for skeletal muscle
by Diana Sofia Ruvalcaba Martinez, Christian Chapa González, Eduardo Ivan Acosta Gómez, Esmeralda Sarai Zuñiga Aguilar
Abstract: Owing to the necessity to develop new systems that maintain the proper conditions for cell growth and cell interaction in vitro, this work is focused on the characterisation of two models of maintenance system prototypes type Organ-on-Chip (OoC) skeletal muscle tissue of neonatal mouse. Cell growth was monitored for 4 days. The images of the cells were obtained through an optical microscope to measure the variations of the alignment angle, and the analysis was performed using the ImageJ software. It is concluded that the two OoC prototype models delimit and help cell alignment, but because the surface of the microchannels was not homogeneous or completely flat, adding to this the depth factor, the cell proliferation was affected. As a result, we demonstrated that the proposed OoC system promotes cell alignment.
Keywords: organ-on-chip; cell alignment; microchannels.
Enzymatically synthesised nano-gold decorated reduced graphene oxide for development of an enhanced glucose oxidase based amperometric biosensor
by Faizan Ahmed, Anas Anees, Qayyum Husain
Abstract: We report a biological procedure for synthesising and decorating nano-gold (AuNPs) over reduced graphene oxide (rGO) using physiologically important enzyme -galactosidase. UV spectroscopy was performed for the spectral analysis of formation of Au@rGO nanocomposite (NC). Transmission electron microscopic analysis confirmed the synthesis of Au@rGO NC where -galactosidase functioned as reducing agent in the decoration of AuNPs over surface of rGO. Following the synthesis of NC, scanning electron microscope and X-ray diffraction analysis clearly depicted AuNPs embedded rGO sheets and crystalline morphology of NC. Au@rGO when immobilised with glucose oxidase (GOx) yielded a significantly sensitive biosensor for glucose sensing applications. This was achieved by drop-coating glassy carbon electrode with AuNPs over rGO and immobilising GOx onto its surface with Nafion (Nf) being used as preservative membrane for the biosensor. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, amperometric response and cyclic voltammetry were used to determine electrochemical properties of the biosensor. The Nf/GOx/Au@rGO/GCE biosensor is found to have sensitivity at 18.25
Keywords: beta galactosidase; gold nanoparticles; reduced graphene oxide; green synthesis; biosensor.
Histopathological and biochemical correlation of antidiabetic activity of zinc oxide nanoparticles after oral administration in Wistar rats.
by Shrish Raut, Gauri Kulkarni, Candrasekhar Mote
Abstract: Nanomaterials have high surface-to-volume ratios and possess unique physiological and biochemical properties modulating a wide range of reactions causing inflammation and cell toxicity. The present work was aimed to evaluate histopathological and biochemical changes in organs of the glucose metabolism after treatment with zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnONP) in diabetic Wistar rats. Induction of diabetes was done with streptozotocine and animals were treated with ZnONP in three graded doses in different groups. Glipizide was added in the standard treatment and one of the ZnONP groups. Overall histopathological changes were observed as mild to moderate in diabetic animals that received no treatment and as minimal in those that received standard treatment as glipizide. The animals that received ZnONP as a treatment were minimal to no abnormality detected (NAD) on histopathology. Biochemical analysis revealed that ZnONP possess antidiabetic and lipid-lowering activity, which was consistent with the histopathology. It is concluded that ZnONP play pivotal role in glucose metabolism and need to be investigated further so that they can be introduced into diabetes treatment.
Keywords: zinc oxide nanoparticles; antidiabetic activity; histopathology; pancreas.
Characterisation of biosynthesised gold nano-materials: spectroscopic, dimensional, morphological, stability and structural analysis
by M. R. Kamala Priya, Priya R. Iyer
Abstract: Biosynthesised gold nanoparticles were characterised using various standard techniques. The preliminary confirmation was carried out by UVVis spectrophotometry. Electron microscopy analysis was carried out by SEM, HRSEM and TEM. The elemental analysis was performed through EDAX on SEM and HRSEM. The SAED pattern of the synthesised gold nanoparticles was analysed by TEM. The zeta potential measurements of all the nanoparticles were observed in concordance with the standard reference values demonstrating highly stable nano-formulations. The plant extracts and nanoparticles were analysed by FTIR spectroscopy. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns were analysed for the biosynthesised nanoparticles and nanoconjugates. ICP-OES elemental analysis was carried out to quantify the concentration of elemental gold present in the synthesised gold nanoparticles.
Keywords: nanoparticles; SEM; HRSEM; TEM; SAED; EDAX.