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International Journal of Business and Emerging Markets

International Journal of Business and Emerging Markets (IJBEM)

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International Journal of Business and Emerging Markets (91 papers in press)

Regular Issues

  •   Free full-text access Open AccessEnhancing portfolio risk management: a comparative study of parametric, non-parametric, and Monte Carlo methods, with VaR and percentile ranking
    ( Free Full-text Access ) CC-BY-NC-ND
    by Aris Shokri, Alexios Kythreotis 
    Abstract: In this paper, we propose a methodology to effectively manage portfolio risk and allocate capital. By taking a scientific, proactive approach, and understanding the risk associated with each asset before creating a portfolio, it is possible to minimise overall portfolio risk by distributing capital in a diverse and systematic manner. To achieve this, we suggest combining value-at-risk (VaR) with other statistical measures like the percentile rank and the empirical rule. Through this research, we found that this combination can significantly reduce potential portfolio losses when compared with an equally weighted portfolio. The results are based on an analysis of 30,200 daily historical prices between January 2011 and December 2022, using three different methods: historical (non-parametric), variance-covariance (parametric), and Monte Carlo. These findings underscore the importance of proactively managing risks along with allocating capital and highlight the benefits of using a data-driven, systematic approach to portfolio management.
    Keywords: portfolio management; risk management; capital allocation; value-at-risk; VaR; Monte Carlo.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBEM.2024.10062375
     
  •   Free full-text access Open AccessWomen entrepreneurship: the role of education, national culture, and various supports
    ( Free Full-text Access ) CC-BY-NC-ND
    by Md. Shahadat Hossain, Weng Marc Lim, Md Asadul Islam 
    Abstract: Encouraging women to get involved in entrepreneurship is key to women empowerment and wellbeing. This study endeavours to contribute to this cause by investigating the role of education, national culture, and various supports (financial support, government support, and social support) in shaping women's entrepreneurial intention. PLS-SEM was used on a sample of 351 women entrepreneurs in Bangladesh. This study finds that education and financial support play a significant role in encouraging women's entrepreneurial intention, but not government and social support and national culture. This in turn highlights the importance of empowering women to be independent (education and financial support) rather than dependent (government support) or interdependent (social support), even in developing and collectivist countries like Bangladesh (national culture), in order to promote and support women entrepreneurship.
    Keywords: education; financial support; government support; social support; national culture; entrepreneurial intention; entrepreneurship intention; female entrepreneur; female entrepreneurship; women entrepreneur; women entrepreneurship.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBEM.2024.10062412
     
  • Drivers and Barriers on consumer purchase decisions   Order a copy of this article
    by Nguyen Ngoc Hien  
    Abstract: Bioplastic is considered as a promising alternative material to mitigate the adverse effects of plastic waste on the environment. Despite many efforts to develop bioplastics, there are still many barriers to commercialisation of bioplastic products, which have received little attention in academic literature. This study aims to combine the driving factors and barrier factors in purchasing behaviour of bioplastic products in an emerging market, Vietnam. A survey using a self-administered questionnaire was conducted with 498 consumers who have used bioplastic products. Structural equation modelling (SEM) was employed to examine the research hypotheses. The results show that the extended theory of planned behaviour is suitable to explain the buying behaviour of bioplastic products. Additionally, this study also demonstrated that habit, cost perception, and inconvenience perception had a negative influence on the intention and behaviour of purchasing bioplastic products. The significance for research and practice is discussed along with the study findings.
    Keywords: bioplastic products; environmental concern; personal moral norm; habit; cost perception; inconvenience perception.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBEM.2024.10057836
     
  • Stock Market Prices and Exchange Rates in Nigeria: Insights from a Non-linear and Asymmetric Analysis   Order a copy of this article
    by JAMES T. DADA, CLEMENT OLANIYI, Emmanuel O. Awoleye, Mamdouh Abdulaziz Saleh Al-Faryan 
    Abstract: This study examines the asymmetric structure (good and bad news) inherent in both stock market prices and exchange rates in Nigeria by using monthly data between January 1986 and December 2019. This study uses a nonlinear autoregressive distributed lag model and asymmetric causal approach within bootstrap simulations with leverage adjustments. The finding shows evidence of a long-run relationship between the variables. Positive and negative shocks (appreciation and depreciation) in the exchange rates hurt stock market prices, while shocks (good and bad news) in stock market prices positively affect the exchange rates. A unidirectional causality from exchange rates to stock market prices was found, thus supporting the traditional approach (flow-oriented) to exchange rates-stock market prices nexus. The study concludes that there is evidence of asymmetric structures in the relationship between stock market prices and exchange rates in Nigeria.
    Keywords: stock market prices; exchange rates; good news; bad news; Nigeria.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBEM.2024.10057948
     
  • The association between relationship marketing investments and customer gratitude in the Vietnam retail sector: An S-O-R approach   Order a copy of this article
    by Van Si Nguyen, Duy Minh Vo 
    Abstract: Retailers are under pressure to win customer loyalty in a competitive business environment. Combining the stimuli-organism-response (S-O-R) framework and social exchange theory, this study analyses the impact of 'stimuli' (i.e., store access convenience, store transparency policy, and hierarchy) on 'organisms' (i.e., trust, commitment, perceived quality and gratitude) and a 'response'(i.e., customer behaviour loyalty). Quantitative data were collected through interviews with 443 retail customers via a questionnaire. The CB-SEM results demonstrate the positive effects of the focal stimuli on organisms, which subsequently affect customer behaviour loyalty. These findings extend the ' stimuli'of the SOR framework by integrating hierarchy, an important Confucian cultural value, in Vietnam retailing. In addition, the results demonstrate an internal interaction in the organisms: customer gratitude is a result of customer commitment, trust and perceived quality. These results support the extension of the S-O-R framework and explain the role of customer gratitude and loyalty in Confucian culture.
    Keywords: customer gratitude; emerging market; Confucian culture; hierarchy; perceived quality; social exchange theory; S-O-R framework; store transparency policy; store access convenience; Vietnam.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBEM.2024.10057974
     
  • Corporate Social Responsibility, Corporate Brand Image and Employer Attractiveness: Perspectives of Potential Employees   Order a copy of this article
    by George Asamoah, Lawrence Yaw Kusi, Isaac Sewornu Coffie, Ebenezer Afum, Henry Kojo Bonsu-Owu 
    Abstract: The study examined the effect of corporate social responsibility on employer attractiveness among potential employees and controlled for the mediating effect of corporate brand image. Regular students in the School of Business, University of Cape Coast, Ghana, constituted the target population. Structured questionnaires were used in collecting data from 346 final year business students of the University of Cape Coast, Ghana. The data were analysed using both SPSS and Smart PLS 3. Reflective SEM was configured to test the hypotheses formulated. The result shows that CSR and corporate brand image are significant positive predictors of employer attractiveness among university students. Corporate brand image significantly mediates the predictive relationship between CSR and employer attractiveness among potential employees. Firms are encouraged to participate in CSR activities, especially in university communities, because this initiative would promote their image positively, hence attracting suitable potential employees from universities.
    Keywords: corporate social responsibility; CSR; corporate brand image; employer attractiveness; university students.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBEM.2024.10058176
     
  • Towards the development of an inventory for the resource orchestration construct   Order a copy of this article
    by Eltigani Ahmed, James Kilika, Clare Gakenia 
    Abstract: The present study aimed to enrich knowledge production by developing and validating a tool for measuring the resource orchestration construct. Resource orchestration theory is increasingly staking its claim in management literature as an emergent theory for explaining how corporate strategy is translated into organisational outcomes. However, the lack of applicability and empirical validity is one of its most glaring shortcomings. As such, while the theory has inspired a growing body of research, knowledge production has been fraught with limited comparability due to a dearth of empirically validated measurement tools. We embarked on this task by critically reviewing extant literature on the definition, conceptualisation, dimensionalisation and measurement of the construct as an essential first step. We also examined conceptual models used in prior research. We then outlined our methodology to develop an inventory for the resource orchestration construct. We concluded the study by presenting and discussing our analysis of data. Lastly, we proposed future research trajectories. This paper proposed empirically validated resource orchestration inventory as a novel contribution to knowledge.
    Keywords: construct; inventory; instrument validity; measurement; resource orchestration.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBEM.2025.10063651
     
  • Constraints on Angolan manufacturing enterprise labor productivity improvement   Order a copy of this article
    by Fulgence Dominick Waryoba  
    Abstract: The study analysed factors behind labour productivity among manufacturing firms in Angola. Many studies used output per worker. The current study used sales per labour cost to reflect labour quality. Simultaneous quantile regression dealt with ordinary least square shortfalls. However, no variable was significant in the lower distribution of labour productivity. Highly educated managers were less productive than primary school managers, and large firms were more productive. Innovative and subcontracting firms were more effective than non-innovative and non-cooperative firms. Infrastructural bottlenecks reduced productivity among firms, while trade regulations supported performance for others. Local and central governments should improve infrastructure, and minimise customs and trade regulations. Future studies should investigate factors behind negative education influence on labour productivity by using output per worker. The managerial recommendations have also been provided.
    Keywords: quantile regression; manufacturing enterprises; labour productivity.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBEM.2024.10058220
     
  • From Tradition to Sustainability: The Mediating Effect of Environmental Attitude and Concern for the Environment in the Relationship between Green Consumption Values and Purchase Intention for Handloom Products in India
    by KUSUM KANAN MISHRA, Bhagabat Barik 
    Abstract: This study investigated the impact of Green Consumption Values (GV) on Purchase Intention (PI) for eco-friendly handloom products in India, employing the Social Cognitive Theory (SCT) Survey data from handloom consumers in Ranchi, India, revealed that higher GV positively influenced environmental attitude (EA) and concern, increasing the likelihood of purchase intention for eco-friendly handloom products The results supported the direct and mediating effects of GV on PI through the consumer's EA and Concern for the Environment (EC) These findings have practical implications for industry, highlighting the significance of promoting GV to enhance the demand for sustainable handloom products This study contributes to the existing literature on the handloom market and sustainability by examining the relationships between GV, PI, EA, and EC The findings offer guidance to handloom manufacturers and policymakers in developing effective marketing strategies that emphasize the green attributes of handloom products, fostering the industry's sustainable growth in India.
    Keywords: Green Consumption Value; Purchase Intention; Tasar Silk; Indian Handloom Industry; Environmental Attitude.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBEM.2025.10058391
     
  • The moderating role of demographic factors on OTT platform selection by consumers: An application of the revised UTAUT2   Order a copy of this article
    by Manoj Kumar Mishra, Nidhi Sharma, Disha Garg 
    Abstract: Digitisation has changed and revolutionised the way we consume and access content. The audiences’ consumption patterns significantly shifted due to the increased use of the internet. This shift led the key persons to develop inventive plans and a platform on which content can be distributed. One such addition was over-the-top (OTT) video streaming services that have led to the availability of the content directly from the content provider to the consumer. Using two prevalent technology theories UTAUT2 and the unified theory of acceptance paradigm, the current research intends to uncover the determinants that influence consumers’ adoption and usage of video OTT service platforms in the Indian scenario. The study collects data from 300 users of OTT platforms in India. The study’s findings will assist managers in grasping and developing various approaches for the users of different OTT platforms for video streaming.
    Keywords: OTT platforms; video streaming; adoption; consumers; UTAUT2; behavioural intention; BI.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBEM.2025.10063652
     
  • An Empirical Study of Ownership of Digital Content
    by Simon Lee, Abdou Illia, Assion Lawson-Body 
    Abstract: While physical items were historically the main focus of possession, in today’s knowledge and information society, digital content has become a significant object of ownership. This study investigated how people’s attachment to and willingness to share digital content change under various situational circumstances. Using an experiment with a questionnaire survey, the study analysed data from 160 participants. The results of this study show that participants were more willing to share when they had control over their digital content. Additionally, possession attachment was low, while willingness to share was high when there was no cost or effort involved. These findings reveal that situational changes can impact possession attachment and willingness to share digital content, even when referring to the same digital content. The findings provide empirical evidence of the importance of considering diverse psychological factors when offering services, selling, and sharing digital content.
    Keywords: digital content; right to control; acquisition process; willingness to share; psychological ownership.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBEM.2025.10058521
     
  • Consumers Attitudes towards Water Scarcity and Eco-Friendly Products in Turkey: A Psychological Distance Perspective
    by Ali Emre Aydin  
    Abstract: As the problem of water scarcity becomes increasingly acute, ways to engage people in the combat against water scarcity are gaining importance. Despite previous research has explored the role of psychological distance in attitudes toward climate change; water scarcity has not been adequately examined. To address this, the study aims to investigate the role of psychological distance in people’s willingness to act on water scarcity and pay more for eco-friendly products. Additionally, the role of perceived impact and perceived responsibility in this process will be discussed. Data were collected from a convenience sample of 392 respondents via an online questionnaire. Structural equation modelling results indicate that temporal distance and social distance, as well as perceived impact and perceived responsibility are relevant for combating water scarcity. The holistic perspective presented in the study is important for revealing the mechanisms that can be useful for involving people in solutions to water scarcity.
    Keywords: psychological distance; environmental issues; water scarcity; eco-friendly products; willingness to pay more; Turkey.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBEM.2025.10058523
     
  • Income Diversification and Bank Profitability in India: Exploring the Importance of Macroeconomic Factors   Order a copy of this article
    by Ajit Karnik, Sudipa Majumdar 
    Abstract: Financial reforms in India intensified competition between bank ownership groups, resulting in narrowing of interest margins and forcing banks towards non-interest income (NII). Surging non-performing loans (NPLs) also pushed banks to diversify their incomes. This study employs panel data analysis to investigate the impact of income-diversification strategies of public, private and foreign banks in India during 2005-2020. Trends in NII have been explored, along with bank-specific and macroeconomic variables to study their impact on bank profits. Finally, inclusion of monetary and fiscal policy variables highlighted the importance of inflation on the banking sector, but its impact varied across ownership groups.
    Keywords: non-interest income; NII; bank profitability; diversification; bank; ROA; ownership; GMM; India.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBEM.2024.10058524
     
  • Access to and use of financial services for household investment. A Micro-analytical evidence from Nigeria
    by Akinwumi Sharimakin 
    Abstract: The study respectively examined the impact of access to and use of financial services on household investment. A micro-level data across cross-sectional 2,184 households in southwestern Nigeria were used to evaluate the relationship between investment and access to and use of financial services. Analysis of data by double hurdle and probit model respectively showed that household investment pattern conformed with the life-cycle hypothesis, and that household investment are associated with formal, semi-formal and informal financial services. Household who use (saved and/or borrowed) financial services invested more than those having mere access to such financial institutions. Results further showed that households that saved or/and borrowed from formal financial institutions are better investors, and that investment are majorly constrained by supply-side barriers. Policy effort at reducing barriers to access and use of financial services should include strategy at resolving demand-side barriers as this would improve financial stability of household to use financial services and substantially enhance household investment.
    Keywords: household investment; financial services; Nigeria; physical asset; financial asset.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBEM.2025.10058525
     
  • Explicating India’s Outward Trade Mode using Augmented Gravity Approach   Order a copy of this article
    by Omdeep Gupta, Krishna Balodi, Mohd Afaq Khan 
    Abstract: International trade irrespective of its mode - exports and foreign direct investment (FDI) is a key enabler of national economic growth. Amongst the various theoretical explanations of international trade, gravity theory is one the most widely applied. According to gravity theory, modes of international trade, viz., exports and FDI are shown to be associated with GDP, comparable sizes of GDP, relatively similar factor endowments and are negatively affected by transportation cost. India has recently risen to the fifth position among the largest economies reflecting Indias influence in shaping the future of international trade. The researchers have asked for more empirical research in the Indian context. This paper adds to existing studies on outward trade mode in four ways: firstly, it employs an augmented gravity model; secondly, it uses the most recent data; thirdly, it examines both external trade modes-exports and FDI; and fourthly, the dataset includes panel data for all 154 trading economies of the world that India has trade relations with. Results gives an in-depth analysis of gravity factors associated with Indian outwards trade and compares between the Indians trades modes.
    Keywords: India; outward FDI; exports; emerging economies; EE; augmented gravity model; panel data.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBEM.2024.10058527
     
  • The role of analytical reasoning perspective, organizational creativity and innovation on firm performance: evidence from SMEs in Vietnam
    by Mai Ngoc Khuong, Trang Tran, Nguyen Ngoc Duy Phuong 
    Abstract: This study investigates how an analytical reasoning approach affects organisational creativity, process innovation, product innovation and firm performance. Valid data were collected from 382 property owners, CEOs, vice directors, management broad assistants, and heads of departments of SMEs in Vietnam. The findings demonstrated how analytical reasoning perspective, organisational creativity, and product and process innovation affect SME business success in a growing market setting, and also that analytical reasoning perspective showed a favourable link with firm performance. Furthermore, show how the link between the analytical thinking perspective and SME results is mediated by its creativity and innovation. There is inadequate research that looks at these relationships, even though these topics have been academically studied worldwide. This study produces implications that may help businesses perform better in terms of using an appropriate analytical reasoning approach to developing organisational creativity and supporting process and product innovation.
    Keywords: analytical reasoning perspective; ARP; organisational creativity; process innovation; product innovation; firm performance; Vietnam.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBEM.2025.10058574
     
  • Determinants of Credit ratings in Asian Listed Firms: Evidence from Discriminant Analysis and Logit Method
    by Faiza Sajjad 
    Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to develop a new model, that can help to determine the credit ratings. Moreover, a specific new credit rating index is developed by using non-financial listed Asian companies rated by Standard and Poor. Dependent variable is dummy in nature therefore, discriminant analysis (DA) and logistic regression techniques, are used for transforming financial ratios and macroeconomic factors. The credit rating index is evaluated with the help of 12 financial and macroeconomic variables. Results of DA and logistic regression, shows that seven variables are significant for developing new credit rating index. These variables are leverage, tangibility, size, profitability, total assets turnover ratio, real interest rate, inflation, and domestic stock market (DSM). Prediction accuracy of the DA and logit model is 71.5% and 78% respectively. It is evident that the suggested variables in the models have the potential to be used practically by corporations to determine the credit ratings internally.
    Keywords: Credit rating; Discriminant and Logit method; Financial ratios; Macroeconomic ratios.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBEM.2025.10058575
     
  • Unlocking SMEs' Debt Finance Access in Ghana: The Critical Roles of Ownership and Industry Sector Characteristics
    by Collins O. Kwaning, Peter Arhenful, Jones Ntiamoah, Kofi Opoku-Asante 
    Abstract: Small and medium-scale enterprises (SMEs) play critical roles in the economic development of especially developing and emerging economies. However, access to debt finance has been a major challenge. This research analysed firm characteristics in determining SMEs’ access to debt finance in Ghana, emphasising ownership type and the industry sector. The research was a cross-sectional study with a sample of 382 SMEs from across the manufacturing, trade, and service sectors and 23 commercial banks in Ghana and analysed using SPSS. Inferential statistics like correlation and multiple regression and ANOVA were applied to gauge the relationships between firm determinants as independent variables and SME debt finance as the main dependent variable. The results suggested that firm characteristics such as size, ownership type, industry sector, location, and management determine SMEs’ access to debt finance. Again, ownership and the industry sector influenced debt finance positively and significantly.
    Keywords: small and medium-scale enterprises; SMEs; debt finance; firm characteristics; ownership type; industry sector; Ghana.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBEM.2025.10058576
     
  • Linking Expatriate Adjustment and Expatriate Performance: Do gender and earlier international experience matter?
    by Menatallah Darrag 
    Abstract: This study investigates expatriate adjustment (EA) as a proximal determinant of expatriate performance (EP) building on Black et al.’s (1991) theoretical model. Moreover, it puts forward testing mediation effect of EA between individual-level stable factors of gender and earlier international experience (EIA) with EP. A cross-sectional design focusing on the short term assigned expatriates (STAs) in the ICT sector in Egypt is adopted, using an online survey for data collection. Results supported that both EIA and gender were negatively correlated with EP respectively, where males came to perform higher than females. Moreover, EA was supported as a mediator to the earlier relationships. The study enriches the expatriate management literature in the Arab world, especially STAs that are highly employed though not adequately investigated. The study concludes by providing some recommendations for organisations to manage STAs.
    Keywords: gender; earlier international experience; EIA; expatriate adjustment; EA; expatriate performance; EP; Arab countries; Egypt.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBEM.2025.10058656
     
  • A Cross Country Empirical Investigation of Association between the Financial Inclusion and Economic Growth   Order a copy of this article
    by Priyanka Verma, Pooja Soni, Keshav Malhotra 
    Abstract: Policies on financial inclusion have gathered significant interest from academics, policymakers, and regulators. Theoretically, it has been shown that financial inclusion has a positive effect on economic growth. But there do not appear to have been enough empirical studies. The article seeks to provide a comprehensive understanding of the connection between financial inclusion and economic expansion. To quantify the degree of financial inclusion on a global scale, a multidimensional global index for financial inclusion (GIFI) is constructed keeping in mind the role play of banking, insurance and other deposit corporations. The relationship between financial inclusion and economic growth is then investigated using panel econometric approaches based on the aforementioned built index. For 2010 through 2020, this analysis used annual data from 37 different countries. Our result supports favourable long-run relationship between financial inclusion and economic expansion.
    Keywords: global financial inclusion index; banking sector; insurance sector; economic growth.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBEM.2024.10058709
     
  • Stakeholders' perceptions on the adoption of International Financial Reporting Standards by small and medium-sized enterprises: A multidimensional analysis
    by Cristiane Benetti, Luciane Reginato, Edgard Bruno Cornacchione Junior, Joshua Onome Imoniana 
    Abstract: The adoption of IFRS brings benefits in terms of earnings quality and comparability, but also increases the costs associated with its implementation for public companies. This study examines the perceptions of accounting practitioners in France (developed country) and Brazil (emerging country) regarding the adoption of IFRS (International Financial Reporting Standards) by SMEs (small and medium-sized enterprises). The main idea is to observe whether the relation of benefits x costs is good for SMEs in both economies. We look at the question of whether accounting practitioners in these countries share similar views on the benefits and objectives of adopting IFRS by SMEs. We collected 173 fully or partially completed questionnaires from French and Brazilian practitioners. This study uses descriptive statistics, bivariate correlation tests, means comparison, and multiple correspondence analysis to analyse the data corpora. Results indicate that IFRS adoption by Brazilian practitioners gives them an edge over French practitioners on aspects relating to increased recognition of unrealized gains and a possible increase in access to the international capital market.
    Keywords: IFRS; international financial reporting standards; SME; small and medium-sized enterprises; emerging countries; accounting practitioners; Brazil; France; MCA; multiple correspondence analysis.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBEM.2025.10058765
     
  • Distance between Emerging and Developed Economies on Cross-Border Alliance Governance
    by Juasrikul Sakdipon, Sean (Hyunsoon) Yim, Richie L. Liu 
    Abstract: Drawing from both institutional theory and the perspective of institutional distance, we examine the influence of institutional and infrastructure distance on cross-border alliance governance mode. This study investigates 1,334 dyadic alliances between multinational enterprises (MNEs) from emerging economies and MNEs from developed economies, using hierarchical logistic regression analyses with data collected from the SDC Platinum database and other international data sources. The results demonstrate that formal and informal institutional distances affect the alliance governance mode (i.e., equity versus contractual mode). Moreover, infrastructure distance moderates the relationship between formal institutional distance and the propensity to choose an equity alliance mode. Our findings supported that an adversity advantage enhances the competency of MNEs from emerging economies. Specifically, the effect of the distances on governance mode becomes trivial when host countries are in developed economies. This study contributes to the cross-border alliance literature.
    Keywords: Cross-border alliances; Alliance governance mode; Emerging economies; Institutional distance; Infrastructure distance.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBEM.2025.10058829
     
  • Understanding knowledge from customers: a systematic literature review   Order a copy of this article
    by Sanchayan Sengupta, Przemyslaw Tomczyk 
    Abstract: The purpose of this research is to exhaustively review the literature on knowledge from customers thereby enabling it to provide a comprehensive definition and classification of the concept of knowledge from customers and provide a future research agenda, focussing on emerging markets. We employed a rigorous three-step systematic literature review (SLR) process by analysing 184 articles since 1977 published on knowledge from customers. Literature was reviewed using SLR, bibliometric citation analysis, and cluster analysis. This definition involves what customer knows, what they can use, and what they can co-create to help firms especially in emerging markets achieve their business objectives. This research is the first systematic literature review attempt in the field of knowledge from customers that proposes a definition and classification of knowledge from customers based on many articles across a broad period. We provide research agenda for both international researchers and multinational firms concerned with emerging markets.
    Keywords: customer knowledge; knowledge from customers; systematic literature review; SLR; bibliometrics; emerging markets; global firms.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBEM.2025.10063653
     
  • ESG activities in emerging markets during the COVID-19 pandemic
    by Nawaf Almaskati 
    Abstract: This study analyses the relationship between profitability and environmental, social, and governance (ESG) activities during the COVID-19 pandemic in a sample of publicly listed firms in emerging market countries. We find that the overall relationship between ESG activities and profitability was significantly higher during the worst period of the pandemic than the period following it. We also find that negative changes in profitability are associated with larger drops in ESG activities and that these drops are significantly larger during the hardest days of the pandemic. The findings in our study suggest that firms may reduce their commitment to ESG activities during difficult times in order to focus on their survivability.
    Keywords: ESG; COVID-19; profitability; environmental; social; governance.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBEM.2025.10058957
     
  • Applying Prospect Theory to Improve the Performance of Capital Asset Pricing Models in an Emerging Market
    by Alireza Rahrovi Dastjerdi, Narges Hamidian, Hassan Yazdifar 
    Abstract: This study aimed to investigate whether the addition of the 'PEAK-END' rule, which suggests that people consider only the best and most recent parts of their past experiences when making decisions, could improve the performance of capital asset pricing models in explaining excess returns. We combined the 'PEAK-END' rule with five popular pricing models, creating ten different specifications of the models. The study compared the explanatory power of these models in the Iran capital market (as an emerging market) based on 'market conditions' and 'portfolio'. The results indicated that the effectiveness of the 'PEAK-END' rule in improving the explanatory power of pricing models depends on market conditions and the type of companies. Specifically, for companies with large size and high momentum and in emotional markets with a comparative climate among investors, adding this rule could improve explanatory power of the pricing models. Otherwise, traditional simple models would work better.
    Keywords: prospect theory; PEAK-END rule; capital asset pricing models; CAPMs; emerging markets.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBEM.2025.10058958
     
  • Private Capital Inflows and Industrial Sector Performance: A Comparative Study of the Top Largest Economies in Sub-Saharan Africa
    by Samson Edo 
    Abstract: This paper investigates the interactive effect of foreign direct investment and foreign portfolio investment on industrial performance, with the aim of validating or refuting the Bank for International Settlements (BIS) position on the risk posed by large fluctuations in private capital flows. The investigation focuses on the top largest economies in Sub-Saharan Africa, and covers the period 1990-2021. The methodologies of dynamic ordinary least squares model and unrestricted error correction model are employed in the investigation. The results reveal that the interaction between foreign direct investment and foreign portfolio investment did not have impressive effect on industrial growth, compared to capital market and trade openness with relatively high impact. It follows that fluctuations in private capital inflows constitute a major challenge to industrial performance. Since private capital inflows failed to facilitate industrial performance, it is necessary to fill the vacuum by raising the level of domestic private investments.
    Keywords: foreign direct investment; FDI; foreign portfolio investment; industrial growth; developing countries.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBEM.2025.10059005
     
  • CSR disclosure, politically connected supervisory board (PC-SVB) and cost of debt financing: Evidence from Indonesia
    by Joni Joni, Aurora Angela, Enny Prayogo, Maria Natalia, Oktavianti Oktavianti, Sinta Setiana, Tan Ming Kuang, Yunita Christy 
    Abstract: We examine the effect of corporate social responsibility (CSR) disclosure on the cost of debt financing (COD) in an emerging market, Indonesia. Next, the moderating effect of political relations through a connected supervisory board (PC-SVB) is investigated in this association. The paper uses all Indonesian listed companies as our population, and the final sample is 1,886 observations. Moderated regression analysis is applied to investigate the moderating effect of political relations on the association between CSR and cost of debt. Also, we address the endogeneity problem by using the generalised method of moments (GMM). We find that firms with more CSR disclosure have lower costs of debt financing in Indonesia. It means that CSR is valuable from the perspective of creditors or lenders. Additionally, the relationship is stronger in the presence of politically connected supervisory boards.
    Keywords: corporate social responsibility; CSR; cost of debt; COD; politically connected supervisory boards; PC-SVB; emerging market; Indonesia.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBEM.2025.10059006
     
  • Blockchain Technology's Moderating Effect on the Relationships Between Corporate Governance, the Environment and Financial Performance
    by Maher Abida 
    Abstract: Blockchain technology, which is similar to the impact of double-entry accounting in the past, has emerged as an innovative tool for trading and monitoring financial assets. This work explores the relationship between blockchain technology, corporate governance and business performance. The research uses feasible generalised least squares (FGLS) to examine data from 297 European firms that were featured in the STOXX Europe 600 index between 2016 and 2021, with a focus on assessing the moderating influence of blockchain technology. The results demonstrate that the implementation of blockchain technology significantly influences the financial as well as the environmental performance. Moreover, this study underscores the role of blockchain technology in bettering the connection between corporate governance and performance, particularly in companies with strong governance practices. These findings provide valuable insights for businesses, policymakers and researchers interested in harnessing the potential of blockchain technology to enhance corporate governance and to drive overall firm performance.
    Keywords: blockchain technology; corporate governance; environmental performance; financial performance; moderating effect.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBEM.2025.10059108
     
  • Investigating the Effect of Brand Elements on Brand Equity: A Study of Consumer Perceptions
    by Zahra Nikkhah-Farkhani, Zahra Zarenejad 
    Abstract: The aim of this study was to examine the influence of brand elements on brand equity from the perspective of consumer perceptions. A sample of 388 consumers was collected and subjected to analysis using a structural equation modeling methodology. The research variables investigated included brand loyalty, brand image, brand associations, brand equity, and brand awareness. The findings indicate that all brand elements significantly and positively impact brand equity. Notably, brand loyalty emerged as the most robust predictor, demonstrating the greatest effect on brand equity. These results underscore the criticality of establishing and nurturing brand loyalty to enhance brand equity. Furthermore, it was observed that brand awareness played a mediating role in the relationship between brand elements and brand equity. It served as a connecting link, influencing the ultimate impact of various brand elements on brand equity. Consequently, companies should not only concentrate on fostering brand loyalty but also prioritize efforts.
    Keywords: brand loyalty - brand awareness - brand image – brand association – brand equity.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBEM.2025.10059112
     
  • Effect of pandemic and lockdown on the performance and operations of farmers’ markets in Southwest, Nigeria
    by Oluwabukola Ehinmowo, Christian Harrison, Adewale I. Olutumise 
    Abstract: The study critically examined the effect of the pandemic and lockdown on the performance and operations of farmers’ markets in Southwest, Nigeria. Primary data were used and the information was sourced using questionnaires. A multistage sampling technique was used to randomly select farmers for the study. Descriptive statistics, budgetary technique and two-stage least squares regression were used for the analysis. The results showed that age, revenue, perceived COVID-19 effect, household size, experience, market space acquisition, and frequent visit to farmers market were the significant factors that influenced the performance of the farmers in the study area. Challenges faced by the farmers after lockdown on farmers market were increased price, high cost of farm input, reduced quantity of farm products and high transportation cost. Therefore, there should be more of government intervention/assistance programs as a way of assisting the farmers to boost food production and alleviate poverty in the area.
    Keywords: farmers market; performance; pandemic; COVID 19; emerging markets; Nigeria.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBEM.2025.10059114
     
  • Financial Literacy, Attitudes and Purchase Intention of Insurance Products in South Africa
    by Fanisa Ndhlovu, Yvonne Saini, Russell Abratt 
    Abstract: Research findings in many emerging and developing countries indicate that countries with poor levels of financial literacy have negative consequences for financial behaviours. The digital age has made the task of investing and making financial decisions very difficult. The objective of this study is to provide some insights into understanding how financial products are consumed; therefore, it examines the relationship between financial literacy and insurance purchase decisions in South Africa. A survey of insurance customers was undertaken online. The sample size utilised 300 potential insurance consumers within the sampling frame. Structural equation modelling was used to analyse the data. Of the nine hypothesised relationships, the results of this study supported five. It was shown that financial education has a positive impact on financial literacy. These results are discussed in detail and recommendations are made.
    Keywords: financial literacy; consumer attitudes; insurance; purchase intention; South Africa.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBEM.2025.10059204
     
  • Young Women’s Perceptions of Successful Entrepreneurship: Evidence from the Kingdom of Bahrain
    by Debashish Sengupta, Charbel M. El Khoury, Ray Titus, Sejal Valera 
    Abstract: The perception of women concerning entrepreneurship remains among the current and most critical topics that require constant exploration. This research aims to understand the perception of young women concerning successful entrepreneurship in Bahrain. A narrative inquiry method was chosen to collect the data. More precisely, 17 semi-structured interviews with Bahraini women nationals and residents were conducted, and responses were generated using thematic analysis. Findings show that perceptions regarding successful entrepreneurship among young women in Bahrain can be categorised into five themes: triumph over adversity, autonomy and work-life balance, sense of worth (inward) and sense of accomplishment (outward), path to prosperity, and leaving a discernible social impact. While the first three belong to the psychological success indicator, the fourth one is related to social influence, and the fifth fits with the economic return indicator of entrepreneurial success.
    Keywords: entrepreneurial intention; entrepreneurial success; young women; entrepreneurial perception.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBEM.2025.10059244
     
  • Private Capital Formation and Economic Growth in Africa: the Role of Monetary Policy
    by Vera Ogeh Fiador, Daniel Ofori-Sasu 
    Abstract: The study seeks to examine the role monetary policy plays on the impact of private capital formation on economic growth in Africa. By employing the dynamic system GMM for African countries over the period, 1999—2021, the study shows that reduction in monetary policy rates by a basic point leads to an increase in the level of private capital formation. The empirical results support a negative impact of monetary policy on economic growth, suggesting that countries that tighten their policy rates hinder economic growth. We find a negative impact of private capital formation on economic growth. However, the study provides evidence to support that monetary policy is an important tool employed by monetary authorities to reduce the negative impact of private capital formation on economic growth. Therefore, policymakers should continue to maintain and improve the current monetary policy rates to tame the reductive impact of private capital formation and economic growth.
    Keywords: monetary policy; investment; private capital formation; economic growth.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBEM.2025.10059406
     
  • When Matters to Performance? CEO Tenure in Brazilian Firms
    by ROBERTO TOMMASETTI, Patrícia Maria Bortolon, Vinicius Mothé Maia, Marcelo Alvaro Da Silva Macedo 
    Abstract: Literature about the relationship between the chief executive officer (CEO) longevity and the firm’s profitability is traditionally focused - with mixed results - on CEO’s seasons, trying to assess their different impact on the firm’s performance (as a whole). The present study investigates CEO tenure contribution to different companies’ (performance) seasons. Using quantile regression, we show that CEO tenure impact on firm performance is possibly not uniform cross-sectionally, demonstrating that the one (CEO tenure) size fits all (firm’s performance stages) approach is not applicable. Our research fuels the topic-related scholars’ debate and could help shareholders choose the appropriate leadership for the corresponding company phase.
    Keywords: CEO tenure; CEO longevity; firm’s performance seasons; quantile regression.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBEM.2025.10059529
     
  • Corporate Governance and Cash Holdings: New Evidence from Asian Markets
    by Seyed Alireza Athari 
    Abstract: This paper examines the impacts of the firm and country-level governance settings on Asian firms’ cash holdings. Furthermore, this study investigates the effect of corporate governance components on cash holdings and also probes the impact of governance settings on firms’ excess cash. This study selects 608 listed companies operating in Asian markets and performs panel data approaches between 2010-2017. The findings reveal that companies with stronger governance mechanisms stockpile less cash, supporting the agency theory. Besides, the findings highlight that the effect of corporate governance is more prominent in strong investor protection environments, implying that they are complements. Likewise, further analysis shows that firms hold less cash by increasing independent directors, splitting CEO and chair positions, and also increasing the diversity of the board. Unlike ineffective legal systems, the results also reveal that a strong governance system leads firms to decrease capital investment but increase R&D investment and dividend payouts. More specifically, the results show that in strong investor protection settings, companies with strong corporate governance invest a significant 0.5% and 0.1% more in R&D and dividend payouts than their counterparts.
    Keywords: corporate governance; CG; investor protection; IP; cash holdings; country risk; Asian markets.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBEM.2025.10059550
     
  • CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND RELATED PARTY TRANSACTIONS: WHAT IS THE ROLE OF OWNERSHIP?
    by Phung Anh Thu, Doan Thi Cam Thu 
    Abstract: In developing markets, conduct research to assess the effect of corporate social responsibility (CSR) disclosure on related party transactions (RPTs) with moderate foreign and domestic ownership. We use a regression analysis method that fits the panel data and a moderated estimate of the ownership ratio. The research results suggest that CSR disclosure positively impacts RPTs, domestic ownership plays a moderately positive role in the relationship between CSR disclosure and RPTs, and foreign ownership has the opposite effect. Research results have implications for listed companies, investors, and regulators in increasing the transparency of information of listed companies.
    Keywords: corporate social responsibility; CSR; related party transactions; RPTs; foreign ownership; domestic ownership.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBEM.2025.10059618
     
  • An empirical study on customer satisfaction in the Telecommunication Industry
    by Nirmal Chandra Roy, Dhanonjoy Kumar, Norhayah Zulkifli 
    Abstract: The focal objectives of this study are to find out the level of customer satisfaction in the telecommunication sector, to determine the variables influencing mobile subscribers’ choice of mobile networks, and to assist the marketers on their effective policy formulations. To achieve these objectives, primary and secondary data have been used. For the purpose of the study, 400 respondents have been selected. Primary data has been gathered through structured questionnaire. The goals of the study have been met through the use of statistical methods such as descriptive statistics, reliability analysis, validity analysis, cross loadings, collinearity statistics (VIF), and hypothesis testing. According to the survey, elderly and uneducated people do not care about service choices, costs, or internet accessibility. They simply take into account quality talk time and network services. However, young individuals and educated people alike pay close attention to talk time, network, service quality, internet features, and product offers. The study also showed that organisational effectiveness and competency had little bearing on customer satisfaction.
    Keywords: customer satisfaction; service quality; organisational efficiency; organisational competency.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBEM.2025.10059743
     
  • Does managerial competence and information asymmetry matter in access to finance? A lens into registered small businesses in Uganda
    by Mary Nanyondo, Josephine Naigwe, Juma Bananuka, Zainabu Tumwebaze 
    Abstract: The purpose of this study is to establish the relationship between managerial competence, information asymmetry, and access to finance by registered small businesses in Uganda. This study is cross-sectional and correlational. Data was collected through a questionnaire survey of 301 registered small businesses. Data were analysed through correlation coefficients and linear regression using Statistical Package for Social Sciences. The results suggest that both managerial competencies and information asymmetry are significantly associated with access to finance. This study adds to the already existing literature on access to finance using evidence from an emerging African economy like Uganda.
    Keywords: access to finance; managerial competencies; information asymmetry; small business; Uganda.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBEM.2025.10059744
     
  • Digital Entrepreneurs in Uzbekistan: Exploring Alertness, Opportunity Recognition, Exploitation, and the Mediating Role of Social Media Use
    by Nergis Aziz, Derya Dogan, Barry Friedman, Zamira Ataniyazova, Dilmurod Khodiev 
    Abstract: This study explores the influence of social media on the relationship between alertness and opportunity recognition in digital entrepreneurship. It also investigates hedonic value as a pre-cursor to social media use and opportunity recognition' s role in predicting opportunity exploitation. Data from 153 Uzbekistan digital entrepreneurs were analysed using PLS-SEM. Results showed a significant positive relationship between hedonic value and social media use (β = 0.265; p ≤ 0.00). Social media use fully mediated the relationship between entrepreneurial alertness and opportunity recognition (β = 0.12, p < 0.05, bootstrap bias-corrected 95% CI [0.045, 0.25]). Additionally, a significant positive relationship was found between opportunity recognition and exploitation (β = 0.337; p ≤ 0.00). These findings have implications for fostering digital opportunity recognition and exploitation in emerging economies, highlighting the role of hedonic value, social media use, and alertness for digital entrepreneurs.
    Keywords: digital entrepreneurship; social media use; social media platforms; entrepreneurial alertness; opportunity recognition; opportunity exploitation; hedonic value.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBEM.2025.10059888
     
  • Two Stage Portfolio Optimization Trough Sentiment Analysis: A Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) Based Approach
    by Ünsal Kiran, Oktay Tas 
    Abstract: The existing portfolio optimisation studies focus on the portfolio selection problem as a pure optimisation problem, and they mostly ignore the importance of the asset selection. However, in actual investment process, asset selection is equally important and the returns of portfolios created according to the different asset selection have significant differences. As a solution to this problem, we propose two-stage investment strategy to construct an effective portfolio consisting of BIST30 stocks. In the first stage, we identify investment worthy stocks by establishing an asset selection schema with variable return to scale data envelopment analysis (VRS-DEA) using stock historical data, correlation coefficients and investor sentiment data. We used Google Trend and AR popularity index data as proxy for investor sentiment. Furthermore, we used two different techniques to ensure low correlation between selected stocks when performing portfolios. In both techniques, our empirical results show that the DEA-based stock selection with investor sentiment data can improve the out-of-sample performance of different investment strategies and our results are supportive for under-diversification theory. Lastly, we used first stochastic dominance (FSD) test as a robustness test to verify our conclusions and it is clear that FSD test results are consistent with our conclusions.
    Keywords: portfolio optimisation; efficiency scores; data envelopment analysis; DEA; sentiment analysis; out-of-sample test; stochastic dominance test; first stochastic dominance; FSD.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBEM.2025.10060026
     
  • Impact of religious commitment on consumer’s decision making styles
    by SWATI SAINI, Rajiv Kumar 
    Abstract: The study aims to understand the role played by religious commitment in consumers’ decision-making styles. The research focuses on two types of decision-making styles: confused by over-choice consumers (abundance of options) and recreational consumers (who enjoy shopping). A moderated mediation path model is analysed in the study. The mediation effect of recreational consumers is studied in the direct relationship between religious commitment and confused by over-choice consumers’, with gender as a moderator. Religiously committed consumers are recreational shoppers and get confused by over-choice. Recreational consumers partially mediate the path between religious commitment and confused by over-choice consumers. Gender moderates the path between religious commitment and recreational consumers. Religiously committed consumers are recreational, but they get confused by over-choice. Commitment to religion shapes the consumer’s lifestyle and leads to their religiously oriented decisions. The study will add a new decision path to the literature on consumer decision-making. It can be used by companies to understand Hindu consumers’ decision-making styles.
    Keywords: Hindu consumer; religious commitment; decision-making styles; recreational consumers; confused consumers; gender.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBEM.2025.10060027
     
  • Business Model Construction Processes and Mechanisms of Start-ups in Nascent Markets
    by Zheng Cheng, Renato Pereira 
    Abstract: Understanding how to build business models for start-ups in nascent markets is a significant issue that has increasingly caught the attention of both scholars and practitioners. Most existing studies focus on the business models of mature enterprises in traditional settings, with little research having been conducted so far on the business model mechanisms of start-ups in nascent markets. To fill this gap, we used data collected through in-depth interviews with entrepreneurs of six Chinese nascent internet start-ups. This is then summarised and refined following several main theoretical categories: entrepreneurial cognitive schema, cognitive model, cognitive flexibility, interaction stage, and business model results. Findings suggest that management cognition - a subjective variable involved in start-up business model building - explains why start-ups with disadvantages in experience and networking can achieve even better entrepreneurial outcomes.
    Keywords: multiple case study; start-ups; business model building.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBEM.2025.10060100
     
  • The impact of green marketing strategy on performance of small and medium enterprises in Vietnam   Order a copy of this article
    by Hong Thi Xuan Nguyen, Anh Thi Phuong Nguyen, Hong Thi Nguyen, Huong Thi Kim Nguyen, Ha Thu Dao 
    Abstract: Green marketing can be seen as one of the types of marketing that businesses are considering and implementing in this period. Based on social responsibility and the stakeholders’ theory, this study researches the impact of green marketing strategy on business performance. The study researches seven elements of green marketing strategy including green products, green prices, green distribution, green promotion, green people, green process, and green physical evidence. By reliability test, exploratory factor analysis, and regression with sample 238 small and medium enterprises in Hanoi, the research results showed that all elements of the green marketing strategy have a positive impact on the business performance. The study also evaluates the impact of firm age on business performance, but there is no sign of the impaction between them. Based on the findings, the study recommends developing green marketing strategy to increase the business performance of small and medium enterprises in Hanoi, Vietnam.
    Keywords: green marketing strategy; business performance; small and medium enterprises; Vietnam.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBEM.2025.10063654
     
  • Values and lifestyles (VALS) of the consumers of the farmers’ markets of Valle De Aburra, Antioquia Colombia   Order a copy of this article
    by Rodolfo Casadiego-Alzate, Vanesa Sanguino-García, Paula Andrea Velasquez Calle, Vladimir Díaz Mesa, Diomer Alejandro Palacio Miranda 
    Abstract: Farmers' markets represent an activity of great importance for local economies in all countries, due to the possibility that small producers can sell their products directly to final consumers without the need for intermediaries. The objective of this work is to identify the sociodemographic and psychographic characteristics of the consumers of the Farmers' Markets of the Valle de Aburrá, Colombia. For this, the test VALS was used through a non-probability sampling, reaching a sample of 1035 people. To this end, exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was used to identify psychographic profiles and K-means clustering for determining the number of segments. The results suggest that the three groups identified respond differently to sociodemographic characteristics, which requires that marketing actions focused on communication contemplate these aspects to achieve greater effectiveness in the search to attract more people to attend this type of spaces.
    Keywords: farmers’ markets; local markets; market segmentation; psychographic profiles; clustering; factor analysis; values and lifestyles; VALS; healthy eating; Colombia.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBEM.2025.10060197
     
  • Performance Appraisal in a Public Sector Firm: Testing Organisational Justice Theory in an Emerging Market.
    by Ali Hussein Al Yamani, Tahir Masood Qureshi, Irfan Saleem 
    Abstract: This study aims to test performance appraisal’s role in emerging markets’ public sector as a distinct human resource practice using organisational justice and social exchange theories. The primary data was collected electronically during the COVID-19 pandemic through a questionnaire from 417 public sector firm respondents. This study used regression analysis to examine the impact of performance appraisal on job satisfaction and work performance. The result shows that procedural justice, the development use of performance appraisal, and relationship quality in the performance appraisal system positively affects job satisfaction and work performance. However, a negative relationship exists between distributional justice and job satisfaction, which needs further research and development of theory in this area. The study has implications for public sector firms in the Arab culture.
    Keywords: organisational justice theory; social exchange theory; performance appraisal; job satisfaction; work performance; Oman.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBEM.2025.10060299
     
  • Embracing Fintech in Bahrain Banks: An Empirical Evidence
    by Sumathi Kumaraswamy, Yomna Abdulla, Prabhat Mittal 
    Abstract: Banks are facing a new form of reality - FinTech as the greatest source of disruption, which has caused them to redefine and improve their operational performance and sustainability by using technology as a catalyst for change. This paper identifies the most prominent factor that influences FinTech adoption in the banking sector in the Kingdom of Bahrain. Using data from 206 finance professionals, we utilise structural equation modelling (SEM) to examine our four hypotheses related to performance expectancy, effort expectancy, cyber security and facilitating conditions. The findings show that the performance expectancy, facilitating conditions, and cyber security constructs of FinTech adoption affect the user behaviour with respect to FinTech products and services in banks. The thriving FinTech firms and inceptive technological firms should realise that the key competitive advantage of banks is customers’ trust. Therefore, they may exploit the same in initiating business collaborations to offer new solutions in identifying, prioritising, and developing digital banking products and services. This study attempts to employ the modified UTAUT model of technology adoption in the context of FinTech services in banks.
    Keywords: FinTech; Bahrain; SEM; UTAUT; banks; financial sector.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBEM.2025.10060315
     
  • Effect of Integrated Marketing Communication tools in Enhancing Employee Performance
    by Samarth Singh, Maitri . 
    Abstract: In the marketing field, integrated marketing communication (IMC) strategies are regarded to provide key competitive benefits pertinent to customer relationship management (CRM), according to numerous researchers. To ameliorate employee performance (EP), IMC is utilised and EP’s improvement is evaluated by a few researchers. The IMC’s consequence in improving the EP is illustrated in this research. Here, by utilising the questionnaires around 283 employees from different organisations in India are surveyed. The outcomes reveal a positive relationship was exhibited betwixt IMC and companies’ sales along with profits, EP and IMC, marketing learning and IMC strategy. In addition, the outcome displayed that to gauge the overall IMC’s efficacy, indicators like sales promotion, advertising, personal selling, direct marketing, along with performance. Thus, to enhance the EP for the organisation’s development, the IMC is highly significant. The outcomes obtained are helpful for the organisations to develop an IMC approach to enhance the organisation’s performance.
    Keywords: integrated marketing communication; IMC; employee performance; customer relationship management; CRM; descriptive analysis; aspects of IMC.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBEM.2025.10060337
     
  • Unity is strength. A case study of Regional Businesses in Inner Mongolia during the Covid-19 Pandemic
    by Yuan Zhai, Derek Watson 
    Abstract: The 2020 COVID-19 pandemic had a direct impact on retail sales, resulting in the closure of commercial establishments due to a nationwide lockdown. This reduced customer base and the consequent decline in operating profit directly threatened the survival of businesses. A platform was established by the food federation and small and medium enterprise federation of inner Mongolia in response to this so to assist local food enterprises in cooperating both internally and externally thus jointly exploring the market to encourage the growth of local and regional economies. Research findings indicate the effectiveness of the initiative in terms of resource integration and information sharing to address the overstock of commodities and shortfalls in cash flow. On the basis of qualitative research and the platform adopted, 20 interviews with experts were conducted, a new business model has been formed that may be exploited by other regions during and post-pandemic times to stimulate economic growth.
    Keywords: business model; COVID-19; innovation; crisis management.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBEM.2025.10060367
     
  • Does word of mouth matter for brand love among young consumers Mediating role of consumer brand loyalty
    by Manoj Mishra, Nidhi Sharma, Sunil Kumar 
    Abstract: The purpose of the study is to identify the factors which will lead to brand loyalty among the customers. Author will also try to explore the influence of brand loyalty of the customers on the word of mouth. The study uses the sample size of 455 students studying in Delhi and NCR. The sample was conveniently selected. Study uses structural equation modelling and process Macro for assessing the model relationship researcher finds a significant relationship between factors of brand love such as; brand image, brand trust, variety seeking and social value on the customer brand loyalty. The relationship between brand loyalty and word of mouth is also coming out to be significant. The study also shows a significant partial mediating role of customer brand loyalty on the relationships. The findings of the study will be used by marketing executives and marketing managers to formulate strategies accordingly.
    Keywords: brand loyalty; word of mouth; WOM; brand love; young consumer; mediation; India.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBEM.2025.10060479
     
  • THE PREFERENTIAL BANKING POLICIES, FINANCIAL SUPPORT FROM THE GOVERNMENT AND SUSTAINABLE FINANCIAL PERFORMANCE: THE MEDIATION EFFECT OF PERCEIVED POLICY EFFECTIVENESS
    by Luc Phan Tan  
    Abstract: This study investigates the relationship between preferential banking policies, financial support from the government, perceived policy effectiveness, and sustainable performance, focusing on the mediating effect of perceived policy effectiveness in the relationship between preferential banking policies, financial support from the government, and sustainable performance. Data were collected from a sample survey of 249 owners of small and medium-sized businesses. The study found that preferential banking policies directly impact the perception of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) of perceived policy effectiveness and sustainable financial performance of SMEs. Additionally, financial support from the government was positively associated with both perceived policy effectiveness and sustainable financial performance. The study also found a significant indirect effect of financial support from the government and preferential banking policies on sustainable financial performance by perceived policy effectiveness as a mediator. This study offers practical insights for policymakers, financial institutions, and owners of SMEs on maintaining sustainable SME financial performance.
    Keywords: preferential banking policies; financial support from the government; perceived policy effectiveness; sustainable financial performance.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBEM.2025.10060502
     
  • Exploring xenocentrism in global brand consumption: insights from the Vietnam fashion industry and its implications for cultural adaptation
    by Bich Ngoc Do, My Nguyen 
    Abstract: This study explores young Vietnamese consumers' intentions to purchase global fashion labels. Despite the extant literature pointing to the significance of xenocentrism, there remains a gap in understanding its specific influence on purchase intentions in the context of the major cities of Vietnam. This research seeks to fill this gap by quantifying the factors that influence young consumers purchase intentions, including the role of xenocentrism. The research objectives are to: 1) determine and quantify the factors that influence the purchasing intentions of young consumers in the major cities of Vietnam with regard to global fashion; 2) determine the influence of xenophobia on purchase intent; 3) provide business management implications based on the findings and discussion of the study. Young adults aged 18 to 30 who live, work, or attend school in Vietnam and have purchased or used global fashion brands are included in this study. The research was conducted in March-August 2021 using mixed methods. Using SmartPLS 3.3.3, measurement model testing and SEM were performed. The findings of this study enrich a research stream on: 1) cultural relativism, particularly the role of xenocentrism in global brand consumption in emerging markets; 2) product attributes, from a theoretical perspective.
    Keywords: xenocentrism; consumer attitude; purchase intention; brand globalness; brand global identity.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBEM.2025.10060589
     
  • Audit Committee Attributes and Firm Financial Performance: A Novel Index for an Emerging Market
    by Ahmad A. Toumeh  
    Abstract: In an era of heightened focus on corporate governance, this study delves into the nexus between audit committee attributes (ACAs) and firm financial performance within the dynamic landscape of service firms listed on the Amman Stock Exchange (ASE). Leveraging a comprehensive dataset comprising 102 firm-year observations extracted from 34 listed companies during the years 2020 to 2022, a panel data analysis unveils insightful results. The research uncovers a significant and positive relationship between ACA and the financial performance metrics, return on assets (ROAs) and return on equity (ROE). These findings underscore the crucial role of ACA in augmenting financial returns and providing valuable strategic guidance for decision-making. In addition, this study enriches the burgeoning body of research that underscores the paramount importance of robust corporate governance, placing a spotlight on the indispensable role of audit committee in fostering financial prosperity and cultivating a culture of responsible conduct within businesses.
    Keywords: audit committee attributes; ACAs; corporate governance; financial performance; Jordan; return on assets; ROA; return on equity; ROE.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBEM.2025.10060707
     
  • Human Relations Strategies for Employee Retention among I.C.T. Experts in Nigerian Universities
    by Isidore Ekpe, Justus Adim Nzemeka, Emmanuel E. Okoh 
    Abstract: To avert or reduce labour turnover and enhance workplace motivation, this study investigated the human relations strategies that have high impact on employees’ retention especially among ICT experts in Nigerian universities. The result will enable university administrators and corporate managers to develop appropriate strategies on employees’ retention. The study sampled the opinions of 234 ICT staff members from three private universities in the south west region of Nigeria through proportionate stratified sampling method. Analysing data with descriptive statistics and regression, the study found, among others, that motivation and effective communication were the most significant variables influencing the retention of ICT employees in Nigerian universities. Therefore, managers of universities and other corporate leaders should consider adopting these strategies for effective management of human resources in their organisations. The study was limited to ICT staff members of private universities. Further studies could be extended to ICT staff in the public universities.
    Keywords: human relations strategies; employee retention; ICT experts; Nigeria.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBEM.2025.10060787
     
  • Determinants of Audit Reports Timeliness in Listed Manufacturing Firms: Evidence from an Emerging Economy
    by Zachariah Peter, Bashir Tijjani, Koholga Ormin, Faisal Abdullah Al Hudithi 
    Abstract: This study investigates determinants of audit report timeliness in listed manufacturing firms in Nigeria. Data were extracted from the annual reports and accounts of the sampled firms for a period of nine years (2012-2020). The data were subjected to analysis using generalised least square regression by adopting the fixed effect model. The results reveal that IFRS adoption, company age, debt capital and firm size determine audit report timeliness. On the other hand, audit committee, board size, profitability, managerial ownership and audit opinion are not significant determinants of audit report timeliness. More so, the results disclose that managerial ownership and audit opinion do not reduce delay in audit report. The study recommends that the statutory time within which reports are required to be released should be within 60 days instead of the current provision. Also, joint-audit should be enforced as a way of fast-tracking audit for timeliness.
    Keywords: audit; auditor; audit report; timeliness; annual reports; accounts.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBEM.2025.10060788
     
  • Entrepreneurship Education effect on Entrepreneurial Intention: through Triple Mediating Mechanism of Entrepreneurial Passion, Entrepreneurial Self-Efficacy and Innovation Behavior
    by Syed Haider Ali Shah, Eman Zameer Rahman, Gul Erkol Bayram, Arslan Asif, Adel Omar, Marco Valeri 
    Abstract: Entrepreneurship plays a crucial role in driving the social and economic progress of a country. Entrepreneurship education (EE) is widely implemented in universities to enhance students’ entrepreneurial capabilities and foster entrepreneurial intentions (EI). However, there is limited understanding regarding the underlying mechanism through which this intervention affects EI. drawing on the insights from the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) and social cognitive career theory (SCCT), this study’s objectives are to investigate the direct influence of EE on the EI and three multiple mediating mechanisms of entrepreneurial passion (EP), entrepreneurial self-efficacy (ESE) and innovative behaviour (IB) between the EE and EI of business students. A questionnaire survey was conducted with 480 university students pursuing entrepreneurship across 22 universities in Pakistan, using a convenient sampling technique. The collected data was then analysed using SPSS 24 and Amos 25 to test the hypotheses. The findings indicate that EE positively impacts the EI of university students, with multiple mediators involved in this relationship. This study makes significant contributions to the existing literature on EE and EI by integrating two prominent theories, TPB and SCCT. Furthermore, implications concerning EE and its alignment with the entrepreneurial climate are discussed.
    Keywords: entrepreneurship education; entrepreneurial intention; entrepreneurial passion; entrepreneurial self-efficacy; ESE; theory of planned behaviour; TPB; social cognitive career theory; SCCT; SEM.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBEM.2025.10060803
     
  • Authentic leadership and employee performance: The role of employee engagement and task autonomy in the telecommunication industry
    by Abraham Ansong, Robert Ipiin Gnankob, Alexander Afedzi Arthur, Kassimu Issau, Edna N. A. Okorley 
    Abstract: The study examined authentic leadership’s influence on employee performance through engagement and task autonomy in the telecommunication industry in Ghana. The study used the census approach to obtain data from 301 respondents from the firms. From this number, 285 of them fully responded to the self-administered questionnaire providing an excellent response rate of 94.6%. The data was analysed using the partial least squared structural equation modelling technique. The findings revealed that authentic leadership had significant positive relationship with employee performance. The study again found that employee engagement and task autonomy had significant positive relationship with employee performance. Finally, the study found that employee engagement and task autonomy significantly mediate authentic leadership and employee performance link. By implication, management of the firms should have fruitful interactions with subordinates as these practices will make them engaged and autonomous in their work and eventually lead to enhanced performance.
    Keywords: authentic leadership; employee engagement; task autonomy; employee performance; telecommunication industry.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBEM.2025.10060816
     
  • Development Prospects of BRICS Countries: Regional Risk Assessment and Design of Regional Risk Management Systems
    by Olga Medvedeva, Elena A. Yakovleva, Elena V. Korolyuk, Elena S. Materova 
    Abstract: The purpose of the study is to identify the most effective methods of identifying and quantifying regional risks in the BRICS countries, as well as to justify the need to introduce risk management into the regional governance system. The scientific novelty of the research consists in the development of a method for assessing the probability of risk occurrence through normalisation, as well as in the formation of a generalised model for the implementation of risk management in regional governance system. The authors studied the main socio-economic indicators of the BRICS countries, identified their regional socio-economic risks and assessed them using the normalisation method. The article provides a quantitative assessment of the main socio-economic risks of Russia. The authors considered the advantages of risk management and proposed a generalised model of risk levelling through the introduction of risk management in regional governance.
    Keywords: region; regional risk; risk assessment; risk management; regional governance system; BRICS countries; normalisation; socio-economic risks.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBEM.2025.10060817
     
  • Dynamics Between Exchange Rate and Macroeconomic Fundamentals: Evidence from Brazil
    by Muhammad Asadullah  
    Abstract: The aim of this study is to determine the relationship between the exchange rate of Brazilian currency real against the US Dollar with the macroeconomic fundamentals over the period from 2011M1 to 2022M2 with the monthly frequency data of exchange rate and selected macroeconomic fundamentals via NARDL technique. The findings suggest that in short-run, trade deficit has weakened the exchange rate whereas in long-run, inflation and interest rate have asymmetric relationship with the exchange rate. Furthermore, trade deficit and decline in oil prices also leads to devalued the Brazilian real. The increase in GDP and gold price are the indicators which strengthen the Brazilian Real. The diagnostic tests related to stability, residual and omission are also the part of analysis which supports the fulfillment of all requisites of the NARDL analysis and validate the concluding remarks. The novelty of this study is the application of NARDL for the emerging currency which is almost abandoned in the literature of finance and economics. The findings are helpful for the traders, economists, corporate sector, and policymakers to prepare and implement their policies accordingly.
    Keywords: exchange rate; NARDL; symmetric; asymmetric; macroeconomic.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBEM.2025.10060863
     
  • From Likes to Bookings: The Influence of Social Media on Marketing Performance in Travel Agencies
    by Roy Matta, Miriam R. Aziz, Khemena Mahmoud 
    Abstract: The study examines the impact of social media on marketing performance with a focus on Lebanese travel agencies. A conceptual analysis has been identified by the perceptions of domestic travellers through launching an online survey, which is filled by 320 customers. For assessing the data, a linear regression is used to gauge the influence of our variables. The findings showed that social media has a positive significant impact on marketing performance (lead generation, customer retention and brand awareness). Due to the rapid evolution of digital marketing, this study will point out the knowledge gaps regarding the influence of social media on marketing performance and tourists.
    Keywords: tourism; digital marketing; social media; marketing performance; and travel agencies.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBEM.2025.10061198
     
  • Drivers of Capital Flow Reversals: Evidence from Aggregate and Disaggregated Flows to Nigeria
    by Ladi Balakeffi, Damilola Felix Arawomo, Grace G. Bikefe 
    Abstract: Nigeria experienced boom and bust cycles in capital flow in the last decade. This necessitates the present study that focused on identification of strategies to manage capital flow reversal in Nigeria. We considered the drivers of capital flows reversals in aggregate and sub-aggregate capital flows. The Qureshi and Sugawara (2018) were used to identify the periods reversals and boom. The Tobit estimation technique was used to examine the factors that influence the probability of capital flow reversal occurrence. Results revealed that domestic factors influence the probability of reversal in direct investment, while both domestic and global factors influence the probability of the reversal in portfolio investment, other investments and aggregate capital flows. Due to global factors, it may be impossible for Nigeria to completely insulate itself from capital flow reversal, however economic diversification, inflation and exchange rate management can aid the management of capital flow reversal in the country.
    Keywords: capital flows; reversals; portfolio investment; direct investment; Tobit; Nigeria.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBEM.2025.10061200
     
  • PERCEPTIONS AND ATTITUDES INFLUENCING CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY IN TRAVEL GENERAL AVIATION
    by Quang Dung Truong, Ninh Nguyen, Thang Quyet Nguyen 
    Abstract: This study aims to analyse perceptions and attitudes impact general aviation travel’s social responsibility. This study approaches theory planned behaviour to investigate the intermediate link of corporate social responsibility. Data is collected from various customer sources using an iterative academic research design. The relationships between variables are analysed using structural equation modelling. Findings show that perceptions and attitudes impact general aviation through corporate social responsibility. Managing perceptual behaviours indirectly shapes norms and attitudes, urging industry players to reinforce positive positions for social responsibility. The study highlights business travel’s role in starting social change; passengers preferring responsible airlines create a positive cycle. It emphasises the link between aviation attitude and corporate responsibility, unveiling paths for sustainable growth and transformative strategies in the aviation and tourism sector.
    Keywords: general aviation; corporate social responsibility; CSR; travel; attitude; marketing.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBEM.2025.10061201
     
  • Drivers of Customers’ Online Purchasing Continuance Intentions via E-commerce Platforms in Egypt: The Mediation Roles of Perceived Usefulness, Trust, and Privacy/Security Risk
    by Ghada ElSayad, Hanan Gaffar 
    Abstract: Many companies show a remarkable interest in using e-commerce platforms to deliver their offerings, making it important to study the factors influencing customers’ online purchasing continuance intentions to ensure their survival. This study proposes a model based on the technology acceptance model and perceived risk theory to understand customers’ online purchasing continuance intentions. The data were collected from 203 Egyptian customers and analysed using structural equation modelling. The findings revealed that perceived usefulness and trust not only influence online purchasing continuance intention but also mediate the effects of platform quality, structural assurance, perceived ease of use, and perceived privacy/security risk on online purchasing continuance intention. Platform quality significantly influences perceived ease of use, usefulness, product risk, and trust. Furthermore, structural assurance significantly influences perceived privacy/security risk and trust. This study provides deep insights regarding promoting customers’ trust and usefulness perceptions towards e-commerce, which in turn encourage their purchasing continuance intentions.
    Keywords: E-commerce; technology acceptance; perceived risk; online purchasing continuance intention; perceived ease of use; perceived usefulness.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBEM.2025.10061202
     
  • Influence of product packaging in consumer purchasing decision of confectionary items in Sri Lanka   Order a copy of this article
    by RAISAL ISMAIL  
    Abstract: Today, companies market and communicate via packaging. Producers increase earnings by supplying distinct packages to their consumers. This study examined how product packaging affects Sri Lankan confectionery buyers. Multiple package attributes were used to assess package components and consumer buying preferences. Thus, the conceptual model of six package elements was built. These six package components were divided into visual and verbal parts. The objective is to determine the relationship between packaging components and customer preference for confectionery purchases and the most relevant visual and verbal factors. In this study, we used a random sample of 200 respondents. The SPSS was used to analyze the data collected. This study found a significant relationship between packaging dimensions and the consumer’s preference. Colour, printed information, size, and design of the wrapper of the packaging influences are high, and the material and the brand have a modest impact on the buyer's choice of purchase of confectionery items. The research suggests that businesses focus on these packaging aspects to attract customers and boost sales. This study adds to the literature on Sri Lankan confectionery packaging's visual and verbal value.
    Keywords: product packaging; purchase decision; visual and verbal elements; Sri Lanka.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBEM.2025.10061304
     
  • Exploring the Impact of E-Tourism on Tourist Satisfaction: A Confirmatory Factor Analysis and Structural Equation Modelling Approach   Order a copy of this article
    by Shakeel Basheer, Sandeep Kumar Walia, MUDASIR AHMAD MIR, Gul Erkol Bayram, Marco Valeri 
    Abstract: The goal of the study is to investigate how various dimensions of e-tourism, such as web trust, online security, perceived risk, and assurance, affect tourist satisfaction. Data were collected and analysed using AMOS 22.0 software. The findings reveal a significant positive relationship between e-tourism and tourist satisfaction, indicating that e-tourism platforms substantially enhance tourist satisfaction. Furthermore, the study demonstrates that each dimension of e-tourism positively influences tourist satisfaction. Specifically, web trust, online security, perceived risk, and assurance were all found to significantly contribute to tourist satisfaction. The results highlight the importance of building trust, ensuring online security, minimising perceived risks, and providing assurance in the e-tourism context. Practitioners in the tourism industry should focus on developing and improving e-tourism platforms to deliver a seamless and satisfying online experience. Enhancing trust through transparency and reliability, implementing robust online security measures, and addressing perceived risks are essential strategies to increase tourist satisfaction. These findings offer valuable insights for practitioners in the tourism industry to optimise their e-tourism strategies and ultimately enhance tourist satisfaction.
    Keywords: e-tourism; tourist satisfaction; confirmatory factor analysis; CFA; structural equation modelling; SEM; web trust; online security; perceived risk; assurance.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBEM.2025.10061306
     
  • Effects of Extrinsic and Intrinsic Cues on Consumers’ Food Safety Attitudes and Choice Behavior: Street Food Case   Order a copy of this article
    by Renee Kim, Toulany Thavisay, J.S. Kim 
    Abstract: South Korea is well known for its street food market, which is often reflected in the Hallyu contents (i.e., K drama, movies, and K food), and increasingly draw international attention for its unique cultural contents. Yet, consumers’ concerns for foods safety have been a considerable constraint dampening the growth potential of the market. This study aims to explore factors affecting Korean consumers’ choice for street food by approximating the relationship between antecedents (i.e., selected extrinsic, intrinsic cues) and street food consumption intention. The SOR framework is applied in developing Korean consumers’ behavioural model, which enables extrapolation of the process of how four major antecedents that are linked to consumers’ cognitive constructs (i.e., food safety trust and perceived healthy eating), and to outcome (i.e., consumers’ consumption intention for street food). Approximation of street food consumption model shed lights on what drives Korean consumers’ consumption for street food.
    Keywords: street food consumption; trust and attitude; food safety; healthy eating; South Korea.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBEM.2025.10061332
     
  • IMPACT OF MACROECONOMIC FACTORS ON STOCK MARKET INDEX: EVIDENCE FROM THE G-20 COUNTRIES DURING THE COVID-19 PANDEMIC   Order a copy of this article
    by Josua Tarigan, Vanessa Clementina 
    Abstract: This study examines further how macroeconomic factors would impact the G-20 stock market indexes (SMI) during the pandemic. Furthermore, the pandemic moderates the relationship between SMI and macroeconomic variables. This could then be used to assist investing decisions. The dependent variable is SMI, while the independent variables as macroeconomic factors are interest rates (IR), exchange rates (ER), GDP, and oil prices (OP), with COVID-19 as the moderating variable. The results revealed that macroeconomic variables significantly affect SMI during the pandemic. Specifically, all the factors positively correlate with SMI except IR, which negatively affects SMI. Additionally, the COVID-19 outbreak strengthens IR and OP’s correlation on SMI while weakening the relationship between GDP and SMI. To the author’s best knowledge, no past studies investigated the relationship between macroeconomic variables and SMI, let alone utilising the pandemic as a moderator in the context of G-20 countries.
    Keywords: macroeconomic factors; stock market index; SMI; G-20; COVID-19; pandemic.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBEM.2025.10061359
     
  • Acceptance and adoption of e-services in developing countries: case of Lebanon and Peru   Order a copy of this article
    by Leonel Matar, Georges Aoun, David Mayorga 
    Abstract: The aim of this paper is to focus on the loyalty toward technologies. The COVID-19 forced individuals to change their behaviour and relied more on technology. At the end of the pandemic, the choice between e-services and traditional services became possible. The UTAUT model was used to identify the variables that influence the use of technologies for the Baby Boomers and the Generation X. A random sample of 392 persons living in Lebanon or in Peru was chosen. The data was analysed using PCA, Cronbach’s alpha and PLS. Findings show differences between the two countries toward the use and the adoption of e-services. High performance and social influence by peers are positively related to the high satisfaction and confidence in e-services. High skills and low efforts are not positively related to high satisfaction and confidence in e-services. High satisfaction and confidence are positively related to the permanent adoption of e-services.
    Keywords: consumer behaviour; use of technology; e-services; Baby Boomers; Generation X; UTAUT model; Lebanon; Peru.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBEM.2025.10061445
     
  • The Role of Social Media Informativeness in Shaping Customers' Attitudes towards Organic Vegetables in Vietnam   Order a copy of this article
    by Linh Hoang Viet, Sy Tran Trong, Adam Voak 
    Abstract: This study explores the factors that shape attitudes towards organic vegetables in the Vietnamese market, focusing on health consciousness, environmental consciousness, social media informativeness, and food safety concerns. Data was collected through a survey conducted in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, and analysed using structural equation modelling (SEM). The results reveal that health consciousness, social media informativeness, and food safety concerns have significant associations with attitudes towards organic vegetables. Notably, food safety concerns emerged as the most influential factor affecting attitudes. However, environmental consciousness was found to have no significant relationship with attitudes towards organic vegetables. These findings contribute to a deeper understanding of consumer attitudes in the Vietnamese market and provide valuable insights for marketing strategies aimed at targeting this segment. Further research could explore additional contextual factors and expand the study to different regions to enhance generalisability.
    Keywords: health consciousness; environmental consciousness; social media informativeness; food safety concerns; attitudes towards organic vegetables.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBEM.2025.10061561
     
  • Forecasting the volatility of stock price index using binary-real coded genetic algorithm: application of econophysics approach   Order a copy of this article
    by Mohammad Mahdi Rounaghi, Hajer Jarrar, Maher Al Sayah 
    Abstract: In the area of stock market analysis, the accurate forecasting and comprehension of stock price index volatility hold paramount significance for investors and financial analysts. This study delves into this essential facet of stock market dynamics by scrutinising two distinct models: the econometrics-based autoregressive moving average (ARMA) model, and the econophysics-based binary-real coded genetic algorithm model. To assess and compare these models' performance in forecasting stock price index volatility, time series data of stock price index from the New York Stock Exchange, London Stock Exchange, Paris Stock Exchange (Euronext Paris), Frankfurt Stock Exchange, Buenos Aires Stock Exchange and São Paulo Stock Exchange was used. The empirical findings demonstrate the capability of both models in forecasting long-term stock price index volatility. Particularly, our finding shows the superiority of the econophysics binary-real coded genetic algorithm model, which outperforms the ARMA model in its forecasting capabilities.
    Keywords: ARMA model; binary-real coded genetic algorithm model; stock price index; econometrics; econophysics.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBEM.2025.10061628
     
  • Does asymmetric cost behavior differ between categories and country groups A cross-countries comparative analysis   Order a copy of this article
    by Anis Jarboui, Chahroun Rania, Isabelle Lacombe, Akrout Zied 
    Abstract: The managerial accounting literature has shown a lot of interest in the topic of asymmetric cost behaviour. When evaluating studies on cost asymmetry, we found empirical evidence of asymmetric cost behaviour in developed and emerging countries, but few studies have examined cost asymmetry between countries. In order to fill this research gap, our study focused on differences in cost behaviour between groups of countries. The study uses a multi-country dataset with various dimensions of asymmetric cost behaviour including different cost categories: selling, general and administrative cost (SGA), cost of goods sold (COGS), and total costs. We study asymmetric cost behaviour, in European, BRICS, USA and MIST countries between 2003 and 2021. We find mixed evidence in favour of cost behaviour that agree with the importance of different cost models and we show that the degree of cost stickiness using different cost categories changes significantly across country groups and across categories.
    Keywords: cost behaviour; anti-sticky costs; sticky costs; country group differences.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBEM.2025.10061728
     
  • CSR Identity of GRI and non-GRI Firms: An Examination of U.S. Fortune 500 Companies: Are Corporate Identities Different for GRI Firms and non-GRI firms?   Order a copy of this article
    by Mohamed Komaki, Myers Chris 
    Abstract: Despite the fact that more companies are reporting their corporate social responsibility (CSR) activities, there is no clear difference between those corporations that adopt global reporting initiative (GRI) and those that do not (non-GRI). In this study, we considered and analysed sustainability reports of 144 top fortune500 corporations from different industries to find out the most common engaged activities and their emphasis on different pillars of sustainability based on report types; GRI vs. non-GRI. The result of this study reveals that corporations in both groups have similar emphasis; however, they have different strategic focus.
    Keywords: corporate social responsibility; CSR; sustainability; global reporting initiative; GRI; fortune500.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBEM.2025.10061880
     
  • The Impact of Abusive Supervision towards Counterproductive Work Behavior: Role of Emotional Exhaustion and Cyberloafing, Perceived Co-Worker Support and Perception of Injustice   Order a copy of this article
    by Mohammad Nurul Alam, Osarodion Ogiemwonyi, Nhat Tan Nguyen, Fariza Hashim, Md. Abu Issa Gazi E. 
    Abstract: The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between abusive supervision and counterproductive work behaviour, by focusing on the mediating role of emotional exhaustion and cyberloafing. The study also explores the moderating effect of perception of injustice and perceived co-worker support in the link between abusive supervision and counterproductive work behaviour, emotional exhaustion, and cyberloafing. The study drew 384 participants using cross-sectional approach. Findings show that abusive supervision affects counterproductive work behaviour. Emotional exhaustion and cyberloafing mediate the link between abusive supervision and counterproductive work behaviour. In addition, perception of injustice moderates abusive supervision and counterproductive work behaviour, and perceived co-worker support moderates the link between abusive supervision and cyberloafing. Notably, the moderation between abusive supervision and emotional exhaustion through perceived co-workers’ support was rejected. The study reveals that concept of work behaviour can serve as a conceptual approach for workers in the Bangladesh ready-made garment industry.
    Keywords: cyberloafing; emotional exhaustion; counterproductive behaviour; abusive supervision; Bangladesh.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBEM.2025.10062033
     
  • The Cognition of International Students for Anhui Regional Culture Under the Perspective of Cultural Confidence   Order a copy of this article
    by Wang Li, Nie Erde, Ahmad Albattat, Marco Valeri 
    Abstract: International students in China serve as cultural exchange bridges in the progression of China’s globalisation. They significantly act as carriers and envoys for people-to-people relations between China and other nations, playing an important role in non-governmental diplomacy. This study aims to understand how international students perceive Anhui’s regional culture from the perspective of cultural confidence and how this perception can be utilised to maintain cultural confidence, expand international perspectives, and promote the influence of Anhui’s regional culture. This study utilises a qualitative study approach, which involves in-depth exploration and understanding of the experiences, perspectives, and insights of nine international students who are currently enrolled in classes and residing in the province of Anhui. NVivo12, a qualitative analysis software is used to analyse the interview transcripts. The findings reveal that three factors, namely, inherent interest, external influence, and cultural identity contribute to how international students perceive the culture of the Anhui region. The study’s implications for academics, high school instructors, and government decision-makers are carefully examined and discussed. The insights gained from the study can be used to design more effective cultural exchange programs, educational curricula, and policies that enhance the experiences of international students and promote cultural exchange.
    Keywords: cultural confidence; international students; Anhui province; regional culture; cognition.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBEM.2025.10062065
     
  • THE ROLE OF CHINESE STATE-OWNED ENTERPRISES IN BELT AND ROAD INITIATIVE-RELATED PROJECTS: THREE CASES FROM AFRICA   Order a copy of this article
    by Claude Chailan, Dominique Maze, Richard Huaman-Ramirez 
    Abstract: This paper examines how international infrastructure tenders contribute to the implementation of the Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) in developing African countries. In investigating three cases of Chinese state-owned enterprises (CSOEs) in Central and West Africa, we identify a unique common pattern in the way these companies respond to international calls for tenders that combine disruptive practices, comprehensive country-level strategies, and the setting up of a Chinese ecosystem. Our findings highlight the fundamental role of causal ambiguity as a stepping-stone in the long-term, integrated, country-level strategies of CSOEs in developing African countries. The three CSOEs act as partners of the host countries by delivering packages of integral solutions involving contracts outside their scope of activity. In so doing, the CSOEs create conditions within which the BRI can flourish and generate more business opportunities for China in both the short and the long term, challenging Western multinationals’ long-standing position in the developing African countries environment.
    Keywords: Africa; Chinese state-owned multinational enterprises; Belt and Road Initiative; BRI; causal ambiguity; African developing countries.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBEM.2025.10062117
     
  • AN EMPIRICAL EXAMINATION OF ECONOMIES OF SCALE IN THE INDIAN BANKING SECTOR   Order a copy of this article
    by D.K. Malhotra, Sheetal Gupta 
    Abstract: This research investigates the implications of consolidations on cost efficiency within the Indian banking sector, spanning the period from 2015 to 2021. The findings demonstrate that Indian commercial banks do, in fact, leverage economies of scale, as increases in assets, deposits, income (revenue), or loans result in cost increments that are proportionally smaller than the scale of expansion. Furthermore, the study underscores the significant influence of ownership structure on the extent to which economies of scale are harnessed. Nevertheless, it emphasises the need for stringent regulatory oversight to ensure that the ownership framework is maintained in a manner that fosters a competitive and consumer-friendly banking environment.
    Keywords: economies of scale; translog cost function; Indian banks; cost efficiencies; COVID-19.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBEM.2025.10062376
     
  • Dissecting the dichotomy: unveiling the preference for Turkish products by Tunisian consumers   Order a copy of this article
    by Sedki Karoui, Samy Belaid, Dorsaf Fehri, Romdhane Khemakhem 
    Abstract: While existing research has extensively investigated Muslim consumers’ reactions to international brands, there is limited scholarship exploring their perceptions of brands from other Muslim countries. This study aims to elucidate the intention to purchase Turkish products among Tunisian consumers by examining the interplay between cultural factors like Islamic religiosity and emotional factors like consumer ethnocentrism and country-of-origin effects. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire completed by a diverse sample of 289 Tunisian consumers residing in both rural and urban areas. A partial least squares-structural equation modelling method (PLS-SEM) was employed to analyse the conceptual model using SmartPLS.4 software. Findings reveal that although Islamic religiosity may marginally increase Tunisian consumers’ likelihood of purchasing Turkish products, a significant level of ethnocentric sentiment persists against Turkish imports. Conversely, the study demonstrates that Islamic religiosity considerably enhances Turkey’s image among Tunisian consumers, thereby increasing their willingness to choose Turkish products.
    Keywords: Muslim consumers; Islamic religiosity; consumer ethnocentrism; Turkish products; partial least square-structural equation modelling; PLS-SEM.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBEM.2025.10062689
     
  • Acquisition managements ability to improve organisational performance: the emerging market contexts   Order a copy of this article
    by Mohamad Oki Ramadhana, Sri Moertiningsih Adioetomo, Biakman Irbansyah, Yanki Hartijasti, Amiruddin Ahamat 
    Abstract: The purpose of this study is to determine the characteristics that influence the success of corporate acquisitions and the acquisition process in general. With 51 respondents from 219 significant firms in ASEAN countries participating in acquisitions, this study employs Smart PLS-SEM. The antecedents of organisational culture, according to the findings of this study, serve as a positive basis for corporate acquisition, contributing to the development and effectiveness of acquisition management capabilities. The empirical findings also reveal that the acquisition management competence of the firm has a large and favourable impact on the strategic integration and acquisition performance of the acquiring firm. The primary contribution of this research is that it provides practitioners with a holistic view of the entire acquisition process, particularly the mid-acquisition phase, as well as an overall understanding of how to consistently integrate resources and capabilities in an acquisition.
    Keywords: organisation culture; strategic integration; acquisition process; corporate entrepreneurship; acquisition management capability.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBEM.2025.10063058
     
  • Why National Education Policy 2020? Interpreting the reasons for the ineffectiveness of India’s old education policy   Order a copy of this article
    by Manoj Sinha, Shekhar ., Marco Valeri 
    Abstract: The paper aims to understand the reasons for the failure of the old education policy as a strategy and the implications of the National Education Policy 2020 (NEP 2020) for the education industry. The roll-out of NEP 2020 in India has been received with highly positive sentiments and it is highlighted that the policy addresses the weaknesses of old policy. The study uses modified-total interpretive structural modelling (M-TISM) to determine the causes of strategic failure and provides insights into NEP 2020’s implications. The findings indicate that, bolstered by the expansion of supporting industries, NEP 2020 focuses on enhancing teaching skills, developing industry-oriented study resources, enhancing teaching methods, and promoting digital aids, all while promoting greater student participation and stakeholder collaboration through the incorporation of substitutes as teaching supplements. The study is the first of its kind to use interpretive techniques to rationalise NEP 2020 and offer scope for its improvement.
    Keywords: NEP 2020; education; strategy; M-TISM; stakeholder coordination; teaching skills.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBEM.2025.10063087
     
  • Determinants of the number of merger and acquisition (M&A) transactions in an emerging economy: a look at the political and economic risks   Order a copy of this article
    by Adriana Bruscato Bortoluzzo, Maurício Mesquita Bortoluzzo, Dalton Yoshizaki 
    Abstract: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the aggregate determinants of the occurrence of mergers and acquisitions in a large emerging market, with an emphasis on political and economic risks, as they have been increasing since 2016. M&A transactions between Brazilian companies from 2002 to 2020 were analysed and we found that a relevant part of the variation in the aggregate number of mergers and acquisitions is explained by the conditions of the stock market, the liquidity of the companies, the economic cycle, and the level of political and economic risk. Studying the determinants of M&A activity in emerging economies, particularly the influence of political and economic risks, provides valuable insights for businesses, investors, policymakers, and scholars. It helps informed decisions, improves risk management, and contributes to the economic development and stability of these regions.
    Keywords: mergers and acquisitions; M&A; stock market; economic cycle; country risk; liquidity; multiple regression time series.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBEM.2025.10063365
     
  • Manager's cognitive role and strategic decision-making: an empirical analysis   Order a copy of this article
    by Manel Gharbi, Anis Jarboui 
    Abstract: This study aims to investigate how managers’ cognitive role influences strategic decision-making. The concept of planned behaviour biases will serve as the conceptual approach. Previous research has centred on determining the elements that influence behavioural biases. This study also attempts to identify cognitive factors that affect the strategic decision-making. A survey was carried out among 111 managers from Tunisian in small- and medium-sized companies. In order to analyse the collected data, we used SPSS and Amos graphics software. Hypotheses were tested using the regression analysis technique. The findings demonstrate cognitive biases (manager’s experience, prestige, and knowledge) have a positive and negative impact on the strategic decisions made by managers. This means cognitive biases can harm and save the process of strategic decision-making. The results allow us to become aware and to understand the cognitive biases in corporate strategic decisions. It could be very useful to focus on those who help to act better. This means that cognitive biases can harm and save the process of strategic decision-making. Hence, the present study has numerous theoretical, practical and research implications.
    Keywords: decision-making; cognitive; knowledge; experience; prestige.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBEM.2025.10063462
     
  • Exploring factors driving purchasing behaviour in the B2B Vietnamese market   Order a copy of this article
    by Bang Nguyen-Viet, Cong Tran-Thanh 
    Abstract: The purchasing behaviour of organisational customers in the industrial and marine coatings sector remains understudied. This research examines factors influencing purchasing behaviour in the Vietnamese market utilising the dual stimulus-organism-response framework and signalling theory. Data from 341 respondents were analysed using partial least squares, and the results revealed significant impacts of various factors, including advertising spending, perceived quality and price, product availability, dealer/distributor, and applicators, on purchasing behaviour. While supporting the mediating role of perceived quality, the results did not indicate a similar mediating role for perceived price in the connection between advertising spending and purchasing behaviour. The results carry valuable implications for stakeholders in the industrial and marine coatings industry, offering both strategic and managerial guidance. This research not only fills a crucial research gap but also sheds light on the antecedents influencing purchasing behaviour in the specific context of the industrial and marine coatings sector in Vietnam.
    Keywords: advertising spending; perceived price; perceived quality; product availability; purchasing behaviour; Vietnamese market; Vietnam.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBEM.2025.10063851
     
  • A multiple-criteria decision-making-quality function deployment approach for third-party logistics selection: application in road freight transport   Order a copy of this article
    by Jomana Leroux, Abdelkader Sbihi, Youssef Tliche, Atour Taghipour 
    Abstract: This study aims to gain an in-depth understanding of the supplier selection criteria that contribute to satisfying customer requirements. It presents an integrated approach based on quality function deployment and multi-criteria decision-making involving customer requirements in combination with key carrier selection criteria to improve outsourcing quality. The model is applied to outsourcing cases related to road freight transport based on responses from two shipping companies and an international forwarder in France. The results show the relevance of taking customer requirements into account in supplier selection criteria, which fills the gap in customers ignored during the selection process. This may enhance the sustainability of the supplier selection process when facing volatile markets.
    Keywords: outsourcing; transport operations; supplier selection; multiple-criteria decision-making; quality function deployment.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBEM.2025.10063852
     
  • Examining the influence of functional, social and psychological antecedents on attitude towards Chatbot usage: an emerging market context   Order a copy of this article
    by Ahmed Siffat Naveel Nur, Mohammad Sahabuddin, Mohammad Imtiaz Hossain, Nurzali Ismail 
    Abstract: The global conversational commerce market is expanding rapidly. However, whether customer usage of Chatbots as a facilitator will be sustained requires academic scrutiny. This explanatory research aims to investigate the consumers’ existing attitude towards Chatbots for conversational commerce and the antecedents to gauge their sustainability. Based on the technology acceptance model, the computers are social actors (CASA) paradigm, and the social presence theory, the study developed a comprehensive theoretical framework integrating the functional, social, and psychological aspects of human-Chatbot communication. Using a structured questionnaire under quantitative survey methodology and judgemental sampling, data from 383 Malaysian respondents was obtained. The data was analysed using a statistical package for the social sciences (SPSS) and partial least squares structural equation modelling (PLS-SEM). The findings suggested that consumers’ perceived usefulness, humanness, and rapport-building abilities of Chatbots have significant influence on attitude. However, perceived ease of use, social presence, and trust evidenced non-significant influence on attitude. The findings offer interesting avenues for future research while assisting businesses in recognising meaningful applications of Chatbots. The study helps regulators and policymakers determine the increasing capabilities of nascent Chatbots and consumer opinions around them to promote fair usage that propels conversational commerce.
    Keywords: Chatbots; attitude; social presence; humanness; trust; rapport; Malaysia.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBEM.2025.10064107
     
  • Bank ownership structure and pricing of SME financing: empirical evidence from an emerging economy   Order a copy of this article
    by Sadia Noor Khan 
    Abstract: This study tested hypotheses regarding the effect of structure of bank ownership on the pricing of SME financing. Data has been collected from the scheduled banks of Bangladesh and 200 small and medium enterprises (SMEs) operating in Bangladesh. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics and ordinary least squares (OLS) regression. Analysing responses from the survey of 200 SMEs, this study found that private banks charge lower interest rate to the SMEs. The empirical findings also indicate that, SMEs have to provide higher interest rate if financing is received from a state-owned bank and foreign banks. The results also indicate significant impact of loan duration, loan amount, relationship of the SME with the financing bank, internal organisation of bank, and intangible information on pricing of SME financing in Bangladesh. This is an original study based on primary data collected from Bangladesh to examine impact of bank ownership structure on pricing of SME financing. This study is beneficial for the practitioners because the findings of this study reveal the fact that SMEs should be careful in selecting the financing bank because different bank has different pricing.
    Keywords: interest rate; bank financing; small and medium enterprises; SME; bank ownership structure; ordinary least squares; OLS.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBEM.2026.10064184
     
  • Navigating social regulations during crises: a comprehensive bibliometric and systematic literature review   Order a copy of this article
    by Jatin Kumar Jaiswal, Najoua Elommal, Brajesh Kumar, Dharen Kumar Pandey 
    Abstract: This paper comprehensively examines social regulation dynamics within crisis scenarios, employing a dual methodology, combining bibliometric analysis and a systematic literature review. To date, no published article has reviewed social regulation and crisis scenarios. By framing specific research questions and addressing them through the analysis of 3,796 bibliographic entries and 70 articles, the study provides insights into the current status of research and suggests future directions. The research identifies a growing trend in social regulation within crises, revealing a 58.44% increase in publications from 2019 to 2023. Noteworthy contributors include Vo XV and Kim J, with the USA leading in publications and citations. Key sources include the ' Journal of International Money and Finance' and ' Finance Research Letters' , and influential works by Carnevale and Hatak (2020), Zenker and Kock (2020), Ji et al. (2020), and Del Boca et al. (2020). Prominent affiliations such as the ' Centre for Economic and Policy Research, USA' and the ' International Monetary Fund, USA' emerge, and ten major themes evolve from the bibliographic coupling of documents.
    Keywords: social regulation; crises; COVID-19; bibliometric analysis; systematic review.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBEM.2025.10064229
     
  • Workplace spirituality: a meta-analysis of conceptualisation of constructs   Order a copy of this article
    by Swati Dhir, Shiwangi Singh 
    Abstract: Workplace spirituality has gained huge importance in organisational studies in the past few years. This study analyses the dimensions of the workplace spirituality construct and provides updated knowledge on its significance. It also summarises the empirical findings of existing literature and enhances the understanding about the constructs of workplace spirituality. The meta-analysis is used to find the homogenous and heterogeneous views about the dimensions of workplace spirituality. The documents were searched in Scopus, WoS, and EBSCO databases. Twenty quantitative studies were identified for the data extraction. The analysis was conducted using Comprehensive Meta-analysis Software. Workplace spirituality has become one of the most important and significant workplace attitudes in the emerging economies. The study comprehensively summarises the empirical research on various dimensions of workplace spirituality. The study provides direction for future researchers to explore the existing constructs in different contexts.
    Keywords: workplace spirituality; meta-analysis; review; spirituality in the workplace; meaningful work; well-being.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBEM.2024.10057832
     
  • Relationship between ownership structure and creditor monitoring: evidence from a bank-based civil law emerging country   Order a copy of this article
    by Elif Korkmaz Orak, M. Banu Durukan 
    Abstract: In civil law countries where investor protection is regarded as low, ownership and debt maturity structures act as substitute corporate governance mechanisms. This study examines the relationship between ownership structure and creditor monitoring in a bank-based civil law emerging country, where creditor monitoring is considered a significant corporate governance mechanism. The generalised method of moments model is employed to analyse the sample consisting of small and medium enterprises, which have unique ownership characteristics, from the Borsa Istanbul BIST SME Industrials Index for the period 2007-2019. The empirical findings provide evidence that when multiple blockholders exist, the frequent monitoring role of creditors is not sought by the shareholders as a corporate governance mechanism. However, the analysis yields an insignificant relationship between family ownership and creditor monitoring.
    Keywords: corporate governance mechanism; creditor monitoring; multiple blockholders; family ownership; generalised method of moments; GMM; small and medium enterprises; bank-based country; civil law country.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBEM.2024.10057947
     
  • Testing the J-curve, Marshall-Lerner condition and Thirlwall hypothesis - empirical evidence from Nigeria   Order a copy of this article
    by Olajide Oyadeyi 
    Abstract: The paper examined whether the J-curve, Marshall-Lerner condition and Thirlwall hypothesis hold for Nigeria, while also accounting for causality effects between the exchange rate and the current account from 1981 to 2021. The study adopted the autoregressive distributed lag and vector autoregressive causality tests to achieve these objectives. The paper suggests that exchange rate depreciation would improve Nigeria's current account balance by increasing exports and/or decreasing imports, thereby consistent with the Marshall-Lerner hypothesis. The paper also found that the estimated elasticity of imports coefficient from the long-run rate of growth is not equal to the actual export volume average as a percentage of the GDP. The findings suggested that while the Marshall-Lerner condition holds, the J-Curve phenomena and the Thirlwall hypothesis are not satisfied for Nigeria. Finally, the paper confirms the notion that causality runs from the exchange rate to the current account for Nigeria.
    Keywords: J-curve hypothesis; Marshall-Lerner condition; Thirlwall hypothesis; VAR causality; current account balance; exchange rates; Nigeria.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBEM.2024.10062439
     
  • A comparative analysis of institutional arbitrage strategies in emerging and developed market MNEs: exploring tax haven subsidiary incorporation   Order a copy of this article
    by Jamie Hurst, Dylan Sutherland 
    Abstract: This paper explores: 1) the extent to which emerging market MNEs, owing to their generally fragile and weaker domestic institutional environments, are more predisposed towards institutional arbitrage related FDI than developed market MNEs; 2) identifies whether their institutional arbitrage behaviours are less responsive to domestic institutional change than those of developed market MNEs. We consider these questions by using the number of offshore tax haven-based subsidiaries as a proxy for institutional arbitrage activity in 10,892 publicly listed developed market MNEs and 7,243 listed emerging market MNEs. Our results show EMNEs, other things being equal, do indeed have a higher propensity for offshore incorporation. At the same time, however, EMNEs appear less responsive to institutional change than DMNEs. We consider implications for extant mainstream EMNE related IB theory, such as the 'springboard theory', which predicts differences between these MNE types with regards to institutional arbitrage orientation and strategy.
    Keywords: institutional arbitrage; FDI; emerging market MNEs; developed market MNEs; institutional fragility; tax havens.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBEM.2024.10057886
     
  • Green advertisement on environmental sustainability in Ethiopian manufacturing companies: the mediating role of corporate social responsibility   Order a copy of this article
    by Melese Waktola Erba 
    Abstract: This study examines the impact of green advertising on environmental sustainability through the lens of corporate social responsibility. This study used large-scale manufacturing industries registered and operating in Ethiopia as the target population, and 400 samples were randomly selected. Of the selected samples, only 322 responses were usable with an 80.5% response rate, and the Likert-scale type of item development was used. This study used a structural equation model and smart partial least squares method for data analysis. Multivariate analysis techniques were used to test the covariance between each latent construct and the loading factor of each item, which was above the threshold of 0.7 given in the literature. The study proposed four hypotheses to test this impact, and partial least squares were applied using bootstrapping methods. The results show a positive and significant relationship between the proposed hypotheses and green advertising, environmental sustainability, and corporate social responsibility. Therefore, the manufacturing industry should consider green advertising and environmental sustainability. The study also concludes that corporate social responsibility plays a mediating role between the variables.
    Keywords: green advertisements; environmental sustainability; corporate social responsibility; CSR.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBEM.2024.10057835
     
  • Russia-Ukraine conflict: will attainment of Sustainable Development Goals be a dream? - Owing to increasing risk in global supply chain   Order a copy of this article
    by Habeeb Ur Rahiman, Adel Sarea, Rashmi Kodikal 
    Abstract: The Russia-Ukraine conflict poses a major threat to achieve the 2030 SDGs due to the resulting humanitarian crisis, economic shocks, and suffering of the vulnerable. This study aims to comprehensively examine the impact of conflict on the global supply chain and SDG's progress and propose strategies for stakeholders to support the SDGs amidst these challenging circumstances. The preliminary factual analysis is conducted using library research techniques and analysed to identify key themes and patterns related to the impact of the conflict on the SDGs agenda and supply chain. The results indicate that Russia and Ukraine conflict created supply chain turmoil, particularly in the region surrounding the conflict zone. The authors argued that the conflict has disrupted economic activity, trade, transportation, and infrastructure, which has affected decent work, economic growth, innovation, production, poverty, and individual well-being. As such, the authors identified significant pushback in the attainment of SDG in the region.
    Keywords: Russia; Ukraine; conflict; supply chain; Sustainable Development Goals; SDGs.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBEM.2024.10058275