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International Journal of Automotive Composites (4 papers in press)
Ultimate in-plane strengths of two-dimensional tri-axial braided composites: experiments and numerical simulations by Jian Wu, Yanjie Rui, Wei Ye, Huiming Ning, Ning Hu Abstract: The ultimate in-plane strengths of a carbon/glass fiber reinforced tri-axial braided composite are studied by experiments and numerical simulations. The ultimate tensile, compressible and shear strengths are tested. Employing Tsai-Wu failure criterion, a progressive failure analysis is performed in finite element analysis. Reasonable agreement between the experiments and numerical simulations indicates that present finite element model has a potential to predict the ultimate strengths of a two-dimensional tri-axial braided composite. Keywords: Tri-axial braided composites; In-plane strengths; Finite element analysis.
Effect of surface treatments on damping behaviour of carbon fiber reinforced brake friction material by Naresh Kumar Konada, Suman Koka Naga Sai Abstract: The damping behaviour of carbon fiber (CF) reinforced brake friction material depends mainly on the interfacial adhesion between fiber and matrix and ingredients selected for the friction material. The surface of CF is chemically inert in nature. Therefore, in this work CF surface is modified by different surface treatments on fiber to increase hydroxyl or carboxyl groups on its surface. An attempt is made to improve the bonding strength between CF and polymer matrix by three surface treatment methods. CF surface is modified by surface oxidation, HNO3 treatment and grafting multi walled carbon nano tubes functionalized (MWCNT-F) on CF surface. Carbon fiber content after surface modification by three different treatments is varied in wt %(2%, 3%, 4% & 5%) and mixed with remaining ingredients. Friction composite sheets are fabricated by using hand layup method. The resulting materials are characterized by SEM, TGA and FTIR analysis. MWCNTs-F on CF surface is observed. Sample specimens are cut from the friction composite sheets and damping behaviour of the specimens is evaluated by using Fast Fourier Transform analyzer. The best combination of ingredients and surface treatment method is selected for the fabrication of friction material to reduce the squeal generation at the interface between brake disc and pad. Keywords: Multi walled carbon nano tubes; Carbon fibers; chemical grafting; damping; and Interfacial shear strength.
Comparative Analysis of Scarf-type Adhesively Bonded and Hand Lay-up Repairs of Impacted GFRP Composites by Ermias Koricho, Anton Khomenko, Oleksii Karpenko, Mahmoodul Haq, Gary Cloud Abstract: The high specific stiffness and strength offered by composite materials have promoted their adoption and substitution for conventional materials such as steel, aluminum and other alloy materials used in automotive, aeronautic, naval, defense, and construction sectors. In transport sectors, specifically aeronautical, automotive and marine, wherein low velocity impacts are frequent, composite repair technologies have attracted much attention. The influence of different parameters on the stress-strain distribution, failure mode, ultimate strength, and stress concentration factors of repaired composite structures have been recently studied experimentally and numerically, supplemented and verified by a wide range of nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques. In this paper two types of repair methods were considered: adhesively bonded and hand lay-up scarf-type patches. The performance of both repair techniques applied to impacted/damaged glass fiber reinforced plastic (GFRP) laminates was assessed under tensile and three-point bending tests. The specimens were comprised of eight balanced plain weave S-glass layers with epoxy resin manufactured using the infusion technique. In the hand lay-up patches, two types of resins, namely unmodified and nano-modified resins were used to evaluate their effects on the flexural strength and failure modes of the repaired composite specimens. The impact-induced damage was assessed using visual observation, active IR thermography, ultrasonic testing, and optical transmittance scanning techniques at different stages. Results indicate that, depending on the type of repair and nano-filler used, the flexural properties of the repaired composite specimen exhibited significant improvements. The choice of the type of repair would vary depending on the desired application along with accessibility to the damaged area. Overall, repair of composites allows considerable economic benefits over the replacement of an entire structural component. Keywords: Repair; nano-fillers; composite; non-destructive evaluation; adhesive.
Feasibility of a Concept Out-of-Autoclave Carbon Fibre Reinforced Polymer Part Manufacturing Process by Tom Taylor, Jun Yanagimoto Abstract: Feasibility of a concept Out-of-Autoclave Carbon Fibre Reinforced (thermoset) Polymer part manufacturing process, in which hot forming and curing of prepreg are integrated in one step, was demonstrated. Optimal forming-temperature, dwell-temperature and / or dwell-time with respect to formability, springback and mechanical properties of the formed part were determined for two representative laminate thicknesses of 0.3 and 0.5 mm by V-bend part forming followed by macroscopic observation, Scanning Electron Microscopy and flexural testing of formed parts. Benchmarking against parts manufactured by the traditional autoclave-process demonstrated feasibility of the concept process for manufacturing high-quality parts, principally for lightweight structural automotive engineering applications. Compared to Resin Transfer Moulding, considered the industry benchmark Out-of-Autoclave process, opportunity for reduced manufacturing time to within 300 s per part and through a much more simple process for reduced lead-time, reduced financial cost and greater environmental sustainability, was highlighted. Keywords: carbon fibre reinforced polymer; thermoset; composite; prepreg; part manufacturing; formability; springback; flexural properties; prepreg; automotive lightweighting.