International Journal of Additive and Subtractive Materials Manufacturing
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International Journal of Additive and Subtractive Materials Manufacturing (4 papers in press)
Multi-Materials and Multi-Functionality Enabled by Hybrid Additive Manufacturing by Michael Juhasz, Michael Maravola, Peter-Jon Solomon, Pedro Cortes, Eric MacDonald, Jason Jones, Jason Walker, Brett Conner Abstract: The combination of directed energy deposition (DED) additive manufacturing integrated with a multi-axis machining center enables new products with multi-material geometries and surface finishes not available to additive processes alone. Several new approaches enabled by hybrid manufacturing are shown here. First, a voxelized grid deposition of PH 13-8 stainless steel and Invar 36 is demonstrated with potential application for tooling. Second, multi-functionality of a metal part is demonstrated by incorporating a functional sensor into a PH 13-8 part fabricated by both deposition and subtractive methods. Finally, the utility of integrating disparate non-metal deposition capabilities alongside metal deposition capabilities into a single hybrid CNC is explored. This endeavor paves the path toward a practical means of adding discrete disparate multi-material features in conjunction with graded structures in a single build for the first time and serves to expand the hybrid approach along both system architecture and materials axes. Keywords: hybrid additive manufacturing; directed energy deposition; functionally graded materials; polymer deposition; smart parts; integrated sensing.
Cylindricity and Circularity form tolerance analysis of meso deep holes in EDM process by SANDEEP KUMAR, S. Dhanabalan Abstract: Manufacturing of difficult-to-machine alloys with close tolerance is becoming a major research area in defense and aerospace industries due to material inherent characteristics. Therefore the main objective of this experimental work is to analyze the form tolerance and machinability while machining Inconel 718 using a circular shape brass tool. Three major process constraints namely peak current (IP), pulse on time (Ton) and pulse off time (Toff) were selected as process constraints to conduct experimental trials. Material removal rate (MRR), electrode wear rate (EWR) and form tolerance such as cylindricity and circularity were considered as output responses. In the present experimental work, Taguchi method and the multi-parametric optimization method Grey relational analysis has been utilized for process constraints optimization. The optimized parameters for the response of MRR, EWR and form tolerances in EDM process are 12 Amps of peak current (IP), 400 Keywords: Electrical discharge machining; Circular shape brass electrode; material removal rate; coordinate measurement machine; form tolerance; Multi-objective optimization.
Fabrication of dimensionally accurate 3D micro components by projection micro-stereolithography technique by Harikrisha Satish Thota, Vaibhav R. Bidwai, Prakash Vinod, Balashanmugam Natchimuthu Abstract: Micro additive manufacturing of dimensionally accurate 3D microstructures is a challenging task which could be possible using projection micro stereolithography due to its micro scale precision. In the current research, an experimental setup of PSL has been built with a discrete optical system, which has the flexibility to vary the focal length of the objective lens to change the projection resolution of the system to make it suitable for various applications. The confidence in the system to fabricate dimensionally accurate 3D micro-components is achieved by fabricating complex micro 3D parts. Experiments were carried out to determine the critical intensity and cure depth for the prepolymer solution by projecting a set of images fixed focal length. The overall reduction factor of the optical system was obtained by dimensional characterisation of the fabricated microstructures. By applying the obtained optical reduction factor to CAD designs, dimensionally accurate microstructures have been fabricated using the PSL system. The
diagrammatically aimed percentage of dimensional error for micro components such as micro gears and octahedral lattice structure was about 2%, and we have achieved 1.375% as maximum dimensional error experimentally using the built system. These experiments prove that our PSL system can be used for practical applications. Keywords: projection micro-stereolithography; micro 3D fabrication; PEGDA; dimensional accuracy; optical reduction ratio. DOI: 10.1504/IJASMM.2020.10038200
Additive manufacturing technique selection for nanofabrication using integrated multi-criteria decision making model by Saty Dev, Rajeev Srivastava Abstract: Additive manufacturing (AM) processes are the emerging technologies to produce complex geometry with higher dimensional accuracy and preferred resolution in nanofabrication. The AM technologies for nanofabrication have dissimilar process characteristics and requirements such as capability, resolution and material compatibility. The consideration of process characteristics as selection criteria for nanofabrication technologies may support the manipulator to abundance choice for efficient process. The aim of this study is to develop an integrated multi-criteria decision making (I-MCDM) model to find the correct choice AM techniques for nanofabrication. The technique ranking problem is formulated as multi-criteria decision model and priorities are obtained through combined analytic hierarchy process and technique for order of preference by similarity to ideal solution (AHP-TOPSIS) method. The decision model consists four alternative techniques i.e Nanotube fountain pen (NFP), Polymer pen lithography (PPL), Femtosecond laser direct writing (FsLDW), Focused-ion-beam chemical vapor deposition (FIB-CVD) and ten decision criteria. The decision criteria are weighted using AHP method. The material compatibility, cost, geometric complexity and resolution are found to be more significant criteria. Based on the closeness coefficient obtained through TOPSIS, FsLDW technology found to be on first priority followed by FIB-CVD. The NFP and PPL are on third and fourth rank respectively. The greater value of closeness coefficient obtained through TOPSIS shows that the alternative is close to positive ideal solution and it further means that it settled with the constraints of decision criteria. The contribution of study supports the development and application of combined AHP-TOPSIS method to select best the suitable technique for nanofabrication. Keywords: Additive manufacturing; nanofabrication; I-MCDM.