International Journal of Agricultural Resources, Governance and Ecology (9 papers in press)
Home gardens from the point of view of housewives in Amman City, Jordan
by Reham Tahtamouni
Abstract: The importance of home gardens in the cities had been discussed in many studies, and their results encouraged policy makers to take serious actions to encourage home gardening in the cities. Meanwhile, no previous researches discussing such important topic were made in Jordan. So, in this study (383) housewives living in Amman city were given a questionnaire to find out their attitudes toward a number of topics concerning home gardens. Results revealed that, most of the housewives see that presence of home gardens in Amman city is highly important. Moreover, the housewives revealed that their general knowledge about home gardens was of a medium level. Also, the results indicated that, the most serious challenges facing home gardens were lack of land area. Moreover, the results revealed that there were significant differences between the levels of importance of home gardens from the perspective of housewives attributed to qualification, age and work status. The study findings are important for decision makers especially in Municipality of Amman to find means to encourage housewives to establish gardens in their homes.
Keywords: Amman; Aesthetic value; Cities; Home gardens; Housewives; income; knowledge; questionnaire.
Gender Responsive Budgeting and Programming in Zimbabwes Agricultural Sector: National and Local Level Analyses for 2017
by Walter Mutsa Sakarombe
Abstract: Gender responsive budgeting and programming have become integral components of Zimbabwes agricultural agenda. Women are playing an increasingly fundamental role in reducing the incidence of hunger and malnutrition at the household level. Recent empirical data show that they constitute the larger proportion of the agricultural labour force in the country. However, women are often systematically excluded in making strategic decisions in the sector. Notions of feminine inferiority and gender-induced cultural stereotypes conspire to relegate women to the periphery of the agricultural space. This article presents the findings of a research that was conducted on gender responsive budgeting and programming in the agricultural sector in Zimbabwe. The units of analysis were the ministry responsible for agriculture and the Murewa Rural District Council. A composite methodology that integrated both primary and secondary data generation techniques was utilised. The study revealed wide disparities between men and women in the sector at all levels.
Keywords: Agricultural programming; Agricultural sector; Gender mainstreaming; Gender responsive budgeting; Murewa Rural District Council; Zimbabwe.
Opinion leaders' influence and innovations adoption between risk-averse and risk-taking farmers
by Albert Yosua, Shuang Chang, Hiroshi Deguchi
Abstract: This research aims to study innovations adoption behaviour of farmers, especially when the opinion leaders are present and the others, who follow these opinion leaders, have different attitudes to risk. An agent-based model was constructed to simulate opinion leaders' influence and farmers' subjective risk level change on the number of adopters. From the results, the intervention by opinion leaders appeared to increase the number of adopters who are risk-averse farmers, retained the number of adopters from declining in the case of risk-taking farmers, and caused few farmers to have less cumulative income at the end of the simulation. This paper provides an alternative approach to analysing the effectiveness of opinion leaders on accelerating the diffusion of innovations. When agricultural policy-makers plan to increase innovations adoption through opinion leaders intervention, the policy-makers should pay attention to farmers risk attitudes and their learning processes during the experimentation with the innovations.
Keywords: opinion leaders; risk attitudes; risk-averse farmers; risk-taking farmers; risk perceptions; subjective risk; agricultural innovations; adoption process; agent-based approach; social simulation; expected utility theory; Bayes' theorem; agricultural policy-making.
Collective negotiation of rural insurance in Brazil: Conditions, opportunities, and challenges of a model supported by cooperatives
by Pedro Loyola, Vilmar Rodrigues, Claudimar Pereira Da Veiga
Abstract: Crop insurance is a high-risk market worldwide, mainly due to the complexity involved in developing this market, high administrative costs, and the increased likelihood of disasters in rural areas. Recognizing these difficulties, the Brazilian government created the Rural Insurance Premium Subsidy Program (PSR - Pr
Keywords: Rural Insurance; Agricultural Policy; Brazilian Agribusiness.
Consumer Buying Behavior and Responsibility Towards Organic Foods and Cross-Cultural Evidence
by Md Tareq Bin Hossain, Md Ahbabur Rahman, Kuaanan Techato
Abstract: This study aims to evaluate the present status of consumers buying behavior towards organic foods within the emerging market. A comparative study has been undertaken to understand the consumers buying behavior towards organic foods at intervals the southern part of Thailand and north Malaysia. Based on extensive literature review, the authors identified several factors that influence consumers intention towards buying behavior of organic food which are environmental knowledge and concerns, perceived belief and attitudes, and government support and policy. Moreover, this is often urging that the intention has mediating influence on buying behavior as well as the country different has moderating effect and alleviative result on purchasing organic food. The drop off and collect survey administration techniques were used to collect a total of 190 questionnaires from Thailand and Malaysia, Partial Least Square (PLS) structural equation modeling combined with resampling and bootstrapping techniques were used to examine the hypotheses. The study found out that environmental knowledge, environmental concerns, perceived belief and attitudes have significant positive relationship with consumer buying behavior towards organic foods. Furthermore, different country moderates significantly on consumers behavior toward organic food.
Keywords: Consumer Buying Behavior; Organic Foods; Partial Least Square (PLS); Theory of Planned Behavior; Thailand; Malaysia.
The Readiness of Cooperatives in West Java to Join an Inclusive Business Platform: KUKM Ecobiz
by Atik Aprianingsih, Widhyawan Prawiraatmadja, Fitri Aprilianty, Puspa Diva Nur Aqmarina, Nita Garnida
Abstract: Cooperatives are expected to contribute to societys welfare. However, in West Java, cooperatives have not been able to optimise their potential due to lack of collaborative cooperation with other stakeholders within the scope of inclusive business. To realise the cooperatives potential, KUKM Ecobiz was introduced as an inclusive business platform to increase multi-stakeholder collaboration. This study explores the readiness of cooperatives in West Java to join an inclusive business platform, KUKM Ecobiz, by identifying the West Java cooperatives' infrastructures and measuring their willingness to collaborate with other parties through FGD, observation, LFA, and survey. The result shows that readiness to join the inclusive business platform is still low, although, based on the survey results; the willingness of West Java cooperatives to collaborate is high. However, the West Java cooperatives' infrastructure is still significantly different and diverse among regions, and their interaction is still low because some factors like the mastery of technology, education, and facilities and the capability of human resources are still limited.
Keywords: cooperative; inclusive business platform; KUKM Ecobiz; readiness; willingness to collaborate.
Investigation of the farmers perceptions and participation in opium poppy cultivation in the Northern Shan State, Myanmar
by Avishek Datta, Htoi Hkawng Li Maran, John Kuwornu
Abstract: The interest for poppy cultivation in Myanmar is increasing due to a strong demand for synthetic drugs in the world market and an attractive income potential relative to other crops. The present study focused on Shan State as the majority of opium poppy is cultivated in this State and assessed farmers perceptions of poppy cultivation, and participation in poppy- and non-poppy cultivation. Lack of law enforcement, large amounts of investments from businessmen and higher economic profitability were some of the influencing factors for poppy cultivation in the poppy-growing region. In contrast, law enforcement was strictly implemented in the non-poppy growing region of the country. Due to strict law enforcement, farmers changed their minds with respect to poppy cultivation and gradually started cultivating alternative crops. Community development program was active in the non-poppy growing region, which had negative influence on the cultivation of poppy. The non-poppy growing region received awareness programs, trainings and supports to discontinue poppy cultivation. Furthermore, the level of education significantly influenced farmers perceptions regarding poppy cultivation. Lack of education could be one of the important factors that might influence farmers decision to grow poppy as observed in the poppy-growing area. Alternative crops with high yield potential should be promoted to the poppy-growers as a legitimate alternative to improve their food security and reduce their debt. This study presents a new dimension on legal crop cultivation, poverty reduction, environmental protection and food security for policy development and implementation targeting suppression of illicit drug crop cultivation in Myanmar in particular and some other opium-producing countries in general.
Keywords: alternative crop; drug crop; food insecurity; illegal crop; non-poppy cultivation; Papaver somniferum; poverty alleviation.
Organic farming in the vicinity of conventional arable crops: which impact on revenues and costs?
by Valentin Bellassen, Elsa Martin, Ludivine Villaverde
Abstract: The neighbouring effect of organic fields on revenues and costs of conventional arable crop farms is tested. For this, a standard econometric model is applied to fine resolution economic and pedo-climatic data in the Deux-S
Keywords: Organic farming; conventional farming; revenues; costs; neighbouring effect; vicinity; environmental externality.
Sustaining Inclusive Business in Horticulture Sector: Experience of Companies in West Java
by Mustika Purwanegara, Atik Aprianingsih, Nurrani Kusumawati, Henry Ardiansyah, Tanri Ariandi
Abstract: An Inclusive Business is one conducted with the economically disadvantaged (those at the bottom of the pyramid) as the target clientele. Several findings of previous research posit that inclusive businesses involving the participation of small farmers in their value chains encounter limited success. Nevertheless, the horticulture sector in West Java contains inclusive agribusinesses successful in the free market era by promoting their social mission of improving small-scale farmer welfare, while simultaneously turning a profit. This paper aims to evaluate the extent to which inclusive businesses can act as drivers of various innovations essential to agricultural development while simultaneously
Keywords: Inclusive Business; Horticulture; West Java; SME; Capability Assessment Tool.