International Journal of Agricultural Resources, Governance and Ecology (11 papers in press)
Modelling the Effect of Some Operational Parameters on Grain Loss in Mechanised Rice Harvesting: A Case Study in Malaysian Paddy Fields
by Nor Azi Asminda Johari, Darius El Pebrian, SHAMILAH AHMAD MOKHTOR, Rohaida Mohammad, Amir Hamzah Ahmad
Abstract: Excessive grain loss is still a persistence problem in mechanised rice harvesting using combine harvester in Malaysian paddy fields. Therefore, this study was conducted to develop a model for predicting the effect of some operational parameters on grain loss during mechanised harvesting operation. Three operational parameters that always associated with grain loss were measured through direct field measurements on the daily harvesting operations in the sampled rice granaries. The measured parameters included field speed of combine harvester, grain moisture, and soil moisture contents. Regression and correlation analyses were employed to develop the model estimation. The results of the predictive model exposed the fitted model with a strong relationship between associated variables and established the measured parameters to determine the grain loss. The findings would be beneficial in assisting the rice farmers to predict grain loss during harvesting and minimise excessive grain loss in mechanised harvesting operations in Malaysia.
Keywords: Mechanised harvesting; grain loss; combine harvester.
Evaluation of arbuscular mycorrhiza inoculation potential for sustainable production of aerobic rice var. MR1A
by Rosina Baadu, Shamsiah Abdullah, Hendry Joseph
Abstract: A pot culture experiment was carried out to evaluate the effect of different mycorrhiza inoculants and phosphate fertiliser application on the growth and nutrient uptake of aerobic rice, Oryza sativa L. var. MR1A. The contribution of mycorrhizae has been well acknowledged in sustainable agriculture. Mycorrhizae can influence the key ecosystem process of soil aggregation, act as an acquisition of soil nutrient absorption to improve the plant growth via their hyphae and alter the morphology of a root system by forming more branches and adventitious roots that functionally extend the root system of the plant. Three different treatments of mycorrhiza applied were Glomus mosseae, commercial mycorrhiza, and co-inoculation of both treatments. Two phosphorus application levels of 0 and 300 mgkg-1 were added to investigate the influence of inoculations on the nutrient uptake by the plant. All the treatments were designed as a randomised block. The results of aerobic rice co-inoculated with G. mosseae and commercial mycorrhiza in the presence of P fertiliser exhibited a significant difference in height (135.85
Keywords: Arbuscular mycorrhiza fungi; Glomus mosseae; phosphorus; aerobic rice; Oryza sativa L. var. MR1A.
AgriRobot: Implementation and Evaluation of an Automatic Robot For Seeding and Fertilizer Microdosing in Precision Agriculture
by Ratnmala Bhimanpallewar, Manda Rama Narasingarao
Abstract: In recent years, agriculture solutions using robotics and the Internet of things (IoT) technology provided advanced agricultural support for farmers to produce food products with the highest yields. However, a lack of effective and efficient agricultural device has resulted in the wide adoption of this IoT technique recently. This study presents an automatic seeding and fertilizer micro-dosing robot for farmers to achieve precision farming. The automatic robotic device for seed planting and micro-dosing of fertilizer is adapted to plant various types of seed and particularly well adapted to the plant seeds with micro-dosing fertilizer. The new option controls the number of seeds and quantifies the fertilizer quantity at each dropping point. It is also able to control the distance between each dropping point. This study has implemented the proof-of-concept prototype by the IoT system to demonstrate the feasibility of the agricultural outcomes. The experiments performed in the real-world environment which showed the effectiveness and efficiency of the device under different conditions.
Keywords: agriculture machinery; fertilizer micro dosing; precision agriculture; robotic; seeding.
Water-based formulation of neem for eco-friendly management of Pomacea canaliculata in paddy cultivation
by Rosdiyani Massaguni, Siti Noor Hajjar Md Latip, Ismail Ab Raman
Abstract: Pomacea canaliculata causes devastating losses on paddy production and farmers mostly rely on synthetic molluscicide to control this pest. Inappropriate use of this synthetic molluscicide has aggravated the problems to the environment and human health. This study aims to develop a water-based formulation of neem seed as biomolluscicide to control Pomacea canaliculata. The formulations were prepared in three different types of oleochemicals and the system were stabilized using mixtures composed of surfactants (Tween
Keywords: Bioassay; neem; oleochemicals; Pomacea canaliculata; water-based formulation.
Economic Impact of Community Forest Management on Farmers: An Indonesian Perspective
by Nuraeni Nuraeni, Aminah Aminah, Mais Ilsan
Abstract: This study conducted a profit analysis to understand the economic impact of community forest management on farmers in Bulukumba Regency, South Sulawesi, Indonesia. The study results showed that a farmers income sourced from the community forest about IDR13.581.750 and non-community forest about IDR 1.100.000 where community forest contributed more to a total income than non-community forest. According to the outcome, it is found that income from community forest and non-community forest contributed to the farmers financial gain per person about IDR14.681.750 a year to maintain the living condition and get rid of the poverty line. However, there are several disputes on policies are existed those are affecting the community forest to be managed in the South Sulawesi. To overcome the existing disputes and problems, there is a need for revision on the existing provisions to improve the community management system further to assist farmer. This study presented several recommendations on the community forest to be managed correctly in the South Sulawesi as an Indonesian perspective.
Keywords: Community Forest Management; Kajang; Bulukumba; Farmer; Poverty.
Effect of Antimicrobial Activity from Fermented Mature Coconut Water to Sheath Brown Rot of Rice Disease
by Mohd Zafri Ab Wahab, Nurul Basyeroh Hasan, Fatin Amirah Bakhari, Intan Sakinah Mohd Anuar, Zaiton Sapak
Abstract: Rotting of grains or sheaths caused by Pseudomonas fuscovaginae is common for mature plants and grains of seedlings. This study explored the effect of antimicrobial activity from fermented mature coconut water to understand better a certain kind of rotting in sheaths of rice plants screened against the pathogen. Fermented matured coconut water was extracted with methanol solvent demonstrated the highest activity with 20.02 mm of inhibition followed by water solvent with 10.10 mm of inhibition. Both negative controls for methanol and water-based extracts showed no inhibition activities towards the pathogen. Methanol extraction was then determined for minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC). The finding indicated that 20% (v/v) concentration was recorded as MIC and 30% (v/v) concentration as MBC for this pathogen to reduce the disease lesion length significantly (P<0.05). The findings from this study will be useful for agriculture related agencies in controlling the disease for a higher productivity of rice production.
Keywords: Fermented mature coconut water; Anti-microbes; Sheath brown rot; Pseudomonas fuscovaginae.
Natural fermentation as a tool to enhance the functionality of agricultural crops: A case study on Carica papaya leaf and Garcinia mangostana pericarp
by Mohamad Sufian Soaib, Jailani Salihon, Huey Ling Tan
Abstract: The effect of natural fermentation on enhancing the antioxidant activity and cultivation of probiotics of Carica papaya leaf (CPL) and Garcinia mangostana pericarp (GMP) was evaluated to enhance the functionality of agricultural yields. To have better production, the antioxidant activity was estimated in terms of 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging activity (radical model) by Trolox (antioxidant model) and expressed as Trolox equivalent (mg TE) per dried extract mass (g) i.e. mg TE/g. The antioxidant activity of fermented CPL and GMP extracts were 1,117
Keywords: Carica papaya leaf; Garcinia mangostana pericarp; natural fermentation; antioxidant activity; probiotics.
Characterisation of humic acids in fen peat
by Janis Krumins, Maris Klavins, Raimonds Krukovskis
Abstract: Fens store significant amounts of organic matter and thus are of high importance from the perspective of the organic carbon biogeochemical cycle. Fen peat comprises moderately to highly decomposed higher plant remains with relatively high mineral matter content. Humic acids form the major part of fen peat organic matter; they are also the most refractory and recalcitrant natural substances to degradation, and thus they contain essential information regarding mire and peat development over large periods of time as well as the organic carbon biogeochemical cycle. Moreover, humic substances in fen peat are a prospective resource for applications in agriculture and other sectors. The aim of this study was to comparatively study properties of humic acids isolated from fen peat of varied botanical compositions and origins and to compare the impact of the precursor biological material on properties of the humification process and the resulting humic acids. The formation of humic acids of varied origins show similarities; however, at the same time, differences can be found in the further development of humic acids, depending on the environment in which they are present.
Keywords: botanical composition; decomposition; fen peat; humic acid; humic substances; humification; organic matter.
Agro-Tech Ontology (ATO): A Solution for Accelerating Agricultural Productivity in the State of Rajasthan, India
by Sapna Newar, Gordhan Saini, Vaishali Singh
Abstract: Development of agriculture and reducing gaps between regions with regard to the efficiency of the agricultural system requires a deeper understanding of regional disparities. In this paper, we examine inter-district disparities in agricultural development in terms of labour Productivity. The role of selected indicators related to agricultural productivity, mechanization, technological aspects are analysed. We use historical data of 33 districts of Rajasthan from 1990 to 2014. The study reveals that the labour productivity is highly influenced by use of modern agricultural inputs. The paper discussed the problems associated with agriculture development in the state. We have examined a worsening land-labour ratio in the underdeveloped districts due to increasing population pressure on cultivated land. Along with increasing number of agriculture workers the use of other agricultural inputs like total cropped area, total irrigated area, cropping intensity and rainfall showed a downward trend in underdeveloped districts. A deeper analysis revealed that the proper and timely dissemination of information relevant to the context of agriculture workers is very important. The study proposes an Agro-Tech Ontology (ATO) to disseminate the required information to the agriculture workers in Rajasthan. Policy implications are discussed.
Keywords: Labour Productivity; Agriculture Productivity; Agro-tech Ontology (ATO); Agriculture workers; Regional Disparities; Inter-district Disparities.
The Use of Yogurt bacteria in Increasing the Growth Performance of Diseased Paddy
by Nadia Salim, Siti Sarah Jumali
Abstract: There is no report on the use of the yogurt bacteria Lactobacillus bulgaricus as a plant growth promoter, especially in increasing the growth performance of paddy. Lactobacillus bulgaricus is a widely used lactic acid bacterium in making yogurt for commercial consumption due to its probiotic properties. Some Lactobacillus spp such as Lactobacillus casei and Lactobacillus plantarum are used in effective microorganisms in fertilizers to promote better growth performance in plants while reducing bacterial infection. With this background, in this study, the effects of L. bulgaricus isolated from yakult on the growth performance of Bacterial Leaf Blight (BLB) diseased paddy were investigated. The applications used on the Bacterial Leaf Blight (BLB) to the diseased paddy were 103 cfu (Treatment 1), 104 cfu (Treatment 2), 105 cfu (Treatment 3) and 106 cfu (Treatment 4). According to the t-test performed, it is established that L. bulgaricus imposes a significant increase in plant height and reducing chlorophyll content while insignificant in reducing leaf infection. This study widens the scope of study of yogurt bacteria on diseased paddy to find further causes of chlorophyll content in promoting the growth of paddy.
Keywords: Lactobacillus bulgaricus; Bacterial Leaf Blight (BLB); Growth performance.
Classification of Wheat Seeds Using Image Processing and Fuzzy Clustered Random Forest
by Parminder Singh, Anand Nayyar, Simranjeet Singh, Avinash Kaur
Abstract: A reliable and autonomic seed classification technique can overcome the issues of manual seed classification. It is a highly practical and economically vital need of the agriculture industry. The current techniques of machine learning and artificial intelligence allows the researchers to design a new data mining mechanism with higher accuracy. In this article, a new adaptive technique has been proposed using a digital image processing system (DIPS) and fuzzy clustered random forest (FCRF) techniques. The DIPS is used to extract the parameters such as area, perimeter, height, width, length of the groove and asymmetry coefficient. Further, FCRF model is applied to classify the wheat seeds based on these parameters in a time-efficient manner. The devised approach helps the agriculture industry for seed classification, separation of damaged seeds and controlling the quality of seeds based on grading policy. The experiment result demonstrates that the accuracy of the proposed technique is better than the existing wheat seed classification algorithm. The average performance gain of the proposed technique is up to 97.7%.
Keywords: Classification; Wheat Seeds; Image Processing; Fuzzy Clustering; Random Forest; Agriculture.