International Journal of Agricultural Resources, Governance and Ecology (14 papers in press)
Home gardens from the point of view of housewives in Amman City, Jordan
by Reham Tahtamouni
Abstract: The importance of home gardens in the cities had been discussed in many studies, and their results encouraged policy makers to take serious actions to encourage home gardening in the cities. Meanwhile, no previous researches discussing such important topic were made in Jordan. So, in this study (383) housewives living in Amman city were given a questionnaire to find out their attitudes toward a number of topics concerning home gardens. Results revealed that, most of the housewives see that presence of home gardens in Amman city is highly important. Moreover, the housewives revealed that their general knowledge about home gardens was of a medium level. Also, the results indicated that, the most serious challenges facing home gardens were lack of land area. Moreover, the results revealed that there were significant differences between the levels of importance of home gardens from the perspective of housewives attributed to qualification, age and work status. The study findings are important for decision makers especially in Municipality of Amman to find means to encourage housewives to establish gardens in their homes.
Keywords: Amman; Aesthetic value; Cities; Home gardens; Housewives; income; knowledge; questionnaire.
Opinion leaders' influence and innovations adoption between risk-averse and risk-taking farmers
by Albert Yosua, Shuang Chang, Hiroshi Deguchi
Abstract: This research aims to study innovations adoption behaviour of farmers, especially when the opinion leaders are present and the others, who follow these opinion leaders, have different attitudes to risk. An agent-based model was constructed to simulate opinion leaders' influence and farmers' subjective risk level change on the number of adopters. From the results, the intervention by opinion leaders appeared to increase the number of adopters who are risk-averse farmers, retained the number of adopters from declining in the case of risk-taking farmers, and caused few farmers to have less cumulative income at the end of the simulation. This paper provides an alternative approach to analysing the effectiveness of opinion leaders on accelerating the diffusion of innovations. When agricultural policy-makers plan to increase innovations adoption through opinion leaders intervention, the policy-makers should pay attention to farmers risk attitudes and their learning processes during the experimentation with the innovations.
Keywords: opinion leaders; risk attitudes; risk-averse farmers; risk-taking farmers; risk perceptions; subjective risk; agricultural innovations; adoption process; agent-based approach; social simulation; expected utility theory; Bayes' theorem; agricultural policy-making.
Collective negotiation of rural insurance in Brazil: Conditions, opportunities, and challenges of a model supported by cooperatives
by Pedro Loyola, Vilmar Rodrigues, Claudimar Pereira Da Veiga
Abstract: Crop insurance is a high-risk market worldwide, mainly due to the complexity involved in developing this market, high administrative costs, and the increased likelihood of disasters in rural areas. Recognizing these difficulties, the Brazilian government created the Rural Insurance Premium Subsidy Program (PSR - Pr
Keywords: Rural Insurance; Agricultural Policy; Brazilian Agribusiness.
Consumer Buying Behavior and Responsibility Towards Organic Foods and Cross-Cultural Evidence
by Md Tareq Bin Hossain, Md Ahbabur Rahman, Kuaanan Techato
Abstract: This study aims to evaluate the present status of consumers buying behavior towards organic foods within the emerging market. A comparative study has been undertaken to understand the consumers buying behavior towards organic foods at intervals the southern part of Thailand and north Malaysia. Based on extensive literature review, the authors identified several factors that influence consumers intention towards buying behavior of organic food which are environmental knowledge and concerns, perceived belief and attitudes, and government support and policy. Moreover, this is often urging that the intention has mediating influence on buying behavior as well as the country different has moderating effect and alleviative result on purchasing organic food. The drop off and collect survey administration techniques were used to collect a total of 190 questionnaires from Thailand and Malaysia, Partial Least Square (PLS) structural equation modeling combined with resampling and bootstrapping techniques were used to examine the hypotheses. The study found out that environmental knowledge, environmental concerns, perceived belief and attitudes have significant positive relationship with consumer buying behavior towards organic foods. Furthermore, different country moderates significantly on consumers behavior toward organic food.
Keywords: Consumer Buying Behavior; Organic Foods; Partial Least Square (PLS); Theory of Planned Behavior; Thailand; Malaysia.
The Readiness of Cooperatives in West Java to Join an Inclusive Business Platform: KUKM Ecobiz
by Atik Aprianingsih, Widhyawan Prawiraatmadja, Fitri Aprilianty, Puspa Diva Nur Aqmarina, Nita Garnida
Abstract: Cooperatives are expected to contribute to societys welfare. However, in West Java, cooperatives have not been able to optimise their potential due to lack of collaborative cooperation with other stakeholders within the scope of inclusive business. To realise the cooperatives potential, KUKM Ecobiz was introduced as an inclusive business platform to increase multi-stakeholder collaboration. This study explores the readiness of cooperatives in West Java to join an inclusive business platform, KUKM Ecobiz, by identifying the West Java cooperatives' infrastructures and measuring their willingness to collaborate with other parties through FGD, observation, LFA, and survey. The result shows that readiness to join the inclusive business platform is still low, although, based on the survey results; the willingness of West Java cooperatives to collaborate is high. However, the West Java cooperatives' infrastructure is still significantly different and diverse among regions, and their interaction is still low because some factors like the mastery of technology, education, and facilities and the capability of human resources are still limited.
Keywords: cooperative; inclusive business platform; KUKM Ecobiz; readiness; willingness to collaborate.
Investigation of the farmers perceptions and participation in opium poppy cultivation in the Northern Shan State, Myanmar
by Avishek Datta, Htoi Hkawng Li Maran, John Kuwornu
Abstract: The interest for poppy cultivation in Myanmar is increasing due to a strong demand for synthetic drugs in the world market and an attractive income potential relative to other crops. The present study focused on Shan State as the majority of opium poppy is cultivated in this State and assessed farmers perceptions of poppy cultivation, and participation in poppy- and non-poppy cultivation. Lack of law enforcement, large amounts of investments from businessmen and higher economic profitability were some of the influencing factors for poppy cultivation in the poppy-growing region. In contrast, law enforcement was strictly implemented in the non-poppy growing region of the country. Due to strict law enforcement, farmers changed their minds with respect to poppy cultivation and gradually started cultivating alternative crops. Community development program was active in the non-poppy growing region, which had negative influence on the cultivation of poppy. The non-poppy growing region received awareness programs, trainings and supports to discontinue poppy cultivation. Furthermore, the level of education significantly influenced farmers perceptions regarding poppy cultivation. Lack of education could be one of the important factors that might influence farmers decision to grow poppy as observed in the poppy-growing area. Alternative crops with high yield potential should be promoted to the poppy-growers as a legitimate alternative to improve their food security and reduce their debt. This study presents a new dimension on legal crop cultivation, poverty reduction, environmental protection and food security for policy development and implementation targeting suppression of illicit drug crop cultivation in Myanmar in particular and some other opium-producing countries in general.
Keywords: alternative crop; drug crop; food insecurity; illegal crop; non-poppy cultivation; Papaver somniferum; poverty alleviation.
Organic farming in the vicinity of conventional arable crops: which impact on revenues and costs?
by Valentin Bellassen, Elsa Martin, Ludivine Villaverde
Abstract: The neighbouring effect of organic fields on revenues and costs of conventional arable crop farms is tested. For this, a standard econometric model is applied to fine resolution economic and pedo-climatic data in the Deux-S
Keywords: Organic farming; conventional farming; revenues; costs; neighbouring effect; vicinity; environmental externality.
Sustaining Inclusive Business in Horticulture Sector: Experience of Companies in West Java
by Mustika Purwanegara, Atik Aprianingsih, Nurrani Kusumawati, Henry Ardiansyah, Tanri Ariandi
Abstract: An Inclusive Business is one conducted with the economically disadvantaged (those at the bottom of the pyramid) as the target clientele. Several findings of previous research posit that inclusive businesses involving the participation of small farmers in their value chains encounter limited success. Nevertheless, the horticulture sector in West Java contains inclusive agribusinesses successful in the free market era by promoting their social mission of improving small-scale farmer welfare, while simultaneously turning a profit. This paper aims to evaluate the extent to which inclusive businesses can act as drivers of various innovations essential to agricultural development while simultaneously
Keywords: Inclusive Business; Horticulture; West Java; SME; Capability Assessment Tool.
The Role of Multidimensional Perceived Value, Trust and Commitment to Achieve Collaboration in West Java Agribusiness
by Niken Larasati, Mustika Sufiati Purwanegara, Fitri Aprilianty
Abstract: Indonesia has 35.7 million people who work in the agricultural sector, and most of the poverty in rural areas happens to farmers. Because farmers are the main actor in the agriculture business, there is a need to engage them in a business process through collaborative actions with all actors. One way to build a successful relationship is through perceived value, trust and commitment. While these variables are needed to stimulate a relational bond, farmers could not trust their partners because of past experience. This research aims to obtain the trust dimension from farmers and partners and to know the influence of perceived value, trust and commitment on farmers to collaborate with their partners. An exploratory sequential mixed method design was conducted. The results showed farmers could trust their partners as long as they provide clear information, important information and held accountable about the promised result. Emotional value was the only factor that had a positive effect on trust, while functional value and emotional value were factors that triggered farmers to have a commitment with their partners. Trust can affect the commitment of farmers to their partners. Both trust and commitment were tested to know their effect on collaboration. Only commitment had a positive relationship with collaboration.
Keywords: Multidimensional perceived value; trust; commitment; collaboration; agribusiness; inclusive business; developing country.
The determinants and purpose of income diversification of rural households in Bangladesh
by Sheikh Feroze Rehan, John Sumelius, Stefan Bäckman
Abstract: This study determines the factors that affect the nature and extent of household income diversification in Bangladesh. The study also investigates whether the motivation for diversification was to fulfil asset accumulation or survival. The findings show that the extent of diversification index is determined by the households endowments of assets such as wealth, a higher number of earners, higher education, easy access to market and better infrastructure. The motive for overall diversification was accumulation, not survival. An interesting finding was that off-farm income diversification serves a two-fold purpose. Wealthier households are pulled into off-farm self-employment to get a higher return facilitated by easy access to financial assets, and labour endowment. Credit constrained poor households are influenced by endowment in the form of education and labour to diversify into off-farm wage activities as a mean of survival. Investment in infrastructure, electrification and education does and will support household income diversification in Bangladesh.
Keywords: off-farm diversification of income; overall diversification of income; motivation for diversification; factors; simpson index of diversity; patterns of household income; agricultural household model; income diversification; determinants; purpose; Bangladesh.
CONTROL OF ROOT-KNOT NEMATODE DISEASE IN TOMATO-BASED
SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE USING RHIZOSPHERE BACTERIA
by Rika Alfianny, Tati Suryati Syamsudin, I. Nyoman Pugeg Aryantha
Abstract: Root-knot nematode are one of the nematode that damage plant roots, their existence causing yield loss of up to 46.2%. Currently, the disease and its damage prevention are focused on biological control to attain sustainability in agriculture. The use of rhizosphere bacteria is one alternative method for controlling root-knot nematode. The aim of this study is to find out rhizosphere bacteria which are able to control root-knot nematode and to improve growth of tomato. The experiment was conducted in the field, using a randomized block design with ten treatments of rhizosphere bacteria. In the final test in the field, it was concluded that consortium isolate consisting of LM24 and CK212, P52 (LM38+CN26+CK27+CK212) only had potency in suppressing root-knot nematodes and P40 (LM24+CN26) only resulted in better growth, whereas P31 (LM24+CN26+CK27) could not only suppress nematodes but also improve the growth and productivity of the tomato plant.
Keywords: tomato plants; root-knot nematode; rhizosphere bacteria; sustainable agriculture.
PRICE TRANSMISSION: THE CASE OF UK AND USA BROILER MARKETS
by Hannah Rose, Dimitrios Paparas, Ourania Tremma, Luis De Aguiar
Abstract: The worlds poultry market has become increasingly dominated by a small number of large, highly integrated businesses, and an even smaller number of major retail outlets. The primary aim of this study is to identify whether price transmission asymmetry is present within the UK and the USA broiler market chains as an indicator of market efficiency. rnUnderstanding the market efficiency of these markets would allow policy makers to ensure that the current policies in place are working. rnResults from the error correction model found that the UK retailer price recovers at a rate of 16% per month, whilst the USA retailer prices returning at 15% per month rate. Granger causality results found that both countries have a bidirectional causality. Results from the threshold autoregressive model also show that no long run asymmetry is present within the value chains suggesting that the market is efficient. rn
Keywords: Time-Series Models; Price transmission; Agricultural Markets.
Understanding the models of Indian Fruits & Vegetables supply chains A case study approach
by Arshinder Kaur, BALAJI MANOHARAN
Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to study the different supply chain models that exist in Indian perishable fresh produce supply chain. It explores the roles of different entities in various types of supply chains and to understand the issues and challenges in agri-fresh produce supply chains by interviewing these entities. A case study approach, using qualitative methods was used to study and analyse the perishable fresh produce supply chains that exist in a typical Indian metro city. It is found that supply chain members set their margins arbitrarily which leads to extreme double marginalisation at each interface of the supply chain. In government supported supply chain, which comprises of farmer markets (called as Uzhavar Sandhai), producers face a primary challenge of the location of such markets. Fruits and vegetable (F&V) supply chains differ from other supply chains by various factors including food perishability, food quality and food security where responsiveness and efficiency of the supply chain are equally important. The developing countries like India are struggling to manage the inefficiencies in domestic F&V supply chains, which result in massive wastage. It is important to study the inefficiency at each driver of F&V supply chain which results in poor performance of F&V supply chains. The study investigates the F&V supply chains with lessons for developing economies. Insights are very useful not only for the F&V supply chain stakeholders but also for policymakers in structuring efficient and responsive supply chains. Specifically, the case study approach makes it an original contribution to the theoretical and practical knowledge of F&V supply chains in Indian context by gathering viewpoints of all entities.
Keywords: Fruits & Vegetables Supply Chains; Agri-Food Supply Chain; India.
Role of Climate Smart Agriculture in Promoting Sustainable Agriculture: A systematic literature review
by Md Nazirul Islam Sarker, Min Wu, G.M. Monirul Alam, Md Saiful Islam
Abstract: In the face of global environmental change, the notion of Climate Smart Agriculture (CSA) has emerged as an approach which can contribute to increase agricultural production and income of poor households. This paper explores the suitability of adopting CSA practices for promoting sustainable agriculture in order to attain global food and nutritional security. It also explores the links among the components of CSA (productivity, adaptation and mitigation) and their contribution to achieving the goal of sustainable agricultural development. Despite the potential of CSA to attain sustainable agriculture, poor connections exist among the components of CSA at the field level. More importantly, the concept is sometimes poorly understood by various levels of stakeholders. In order to attain a better future, it is crucial to disseminate CSA approaches to field level by including them in academic syllabi, seminars, symposiums, and research.
Keywords: Climate smart agriculture; climate change; livelihood; resilience; sustainable agriculture.