International Journal of Agricultural Resources, Governance and Ecology (12 papers in press)
Home gardens from the point of view of housewives in Amman City, Jordan
by Reham Tahtamouni
Abstract: The importance of home gardens in the cities had been discussed in many studies, and their results encouraged policy makers to take serious actions to encourage home gardening in the cities. Meanwhile, no previous researches discussing such important topic were made in Jordan. So, in this study (383) housewives living in Amman city were given a questionnaire to find out their attitudes toward a number of topics concerning home gardens. Results revealed that, most of the housewives see that presence of home gardens in Amman city is highly important. Moreover, the housewives revealed that their general knowledge about home gardens was of a medium level. Also, the results indicated that, the most serious challenges facing home gardens were lack of land area. Moreover, the results revealed that there were significant differences between the levels of importance of home gardens from the perspective of housewives attributed to qualification, age and work status. The study findings are important for decision makers especially in Municipality of Amman to find means to encourage housewives to establish gardens in their homes.
Keywords: Amman; Aesthetic value; Cities; Home gardens; Housewives; income; knowledge; questionnaire.
Gender Responsive Budgeting and Programming in Zimbabwes Agricultural Sector: National and Local Level Analyses for 2017
by Walter Mutsa Sakarombe
Abstract: Gender responsive budgeting and programming have become integral components of Zimbabwes agricultural agenda. Women are playing an increasingly fundamental role in reducing the incidence of hunger and malnutrition at the household level. Recent empirical data show that they constitute the larger proportion of the agricultural labour force in the country. However, women are often systematically excluded in making strategic decisions in the sector. Notions of feminine inferiority and gender-induced cultural stereotypes conspire to relegate women to the periphery of the agricultural space. This article presents the findings of a research that was conducted on gender responsive budgeting and programming in the agricultural sector in Zimbabwe. The units of analysis were the ministry responsible for agriculture and the Murewa Rural District Council. A composite methodology that integrated both primary and secondary data generation techniques was utilised. The study revealed wide disparities between men and women in the sector at all levels.
Keywords: Agricultural programming; Agricultural sector; Gender mainstreaming; Gender responsive budgeting; Murewa Rural District Council; Zimbabwe.
Opinion leaders' influence and innovations adoption between risk-averse and risk-taking farmers
by Albert Yosua, Shuang Chang, Hiroshi Deguchi
Abstract: This research aims to study innovations adoption behaviour of farmers, especially when the opinion leaders are present and the others, who follow these opinion leaders, have different attitudes to risk. An agent-based model was constructed to simulate opinion leaders' influence and farmers' subjective risk level change on the number of adopters. From the results, the intervention by opinion leaders appeared to increase the number of adopters who are risk-averse farmers, retained the number of adopters from declining in the case of risk-taking farmers, and caused few farmers to have less cumulative income at the end of the simulation. This paper provides an alternative approach to analysing the effectiveness of opinion leaders on accelerating the diffusion of innovations. When agricultural policy-makers plan to increase innovations adoption through opinion leaders intervention, the policy-makers should pay attention to farmers risk attitudes and their learning processes during the experimentation with the innovations.
Keywords: opinion leaders; risk attitudes; risk-averse farmers; risk-taking farmers; risk perceptions; subjective risk; agricultural innovations; adoption process; agent-based approach; social simulation; expected utility theory; Bayes' theorem; agricultural policy-making.
Collective negotiation of rural insurance in Brazil: Conditions, opportunities, and challenges of a model supported by cooperatives
by Pedro Loyola, Vilmar Rodrigues, Claudimar Pereira Da Veiga
Abstract: Crop insurance is a high-risk market worldwide, mainly due to the complexity involved in developing this market, high administrative costs, and the increased likelihood of disasters in rural areas. Recognizing these difficulties, the Brazilian government created the Rural Insurance Premium Subsidy Program (PSR - Pr
Keywords: Rural Insurance; Agricultural Policy; Brazilian Agribusiness.
Consumer Buying Behavior and Responsibility Towards Organic Foods and Cross-Cultural Evidence
by Md Tareq Bin Hossain, Md Ahbabur Rahman, Kuaanan Techato
Abstract: This study aims to evaluate the present status of consumers buying behavior towards organic foods within the emerging market. A comparative study has been undertaken to understand the consumers buying behavior towards organic foods at intervals the southern part of Thailand and north Malaysia. Based on extensive literature review, the authors identified several factors that influence consumers intention towards buying behavior of organic food which are environmental knowledge and concerns, perceived belief and attitudes, and government support and policy. Moreover, this is often urging that the intention has mediating influence on buying behavior as well as the country different has moderating effect and alleviative result on purchasing organic food. The drop off and collect survey administration techniques were used to collect a total of 190 questionnaires from Thailand and Malaysia, Partial Least Square (PLS) structural equation modeling combined with resampling and bootstrapping techniques were used to examine the hypotheses. The study found out that environmental knowledge, environmental concerns, perceived belief and attitudes have significant positive relationship with consumer buying behavior towards organic foods. Furthermore, different country moderates significantly on consumers behavior toward organic food.
Keywords: Consumer Buying Behavior; Organic Foods; Partial Least Square (PLS); Theory of Planned Behavior; Thailand; Malaysia.
The Readiness of Cooperatives in West Java to Join an Inclusive Business Platform: KUKM Ecobiz
by Atik Aprianingsih, Widhyawan Prawiraatmadja, Fitri Aprilianty, Puspa Diva Nur Aqmarina, Nita Garnida
Abstract: Cooperatives are expected to contribute to societys welfare. However, in West Java, cooperatives have not been able to optimise their potential due to lack of collaborative cooperation with other stakeholders within the scope of inclusive business. To realise the cooperatives potential, KUKM Ecobiz was introduced as an inclusive business platform to increase multi-stakeholder collaboration. This study explores the readiness of cooperatives in West Java to join an inclusive business platform, KUKM Ecobiz, by identifying the West Java cooperatives' infrastructures and measuring their willingness to collaborate with other parties through FGD, observation, LFA, and survey. The result shows that readiness to join the inclusive business platform is still low, although, based on the survey results; the willingness of West Java cooperatives to collaborate is high. However, the West Java cooperatives' infrastructure is still significantly different and diverse among regions, and their interaction is still low because some factors like the mastery of technology, education, and facilities and the capability of human resources are still limited.
Keywords: cooperative; inclusive business platform; KUKM Ecobiz; readiness; willingness to collaborate.
Investigation of the farmers perceptions and participation in opium poppy cultivation in the Northern Shan State, Myanmar
by Avishek Datta, Htoi Hkawng Li Maran, John Kuwornu
Abstract: The interest for poppy cultivation in Myanmar is increasing due to a strong demand for synthetic drugs in the world market and an attractive income potential relative to other crops. The present study focused on Shan State as the majority of opium poppy is cultivated in this State and assessed farmers perceptions of poppy cultivation, and participation in poppy- and non-poppy cultivation. Lack of law enforcement, large amounts of investments from businessmen and higher economic profitability were some of the influencing factors for poppy cultivation in the poppy-growing region. In contrast, law enforcement was strictly implemented in the non-poppy growing region of the country. Due to strict law enforcement, farmers changed their minds with respect to poppy cultivation and gradually started cultivating alternative crops. Community development program was active in the non-poppy growing region, which had negative influence on the cultivation of poppy. The non-poppy growing region received awareness programs, trainings and supports to discontinue poppy cultivation. Furthermore, the level of education significantly influenced farmers perceptions regarding poppy cultivation. Lack of education could be one of the important factors that might influence farmers decision to grow poppy as observed in the poppy-growing area. Alternative crops with high yield potential should be promoted to the poppy-growers as a legitimate alternative to improve their food security and reduce their debt. This study presents a new dimension on legal crop cultivation, poverty reduction, environmental protection and food security for policy development and implementation targeting suppression of illicit drug crop cultivation in Myanmar in particular and some other opium-producing countries in general.
Keywords: alternative crop; drug crop; food insecurity; illegal crop; non-poppy cultivation; Papaver somniferum; poverty alleviation.
Food security performance assessment of the US states: a DEA-based Malmquist productivity index approach
by Gokhan Egilmez, Shannon Stewart
Abstract: The national trend in food security has been declining and a state-by-state analysis considering social and macro-economic characteristics of the holistic food security assessment problem has not been addressed in the literature or organisational reports. The main objective of this study is to evaluate the efficiency of socio-economic input parameters on maximising the food security and evaluate the relative efficiency trend in food security performance of the US states over a 13-year study period. To do so, eight socio-economic input categories and the single output, food security rate, were aggregated into a single food security performance with the proposed DEA-based Malmquist Index approach for the period between 2003 and 2015. Majority of the US states' social and macro-economic parameters have been improving during the study period, whereas effective policy making towards zeroing food insecurity still remains as a big question mark.
Keywords: food security; FS; data envelopment analysis; DEA; Malmquist index; benchmarking; efficiency.
Assessment of ammonium hydroxide effect on Eisenia fetida (Savigny, 1826): acute toxicity and avoidance tests
by Nadia Zeguerrou, Rachid Adjroudi, Abdelkrim Si Bachir, Mohamed El Hadef El Okki
Abstract: In this study, acute toxicity and avoidance tests were conducted to assess the effect of ammonium hydroxide 'AH' on the brandling worm Eisenia fetida (Annelida: Lumbricidae). Adults' earthworms were exposed to an increasing concentration of AH (0.0001, 0.001, 0.01, 0.1, 1 and 10 mg.cm−2) for contact filter paper test and (0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.5, 1 and 5 mg.g1 of soil) for soil and avoidance tests. Our results show that AH caused a high mortality rate and a decrease in biomass according to the increase of concentrations and exposure time, causing some physiological symptoms (bleeding and burns) and behavioural responses. The LC50 calculated for contact filter paper test after 48 h was 1.01 mg.cm−2 and 1.05 mg.g−1 for soil test after 14th days. Moreover, the EC50 obtained in avoidance test was 0.05 mg.g−1, this means that the earthworms were able to immediately detect low concentration of AH in soils, avoiding it.
Keywords: ammonium hydroxide; Eisenia fetida; acute toxicity; avoidance; mortality; biomass; earthworms; poultry droppings; ammonia deposition; contact filter paper test; soil test.
Motivations for sustaining urban farming participation
by Noriah Othman, Rabiatul Adawiyah Latip, Mohd Hisham Ariffin
Abstract: Farming in urban areas is recognised as a sustainable approach towards the provision of food and has increased in Malaysia over recent years. Nonetheless, sustaining the people's participation in urban farming is challenging. Despite numerous researches in the past on the types of motivations for urban farming participation, only a few of those researches have been on the motivations of urban farming participants in Malaysia. This paper reports on a research about the motivational factors for urban farming participation in the state of Selangor, Malaysia. A questionnaire survey was conducted, of which the respondents comprised 243 practitioners of urban farming in Selangor. The results revealed that physical and mental health and the environment were the motivations with the highest scores among urban farming practitioners. Further investigations are warranted to understand the influences of age, gender and race on urban farming motivations and to help sustain urban farming programs.
Keywords: urban farming; sustaining participation; motivation factors.
Performance measurement system for the cold fish supply chain: the case of National Fish Logistics System in Indonesia
by Ruth Nattassha, Yuanita Handayati, Gatot Yudoko, Togar M. Simatupang, Akbar Adhiutama, Nur Budi Mulyono
Abstract: While fisheries represent one of the most important economic sectors in Indonesia, the industry still experiences problems related to imbalances in product distribution. The volume of fish products might be abundant in one area, but scarce in another, a problem which has prompted the Ministry of Maritime Affairs and Fisheries to develop a logistics system for fisheries, the National Fish Logistics System (Sistem Logistik Ikan Nasional or SLIN). To monitor the implementation of the SLIN, a tool is required to assess its performance. This research aims to develop such a performance measurement tool. Through a combination of analysing previous research and conducting focus group discussions on the implementation goals of the SLIN, seven performance indicators have been devised together with their respective weightings from the perspective of SLIN stakeholders. These performance indicators can be used to measure SLIN performance in different geographical areas, in addition to identifying the areas and aspects that should be prioritised.
Keywords: performance measurement system; fish supply chain; cold chain; National Fish Logistics System.
Effects of slaughter house wastes on soil properties and cocoyam corm yield in Abakaliki, Nigeria
by James Nte Nwite, Chima Njoku, Mathew Okpani Alu
Abstract: A research was carried out in research and teaching farm of, Ebonyi State University, Abakaliki to determine effects of different rates of slaughter house wastes on soil properties and cocoyam corm yield. Four rates of slaughter house wastes namely 0 (control), 3, 6 and 9 t ha−1 were used as amendment. Soil and cocoyam were analysed using analysis of variance and differences between treatment means detected using Fisher's least significant difference (FLSD) at 5% probability level. Results from the study showed that slaughter house wastes application significant (P < 0.05) improved soil properties and cocoyam corm yield compared to control. Also, the higher the application of slaughter house wastes in the plots, the higher the improvements in soil properties though not all the improvements were significant (p < 0.05). Slaughter house wastes significantly increased cocoyam corm yield compared to control.
Keywords: carcasses of the animals; cocoyam; slaughter; soil properties; wastes; yield; Nigeria.