International Journal of Applied Management Science (46 papers in press)
An Inventory Allocation Algorithm in a Periodic Stock Control System Where Demand Type Visibility is not Available
by Burak Kandemir
Abstract: We propose an algorithm for inventory allocation of common products among multiple customers in a make-to-forecast manufacturing system which uses periodic stock review. The method takes into account backlogs, unfulfilled forecasts (that cannot be shipped until the end of the period), and planned safety stocks and has a series of steps, sequence of which are interchangeable. The algorithm is then applied to the manufacturing system summarised above and further analysis and statistical test show that it outperforms the system where only the demand type is considered and allocation efficiency increases.
Keywords: Inventory allocation; backlog management; demand fulfillment; supply chain planning.
A New Neighborhood Formation Approach for Solving Cold-Start User Problem in Collaborative Filtering
by Rahul Kumar, Pradip Kumar Bala, Shubhadeep Mukherjee
Abstract: Collaborative filtering (CF) is the most widely accepted recommendation technique. Despite its popularity, this approach faces some major challenges like that of a cold-start user problem where a user has rated a handful of items. Due to very few ratings available for the cold-start users, their similarities with rest of the users has been questioned in the past, none have focused on their approach for neighbor identification. Whilst the traditional CF approaches select only those similar users as neighbors who have rated the item under consideration, the neighborhood comprises of weak neighbors of the cold-start users. To address this shortcoming, our proposed approach selects neighbors with highest similarity irrespective of their availability of ratings for that item. Moreover, for the selected similar neighbors with missing ratings, an item based regression is performed to partially populate the matrix. The efficacy of the proposed neighborhood formation approach addressing cold-start user problem is validated on two publicly available MovieLens datasets. Our approach provides superior quality of recommendations evaluated on a range of prediction and classification accuracy metrics. The results are encouraging particularly for systems having higher percentage of cold-start users which indicates the effectiveness of our approach in practical settings of new internet portals.
Keywords: recommender systems; collaborative filtering; cold-start problem; neighbors; similarity co-efficient.
AN ASSESSMENT OF ATTITUDE TOWARDS ENVIRONMENT: A STUDY OF FIVE STAR HOTELS IN RAJASTHAN
by Smita Sharma, Naresh Dutt Mathur
Abstract: The environmental attitudes of individuals are an important predictor of their behavior towards their environment. The present study examines the attitudes of hoteliers in Rajasthan towards environment. This research employs the Dunlap and Van Lierres New Ecological Paradigm Scale to analyze the attitude of these hoteliers on environment. The research is primarily exploratory in nature and tries to explore the attitude of hoteliers towards environment in Rajasthan. The study comprised of 300 top and middle management people who were questioned according to the New Ecological paradigm. The mean values ranged from 1.54 to 4.52 for odd and even numbered items. Three factors have been extracted by the extraction sum of squared loadings. The Eigen values for three components extracted are greater than 1 (3.58, 2.00 and 1.757). This explains 73.37% of the variance in the communalities The NEP score in this study was 3.05, which indicates that ecological attitudes among the participating hotels were in accordance with the budding NEP.There was found to be a higher score on the odd number questions and a lower score at the even numbered questions. The deviation values were also less than one. Mostly the odd numbered questions were agreed by the respondents which reflected the endorsement of NEP. The study reflects fairly good intentions of the top management regarding development of environmental management in the hotels. Thus these eco centric values need to be incorporated in the organizational values and then translated into an effective environmental management plan for the organization.
Keywords: New Ecological Paradigm; Environmental attitudes; Environmental management plan.
Money Managers Interactions And Bayesian Model
by Wei Simi, Xiaoli Wang
Abstract: The essential incentives for investment portfolio managers are pursing relative outstanding portfolio performance among their peers in order to be rewarded by the fund inflows. This competition for fund inflows becomes dynamic games among money managers. This paper accordingly proposes a new strategic asset allocation methodology by considering strategic interactions among portfolio managers under the condition of dynamic consideration of incomplete information. To be specific, we extended the approach of Basak et al (2012) by considering the case of portfolio managers who make strategic asset allocation decisions under the situation of incomplete information of their peers behaviors using the framework of Bayesian (Nash) equilibrium.
Keywords: portfolio choice; strategic interaction; Bayesian; Nash equilibrium; relative performance.
Application of Soft Computing Techniques Rough Set Theory and Formal Concept Analysis for analysing Investment Decisions in Gold-ETF
by Biswajit Acharjya, Subhashree Natarajan
Abstract: Financial eco-system is growing complex and noisy with incomplete information and in-grained uncertainties, making the market projections difficult. Gold ETF (G-ETF) is always considered as a safe-haven and as an alternate for reducing portfolio risks, countering inflation, economic slides, currency depreciation and many more financial market risks. The familiarity and furor to invest in Gold has not deterred for centuries. But as the market evolves, there is a pressing need to understand the investors preferences, behavioural drivers and actual behaviour with reliable models and proven techniques to predict the movements.rnrnThis paper considers analyzing Investors behaviour in Gold ETF market - that is characterized with incomplete, vague information- by using very competent soft computational techniques: Rough Set Theory (RST) and Formal Concept Analysis (FCA). RST helps in generating decision rules and Formal Concept Analysis is used to identify key factors affecting investment decision towards G-ETF. This research is first of its kind, as integration of the foresaid techniques for analyzing G-ETF market was not previous researched. The study was conducted on 250 samples to understand their investment behaviour towards 12 G-ETFs listed in India.rnThe analysis provides rich information about the characteristics of the investors discretised under different decision rules; strongly recommending the combined use of RST and FCA for data-driven decisions.rn
Keywords: Gold ETF; Behavioural Finance; Rough Set Theory; Formal Concept Analysis; Decision Rules; Sub Concept; Super Concept.
Particle Swarm Optimization Based Source Code Plagiarism Detection Approach Using Non-Negative Matrix Factorization Algorithm
by Bhavani Madireddy, K. Thammi Reddy, P. Suresh Varma
Abstract: Source code plagiarism is an easy to do task, but very difficult to detect without proper tool support. Various source code similarity detection systems have been developed to help detect source code plagiarism. Numerous efforts have been made in literature to introduce an efficient source code detection approach with less time complexity and accurate classification of plagiarized codes. However, there exists a tradeoff amongst the less complexity and high accuracy. In the similar way, this paper likewise attempted to build a framework to detect the plagiarized codes from the source code corpus. This approach employed an intelligent swarm optimization algorithm known as PSO in the detection phase and robust matrix factorization algorithm known as non-negative matrix factorization based on Alternative Least Square (ALS) Algorithm for reduction of features from sparse matrix. Depending on the implementation, ALS is very fast and significantly less work than an SVD implementation. The experimental results showed that, it has good performance compared to the other existing approaches such as precision and recall.
Keywords: Source Code Detection; Evolutionary Algorithm; Particle Swarm Optimization; Non-Negative Matrix factorization; Alternative Least Square Algorithm; Dimensionality Reduction.
Analysing the barriers in Indian stone crushing industries: An ISM and fuzzy AHP approach
by Kunal K. Ganguly, Debabrata Das
Abstract: In an emerging economy like India, labour intensive mining industry like stone crushing for construction aggregates play a vital role for employment and economy. These industries are usually small scale and have a considerable impact on the biological resources as well as socio economic setting of local population. In this context, therefore, identifying and ranking the barriers that affect stone crushing operations becomes essential. This can be taken as a reference by the decision makers while deciding the hierarchy of action necessary for effective operations of stone crushing units. The present research attempts to explore various factors affecting stone crushing operations and their interactions. Interpretive structural modelling (ISM) is employed in this research to extract the interrelationships among the identified barriers and Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process (Fuzzy AHP) applied to rank the barriers.
Keywords: Mining; Stone crushing operations; Interpretive structural modelling; Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process Barriers; Environmental impact.
Islamic Work Ethics: Multidimensional Constructs and Scale Validation
by Saeed Aldulaimi
Abstract: This paper debates the Islamic perspective on the work ethics employed in an organization. It aims to discuss the issues of assumptions involving the Islamic Work Ethic (IWE). Therefore, this paper uses a group of dimensions from the fundamental of Islam to addresses the present gap in the management literature. In addition, we validate an instrument to measure IWE dimensions as defined by Aldulaimi (2016). This study aims to answer the following question: what are the fundamental dimensions that facilitate the measurement of IWE?
This paper reviews the foundations of IWE and investigates various empirical studies conducted in several countries. Then, briefly present a short historical and conceptual review of the work ethic construct, suggest a general conceptual definition of work ethic, and offer a multidimensional model (with 18 dimensions) can enable researchers to evaluate and measure work ethic in Islamic societies. A total of 1252 respondents participated in this study to validate the IWE instrument.
The study reveals evidence of ethical formulation depending on Islamic literature to construct Islamic values for work. This study produces a valid instrument (questionnaire) consisting of 90 items (questions) to measure IWE in Muslim societies. Due to using the structural equation modeling (SEM), the number of questions was high. Consequently, participants find that it is not an easy task to answer such long questions. Nevertheless, this paper presents new dimensions that can be utilized to enrich the area of measuring IWE in organizations.
This study is one of the few attempts to suggest appropriate dimensions of Islamic Work Ethic in the management literature. It provides a measurement scale for 18 dimensions that promise to strengthen individual transparency and morally, which would eventually enhance economic progress in the Islamic world.
Keywords: Work ethics; Islamic work ethics; Islamic values and validation.
Twin Approximation space and its Application in Analyzing Employee Engagement and Employee Value Proposition
by Praba B, Gomathi G, Vijaya Mani
Abstract: The concept of Rough set was introduced by Pawlak is efficiently used in data analysis. In this paper, we have introduce Twin rough set defined on a Twin approximation space I = (U,A,B) where U is a non empty finite set of objects and A and B are the two disjoint set of fuzzy attributes on the elements of U. This novel definition plays a vital role in comparing the influence of a set of attributes in A over that of B on the elements of U. Also, we have proposed an algorithm for this comparative analysis and the proposed algorithm is illustrated by taking a real time data. In this, a detailed analysis is done in comparing the two significant aspects namely Employee Engagement and Employee value proposition of the employees in an Organization.
Keywords: Fuzzy set theory; Rough set theory; Information system.
Brand association in jewelry segment: scale development and validation
by Shamily Jaggi, Dheeraj Nim
Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to explore different dimensions of brand association for jewelry brands by females. It is an attempt to develop a reliable and valid brand association scale for estimating the females associations for different jewelry brands. Both qualitative as well as quantitative approaches were used for reduction and validation of the scale. The research was conducted into four phases through four different questionnaires. The finalised scale consist of 8 dimensions i.e. brand connect, brand image, brand loyalty, brand offerings, customer satisfaction, payment mode, brand promotion and brand preference with 36 total items of the scale. The scale was developed for jewelry sector only. Hence, the findings and implications drawn from this study might not be applicable to other industries. Academicians and researchers can use this developed scale for performing quantitative studies related to different aspects of brand associations in jewelry sector. The Jewelry Brand Association Scale (JBAS) developed through this study will help the marketers to improve their methods and measurements of jewelry brands in numerous ways to create favourable and positive associations leading to attraction and retention of customers. Review of literature revealed that there is no scale developed for measuring brand associations for jewelry among women. So, this study developed a scale titled: Jewelry Brand Association Scale (JBAS) to bridge this research gap.
Keywords: consumer behaviour; brand association; brand image; brand awareness; branding; jewelry; women.
Blockchain Technology Adoption in the Supply Chain (UTAUT2 with Risk)- Evidence From Indian Supply Chains
by Ashutosh Sheel, Vishnu Nath
Abstract: The aim of the present study is to study blockchain technology adoption intentions by supply chain practitioners using the UTAUT2 (Unified Theory of Adoption and Use of Technology) with risk model as the conceptual framework. Data was collected from 360 supply chain practitioners in India. The results of the current study indicate that behavioral intentions for blockchain technology adoption are significantly influenced by performance expectancy, social influence, hedonic motivation and price value considerations. The study proposes some guidelines for adopting blockchain in the supply chain. The present study tries to fill in the gap in the existing literature by listing out the factors that influence blockchain technology adoption in the supply chain.
Keywords: Extended UTAUT2 with risk; Blockchain; Supply chain management; IT.
Mobility Alternative Selection for US Automobiles Potential Evolution to Autonomous Vehicles
by Naval Goel, Jose Garcia Crespo, Vinay Nihalani
Abstract: Quantitative and multiple-criteria decision-making analysis are performed to rank transportation modes for consumer needs. Each need is assumed to have fourteen mobility attributes. A consumer in 2018 can own a vehicle, call a taxi or hail ride. The quantitative analysis is cost per mile. For owning a vehicle, lifecycle cost includes vehicle price, registration and insurance charges, operating expenses, and financing. For taxi or hailing service, cost include a base fare, booking fee, per minute charge and per mile charges. The cost to own a vehicle is about $ 1.43/mile while that for a taxi or a ride-hailing is around $ 3 per mile. For qualitative evaluation, mobility attributes are ranked for each transportation need, and weights of each attributes are calculated using linear programming. This evaluation shows owning an internal combustion engine is the most preferred transportation mode while ride hailing is the least preferred option in 2018. This study can be used to identify mobility alternatives given consumer needs in future as automobiles evolve to autonomous vehicles.
Keywords: Transportation modes; internal combustion engine; hybrid vehicle; electric vehicle; transportation needs; mobility attributes; autonomous vehicles; multiple-criteria decision making; linear programming.
Trust, commitment and business expansion in automotive supply chains in a developing country: a principal-agency perspective
by J.A. Badenhorst-Weiss, A.S. Tolmay
Abstract: The automotive industry is important for sustaining developing countries economies. Literature states the South African automotive buyer-seller relationships are hampered by conflict where both parties reveal self-serving behaviour. This results in a decrease of trust and commitment, and increased supply chain uncertainty that is hampering business expansion. Hence, this study aimed to investigate the relationships between trust, commitment and business expansion through buyer-seller relationships. A quantitative study was conducted through a structured close-ended questionnaire among 114 managers from automotive component manufacturers. The empirical research found a strong presence of trust and commitment in automotive buyer-seller relationships. The influence of trust and commitment on possible business expansion was determined through a regression-based analysis. Findings revealed trust in a seller (agent) results in business expansion and commitment to a seller acts as a mediator between trust and business expansion. Action plans for both agents and principals (buyers) are recommended to sustain business.
Keywords: Automotive industry; supply chains; supply chain relationships; supply chain risk; social exchange theory; agent-principal theory; trust; commitment; business expansion; South Africa.
An Application of Integer Programming to Producing Aircraft Engine Parts
by Danny Solow, Dan Magri, Qiong Wu
Abstract: Integer programming models are developed for optimizing the production of a part used in aircraft engines. For some potentially large real-world problems, one of these models cannot be solved efficiently to optimality, so appropriate heuristics are developed. These heuristics are shown computationally to be both effective and efficient using randomly generated data.
Keywords: Integer Programming Application; Integer Programming Heuristic; Aircraft Manufacturing.
Multi-objective hazardous materials routing and scheduling for balancing safety and travel time
by Kamran Moghaddam
Abstract: Hazardous materials (hazmats) logistics and distribution is inherently a multi-criteria decision problem with conflicting objectives. Since the safest paths can be long and costly, this research develops a new multi-objective multi-period optimization model to find optimal links and routes to maintain a balance between safe and fast distribution of hazmats between origins and destinations through the transport network. The transport network includes multiple origins and destinations along with multiple hazmat classes to better mimic the challenges faced by practitioners. Due to the lack of sufficient historical data or unreliability of the past data (because of possible changes in regulations, network structures, and developments), we consider unknown probabilities for hazmat incidents along with a game-theoretic demon approach in a link-based model. Using the Nash game theory approach, an integrated routing and scheduling hazmat shipment problem is formulated. The objective functions of the mathematical model are defined to minimize both the probability of population exposure affected by hazmat transport risks (social objective) and the total transportation time (economic objective) in the distribution network. Since the formulated problem is multi-objective, this paper also proposes a solution method based on an integrated Monte-Carlo simulation and fuzzy goal programming to obtain Pareto-optimal (non-dominated) solutions. A numerical example is provided to illustrate the effectiveness of the developed mathematical model and the solution method in obtaining Pareto-optimal solutions.
Keywords: Transportation; Vehicle Routing; Game Theory; Hazardous Materials; Multi-Objective Optimization; Fuzzy Goal Programming.
A Cost Allocation Model Based on the Combination of Data Envelopment Analysis and Shannon Entropy (Case Study: Branches of the Central Post of Isfahan)
by Reza Maddahi
Abstract: The method used for allocation of costs in this study has several stages. In stage 1, various types of data envelopment analysis (DEA) models were used to assess the efficiency of decision-making units (DMUs), including constant return to scale and variable return to scale with a variety of input and output types in radial and non-radial states. In stage 2, Shannon entropy method was used to combine the obtained efficiencies for each decision making unit. In stage 3, the allocation of costs was done based on the combined efficiency number for each unit obtained in phase 2. The proposed cost allocation model was then implemented in an example and its fairness was compared with similar methods using the Gini coefficient method. Finally, the proposed model was investigated in Central Post of Isfahan. For this purpose, the seven postal areas of Isfahan were identified as decision-making units, operational cost and timely delivery factors were considered as inputs, and operating income, traffic, productivity, and items sent were considered as outputs. The results showed that Feyz and Neshat were the most efficient areas, while Malek Shahr was the least efficient area; thus, the highest cost was allocated to Feyz and Neshat, while the lowest cost was allocated to Malek Shahr.
Keywords: Cost allocation; Data Envelopment Analysis; Shannon Entropy; Gini coefficient method.
Self-Organization Migration Technique for Enhancing the Permutation Coded Genetic Algorithm
by Dinesh Karunanidy, Rajakumar Ramalingam, Subramanian Ramalingam
Abstract: Genetic Algorithm (GA) is well-known optimization algorithm for solving
various kinds of the optimization problem. GA is based on the evolutionary
principles and effectively solves the large-scale problem. In addition, it
incorporates the variety of hybrid techniques to achieve the best performance
in complex problems. However, self-organization is one of the popular model,
which acquire global order from the local interaction among the individuals.
The combined version of self-organization and genetic algorithm are adopted
to improve the performance in attaining the convergence. This paper proposes
a bi-directional self-organization migration technique for improving the genetic
algorithm which achieves the convergence and well-balanced diversity in the
population. The experimentation is conducted on the standard test-bed of
travelling salesman problem and instances are obtained from TSPLIB. Thus, the
proposed algorithm has shown its dominance with the existing classical GA in
terms of various parameter metrics.
Keywords: Genetic Algorithm; Self-Organization Migration Algorithm;
Hybrid Genetic Algorithm; Traveling Salesman Problem; Pattern Replacement;
Optimum prediction and forecasting of wheat demand in Iran
by Reza Babazadeh, Meisam Shamsi, Fatemeh Shafipour
Abstract: Wheat is the staple food source in most countries and is grown in bad climatic conditions such as cold areas. Wheat contains about 55% carbohydrates and 20% calories. Optimum prediction of wheat demand would help policy makers to take optimum strategic decisions about the amount of domestic wheat production, import, and export for mid and long terms. In this study, Firstly, the factors affecting demand for wheat are identified according to market analysis. Then, Artificial Neural Network (ANN) method is employed for optimum forecasting of wheat demand in Iran. Different regression methods are used to justify the efficiency of the ANN model. The Mean Absolute Percentage Error (MAPE) of the ANN method is achieved equal to 4.64% which shows about 95% precision of the ANN method. According to acquired results, the ANN method could be efficiently applied for wheat demand prediction in order to take appropriate related strategic decisions.
Keywords: Wheat demand; Forecasting; ANN; Regression models.
An Energy Efficient Cluster Formation in Wireless Sensor Network using Grey Wolf Optimization
by Rajakumar Ramalingam, Dinesh K, Vengattaraman T
Abstract: With the emerging technology, Wireless Sensor Network (WSNs) plays a vital role in monitoring day-to-day life activities. At the same time, wireless sensor networks are suffering from various issues such as such as routing, intrusion detection, topology control and so on. However, to address these issues an energy efficient cluster formation is quite important. Thus, the successive cluster formation improves the lifetime of the networks in terms of reducing the size of routing overheads. Our contribution to this work includes on selecting an energy efficient cluster heads with the aid of the Grey Wolf Optimization (GWO) algorithm. GWO has been introduced in recent years and resides in the division of swarm intelligence algorithm (SI). This algorithm attracts several researchers with its efficient leadership capability and hunting methodology but it lags in exploration and exploitation which leads to poor clustering in WSN when it applied. The proposed methodology includes tuning of the coefficient parameter for efficient exploration and exploitation process then the algorithm has been utilized efficiently to solve the issue which resides in the wireless sensor network. The performance of the proposed work is examined with other swarm intelligence algorithm. The experimental results show that the GWO algorithm performs better in providing optimal results over cluster head selection and minimized energy consumption in WSN.
Keywords: Wireless Sensor Network (WSN); Clustering; Grey Wolf Optimization (GWO); Swarm Intelligence (SI); coefficient parameter.
Estimation of Performance Measures of M/M/1 Queues A Simulation based Approach
by Kaustav Dutta, Amit Choudhury
Abstract: The M/M/1 queuing system has been the oldest and perhaps the most widely used of all queuing models. However, queuing analysts have been particularly constrained by the fact that no standardized inferential procedures are available in literature. The menu of methods available have their pitfalls and ambiguities. This paper is about putting to rest one such ambiguity.
Keywords: M/M/1; Mean System Size; Mean Queue Size; Mean Waiting Time; Performance Measures; Queue; Simulation; Single server Markovian model; Traffic intensity.
'Influence of Organizational Career Management Variables: Mentoring on Career Success of faculty academics An Empirical study from an Indian Perspective
by Seema A
Abstract: The main purpose of the present study is to determine the influence and relationship between mentoring and career success of faculties. Career success is termed as the individuals subjective or intrinsic feelings of accomplishment and ultimate satisfaction pertaining to his or her career. This study also highlights on one of the organisational career management practices, that is, mentoring in bringing its importance and linkage with career success from an individual point of view in support with literature review. Descriptive research design has been adopted for the study. Stratified random sampling method followed by random sampling technique was used for the study. It was decided to conduct the data collection with 450 (around 59% proportionate) faculty members of selected 17 Arts and Science colleges at Vellore district, Tamil Nadu, India. This present study has utilized Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) through Smart Partial Least Square (PLS) 2.0 Version. The study outcomes show the significant influence and correlation between mentoring and career success in terms of career prospect, career commitment and career satisfaction.
Keywords: Keywords: Career Management; Organizational Career Management; Mentoring; Career Success; Faculty; Academics; Indian Perspective.
A Text Mining Classification of Articles on Social Sustainability in Supply Chains
by Tayeb Basta, Mohamed Basta
Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to classify articles addressing social risk and social sustainability in supply chains through text mining techniques. Using text mining techniques, the authors develop a frequency based model that uses a data language; that is a set of terms and phrases representing the industry approach and systems thinking methodology. The model is run on a collection of research articles to generate a dataset describing the articles in terms of the terminology of used approaches. Such dataset is then used as input to a clustering algorithm to generate a classification of the articles based the approach used to address the social risk and social sustainability in supply chains. The model results are benchmarked against a recent study that was conducted manually . The model output is consistent on two different articles databases. Mostly results of the current model and the work of  are very close. However certain divergence has been noticed in the percentage of usage of certain systems thinking terms.
Keywords: social risk; social sustainability; supply chain; text mining; industry approach; systems thinking.
Exploring Safety Climate Factors in Construction
by Tariq Umar
Abstract: This paper aims to explore and to make explicit of the existing safety climate assessment tools and dimensions. The concept of safety climate is firstly discussed with a review of different safety climate factors from the published literature. A qualitative research method was employed to explore the safety climate factors through a systematic review using four databases and specific keywords. A total of 68 papers were selected for the screening process. The screening process allowed to select the final 18 safety climate assessment tools and papers consisting of 98 safety climate factors spanning over a period of 39 years (1980 2019). Construction organizations may consider these factors to assess the current maturity level of their safety climate and to develop plans to achieve the required level. It is recommended that the factors discussed in this paper may be validated first before they are incorporated in the assessment of safety climate.
Keywords: Health & Safety; Management; Safety & hazards; Safety Climate; Assessment; Construction Industry; Qualitative and Quantitative Research Methods; Systematic Review; Safety in Construction; Safety Climate Factors.
ADVANCED CLASS FOR VARIANCE ESTIMATION UTILIZING KNOWN QUARTILES OF THE AUXILIARY VARIABLE
by Dinesh Sharma, S.K. Yadav, Hari Sharma
Abstract: Variance is a natural phenomena among similar objects in nature and it is one of the majors of dispersion. Therefore, its estimation is of crucial importance for large populations to save time, money and manpower. In this paper, we propose an estimator for estimating population variance of the primary (study) variable using known quartiles of the secondary (auxiliary) variable and their functions. The optimum value of the scalar in the suggested estimator is acquired to ensures mean squared error (MSE) of the suggested estimator as a minimum. A comparison has been presented between suggested and the competing estimators, and the theoretical efficiency conditions are derived. For the verification of these efficiency conditions through the calculation of mean square errors of various estimators, a numerical study is performed.
Keywords: Primary variable; Secondary variable; Quartiles; Bias; MSE; Efficiency.
Perceived Determinants and Barriers of Recruitment Process Outsourcing in Service Sector of Pakistan- A Qualitative Approach
by Mehreen Memon, Muhammad Aqil, Kamran Ahmed Soomro, AHMAD Adeel
Abstract: Purpose: Human resource management is one of the challenging jobs for organizations and Recruitment and Selection of right person has emerged as a biggest challenge for Human Resource Management. In order to cope with this challenge, the organizations are taking assistance from specialized agencies. This is called Recruitment process outsourcing. This study aims at finding out the determinants for and barriers in Recruitment Process Outsourcing.rnResearch Design: The study adopts Qualitative Approach to explore the objective. The research is based on the inductive approach and phenomenology has been used as a research methodology. The participants are selected through non-probability purposive sampling method with a sample size of 10 organizations in service sector of Pakistan. The organizations were grouped into two categories: one that is adopting RPO and other which is not adopting RPO. The primary data has been collected through in-depth interviews with HR professionals and the analysis is conducted through thematic analysis. rnFindings: The study finds out that diversified pool of candidates, bulk hiring, professional expertise, replacement option, focus on core HR responsibilities and promoting fair recruitment process are the major determinants for adopting RPO by Organizations. rnOriginality: The factors such as additional cost, RPO branding with non-management positions, incompatibility issues and emotional detachment are the major barriers in adopting RPO. The study suggests that the use of RPO in small size organizations as an emerging theme. Organizations can make decision of adopting RPO for management level positions according to the determinants highlighted in the study.rn
Keywords: RPO; Phenomenology; Thematic analysis.
A shortest path problem in a stochastic network with exponential travel time
by S.K. Peer, Dinesh Sharma, B. Chakraborty, R.K. Jana
Abstract: A shortest path problem in a stochastic network is studied in this paper. Assuming travel times between the nodes in the network as exponential random variables, a chance constrained programming formulation of the problem is obtained. Then the deterministic separable convex programming formulation of the problem is derived by using a proposed upper bound technique. The expected length and probability of the shortest path are obtained by solving the converted problem. Finally, the results obtained from the proposed approach are compared with Kulkarnis (1986) method as well as Peer and Sharmas (2007) method for a network of a practical application under consideration with exponential random variables.
Keywords: Chance constrained programming; separable convex programming; upper bound technique; stochastic network.
Impact of brand mascot in advertising on brand image among Indian consumers.
by Siddharth Shimpi
Abstract: Using brand mascot to promote products was once a creative concept. Today, brand mascot has become commonplace. The present study explained and explored the impact of brand mascot in advertising on brand image among Indian consumers. A structured and un-disguised questionnaire was developed and used to collect the primary data from 576 respondents. Conceptual model was investigated by using structural equation modeling. Study delivered detailed insight on various elements used for analysis and revealed that brand mascots attractiveness and brand mascots trustworthiness influenced brand credibility and brand image. Further, study confirmed mediating role of brand credibility between brand mascots attractiveness and brand mascots trustworthiness on brand image.
Keywords: Brand mascot; brand mascot’s attractiveness; brand mascot’s trustworthiness; brand credibility and brand image.
An integrated approach of Fuzzy ELECTRE I for Supplier Selection
by Diep Thi Hong Le, Tran Thi Tham
Abstract: Supplier selection is a strategic decision and calls for serious attention in both academian and industry daily. It is the process of selecting suitable suppliers, who offer necessary products or services that match the needs of the organizations. Cooprating with the suitable suppliers will bring many benefits to the enterprises, helping businesses reduce costs, reduce risk, improve flexibility, customer service and competitiveness. This paper is aimed to present a fuzzy decision-making approach for supplier selection problem. In which, a set of 22 criteria are used and the Fuzzy ELECTRE method with trapezoidal membership function is applied to evaluate and select appropriate suppliers. A case study of plastic packaging company is given to illlustrate the proposed methodology.
Keywords: Fuzzy theory; ELECTRE I; Supplier selection; Supplier evaluation; Supply chain management.
Designing a Model of Recruitment and Selection System with Talent Management Approach: The Case of Iranian National Tax Administration
by Roya Khayer Zahed, Hadi Teimouri, Ali Shaemi Barzoki
Abstract: This study aimed to explore the effects of recruitment and selection on talent management in Iranian National Tax Administration (INTA). The type of research, in terms of the nature of data, is mixed (qualitative-quantitative). The goal of this paper in the qualitative phase was to design and describe the model of recruitment and selection system with talent management approach. The qualitative data were gathered through thematic interviews. Using insights from 20 managers in this organization and 3 academic experts, five broad levels of factors of recruitment and selection were identified for implementing talent management. The five dimensions of recruitment and selection with talent management approach included the organizations macro policies and strategies, future attitude, merit orientation, value- orientation and comprehensiveness. In the quantitative stage, the impact of the recruitment and selection system on talent management implementation was examined. The quantitative data, in the stratified random sampling, were gathered with questionnaires from 493 managers and experts of INTA organization. The data were analyzed using structural equation modeling in PLS software. The results of the quantitative research indicated that the recruitment and selection system had a positive and significant impact on implementing talent management. The results can be useful in helping to plan organizational staffing in order to identify, recruiting and selecting talents
Keywords: Recruitment and selection; Human Resource management; talent management; mixed method; qualitative research; quantitative research.
Planning the Next Generation for Family Business: Affecting Factors on Successes Succession at Padang City
by Dahliana Kamener, Norasekin Ab. Rashid, Daniati Puttri
Abstract: The succession topic is a trending view of a family business in terms of inter-generational leadership. This study aimed to examine the role of strategic planning as a mediate in affecting succession planning, non-family leadership on the successful succession of family businesses in Padang city, West Sumatera, Indonesia. The population is the family businesses that have been identified where they have businesses in the second or third generation. One hundred managers or CEOs of the family businesses were selected as samples using non-probability sampling method which was purposive and convenience sampling technique. The data were collected through interviews, observations, and questionnaires. Quantitative analysis methods are applied to analyze the data, such as the multiple regression analysis by using SEM PLS 3.2.8 to see the direct effect of independent variables and strategic planning as mediating on the succession of the family businesses. The result showed that succession planning does not significantly and directly affect the successful succession of family businesses. Nevertheless, the effect of succession planning is significant to strategic planning, and strategic planning was significant affected success succession . Therefore, succession planning is fully mediated by strategic planning through the success succession of family business. Furthermore, non-family management does not significantly and directly affect the successful succession, and neither, non-family management is mediated by strategic planning through the successful succession of the family business at Padang city.
Keywords: succession planning; non-family management; strategic planning; success succession.
THE DIFFERENCE OF CUSTOMER SATISFACTION AND LOYALTY ON THE USE OF POINT OF SALE (POS)
by Yuhelmi , Surya Dharma, Mery Trianita
Abstract: The purpose of this study is to empirically test the differences in customer satisfaction and loyalty from the minimarket service in using a Point of Sale (POS) system application based on the level of system utilization. From 243 respondents, the results showed that there were differences in satisfaction between the high level of POS utilization and the low level, but there was no difference in customer loyalty. This proves that the use of POS can satisfy customers, but does not always make them loyal because customers prefer to shop at minimarkets that are close to their homes even though the POS utilization level is still low. Future research is suggested to examine the influence of minimarket locations on customer loyalty
Keywords: POS; Customer Satisfaction; Loyalty.
Establishing a relationship between risk tolerance and the investor lifecycle
by A. Van Den Bergh, S. Ferreira, J. Dommisse, Z. Dickason-Koekemoer
Abstract: The concept of risk tolerance has increasingly gained importance in the financial industry after the global financial crisis (GFC) in 2007/2008. Individual investors risk perception and willingness to tolerate risk may vary during different phases of the investor lifecycle. However, it is important to analyse individual investors risk tolerance during different phases of the investor lifecycle, as it will mainly influence their investment decisions. This paper aims to determine the influence of age, risk tolerance and risk perception on the investor lifecycle within a South African context and the deviation from theory during different phases of the investor lifecycle. The findings indicated that age is significant in predicting the probability of individual investors being categorised into one of the three phases in the investor lifecycle. Furthermore, the level of risk tolerance individual investors tolerate are not entirely according to theory and depends on individual investors perceptions and attitudes towards risk.
Keywords: age; risk tolerance; risk perception; individual investors; investor lifecycle; South Africa.
Entrepreneurship Curriculum Practice in Malaysian Universities: Successes and Challenges
by Abubakar Sani, Hazri Jamil
Abstract: Entrepreneurship promotes economic development in a country, mainly through addressing problems of self-employment and unemployment. Generally, new businesses registered, new business density, and ease of doing business are considered as some of the important indicators of entrepreneurship activities. Against this backdrop, this paper employed mixed method approach to explore the efforts and commitments of the Malaysian government towards promoting entrepreneurship activity among its citizens, especially the university graduates and how that helps in reducing the current issue of unemployment among its populace. Essentially, academic journals and other relevant documents on the successes and challenges of implementing entrepreneurship program in Malaysian universities were reviewed. Again, secondary data was also obtained from the world development indicator (2017) on entrepreneurship and graduate unemployment (GU) in the country to test the relationship between the two variables. Entrepreneurship activities were measured using variables such as the new businesses registered (NBR), new business density (NBD), and ease of doing business (EODB) all as independent variables; whereas as GU is the dependent variable. Eviews 10.5 software was used to analyse the data using the Ordinary Least Square model. Findings from the review reveal that the Malaysian universities have achieved number of successes in implementing the program; yet, the rate of unemployment among the graduates is quite alarming. It also shows that the higher the number of registered new rate of business, the lower the graduate unemployment in Malaysia, showing the significance of entrepreneurship in reducing unemployment in the country. More so, the findings depict that ease of doing business in Malaysia contributes to 3.44% reduction in unemployment, elucidating that the business-policy in Malaysia needs to be revised
Keywords: Entrepreneurship; curriculum practices; ease of doing business; new business density; new businesses registered; Malaysia.
An inventory model for deteriorating item under permissible delay in vendor managed system
by Ali Akbar Shaikh, Leopoldo Eduardo Cardenas-Barron, Asoke Kumar Bhunia
Abstract: This paper discusses a vendor managed inventory system with the credit policy. The vendor-managed inventory (VMI) plays an important role in inventory as well as supply-chain management. In VMI system the supplier is responsible for decisions relating to the timing and replenishment quantity. Shortage are allowed with a partially backlogged waiting up to arrival of the next lot. Demand dependent on selling price as well as frequency of advertisement. Finally, to illustrate and validate of the model we have taken a numerical example. We have performed a sensitivity analysis changing one parameter at a time and other parameters their original value.
Keywords: VMI policy; deterioration; permissible delay in payment; advertisement and price dependent demand.
Addressing resiliency in supply chains through a multi-criteria group evaluation approach under interval type-2 fuzzy uncertainty
by M.H. Haghighi, S.M. Mousavi, V. Mohagheghi
Abstract: In real-world supply chain problems because of the non-existence of exact information and various fluctuating conditions, resilient supplier selection problems (RSSPs) are considered. In this paper, interval type-2 fuzzy sets (IT2FSs) are used in a modified VIKOR method to achieve more accuracy in the results. Moreover, a new method for computing weights of decision makers and a new method for computing weight of each evaluation criterion based on subjective and objective data are introduced. Finally, to verify the presented method a numerical example from the existing literature is presented and solved.
Keywords: Resilient supplier selection; Multi-criteria group decision making (MCGDM); Interval-valued type-2 fuzzy sets (IT2FSs); Subjective and objective weights; Weights of decision makers; Modified VIKOR method.
An Approach to arrive at Stationarity in Time Series Data
by Nafeesathul Basariya M.I, M. Punniyamoorthy Murugasean
Abstract: This paper presents a framework for converting non-stationary data into stationary data in a systematic way. Initially, the data is fitted with a unit root model to check the presence of unit root. The model which confirms the absence of the unit root is considered for stationarity check. The error term of the model that has passed the unit root test is checked for randomness and homoscedasticity. The data is considered to be stationary if it satisfies the conditions like the absence of unit root, presence of error randomness and homoscedasticity of error term. The non-stationary data has to be differenced and is checked for absence of unit root, presence of error randomness and homoscedasticity of error term. This process is continued to ensure the stationarity. This framework has been elucidated for macroeconomic variables namely consumption, gross domestic product and consumer price index.
Keywords: Dickey Fuller; Durbin Watson; Lagrangian Multiplier Test; Augmented Dickey Fuller; Stationarity; Randomness of error term; Homoscedasticity of error term.
ANTECEDENTS OF PURCHASE INTENTION: A STUDY ON FASHION BRANDS
by G. Aiswarya, Jayasree Krishnan
Abstract: Purchase intention depends on various factors, based on the product or a brand. With the rapid growth in urban, rising disposable income, and exposure to more fashion brands has led to the purchase of more branded apparels and much emphasis is required in this category. There were fewer studies in this segment and hence this study gains momentum. The primary objective of this research is to derive the factors which influence purchase intention on fashion brands. Exploratory factor analysis is conducted and four factors were obtained; Brand perception, Brand cues, Purchase decision and Brand awareness. Our secondary objective is to analyze the extent of the relationship between the factors obtained and purchase intention. Multiple regression analysis is conducted which reveals that Brand perception and Branding cues play a key role and have a positive relationship with Purchase Intention. However, purchase decision and Brand awareness have a positive role in influencing Purchase Intention. This study gives an insight into various aspects of buying behavior which leads to purchase intention based on consumer perception. It also throws light on the cues which greatly influence them to purchase a particular brand.
Keywords: Antecedents; Factors; Fashion brands; Purchase intention.
Determining Optimal Inventory Policy and Sales Price under Promotional Expenditure for Some Veblen Products
by Anil K. Agrawal, Amit Ambar Gupta, Manu K. Vora
Abstract: This paper focuses on determining the optimal promotional expenses as well as optimal sales price and lot-sizing policies for Veblen products, generally being luxury goods consumed conspicuously. The price-demand relationships considered for the product are the ones suggested by Leibstein (1950). The promotion is assumed to increase the products perceived value facilitating in increasing the selling price without sacrificing the demand. The effect of promotional expenses has been analysed for the niche and mass markets using two different relationships. For obtaining the optimal pricing, lot-sizing and promotional expenses, a mathematical model has been developed and a GA based heuristic is also proposed. Numerical examples are taken to illustrate the use of the proposed problem-solving approaches and also to carry out sensitivity analyses. The results show almost no impact of variation in setup cost and carrying cost rate on optimal inventory policy, but of the product unit cost.
Keywords: Conspicuous consumption; Veblen effect; Pricing; Promotion; Price-sensitive demand.
Design of TSSFD technique and its application study in a traditional Pump Manufacturing Company
by Thirunavukkarasu Venkatachalam, Devadasan S R
Abstract: During the last two decades Six Sigma concept and Quality Function Deployment (QFD) technique have been widely applied in various types of organization. The common goal of Six Sigma and QFD is achieving customer satisfaction. Yet QFD is rarely found in Six Sigma programs. Hence, the research community has just started to indicate the importance of impregnating QFD in Six Sigma programme. In this context, during the research reported in this paper the technique called Total Quality Function Deployment (TQFD) was impregnated with Six Sigma concept to evolve a model named as Total Six Sigma Function Deployment (TSSFD). The application of TSSFD was studied by examining it in a pump-manufacturing environment. The anticipated results of this application study were fruitful and helped in unearthing hidden facts that are currently obstructing the pump industry to achieve Six Sigma level quality through the translation of customer voices into practically understandable languages.
Keywords: Six Sigma; QFD; DMAIC; Training; Pump manufacturing.
The impact of FDI on economic growth: An empirical study of Moroccan FDI.
by Chafik Bakour, Riad ABADLI, Mohamed Yassine Abahamid
Abstract: The main objective of this article is to empirically examine the impact of foreign direct investment flows on growth in Morocco, for which we have designed an econometric model based on the Cobb-Douglas production function which allowed us to take into account also the contribution of human capital; in practice we used data extracted from the data center for the development of the World Bank and cover the period 1976 2016. The results demonstrated a two-way causality between GDP and FDI, between GDP and human capital, and between FDI and human capital. Thus, we have found that the mechanisms of interactions between these different variables are operational in the medium term. These results are of great importance on the one hand for the researchers because they answer partially on the questions of causal links between the economic growth and the FDI, and on the other hand for the public authorities by illuminating the strategies of opening and attraction of foreign capital.
Keywords: Foreign Direct Investment; economic growth; Moroccan economy; Economic reforms; Human capital; Times series; Toda and Yamamoto causality tests.
A competitive facility location problem using distributor Stackelberg game approach in multiple three-level supply chains
by Maryam Esmaeili, Sara Gharegozlou Hamedani
Abstract: This paper studies a discrete facility location problem in two different supply chains including suppliers, distributors, and customers. The current and new distribution firm act as the leader and the follower respectively in a Stackelberg game. The model considers the lead-time as a competitive factor between the new distribution centers (DCs) and the existing ones as well as optimizing the location and number of to-be-established DCs in the new supply chain by minimizing the total cost. The e Branch and Bound as well as Genetic Algorithm (GA) are used for solving the model, and the results are compared with the situation that there is no competitor. results show in case of competition; there is more possibility of lost sales ignoring the rival decision in making strategic decision of locating new DCs. While, when there is no other player, decisions are taken independently as the only possible option for consumers.
Keywords: Competitive facility location; supply chain network design; Stackelberg equilibrium; lead-time.
Special Issue on: AICAI 2019 Optimisation, Decision Making and Artificial Intelligence
Modeling and measuring attributes influencing Agile implementation in an enterprise using structural equation modeling
by Abhishek Srivastava, P.K. Kapur, Deepti Mehrotra, Vijay Kumar
Abstract: Todays software applications deployed in an enterprise caters to the complex business processes, integrate various business units and address requirements of global customer base. Critical characteristics of success of Agile development has to be taken into account in order to make this process of software development a rewarding one. One of the great features of Agile is that the life cycle of the project is based on collaborative work for continuing repeatedly with respect to expected changes with the benefit of added flexibility as compared to earlier traditional approaches. In this paper, a significant perception is showcased for the adept to analyse and measure the specified Agile attributes using statistical analysis. A thorough analysis of sixteen attributes is done in order to find vital independent factors and measure them steer the maturity of Agile employment in a business. For this purpose, a framework has been suggested which accelerates the process. An observation of the association among sixteen attributes was done. With the help of Exploratory and Confirmatory Factor Analysis, a structural model was set up with affirmation using Structural Equation Modeling. We pinpointed important distinct attributes that affect other attributes and the all-around execution of Agile. These important attributes were measured and the maturity of Agile execution in a project was found with the help of Explanatory factor analysis. The sixteen attributes were categorized in four latent variables: Planning, Execution, Tools and Infrastructure and People. This was done using exploratory and Confirmatory Factor Analysis. Moreover, Structural Equation Modeling was done to deduce thirteen key independent attributes that have an impact on other attributes. For the purpose of measuring these key attributes, Structural equation modeling was implemented using AMOS and it was determined that three of the attributes were working below the threshold. By identifying this, the management team was able to take certain reparative actions and a new measurement showed upgraded reliability level of Agile Implementation.
Keywords: Agile; Continuous Delivery; Exploratory and Confirmatory Factor Analysis; Structural Equation Modeling; enterprise applications.
Testing Resource Allocation for software system with Multiple Versions
by Adarsh Anand, Subhrata Das, Ompal Singh, Vijay Kumar
Abstract: Up-gradation has become a mandatory feature for software firms. Companies have now got no time to perform software testing because of coming up of their up-graded products at a fast pace. But even then firms have to test their respective version independently to remove maximum possible number flaws within particular time limit or under testing budget. In the current paper, taking into consideration the aspect of multi up-gradation, different optimization problems are proposed wherein optimal allocation of testing resources to different versions is discussed. The proposed set of models is solved using dynamic programming approach and is supplemented with numerical illustrations.
Keywords: Software Reliability; Multi Versions; Resource Allocation; Dynamic Programming.
Anti-Social Behaviour Analysis using Random Forest and Word to Vector Approach
by Nidhi Chandra, Sunil Kumar Khatri, Subhranil Som
Abstract: Social Networking and microblogging applications provide active platforms for communications, sharing thoughts and ideas. Social platforms and numerous applications dealing with natural text or language, such as Sentiment Analysis and Machine Translation, an Automatic language model is a critical component for searching in the often prohibitively large hypothesis space. Processing natural text coming from varied social platforms possess many technical challenges such as processing messages written in slang, informal short messages, classifying messages into different labels and category based on the meaning. Maximum natural text processing and interpretation systems use n-gram language models, which can be simple and powerful most of the time. Random forest ensemble based classifier have the potential to generalize the unseen data as compared to n-gram language models .In this paper we present an approach to classify the natural language text using Random Forest classifier.
Keywords: Natural Language Processing; Random Forest; Ensemble Classifier; Anti-social Behaviour Analysis; Word to Vector.
Inventory Model for Decay Items with Safe Chemical Storage and Inflation using artificial bee colony algorithm
by Ajay Singh Yadav, Anupam Swami, Navin Ahlawat, Geethanjali Kher, Sachin Kumar
Abstract: A deterministic Safe Chemical Storage inventory model has been developed for the deterioration of items with increasing demand, with inflation effects on stocks using artificial bee colony algorithm. The Safe Chemical Storage has a fixed capacity of C units using artificial bee colony algorithm. Stock outs are allowed and partially deferred, and inventories are expected to deteriorate over time with a variable rate of deterioration using artificial bee colony algorithm. The inflation effect has also been taken into account for the different costs of the Safe Chemical Storage inventory system. The numerical example is also used to examine the behavior of the model using artificial bee colony algorithm. The cost minimization technique is used to obtain the terms of total cost and other parameters using artificial bee colony algorithm.
Keywords: Safe Chemical Storage; inflation; Shortages; ramp time demand; deterioration items; artificial bee colony algorithm.
Predicting sexual offenders using Exhaustive CHAID techniques on victims age
by Bhajneet Kaur, Laxmi Ahuja, Vinay Kumar
Abstract: Sexual offences can spoil the whole culture of the society. So, the identification of any sexual offender, on the basis of major and minor victims should be done separately. So that security measures could be implemented on the required places to prevent and control these issues. This research paper proposes the decision models to classify & predict the sexual offenders on the basis of major or minor victims using CHAID and Exhaustive CHAID algorithms. These models can help to take any kind of decision by police departments, sexual harassment cells, and law enforcement agencies to differentiate the sexual offenders of major or minor victims to take the action accordingly for the security purposes. As concluded through both the models, classification and prediction of the sexual offenders have been done on the basis of certain variables i.e. age, race, weight and height. Further comparison has been done between accuracy rate of two models, deployed by CHAID and Exhaustive CHAID techniques. To deploy the decision models, overall dataset has been divided into 70:30 (training data: test data) ratio. Using CHAID 70% of test data resulted with 79.8% accuracy rate whereas model has been validated through 30% of test data that resulted with 79.1% rate of accuracy. Decision model using Exhaustive CHAID has been resulted with 79.9% accuracy rate through 70% of test data and model validated through 30% of remaining data with 78.8% accuracy rate of prediction.
Keywords: Sexual offenders; minor victim; major victim; Decision tree; Index values; Gain chart; response chart; machine learning; CHAID; SPSS; Exhaustive CHAID.