International Journal of Advanced Mechatronic Systems (14 papers in press)
A vehicle suspension system based on Kalman filtering model predictive control algorithm
by Akshaya Kumar Patra
Abstract: The aim of this manuscript is to formulate a Kalman Filtering Model Predictive Controller (KFMPC) for a Vehicle Suspension System (VSS) to enhance the ride luxury by retaining the stuns because of an unpleasant and crooked road. For the formulation of the KFMPC, a 4th order state-space structure of the VSS is deliberated. In this strategy, the Conventional Model Predictive Controller (CMPC) is redesigned by use of the Kalman filter to upgrade the control execution. The approval of the upgraded control execution of KFMPC is set up by comparative outcome examination with other well-known control strategies. The relative outcomes obviously reveal the better execution of the recommended strategy to monitor the VSS dynamics inside a steady range as for the accuracy, stability, and robustness.
Keywords: VSS; oscillation; Kalman filter; model predictive control.
Intelligent fault diagnosis of three-phase asynchronous motor based on PCA-SVCNN
by Lingzhi Yi, Xiu Xu, Jian Zhao, Wang Li, Junyong Sun, Yue Liu
Abstract: In order to solve the problems caused by the complex motor structure signals and big data of non-stationary machinery in the traditional asynchronous motor fault diagnosis method, the speed and accuracy of three-phase asynchronous motor fault diagnosis are improved. In this paper, a new fault diagnosis method of three-phase asynchronous motor is proposed. Firstly, the principal component analysis (PCA) method is used to reduce the dimension of the collected current data, and then the support vector machine (SVM) is used to realize the two classification of the data. Finally, the two types of data are classified by convolutional neural network (CNN), and the accurate diagnosis of three-phase asynchronous motor fault can be realized. The simulation results show that the proposed algorithm can improve the accuracy of fault classification quickly and effectively, which is of great significance to the accurate diagnosis of motor faults.
Keywords: principal component analysis; support vector machine; neural network; fault diagnosis.
Warehouse Scheduling in Airport Freight Station with Multi-objective Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm
by Haiquan Wang, Menghao Su, Jianhua Wei, Shengjun Wen, Xiaobin Xu
Abstract: To improve the efficiency and safety of automated warehouse, a new scheme is proposed to solve the problem of space allocation considering path planning, different weight as well as the inbound and outbound frequency of cargoes. First of all, the storage location assignment problem was induced as a constraint multi-objective optimization model whose aims are minimizing the gravity center of shelf and the frequency of inbound and outbound. Then, multi-objective artificial bee colony algorithm and multi-objective particle swarm optimization algorithm were proposed and the performance was tested on the benchmark functions as well as the problem of storage space allocation. The results show that the proposed strategies effectively solves the problem of optimization of storage space allocation and realize the efficient operation of the warehouse.
Keywords: airport freight station; storage space allocation; multi-objective artificial bee colony algorithm; multi-objective particle swarm optimization algorithm.
Chattering and bias-free design of operator-based nonlinear sliding mode control for a WPT system
by Koki Takasu, Mingcong Deng, Yuichi Noge
Abstract: A wireless power transfer (WPT) system via magnetic resonance coupling method is attracting attention to high convenience. A WPT system has problems such as power transmitting loss and output voltage fluctuation due to the change in the coupling coefficient and the load state. In previous method, sliding mode control system as a tracking controller considering nonlinearity and uncertainty has been proposed, but the output of this control system had bias and chattering. This paper proposes operator-based nonlinear sliding mode control system to reduce chattering and bias simultaneously for a WPT system using buck converter. First, the model of the WPT system using rectifier and buck converter is explained and dynamics formulas are derived. Next, the proposed operator-based nonlinear sliding mode control system design for the WPT system is described and tracking performance is confirmed. Finally, the result of simulation of constant voltage control and comparison with the previous method is shown.
Keywords: robust control; variable-structure/sliding-mode control; power electronics.
Development of path tracking control of a tracked vehicle for an unmanned ground vehicle
by Muhammad Akhimullah Subari, Khisbullah Hudha, Zulkiffli Abd Kadir, Syed Mohd Fairuz Bin Syed Mohd Dardin, Noor Hafizah Amer
Abstract: This paper presents the development of path tracking control strategy for a tracked vehicle. A path tracking control strategy is developed using an established Stanley controller. In this study, the controller is integrated with geometric model based on Ackerman steering configuration to provide a relationship between the path tracking controller and tracked vehicle model. The tracked vehicle model consists of several modules such as kinematic model, velocity model, local and global coordinates, turning radius and dynamic model. The main contribution of this paper is the integration of path tracking control between tracked vehicle model and geometric model based on Ackerman steering configuration which is still limited in this research area. The validation of path tracking controller is completed in three various speeds, which are 0.5 m/s, 1 m/s and 3 m/s. All these three tests show that the percentage of error between desired path and the vehicle responses are below than 1% for all tests.
Keywords: tracked vehicle; path tracking control; Stanley controller; trajectory following.
Automated micro insulin dispenser system based on the model predictive control algorithm
by Akshaya Kumar Patra, Anuja Nanda
Abstract: During the past few decades, optimal control of blood glucose (BG) concentration with adequate feedback loop has been of ample importance for type-I diabetes mellitus (TIDM) patients as far as an artificial pancreas (AP) realisation is concerned. Now-a-days, in addition to the BG control, the design of the micro-insulin dispenser (MID) with a robust control algorithm to regulate the other chronic clinical disorders based on prolonged medications is also quite indispensable. A novel model predictive controller with Laguerre functions (MPC/LF) has been proposed in this current work to solve the aforementioned problem. For the estimation of the MPC/LF parameters, a ninth order linearised structure of the TIDM patient with MID is taken. The productivity of the MPC/LF as to accuracy, robustness and stability has been checked through simulation. The acquired results obviously expose the better execution of the proposed strategy to control the BG level inside the normo-glycaemic extend (70-120 mg/dl). The validation of upgrading control execution of MPC/LF is exhibited by the relative outcome investigation with other well-known control procedures.
Keywords: diabetes mellitus; plasma glucose level; micro-insulin dispenser; MID; Laguerre functions; MPC/LF.
Motion estimation-based inclination measurement of industrial assembly platform
by Zelin Meng, Lin Meng, Hiroyuki Tomiyama
Abstract: This paper presents a method for measuring the inclination angle of bearing mounting plane based on binocular vision technology. In the actual installation process of the bearing, the mounting plane will have a certain degree of inclination. To improve the product yield rate, this paper designs the inclination measurement system by using binocular vision technology and the proposed optimised perspective-n-point (PnP) method. After experimental testing, the measurement system for inclination angle proposed in this paper can meet the requirements of the production process. The proposed approach achieves high measurement accuracy as well as good real-time performance.
Keywords: motion estimation; feature matching; inclination measurement; optimisation.
Simulation-based assessment of a road surface condition aware adaptive cruise control
by Thomas Weber, Dieter Schramm
Abstract: One of the major research and development efforts in the automotive industry worldwide is the introduction of highly automated driving functions. Due to the high level of complexity, suppliers and manufacturers often wonder whether and to what extent the potential or the effectiveness of newly developed systems can already be estimated a priori in terms of the different requirements in order to make the development process more targeted and thus timelier and also more cost-efficient. In the context of a current research project, that is developing a sensor system for the detection of the road surface condition, it shall be investigated how such a system can be used to improve high-level driving functions. In this paper, as an example to this end, the algorithm of a state-of-the-art adaptive cruise control (ACC) is first extended by a friction coefficient awareness and then tested and examined based on simulations within a complex vehicle model. Subsequently, the system is implemented in a traffic flow simulation and analysed for its impact on road safety via the analysis of corresponding parameters.
Keywords: adaptive cruise control; ACC; advanced driver assistance systems; ADAS; highly automated driving; traffic simulation; simulation-based assessment.
Special Issue on: ReCAR2019 Mechatronics in Automotive Vehicles
Simulation with Car Following Model Considering Vehicle Dynamic Features
by Xiaowei Hu, Xiaoyi Ma, Dieter Schramm
Abstract: Microscopic traffic simulation has been applied not only for traffic prediction but also in more and more research fields. The typical car-following models widely used in simulation always need massive traffic observation data. By mathematical abstraction from traffic data some important characteristics of vehicles and drivers will be inevitably abandoned. In this article, a modelling method of car-following behaviour has been proposed, in which the dynamic features of different vehicles have been considered. As an example, an internal combustion engine vehicle model and electric vehicle model were implemented in the traffic simulation. The simulation results of using typical car-following models were also compared with the results using new model. From the result, the new model can display during simulation corresponding dynamic features. The internal combustion engine vehicle model also presented different dynamic characteristics from electric vehicle model, which caused a different simulation result.
Keywords: Microscopic traffic simulation; car-following model; vehicle dynamics; SUMO; MATLAB; traffic flow modelling; vehicle modelling.
Handling performance criteria evaluation for vehicle suspension system with semi-active control strategies
by Ming Foong Soong, Rahizar Ramli, Ahmad Abdullah Saifizul, Azuddin Mamat
Abstract: The vehicle suspension is an important system in a vehicle with the purposes of providing ride comfort and handling capability, albeit with a compromise between the two. Semi-active vehicle suspension system, which solves this compromise by the use of semi-active variable or switchable damper instead of the common passive damper, has been studied frequently, with a few well-known semi-active controls such as Skyhook strategy, displacement-based strategy, and Groundhook strategy, already in existence for decades. However, many of these discrete-state-switchable control strategies are designed based on the vertical-dynamics-only quarter vehicle model, with a focus on controlling the vehicle body for ride comfort improvement, without considering the handling-related suspension performance. This study intends to evaluate any potential improvement in handling performance brought by a semi-active suspension system with these ride-oriented control strategies. In this study, the said control strategies were implemented independently on the four wheel stations of a 10-degree-of-freedom full vehicle model which was subjected to step-steering and sine-steering manoeuvres, and the relevant handling performance criteria were evaluated. Results from the simulations indicated that, despite these control strategies mostly being designed around achieving ride comfort, some of them are actually capable of bringing improvement in the handling aspect as well, judging from the improvement in a few handling performance criteria.
Keywords: vehicle handling; semi-active suspension; Skyhook; switchable damper; steering manoeuvre.
System Configuration of Instrumented Half-Scaled Armoured Vehicle to Enhance Handling Performance due to Lateral Firing Impact
by Vimal Rau Aparow, Khisbullah Hudha, Mohd Sabirin Rahmat, Zulkiffli Abd. Kadir, Noor Hafizah Amer
Abstract: One of the greatest challenge in the wheeled armoured vehicle is the firing impact due to gun recoil force. In current configurations, wheeled armoured vehicle performs the firing while in static condition or fire in the longitudinal direction of the vehicle axis. This is mainly to avoid the recoil moment due to gun force to create unwanted yaw moment that disrupts the handling performance. However, this situation causes the armoured vehicle become a target for counterattack by the enemies. Therefore, Yaw Disturbance Rejection Control (YDRC) is developed as a solution to minimize the impact due to recoil force and improve the handling performance. In order to implement the active safety system, a complete system configuration of instrumented half-scaled armoured vehicle is required to interface the YDRC algorithm with Integrated Measurement and Control (IMC) Cronos Compact data acquisition system, Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) and rotary encoder sensors. By using this system configuration, the impact of firing-on-the-move (FOM) test has been evaluated at maximum firing angle of 90 degree and vehicle speed of 40 km/h. The large firing angle and high vehicle speed is can caused instability for the armoured vehicle and effect the handling performance of the vehicle. Thus, the vehicle handling performances are evaluated in terms of yaw rate, yaw angle, lateral displacement and lateral acceleration.
Keywords: Instrumented Armoured Vehicle; IMC DAQ; Yaw Disturbance Rejection Control; FOM-AFWS.
Designing graphical user interface for decision support system of driving fatigue
by Mohammad Firdaus Ani, Seri Rahayu Kamat, Minoru Fukumi, Mohamad Minhat, Abu Abdullah, Kalthom Husain
Abstract: The paper presents the continuity study from the previous work, which designing the graphical user interface (GUI) for a decision support system (DSS) of driving fatigue. As driving fatigue has been recognized as one of the significant contributory factors to the road accidents and fatalities in Malaysia, the author developed the decision support system that providing analysis, and proving solution and recommendation to the road users. In other words, the decision support system acts as the advisory and decision maker tool. In designing the GUI for a DSS, the Django based on Python programming language was used by the authors. There are five main GUI has been designed in this study; Admin GUI User Profile and Driving Information GUI, Regression Model GUI, Risk Factor Analysis GUI, and Superuser GUI. Further testing and validation of the graphical user interface for the decision support system are suggested before it is used commercially.
Keywords: graphical user interface; driving fatigue; decision support system; python; SQLite; regression model; django; command prompt; fuzzy inference system; SciKit-Fuzzy.
Simulation of Electro-Mechanical Friction Clutch Control using Proportional Derivative plus Conditional Integral Control Scheme for Automotive Application
by Mohd Salman Che Kob, Izhari Izmi Mazali, Zul Helmi Che Daud, Zainab Asus, Intan Zaurah Mat Darus
Abstract: In electro-mechanical friction clutch (EMFC), the clutch engagement and disengagement is performed by using a DC motor to actuate the power screw which is connected to the clutch pressure plate. This paper explains simulation works carried out to evaluate the performance of proportional-integral-derivative based (PID based) control schemes in controlling the power screws position in the EMFC for engagement and disengagement. The model of EMFC is developed in Matlab/Simulink and it consists of the DC motors model and the power screw mechanisms model. Four control schemes, namely; proportional-integral (PI), proportional-integral-derivative (PID), proportional (P) and proportional-derivative (PD), are applied on the model using 6mm as the set point for the power screws position. Among them, PD control scheme shows the best performance with 0% overshoot, 0.041 mm steady state error and about 1.3 seconds settling time. To eliminate the steady state error, the PD control is updated with a conditional integral controller, thus it becomes proportional-derivative-plus-conditional integral (PDPCI) control. As a result, the steady state error is reduced to approximately zero with a very small overshoot of 0.68% while maintaining the settling time as in PD control. Subsequently, both PD and PDPCI controls are simulated to achieve full engagement and disengagement. For the full engagement, the set point is the power screws position of 12 mm, while for the disengagement, the set point is 0 mm. The results show that PDPCI control performs better than PD control with a very minimal overshoot. In conclusion, simulation works to control EMFCs engagement and disengagement have been successfully performed and based on the simulation results, PDPCI is decided as the most suitable control scheme against PI, PID, P and PD.
Keywords: clutch control; proportional derivative control; conditional integral control; electro-mechanical; power screw mechanism.
Vehicle Drifting: Mathematical Theory and Dynamic Analysis for Stabilised Drifting of RWD Vehicles
by Sina Alamdari Milani, Hormoz Marzbani, Reza N. Jazar
Abstract: This paper introduces a mathematical definition for drifting of vehicles. A necessary kinematic condition for enabling negative body side-slip angle at centre of the front wheel during a left-hand turn is identified as drifting indicator. Dynamics of the drifting motion is investigated by means of a simplified three-wheel vehicle model in steady-state, focusing on Rear Wheel Drive (RWD) vehicles. Drifting point is identified as an unstable equilibrium point of the nonlinear system. The equilibrium point is made stable by means of direct control only over yaw velocity, as a single key stabilising objective, and using the steady-state model as feedforward. A four-wheel planar dynamic simulation model is used together with a combined slip tyre model to investigate the accuracy of the proposed analysis. Steady-state RWD drifting motion is achieved by using the proposed method, validating the proposed dynamics analysis. Finally, the drifting metric is used to measure the amount of drifting achieved during a manoeuvre and its effectiveness is observed.
Keywords: Vehicle Drifting; Nonlinear Vehicle Dynamics; Drift Equilibrium Point; Drift Stabilisation; Yaw Rate Control.