Forthcoming articles

International Journal of Ad Hoc and Ubiquitous Computing

International Journal of Ad Hoc and Ubiquitous Computing (IJAHUC)

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International Journal of Ad Hoc and Ubiquitous Computing (34 papers in press)

Regular Issues

  • A Note on Cloud Computing Security   Order a copy of this article
    by Deepak Garg, Jagpreet Sidhu 
    Abstract: Cloud computing has become an emerging technology which has huge impact. Existing security algorithms cannot meet the needs of cloud computing users as security issues have become increasingly prominent, becoming an important factor restricting the development of cloud computing. Reports reveals that organizations have experienced various attacks in past year. Research community has immensely focused on developing and optimizing security techniques to overcome this hurdle in cloud. Due to huge literature it becomes difficult to comprehend overall structure and advancements. This domain needs an analytic approach to completely understand the problem domain that is why this article represents same in specific context of security. Further a notion on security issues in cloud computing with respect to vulnerabilities, threats and attacks is discussed. Paper also proposed two research evaluation parameters that are effective citation and effective impact factor for better appreciation. Article also analyses patterns, trends and other factors for directing research activities. Finally, a global research trends on security domain are evaluated and analysed.
    Keywords: Cloud Computing; Security; Survey; Effective Citation (EC); Effective Impact Factor (EIF); Vulnerabilities; Threats; Attacks.

  • Activity Recognition Approach based on Spatial-Temporal constraints for Aged-care in Smart Home   Order a copy of this article
    by Haibao Chen, Shenghui Zhao, Cuijuan Shang, Guilin Chen, Chih-Yung Chang 
    Abstract: Activity recognition plays an important role in smart homes for aged-care. In this paper, we formulate the problem of activity recognition and propose a new method based on spatial-temporal constraints to carry out activity recognition, which consists of five phases: Initialization, Segmentation, Sensor Data Representation, Activity Exploration as well as Activity Identification. Besides, we analyze the time complexity and space complexity of our approach in theory.To evaluate our approach, we carried out experiments on real dataset from Wireless & Mobile Network Laboratory, Tamkang University. The experimental results demonstrate an improvement of 5.6% in the accuracy on average of recognized activities in comparison to the method of support vector machine (SVM).
    Keywords: Activity recognition; smart home; wireless sensor network;Aged-care.

  • A Novel Reliability based High Performance Decoding Algorithm for Short Block Length Turbo Codes   Order a copy of this article
    by Salija P, B. Yamuna, T.R. Padmanabhan, Deepak Mishra 
    Abstract: Satellite communication applications use Turbo codes as the standard error correcting code due to its Shannons capacity approaching performance. However short block length Turbo codes exhibit significant performance degradation. This is a limiting factor in applications like transmissions over the telecommand links for satellite communications that involve the use of short length Turbo codes. A novel reliability based Turbo decoding algorithm that addresses the performance improvement of short block length Turbo codes, is being proposed in this paper. Simulation results show a coding gain of 2.45 dB at BER of 10-3 for short length codewords. The proposed decoding algorithm has low computational complexity compared to the conventional iterative decoding algorithm. The relatively lower computational complexity and the conspicuous improvement in BER performance make the method quite attractive.
    Keywords: Reliability; Turbo codes; Bit Error Rate; Decoding.

  • An adaptive data rate algorithm for improving energy eciency for multi-gateway LoRaWANs   Order a copy of this article
    by LIN-HENG CHANG, Yi Chang, Chih-Kae Guan, Tong-Ying Juang, Wen-Chang Fang 
    Abstract: The need of the low power, long range, and low cost connectivity for satisfyingrnthe requirement of IoT (Internet of Thing) applications for smart city is leading the emergence of Low Power Wide Area (LPWA) networking technologies. The resource efficiency plays an important role in realistic application, LoRaWAN allows the static end devices to individually adapt and optimize the data rates and the transmission power, which is referred to as Adaptive Data Rate (ADR) problem. In this paper, we develop a new ADR algorithm for multi-gateway LoRaWAN environment to quickly choose the appropriate LoRa transmission parameter for independent LoRa end device based on LoRaWAN specification. To successfully execute the ADR algorithm, we specially rewrite the firmware of Semtech's SX1276 transceivers to implement our proposed ADR algorithm over multi-gateway LoRaWAN system, including end device, multi-gateways and networkrnserver. Our ADR algorithm utilizes the radio link quality, including RSSI, SNR, and packet reception ratio (PRR), from multi-gateways, and the network server determines the appropriate LoRa transmission parameter. Finally, the experimental results illustrate that the proposed algorithm improves the energy efficiency, the effective bit rate, and the battery life of the end-device.
    Keywords: LPWA; LoRaWAN; adaptive data rate (ADR); radio link quality; multi-gateways.

  • Performance Evaluation of Main Approaches for Determining Optimal Number of Clusters in Wireless Sensor Networks   Order a copy of this article
    by Meryem Bochra BENMAHDI, Mohamed LEHSAINI 
    Abstract: Among important issues in the current energy-efficient routing protocols for wireless sensor networks (WSNs) based on clustering approaches are how to determine the optimal number of clusters, how to generate clusters and how select cluster-heads to improve WSNs performance. These approaches aim to reduce energy consumption of the WSN nodes and to extend the network lifetime. This paper reviews and compares the performance of three clustering techniques for determining number of clusters: Rule of Thumb, Elbow, and Silhouette. Each of these techniques involves a distributed K-means approach to generate clusters. Moreover, we compare these three clustering methods with LEACH (Low Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy), Imp_LEACH and MODLEACH in terms of network lifetime, energy consumption and the number of packets sent to the base station (BS). The results obtained indicate that Rule of Thumb method provides better performance compared to other clustering techniques in terms of energy consumption and network lifetime.
    Keywords: Clustering; K-means; LEACH; Silhouette; Elbow; Rule of Thumb; WSNs.

  • Towards Effective Fault Detection in Heterogeneous Wireless Sensor Networks   Order a copy of this article
    by Mohammad Masdari 
    Abstract: Accurate detection of the faulty nodes and transmitting true status of monitoring environment is one of the crucial challenges in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs). This paper puts forward a novel unsupervised faulty node detection algorithm to improve the detection accuracy in the 2D and 3D heterogeneous WSNs. In this approach, the current status of each node is predicted by using the ARIMA methods and factors such as distance, the amount of coverage ratio. Moreover, the nodes status in the previous rounds is utilized to weight the measured values of the neighboring nodes. By using the proposed distributed algorithm, each sensor node can more correctly recognize its status in the presence of the events such as fire and transient faults. Extensive simulations indicate the effectiveness of this algorithm in reducing the false positive problem and improving the detection accuracy in different scenarios considered for a 2D and a 3D heterogeneous WSN.
    Keywords: WSN; Heterogeneous; Fault Detection; Voting; False Positives; True Negatives; ARIMA.

  • Multimedia Quality Evaluation Model in Streaming Service Environments   Order a copy of this article
    by Ja-Ok Koo, Choi Young-June, Zhetao Li, Tingrui Pei, Zelalem Jembre Yalew 
    Abstract: Recently, mobile broadcast services such as digital media broadcasting (DMB), multimedia streaming services, and IPTV, have generated a rapid increase in multimedia services via the Internet compared to traditional cable or satellite delivery. Multimedia via the Internet is consumed under different network conditions and through various devices. The focus is now on clearly defining, measuring, and evaluating elements related to the service quality over the Internet. In this study, we propose a multimedia quality measurement model that evaluates the quality of multimedia from a consumer point of view. First, we select the parameters that affect the quality of multimedia at both the application and network levels, and then use these parameters to produce multiple altered versions of an original video. All videos are then uploaded to the popular streaming site YouTube and are viewed by study participants on multiple devices. For each video and device, participants provide a mean opinion score (MOS). For analysis, we first determine the effect of parameters on videos and devices. After removing those parameters that do not affect the video, we apply multiple regression on the MOS dataset collected from the subjects to devise a model for multimedia quality assessment, which we call MOS multimedia streaming (MOS$_{MS}$). Finally, we use half of the collected data as a training set and the other half as a test set to validate the new model. The proposed model can help content providers to understand how their multimedia is perceived by consumers under different network conditions and through various devices.
    Keywords: MOS;multimedia;quality assessment;mobile devices;streaming services.

  • A Novel Deep Learning Model for Detection of Denial of Service Attacks in HTTP Traffic over Internet   Order a copy of this article
    by V. Punitha, C. Mala, Narendran Rajagopalan 
    Abstract: The technological advancements in Internet and mobile communications bring new dimension to the usage of internet applications and services. The accessibility to the enhanced services is intentionally blocked by the denial of service attacks. This paper proposes a novel deep learning classification model to detect the denial of service attacks in application layer for different network environments, such as wired network, adhoc network and mobile adhoc network. The simulation results illustrate that the performance of the proposed deep learning model is proficiently improved compared to existing bio-inspired and machine learning models in terms of detection accuracy and classification metrics.
    Keywords: Network traffic classification; Denial of Service attack; Application layer DoS attack; Slow rate DoS attacks; Deep learning technique.

  • Securely Solving Privacy Preserving Minimum Spanning Tree Algorithms in Semi-honest Model   Order a copy of this article
    by KOTESWARA R.A.O. CH, Kunwar Singh 
    Abstract: In 1982, Andrew Yao introduced secure two-party computation for the so-called millionaire's problem. The problem is about two millionaires Alice and Bob, interested to determine who is wealthier without revealing their actual private property values. Goldreich generalized the secure two-party computation and formalized the secure multi-party computation. Suppose two telephone companies wish to merge to provide better services to end users. Each company has a cost function for connecting any pair of houses. They want to connect every house with minimum cost in merged company. Mathematically, given two graphs G1, G2 they want to compute MST(min(G1, G2)). Before merging both companies want to know whether merging will bene fit them or not without revealing cost function for any pair of houses. Based on the secure multi-party computation paradigm, we propose new algorithms for privacy-preserving computation of minimum spanning tree. We also investigate how to solve the classical minimum spanning tree problem with the help of Arithmetic Black-Box operations. We propose two more algorithms for solving MST in semi-honest model with secure Arithmetic Block-Box in the secretly shared data environment. To the best our knowledge this is the fi rst time the MST problems are addressed with the help of secure ABB. Our protocols offer perfect security against semi-honest adversaries in secretly shared data environment of multi-party computation.
    Keywords: Secure multiparty computation; privacy; arithmetic block-box; and minimum spanning tree.

  • Refining Channel and Power Allocation for Green Device-to-Device Communications   Order a copy of this article
    by Chih-Shun Hsu 
    Abstract: The Device-to-Device (D2D) communication is considered as one of the possible communication mode in 5G communication systems. Most of the existing researches for D2D communications try to achieve the minimum total transmission power of D2D user devices (DUEs) by performing channel assignment first, and then performing power control according to the QoS requirement of each DUE. However, after power control, the transmission powers and interferences of DUEs have dropped and the qualities of channels have changed, hence there is room to further reduce the transmission power of DUEs. To improve the existing works, we propose three novel channel and power allocation schemes to further reduce the total transmission power of all DUEs. Since the total transmission power drops after each round of power control, the first approach is to perform the power control scheme for several rounds until the dropping transmission power is less than a threshold. The second approach is to perform channel and power reallocation for several rounds until the dropping transmission power is less than a threshold. The channel of each DUE is reallocated after the first round of power allocation to find if there is any channel reallocation can further reduce the transmission power of DUEs and still satisfy the QoS requirement. To reduce the computation cost, the greedy strategy is adopted, which reallocates the channel and adjusts the transmission power of the DUE whose transmission power is the greatest first so as to further reduce the total transmission power of all DUEs. The third approach is a hybrid of the first and the second approaches. Note that, the channel and power are not really allocated to the DUEs until the final refining allocation results are calculated by the base station. The trade-off among transmission power, throughput, and computation cost are discussed through extensive simulations. Simulation results justify the energy efficiency of the proposed refining schemes.
    Keywords: D2D communication; Channel allocation; Power allocation.

  • ECG Patch Monitor : A telemedicine system for remote monitoring and assisting patients during a heart attack   Order a copy of this article
    by Tesnim Charrad, Kaouther Nouira, Ahmed Ferchichi 
    Abstract: This paper deals with real time ubiquitous healthcare monitoring systems. The goal is not just to supply a medical service in hospitals and medical offices, but also to provide a reliable service during the normal daily life. In this purpose, a monitoring system for patients suffering from heart disease is designed. This system is called ECG Patch Monitor which enables cardiac data collection and analysis in real-world environments such as at work or at home. It is an adhesive device attached directly to the skin. ECG Patch Monitor aims to prevent heart attacks or any other form of heart failure. It uses a real time anomaly detection algorithm. Once an anomaly is detected, the device alerts the healthcare center. ECG Patch Monitor is remotely controlled by the healthcare center through a platform. The ECG Patch Monitor allows doctors to call the patient in emergency to verify his health condition. In the extreme case, the doctor can remotely perform an electroshock or a drug injection. The doctor can locate the patient and send an ambulance.
    Keywords: ECG Patch Monitor; Ubiquitous Systems; Healthcare Monitoring; Systems Architecture; Health 4.0.

  • SA-RPL: A Scheduling-Aware Forwarding Mechanism in RPL/TSCH-operated Networks   Order a copy of this article
    by Saeid Afshari, Mohammad Nassiri, Reza Mohammadi 
    Abstract: Wireless sensor networks have shown to be a promising technology for industrial automation in which continuous monitoring is a critical requirement. Deploying an energy-aware sensor network permits increasing the network lifetime and prolonging the monitoring operation. IEEE 802.15.4e and RPL have been used as de-facto protocols at the access and network layer in low power and low-rate wireless networks. Specifically, the Time Synchronized Channel Hopping (TSCH) of 802.15.4e has been designed to provide a reliable access method in low power and lossy networks. More importantly, the combination of TSCH and RPL facilitates providing load-balancing together with energy-saving in such networks. This paper proposes Schedule Aware RPL (SA-RPL) which aims at prolonging the network lifetime while improving load balancing. It periodically collects scheduling matrix information form TSCH to compute a new measure for selecting the next hop at the network layer. More precisely, the parent with minimum number of occupied cells is more likely to be chosen as the preferred parent. To evaluate the performance of SA-RPL, we modified a distributed management scheme already developed in NS2 simulator. Simulation results show that SA-RPL, compared with other methods, prolongs the network lifetime up to two times and achieves a more uniform energy consumption distribution without decreasing other performance metrics.
    Keywords: Routing ; Scheduling; RPL; TSCH; Industrial Automation; Energy Efficiency; Load Balancing.

  • A secure three factor based fully anonymous user authentication protocol for multi-server environment   Order a copy of this article
    by Vinod Mahor, Padmavathi R, Santanu Chatterjee, Sanshray Kumar Dewangan, Manish Kumar 
    Abstract: A single sign-on authentication scheme is required protocol in multi server environment. Recently an authentication protocolrnbased on Lagrange interpolation polynomial to satisfy multi server environment with low computational and communication costrnis proposed. In this paper we have analyzed the above scheme and show that their scheme is vulnerable to various attacks likernInsider attack, server impersonation attack, user impersonation attack and stolen smart card attack. We also show that their scheme fails to provide server anonymity, user revocation in case smart card is lost/stolen or users authentication parameters are revealed. We have also proposed enhanced multi-server authentication protocol using biometric based smart card and Lagrange interpolation which is more secure. The proposed protocol is analysed using BAN logic to show that the proposed protocol provides secure authentication. In addition, we have simulated our scheme using widely accepted and used AVISPA tool to prove that our scheme is secure against passive and active attacks. The proposed protocol provides high security and anonymity along with low communication and computational cost and various security functions.
    Keywords: Authentication; Multi-server authentication; security; smart card; lagrange interpolation; single sign-on; AVISPA; BAN logic.

  • A Swarm Intelligence based Quality of Service aware Resource Allocation for Clouds   Order a copy of this article
    by Ashok Kumar 
    Abstract: The growing popularity of Cloud computing results in very large data centers around the world with vast amount of energy requirements and CO2 emissions. These large sized data centers demand efficient management of resources to conserve energy while satisfying Quality of Service (QoS) requirements of the end users. In this paper, a QoS-aware resource allocation approach using ant colony optimization is proposed. The proposed approach is implemented in CloudSim and comprehensive performance analysis shows upto 12% energy saving. rn
    Keywords: Energy Efficiency;Resource Utilization;Resource Allocation;Swarm Intelligence; Quality of Service.

  • QoS-aware Flow Scheduling for Energy-Efficient Cloud Data Center Network   Order a copy of this article
    by Songyun Wang, Xiaoda Zhang, Jiabin Yuan, Zhuzhong Qian, Xin Li, Ilsun You 
    Abstract: It is highly valuable to achieve energy-efficient cloud data centers, which always act as the basic infrastructures. This paper thus aims at reducing the energy consumption of network devices in cloud data centers by flexible flow scheduling. For such an aim, it is necessary to guarantee the flow-level performance, which is a critical requirement for QoS (Quality of Service) in production data centers. Hence, this paper takes both energy reduction and QoS into account for flow scheduling, and then proposes a three-phase framework to control the energy consumption for cloud data center network (DCN) while guaranteeing flow-level performance. The proposed framework consists of three parts: flow rate estimation, flow path selection and flow rate allocation. The first part is done by exploiting TCP properties, which aims to guarantee flow-level performance. The flow path selection, based on the flow rate estimation, determines the switch states (on or off) to satisfy the rate requirements while accomplishing traffic proportional DCN energy consumption. Finally, we allocate the flow rates the links on the selected paths. From extensive simulations, it is shown that our solution could not only reduce about 20% of energy on average than the case with all switches on, but also maintain good flow-level performance, stability and fault tolerance simultaneously.
    Keywords: Cloud Computing; Data Center Network; Energy Efficient; Flow Scheduling; Flow-level Performance.

  • Room measurement tool combining ultrasonic and inertial sensors in smartphones   Order a copy of this article
    by Yukitoshi Kashimoto, Yutaka Arakawa, Keiichi Yasumoto 
    Abstract: Obtaining accurate floor plans of buildings is critical for optimising indoor geographic information system (GIS) applications. In this paper, we present a room measurement tool that utilises a smartphone equipped with an ultrasonic sensor. To take measurements, users complete a lap along thewalls of all of the rooms. Then the tool accurately estimates the shape and size of them by tracking the walking paths of users and measuring the distance from the path to the walls with ultrasonic sensors. To track walking paths, we utilise inertial sensors embedded in the smartphone to estimate walking steps and turns, and the ultrasonic sensors to estimate the stride length when walking toward the wall. To account for such adjacent objects as bookshelves that decrease the accuracy of room size estimation, we used a mixed Gaussian filter. Our experimental results show that our tool considerably improved the estimation accuracy of the room shape and size.
    Keywords: Room measurement tool; pedestrian dead reckoning; inertial sensor; smartphone; ultrasonic sensor.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJAHUC.2019.10024705
     
  • Detection of Malware Applications using Social Spider Algorithm in Mobile Cloud Computing Environment   Order a copy of this article
    by Jannath Nisha O.S, Mary Saira Bhanu S 
    Abstract: Mobile devices have become an essential part of the daily routine of millions of users. The users run plenty of applications (apps) available in both the official market as well as unofficial application(app) market. Most of the mobile apps require resource-intensive computing power and software platform support for application execution. Many low-end but browser-enabled mobile phones are unable to support such apps. To bring adequate computational resources and storage to mobile apps, a technology named Mobile Cloud Computing (MCC) came into existence. In MCC, mobile apps are built, powered, and hosted using cloud computing technology. A mobile cloud approach enables developers to build applications designed specifically for mobile users without being bound by the mobile operating system and the computing or memory capacity of mobile devices. The attackers can also develop apps with malicious codes to perform malicious activities, such as privilege escalation, information stealing, monetization, etc. Although there are many security mechanisms available to scan and filter malicious apps, malware is still capable of reaching the user's mobile devices. So, security threats need to be considered before installing an app on a mobile device. A large number of various types of features are available in an app to characterize its behavior. Among these, permission to access multiple resources by the apps is an important feature that can be used for detecting malicious apps. The requested permissions are extracted from the apps and a list of unique permissions are created. In this paper, the proposed model uses Social Spider Algorithm (SSA) to select the optimal set of permission features and then employs various classification algorithms to detect malware apps. The performance of SSA is compared with other stochastic-based optimization algorithms, such as Particle Swarm Optimization, Gray Wolf Optimization, Fruitfly Optimization, and Gravitational Search Algorithm. The experimental results demonstrate that SSA with various classification algorithms produces high accuracy with a low False Positive Rate. In case of a balanced dataset, SSA with Random Forest gives an accuracy of 94.46% with a high recall of 90% and a low false alarm of 0.02%
    Keywords: Malware and Benign applications; Social Spider Algorithm; Mobile Cloud services; Permissions; Feature selection.

  • LWE-CPPA: A Scheme for Secure Delivery of Warning Messages in VANETs   Order a copy of this article
    by Shahab Haider, Ghulam Abbas, Ziaul Haq Abbas, Fazal Muhammad 
    Abstract: Conditional Privacy Preserving Authentication (CPPA) schemes preserve privacy of nodes and authenticate warning messages in Vehicular Ad hoc Networks (VANETs). However, the existing key exchange processes are computationally expensive, which compel CPPAs to rely on temper proof devices with pre-installed keys. Moreover, transmission of messages occurs as plaintext, which provides an opportunity to adversaries to intercept and temper communication. Furthermore, CPPAs provide no means for dealing with blackhole attacks. In this paper, we present a novel Light-Weight Encryption-enabled CPPA (LWE-CPPA) scheme that introduces encryption in warning messages. The scheme starts with the exchange of unique symmetric keys among nodes by using our proposed variant of Diffie-Hellman algorithm. After successful key exchange, the scheme uses our proposed VANETs specific novel lightweight encryption algorithm to yield a strong cipher for protection of messages from adversaries. An authentication process follows message encryption that makes our scheme robust. Furthermore, LWE-CPPA provides protection against blackhole attacks by employing a predefined threshold for warning messages acknowledgment. Simulation results demonstrate that LWE-CPPA provides improved security with reduced computational and communication overheads as compared to eminent CPPA schemes.
    Keywords: Vehicular Ad hoc Networks; Conditional Privacy Preserving; Authentication; Security; Warning message dissemination; Message encryption in VANET.

  • LTE-Indoor (LTE-I): A Novel PHY Layer Design for Future 5G Indoor Femtocell Networks   Order a copy of this article
    by Kuo-Chang Ting, Jung-Shyr Wu, Chih-Cheng Tseng 
    Abstract: Small cell technology such as Femtocell plays an important role in 5G heterogeneous network especially in the indoor environments. However, it is unreasonable that the design of the PHY layer in Femtocell networks follows that of the Macro-cell since the channel model used in indoor environments is entirely different from that used in urban or rural areas. To boost the PHY throughput of Femtocell network, LTE-indoor (LTE-I), a new PHY layer frame structure, is proposed to accommodate more symbols in a slot time as well as to adopt higher order modulations and narrower guard bands. Furthermore, through carrier aggregation (CA) techniques, the PHY layer throughput can be further booted as high as 18.2 Gbps. The proposed LTE-I frame structure also supports the Ultra-Reliable and Low latency Communications (URLLC) by making the subcarrier spacing wider to increase the symbol rate with almost no throughput loss.
    Keywords: Cyclic Prefix; Delay Spreads; Femtocell; ISI (Inter-Symbol Interference); LTE (Long Term Evolution); PHY; LAA; Throughput; WLAN.

  • An Energy-efficient Low-SAR Pathfinding Mechanism for WBAN   Order a copy of this article
    by Tin-Yu Wu 
    Abstract: In Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN), sensors nodes are placed on, in or around the human body to gather bioinformation for medical purposes. However, energy efficiency remains a crucial problem for WBANs. Energy consumption determines the lifetime of a network and any node failure could cause network failure. In the medical context, network failure may significantly degrade system reliability and result in considerable packet loss that could be life-threatening. In this study, Dijkstra algorithm is adopted for pathfinding. According to each node's remainder power and weighted SAR value, our proposed mechanism can find the path with the lowest SAR to reduce the effects of electromagnetic radiation on the human body.
    Keywords: WSN; WBAN; SAR; Dijkstra's Algorithm.

  • An improved certificateless two-party authenticated key agreement protocol for wireless sensor networks   Order a copy of this article
    by Lunzhi Deng 
    Abstract: Key agreement is an important way to achieve secure communication betweenrnthe two or more parties. In the past decade, wireless sensor networks (WSNs) have received great attention and contributed to the development of low-power sensor networks. In WSNs, sensor nodes are generally inexpensive, low-power devices with limited computing and storage capabilities. So it is very valuable to design a secure and efficient key agreement protocol for WSNs. Recently, Bala et al. (2016) put forward a certificateless two-party authenticated key agreement (CL2PAKA) protocol for WSNs and asserted that it is provably secure in the extended Canetti-Krawczyk (eCK) model. In this paper, by showing the concrete attack, Bala et als protocol was proved to be vulnerable againstrnthe type I adversary. In order to make up for the security flaws, an improved protocol is proposed. It does not require pairing operations and requires only five scale multiplication operations, so it is suit for WSNs
    Keywords: Certificateless Cryptography; Key Agreement; Wireless Sensor Networks;rnSecurity; eCK Model.

  • Collaborative Data Acquisition and Processing for Post Disaster Management and Surveillance Related Tasks using UAV based IoT Cloud   Order a copy of this article
    by J. Sathish Kumar, Saurabh Kumar, Meghavi Choksi, Mukesh Zaveri 
    Abstract: Rescue and recovery operations are very critical for post disaster management. For post disaster management and surveillance activities, there is a need of acquiring the information about the ground situation through sensing or observing data and identify the locations, which is a challenging task. These data may be sensed or observed through different types of sensors deployed in the area of interest. This can be achieved through a collaborative way of data acquisition and processing. In this context, this paper introduces the framework for data acquisition based on collaborative processing using unmanned aerial vehicles and Internet of Things network. The major contribution of this work is that the real time test bed using actual UAVs and IoT devices for data acquisition, clustering of different sensors and devices deployed for it and localizing the sensors and different events or situations arising in the region of interest is detailed and demonstrated. The framework is evaluated using real test bed with drones (UAVs) and integrated with cloud platform in IoT-based environment for data storage of the acquired data for further analysis and effective decision making in disaster situations.
    Keywords: Collaborative Processing; Post Disaster Management; Surveillance; Internet of Things; Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV).

  • E-DSR: Energy-efficient routing for sensors with diverse sensing rates   Order a copy of this article
    by You-Chiun Wang, Shih-Wei Yeh 
    Abstract: Cluster-based routing is popularly used in wireless sensor networks (WSNs), where sensors are organized into clusters and cluster heads (CHs) are selected to compress and forward packets for other nodes. However, most of existing protocols implicitly assume that sensors produce data with the same speed. Due to event occurrence or application needs, sensors may have different sensing rates in practice. Some CHs may thus encounter serious buffer overflow and dispose of many packets. To conquer this problem, the paper proposes a protocol called Energy-efficient routing for sensors with Diverse Sensing Rates (E-DSR) to extend network lifetime and diminish lost packets. E-DSR divides the network into grids and selects one CH in each grid based on multiple factors such as its position, residual energy, and sensing rate, so as to improve energy efficiency on routing. Moreover, depending on traffic loads of CHs, E-DSR adaptively splits or merges grids to avoid buffer overflow or facilitate data compression, respectively. Simulation results verify that E-DSR significantly prolongs network lifetime and reduces the data loss rate, as compared with various routing protocols developed for WSNs.
    Keywords: cluster; energy efficiency; routing protocol; sensing rate; wireless sensor network.

  • Cryptanalysis of Certificateless Authenticated Key Agreement Protocols   Order a copy of this article
    by Runzhi Zeng, Libin Wang 
    Abstract: In this work, we cryptanalyze two Certificateless Authenticated Key Agreement (CL-AKA) protocols, Bala et al. (2018) and Xie et al. (2019), which are recently proposed claiming provable security. Specifically, we show impersonation attacks against the two protocols with successful probability 1 in extended eCK model using at most two queries. Then the process of our cryptanalysis is abstracted to a general method for cryptanalyzing a specific class of CL-AKA protocols which we call linearly-expressible CL-AKA protocol. Our method suggest new security requirements of CL-AKA protocols
    Keywords: Certificateless Public Cryptography; Certificateless Key Agreement; Authenticated Key Agreement; eCK Model; Extended eCK Model; Security analysis; Cryptanalysis; Without Pairing;.

  • Multi-Location Anywhere Astronomy Paradigm   Order a copy of this article
    by Ayodele Periola, Lateef Akinyemi, Srinu Sesham 
    Abstract: Capital constrained astronomy organizations find it challenging to construct telescopes. Strategies such as converting unused satellite communication earth stations have been proposed. However, the conversion strategy is not sustainable due to the limited number of available unused satellite communication earth stations. Therefore, a new low cost approach to access telescopes is needed. This paper proposes a synergy between radio astronomy and satellite television broadcasting. The paper proposes a software defined radio enabled multi-mode satellite-television terrestrial telescope. The proposed telescope aims to provide all-round access to telescopes for astronomy observations. The performance benefit of the proposed solution is investigated using system acquisition costs and angular resolution as performance metrics. The proposed system reduces acquisition cost is reduced by 32.5% on average. The angular resolution is enhanced by a minimum and maximum of 17.7% and 82.3% on average respectively.
    Keywords: Low-cost telescopes; Radio astronomy observations; Software defined radio; Satellite television broadcast; Developing nations.

  • MAC layer congestion control techniques in Vehicular Ad Hoc Network: Survey and Qualitative analysis   Order a copy of this article
    by Swati Sharma, Sandeep Harit 
    Abstract: Vehicular Ad Hoc Network (VANET) has become a promising area in the research community because of its various applications in road safety, mobile infotainment, and traffic management. Each vehicle can exchange information regarding the current status of traffic flow and warning through Vehicle to Vehicle (V2V) and Vehicle to Infrastructure (V2I) mode of communication. There is a high need for reliable communication to reduce the number of accidents, and to enhance road safety. So, it can be ensured using efficient congestion control techniques at the Medium Access Control (MAC) layer. The design of MAC layer protocols in VANET is a challenging task due to dynamic topology, frequent link breakage, limited bandwidth, and Quality-of-Service (QoS) requirements. In this paper, various congestion control schemes that are designed for the MAC layer of VANET are classified and discussed, which include Time-Division Multiple-Access (TDMA) based MAC protocols and Decentralized Congestion Control (DCC). TDMA MAC protocols divide the time into slots and one vehicle can access the medium at each slot. DCC is a cross-layer function at each layer of the Intelligent Transportation (ITS) station. This study discusses various benefits, limitations, and characteristics of the techniques mentioned above. Finally, qualitative comparison based on different parameters and research gaps that can be considered for future research is represented.
    Keywords: VANET; congestion control; MAC layer; TDMA; DCC.

  • To Attack or Not To: An Evolutionary Game Model to Study the Dynamics of Selfish PUEA Attackers in Cognitive Radio Networks   Order a copy of this article
    by Amar Taggu, Ningrinla Marchang 
    Abstract: The current paradigm shift towards heterogenous wireless networks is being spearheaded by 5G technology in which Cognitive Radio Networks (CRNs) have evolved as a promising enabling technology. CRNs are built around the concept of utilisation of white space in the spectrum of licensed users whenever they are not using their bands. However, CRNs are susceptible to many security attacks. CRN-specific attacks include Primary User Emulation Attacks (PUEA) and Spectrum Sensing Data Falsification (SSDF) attacks, which are mainly carried out by selfish attackers with the intent of maximising the utilisation of the spectrum all by themselves. This current work is an attempt to use Evolutionary game theory (EGT) to study the dynamics of selfish SUs (PUEA) and normal SUs in a CRN. The game formulation and the analysis thereof, are conclusive and can help an SU decide as to which, among the two strategies, To Attack or Not To Attack, to use, for enjoying a higher payoff.
    Keywords: Evolutionary Game Theory; Replicator Dynamics; Cognitive Radio Networks; Evolutionary Stable Strategy; PUEA.

  • Service-aware objective function with QoS for RPL routing   Order a copy of this article
    by Tsung-Han Lee, Lin-Huang Chang, Jiun-Jian Liaw, Chih-Lin Hu, Hung-Chi Chu 
    Abstract: The routing protocol for low power and lossy network (RPL), constructed according to the objective function (OF), is the standard for routing selection in low power and lossy networks (LLNs). Most schemes utilize the expected transmission count (ETX) as the routing metric for the next hop. Designing effective and efficient routing protocols in LLNs require the mechanism to meet the criteria of different applications or services. In this paper, we propose a service-aware OF with quality of service (SOF-QoS) mechanism which integrates received signal strength indicator (RSSI), energy consumption, and hop count metrics into RPL OF for path selection according to different services, such as normal data, video packets and emergency messages transmission in LLNs. The proposed SOF-QoS mechanism defines various weights with fuzzy logic for the next routing selection in response to each service. We conduct the simulation under different network topologies with static and mobile scenarios to analyse the performance of the proposed SOF-QoS mechanism and compare them with the traditional RPL schemes. The simulation result shows that our proposed SOF-QoS mechanism provides relatively better or superior performance with reliability than traditional ones for different services.
    Keywords: Mobility; RPL; energy consumption; RSSI; hop count; QoS.

Special Issue on: PAAP'18 Architectures, Algorithms, Securities and Programming for Big Data Processing and Deep Learning

  • Plaintext Checkable Encryption with Check Delegation Revisited   Order a copy of this article
    by Yu-Chi Chen 
    Abstract: Plaintext-checkable encryption (PCE) is a new notion which provides an add-on checkability on traditional public key encryption. In general, PCE allows that given a target plaintext, a ciphertext and a public key, the specific check algorithm can verify whether the target plaintext is identical to the underlying plaintext of the ciphertext with the public key. With the new functionality of checkability, PCE cannot achieve the CPA security undoubtedly. To achieve the CPA security, we can change the system framework and then restrict that only the specific and authenticated checker can perform such the check algorithm. In addition, the sender who encrypts a message does not need to have any information or identity of any checker. In this paper, we revisit PCE with designated checker. We formally present two new definitions, PCEAC and PCEDC, and, we propose two constructions. Finally, an extension of the definition is formalized to capture checkability only for a set of plaintexts.
    Keywords: Plaintext checkable encryption; Public key encryption; Delegation; Checkability.

  • Health-Ledger Model Development Based on IoT and Blockchain   Order a copy of this article
    by MENG-HSUAN FU 
    Abstract: Health-Ledger Model (HLM) is proposed to complete personal health history based on blockchain technologies and IoT devices. In HLM, all users physiological signals and medical records are measured and recorded through IoT devices. Blockchain technologies are adopted into HLM, each health record is transferred into a meaningless content composed of serial number and alphabets in order to protect users privacy. All records are uploaded into personal health blockchain automatically and stored permanently. Owing to decentralized data storage, users have privilege to access their personal blockchain for checking their own health records arbitrarily. HLM is built based on the functions of automatic data collection and alarm system which are achieved by IoT devices in a well wireless network environment, and the blockchain technologies of encryption, hash, peer-to-peer storage forming a personal health blockchain.
    Keywords: blockchain; Internet of Things (IoT); secure mechanism; decentralized data storage.

  • An Optimal Scheduling Algorithm for DASH Video Streaming over Variable-Bit-Rate Networks   Order a copy of this article
    by Shin-Hung Chang, Kuan-Jen Wang, Jan-Ming Ho 
    Abstract: With the rapid increase of network bandwidth, it becomes popular for people to watch video over the Internet. To cope with dynamic and heterogeneous network condition, video-service providers, e.g., YouTube and Netflix, use DASH streaming technology (Dynamic Adaptive Streaming over HTTP) to serve contents to their users. A DASH server dynamically adjusts rate of streaming to a client according to the clients available bandwidth. In order to evaluate users watching video quality, the QoE (Quality of Experience) is an index of users subjective opinions. Under the limited bandwidth constraint, previous scheduling algorithms usually arrange as many as possible highest-resolution segments in a DASH streaming service for improving users QoE. However, scheduling the most highest-resolution segments in a DASH streaming service will lead to arrange many lowest-resolution segments in this streaming service simultaneously. In this paper, we address that improving the whole video streaming quality and users QoE should start from the idea of scheduling minimum number of low-resolution segments iteratively. Furthermore, we define an M-Low optimization problem and propose a novel M-Low (Minimization of Low-resolution) scheduling algorithm, which adjusts the video resolution and optimizes the QoE indices in a DASH streaming service. We refer to the following QoE measures: minimizing the number of video playback freeze count, minimizing low-resolution segments, minimizing the resolution-switching count, and smoothing the video during resolution changes. We definitely prove that the playback schedule generated by the M-Low algorithm is M-Low optimal. Moreover, we show through simulations that our proposed M-Low scheduling achieves a higher QoE measures than those of previously published algorithms.
    Keywords: Dynamic adaptive streaming over HTTP (DASH); quality of experience (QoE); Internet TV (IPTV); Variable bit rate (VBR).

  • Maintaining Data Integrity in Cloud Systems through Version Management   Order a copy of this article
    by Tsozen Yeh, Yipin Wang, Yiming Tu 
    Abstract: As the era of the Big Data arrives, the enormous amount of data collected has far exceeded what traditional computer systems can appropriately handle and process. Accordingly, cloud computing has been largely used to facilitate the processing of Big Data. Often individual data files contain data inserted at different time, which means they have chronological versions of contents since their creation. The integrity of data stored on cloud systems could be compromised by hardware failure or human mistakes. It will be desirable if the cloud system could efficiently maintain versions of data files, in particular for those important ones, to help users examine and process their prior versions when errors occur. Hadoop is one of the most popular cloud systems used nowadays. Unfortunately, it does not support efficient schemes to conduct version management for files. Previously, we improved Hadoop by realizing autonomous snapshot and extra duplication for files covered in snapshots. In this paper, we report our efforts to design and implement version management for files in snapshots. With the help of autonomous snapshot and extra file duplication, version management can further maintain data integrity for important files contained in snapshots.
    Keywords: big data; data integrity; cloud computing; Hadoop; HDFS;.

  • Personalized Gesture Recognition based on Tri-axis Accelerometer Using Gabor Filters   Order a copy of this article
    by Zhenyu He 
    Abstract: Human gesture is one of the most important ingredients of context information. In this paper, a novel gesture recognition framework based on tri-axis accelerometer mounted on a cell phone is proposed. Since the length of acceleration signals is variable according to different gestures and different subjects input speed, most of recognition algorithms cannot be used. To solve this problem, we propose a novel resampling method by combining decimation and interpolation. After that, we propose 1D Gabor coefficients of acceleration signals as features. However, the dimensionality of Gabor feature space used in gesture recognition is very high. We adopt Boosting and a two-stage method PCA plus LDA to select and compress the Gabor feature. The Classifier we used is fast Multi-class Support Vector Machine. The average recognition results of seventeen complex gestures using the proposed Gabor feature are effective. The performance of experimental results shows that gesture-based interaction can be used as a novel human computer interaction for consumer electronics and mobile devices.
    Keywords: gesture recognition; tri-axis accelerometer; Gabor filter;Boosting; PCA; LDA.

  • Predicting The Price Movement from Candlestick Charts: A CNN-based Approach   Order a copy of this article
    by Chih-Chieh Hung, Ying-Ju Chen, Siou Jhih Guo, Fu-Chun Hsu 
    Abstract: Candlestick charts have been widely used to display price movements of a security, derivative, or currency for a specific period. They are one type of popular charts for day traders. Motivated by the conventional use of candlestick charts as a visual aid for decision making in stock, currency exchange, and commodity trading, we proposed a framework Deep Candlestick Predictor (DCP) to forecast the price movements by reading the candlestick charts instead of reading the considerable body of numerical data from financial reports. DCP consists of three components: 1. chart decomposer: decomposes a given candlestick chart into several sub-charts, 2. CNN-Autoencoder: derives the best representation of sub-charts, and 3. 1D-CNN: forecasts the price movements. An extensive study is conducted by daily prices from Taiwan Exchange Capitalization Weighted Stock index which contains 21,819 trading days. The result shows that DCP effectively achieves higher accuracy comparing to accuracy using conventional index-based models.
    Keywords: Candlestick Chart; Price Movement Prediction; Convolution Autoencoder; CNN; Deep Learning.