Forthcoming and Online First Articles

European Journal of International Management

European Journal of International Management (EJIM)

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European J. of International Management (186 papers in press)

Regular Issues

  • A study of the self-view and achievement motivation of Taiwanese, Indonesian and Vietnamese workers: a cross-national study   Order a copy of this article
    by Ming-Chang Wu, Farhad Abdul Kader Cassim, Ibnu Siswanto, Chenju Ko 
    Abstract: Taiwanese industries and universities recruit a lot of foreign workers and students from Southeast Asian countries. Unfortunately, a lack of research by local academics on understanding them in terms of psychological variables, such as self-view and achievement motivation, can lead to a neglect of their ability and skills development. As a result, this study investigated three groups of Asian workers, namely Taiwanese, Indonesians, and Vietnamese, on self-view and achievement motivation. A cross-national survey study of 895 respondents led us to conclude that although the three Asian groups are generally social-oriented in terms of their self-view and achievement motivation, Indonesian workers have a higher individual-oriented self-view (IOSV), social-oriented self-view (SOSV), individual-oriented achievement motivation (IOAM), and social-oriented achievement motivation (SOAM). Also, while there is a significantly positive relationship between self-view and achievement motivation, the nature of this relationship is different in each country.
    Keywords: self-view; achievement motivation; individual-oriented self-view; social-oriented self-view; individual-oriented achievement motivation; social-oriented achievement motivation; cross-national study.
    DOI: 10.1504/EJIM.2021.10029655
  • A meta-analysis of main, moderating and mediating effects of ethical leadership on employees' work outcomes   Order a copy of this article
    by Li Shuwen, Jia Ruiqian, L.U.O. Jinlian, Linmin Guo, Juergen H. Seufert 
    Abstract: This study employs a meta-analysis method to test the influence, boundaries and paths of ethical leadership on employees' work outcomes. Results suggest that ethical leadership is related positively to numerous outcomes such as employee voice and job performance. Furthermore, it is explored how ethical leadership influences these outcomes from moderators and mediators. Results reveal that, compared with the Anglo culture, ethical leadership in the Asian Confucian culture can stimulate employees' voice better while ethical leadership in the Anglo culture is more effective in enhancing leader-member exchange (LMX) and job satisfaction better. Ethical leadership is more likely to improve the performance of male subordinates rather than their female counterparts. Compared with public agents, ethical leadership in private organizations can promote employees voice and self-efficacy better. Organizational identity and LMX play mediating roles between ethical leadership, job performance and job satisfaction, respectively, while employee voice merely plays a mediating role.
    Keywords: ethical leadership; employee voice; organisational identity; LMX; job satisfaction.
    DOI: 10.1504/EJIM.2021.10030741
  • Impact of workplace ostracism on voice behaviour in sustainable organisations: a mediated moderation model   Order a copy of this article
    by Ghulam Abid, Asma Nisar, Saira Ahmed, Saira Farooqi, Natasha Saman Elahi 
    Abstract: Employee voice is the communication that is constructive and change oriented and which is planned to improve a problematic situation. Drawing on conservation of resources (COR) theory, our study investigates the direct influence of workplace ostracism on employee energy. Moreover, this study also examines the mediating impact of energy in between the relationship of ostracism and voice behavior and the moderating impact of incivility among energy and voice behavior. Data was collected in three waves covering a 2-month time period at regular intervals of three weeks from employees and their immediate supervisors working in public sector financial institutions. By employing the PROCESS macro developed by Hayes on the actual sample of 300 employees and 19 supervisors from different job functions, strong empirical support has been established for all the direct and indirect hypothesised relationships. Theoretical and practical implications alongside recommendations for further empirical research on voice behaviour have also been suggested.
    Keywords: workplace ostracism; energy; incivility; voice behaviour; conservation of resources.
    DOI: 10.1504/EJIM.2021.10031641
  • Testing the external monitoring hypothesis on earnings management: a case of business groups in South Korea   Order a copy of this article
    by Young Kyun Chang, Pyung Kyung Kang, Won-Yong Oh, Minsup Song 
    Abstract: Previous studies on earnings management largely focused on the roles of internal governance mechanisms. However, an important but underexplored issue in the earnings management literature is how external stakeholders affect a firm's earnings management practice. We propose an external monitoring hypothesis ? earnings management is better monitored by external stakeholders when internal governance mechanisms are weak. Using a dataset of Korean Chaebol (business group) firms, we found that earnings management practices decrease when group-level and firm-level visibilities are salient. Our findings are consistent with the external monitoring hypothesis, suggesting that external monitoring mechanisms play significant roles in shaping a firm's behaviour.
    Keywords: external monitoring; earnings management; corporate governance; business group; Chaebol.
    DOI: 10.1504/EJIM.2021.10032913
  • Marshall plan or a mediator: the intellectual structure of management studies in Europe   Order a copy of this article
    by Hulusi Cenk Sozen, Erdem Kirkbesoglu, Sule Tuzlukaya, Mehmet Cakar 
    Abstract: This study aims at examining the role of the European Management Review (EMR) within the on-going paradigmatic debates between Europe and North America concerning management and organisational research. Ten years' worth of bibliometric data of the journal were gathered. Citation patterns of EMR authors were analysed according to journals they prefer to refer more frequently. Citation patterns of the authors from sub-regions of Europe were also compared to test whether heterogeneity exists in terms of academic resource usage. The findings highlight that EMR has successfully constructed a bridge between research traditions of two continents. Qualitative, macro and theoretical articles, which are significant characteristics of the European paradigm, have a considerable rate of acceptance in EMR. Besides obeying local rules of scientific inquiry, the majority of European authors have decided to use influential North American journals. EMR has partially found a way to unify fragmented research efforts in different parts of Europe.
    Keywords: bibliometric; social network analysis; management studies.
    DOI: 10.1504/EJIM.2021.10032963
  • The impact of total quality management and business networks on company export performance in emerging vs developed economies: evidence from furniture enterprises in Pakistan and the UK   Order a copy of this article
    by Mariusz Urbanski, Adnan Ul Haque, John Lang, Eugene Kozlovski 
    Abstract: This comparative research drawing on complementary theoretical perspective examines the moderating role of business networks (BN) in relation to total quality management (TQM) and company export performance (CEP) in the furniture business of the UK (developed economy) and Pakistan (emerging economy). By employing the PLS-SEM technique, we gathered data from a total of 230 export managers (115 each from economies) using network, connection, referral and purposive sampling. The findings revealed that there is a significant, positive relationship between TQM and CEP. Results also confirmed that BN statistically significantly moderates the relationship between TQM and CEP. We theorised that BN is an influential variable in enhancing the effectiveness of TQM that leads to an increase in the company’s export performance. The present research contributes to the literature by providing an insight into the effectiveness of TQM and BN in the process of improving export performances in both emerging and developed economies.
    Keywords: business networks; company export performance; contrasting economies; furniture industry; total quality management.
    DOI: 10.1504/EJIM.2021.10033182
  • Pro bono, cui bono, ex fida bona? Investigation on pro bono commitment of large US law firms in 1993-2007   Order a copy of this article
    by Tae-Hyun Kim, Young Kyun Chang 
    Abstract: Previous works have found the relationship between corporate philanthropy and financial performances inconclusive. This study proposes that such a mixed relationship should be better understood as how a firm's instrumental motive interacts with institutional pressures for philanthropy. To do so, this study focuses on large US law firms in 1993-2007 when the US legal service industry had been transformed into a highly commercialised for-profit market (instrumental motives), while having pressured law firms to provide philanthropic legal services known as pro bono (institutional pressures). We hypothesise that law firms would engage in pro bono when it is beneficial to the firm, and disengage from it otherwise, and such tendency would be moderated by the salience of institutional pressures on pro bono. We found overall support for the hypotheses. Theoretical contributions and practical implications are discussed.
    Keywords: pro bono; law firm; commercialisation; instrumental motive; institutional pressure.
    DOI: 10.1504/EJIM.2021.10033228
  • Mediating mechanism of thriving at work between family motivation, abusive supervision and organisational commitment   Order a copy of this article
    by Mariam Saleem, Ghulam Abid, Tahira Hassan Butt 
    Abstract: The current research empirically investigates the impact of family motivation, thriving and abusive supervision on organisational commitment. Data was collected in two waves (T1 and T2) over a one-month time period from 400 banking employees. Our results provide support for our hypothesised model. The results find that the family motivation and thriving are positively related to organisational commitment and also thriving mediates the association between family motivation and organisational commitment. Contrarily, abusive supervision has a negative impact on an employee's thriving and organisational commitment. Limitations and future directions have also been discussed.
    Keywords: thriving; family motivation; organizational commitment; abusive supervision.
    DOI: 10.1504/EJIM.2021.10033491
  • How emerging market firms can upgrade and develop into hidden champions: evidence from China   Order a copy of this article
    by Jingqin Su, Yibo Jia, Miao Cui, Xueke Du, Shuai Zhang 
    Abstract: This paper investigates how emerging market firms (EMFs) upgrade and develop into hidden champions in a context that differs from that of developed countries. With the perspective of global value chains (GVCs) theory, case studies of three Chinese hidden champions in different industries were conducted. The findings show that with the help of global lead firms, embedded depth and niche market breadth are key strategies for the EMFs to improve product competitiveness, technical capacities, global market share and bargaining power, and ultimately shape the development process and outcomes of hidden champions. Our results also suggest that both strategies are closely related to the distinctive characteristics and the subjective intention to improve performance of EMFs. This research is useful for both academics and practitioners and contributes to the theory of hidden champions by providing the GVC perspective. Furthermore, corresponding practical insights are offered to help more companies to be competitive.
    Keywords: emerging market firms; hidden champions; global value chains; global lead firms; case study; upgrading.
    DOI: 10.1504/EJIM.2021.10033492
  • The link between ecological innovations and international competitiveness in the context of the Turkish chemical industry   Order a copy of this article
    by Esra Bal, Halim Kazan 
    Abstract: The link between eco-innovation and competitiveness has been the subject of extensive debate, with research shifting from a focus on the costs of greening firms to its implementation. This study attempts to contribute to the debate by highlighting the case of the Turkish chemical industry. Using data derived from computer-assisted telephone interviews across 159 companies, we explore the influence of three types of eco-innovation (organisational, process and product) on the international competitiveness of firms. Additionally, our study extends the scope of this tripartite model of eco-innovation by accounting for domestic market performance and the maturity level of innovations as moderating variables. Our findings indicate that, while it does not pay to be green in terms of competitive performance, several moderating variables mediate the influence of the organisational and process types of eco-innovation on international competitiveness. Furthermore, they indicate that eco-innovation activities in developing economies are unlikely to secure a competitive advantage in international markets. The findings may inform eco-innovative policies and business strategies in developing economies
    Keywords: eco-innovation; international competitiveness; maturity level of innovation; domestic market performance.
    DOI: 10.1504/EJIM.2021.10033922
  • Conceptualising the leader-member emotional exchange model   Order a copy of this article
    by SeyedMohammad Toghra, Fatemeh Gheitarani, Mirali Seyednaghavi 
    Abstract: Leadership is indeed one of the most important organisational concepts in leading human resources in the organisation and gaining organisational goals. Different researchers have investigated the dimensions of leadership in the organisation in their papers. The present paper is trying to find the connection between Hochschild`s emotional work theory and Graen`s leader-member exchange theory. Few researchers have been investigating the effect of emotional work on leadership and its effect on the quality of exchange between leader and members in organisation. Therefore, presenting a model that consists of emotional exchanges between leader and members according to emotional work dimensions, such as surface and deep acting and emotional contagion, can be a good departure point to investigate in this area. This paper is trying to synthesise the results of other researchers in the area of emotional work, emotional regulation, emotional contagion and leader-member exchange theory into a single comprehensive model.
    Keywords: emotional work; leadership; leader-member exchange theory; emotional contagion; emotional regulation; leader-follower emotional exchange model.
    DOI: 10.1504/EJIM.2021.10034091
  • The impact of companies' capabilities on investment ability and performance   Order a copy of this article
    by Janez Prašnikar, Metka Tekavčič, Vladimir Bukvič, Velimir Bole 
    Abstract: Based on the contemporary literature, a constructed conceptual structural and measurement model serves to test whether resources, such as financial flexibility and a firm's capabilities to explore and take up investment opportunities, are related to the investment ability of firms, which contributes to achieving better financial and non-financial performance in financial friction economies. By employing structural equation modelling (SEM) on a sample of Slovenian large and medium-sized enterprises, this paper shows that such relations do exist. We have shown that there is a positive relation between a firm's financial flexibility, its investment ability and performance. Moreover, in addition to financial flexibility, an internal organisation that empowers people, stimulates technological knowledge, and stimulates work in project teams represents an important asset in developing a firm's investment ability.
    Keywords: investment; investment ability; financial flexibility; capabilities; linear structural equation model.
    DOI: 10.1504/EJIM.2021.10034092
  • Cosmopolitan orientation, consumer consciousness, and green purchase intentions: mediating role of green trust   Order a copy of this article
    by Kamal Badar, Amira Khattak, Muhammad Danish, Adeel Tariq, Qasim Ali Nisar 
    Abstract: Based on consumer culture theory and the expanded rational expectation model, this study examined the cosmopolitan orientation as an antecedent to consumers' consciousness towards environment and health. Moreover, the study further examined the impact of consumers' environment and health consciousness on consumers' green purchase intentions with the mediating effect of green trust on this relationship. A questionnaire was distributed to a sample of 300 young students in Karachi and Islamabad using the convenient sampling approach. The research framework was tested using Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) in SmartPLS. The findings reveal that cosmopolitan orientation positively impacts consumers' environmental consciousness but not health consciousness. Moreover, consumers' environmental consciousness doesn't impact consumers' green purchase intentions through green trust. However, consumers' health consciousness positively impacts green purchase intentions through green trust.
    Keywords: cosmopolitan orientation; consumer consciousness; green purchase intention; green trust.
    DOI: 10.1504/EJIM.2021.10034093
  • Foreign ownership and the pursuit of global technological arbitrage opportunities   Order a copy of this article
    by Sergey Anokhin, Vladislav Spitsin, Andrei Trifonov, Irina Antonova 
    Abstract: In industries characterised by low intraindustry arbitrage opportunities, firms may extract entrepreneurial rents and ensure profitability by sourcing technological arbitrage opportunities across national borders. Foreign owners provide access to such opportunities. In the setting of 1073 Russian companies operating in the industrial machinery manufacturing industry over the course of 2013-2016, we present initial evidence suggesting that partial foreign ownership may avail international arbitrage opportunities to the firms, resulting in superior performance. The effect of arbitrage opportunities on firm performance is strongest when firms have high financial liquidity. The optimal share of foreign investor control that maximises firm performance is estimated between 39% and 51%.
    Keywords: foreign ownership; arbitrage opportunities; performance; panel data.
    DOI: 10.1504/EJIM.2021.10034196
  • The impact of social capital-based selection practices on talent management: evidence from telecom MNCs in Bangladesh   Order a copy of this article
    by Syed Monirul Hossain, Mohammad J. Uddin, Yuka Fujimoto, Seong-Yuen Toh 
    Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to explore how social capital-based selection practices influence talent management with MNCs in Bangladesh. To date, little is known on how social capital-based selection practices influence talent management to fulfill business priorities. The empirical data was collected through in-depth interviews of 12 managers from three telecommunication firms in Bangladesh using semi-structured questions. The cross-case analysis based on a phenomenological approach was used to capture talent management events. Findings revealed that trust generated from cognitive social capital among network ties was found valuable for talent selection. Ostensibly, upper-level managers have the capability to shape and implement a system in the talent management (TM) process that benefits candidates with network ties of informal social relationships. As a consequence, formal human resource management (HRM) practices are marginalised owing to social relationships within their network ties. HRM systems functioned administratively alongside the dominant social capital-based TM selection practices. For practical implications, upper-level managers used social capital-based selection practices beyond HRM systems that were often found pragmatic in selecting the right candidates for positions in organisations favouring intra-group homogeneity.
    Keywords: social capital; selection practices; talent management; human resources; human resource management; multinational corporations; upper-level managerial group; middle level managerial group.
    DOI: 10.1504/EJIM.2021.10034513
  • Founder's characteristics, institutions, and entrepreneurial firm's time to IPO in China   Order a copy of this article
    by Da Teng, Chengchun Li 
    Abstract: The initial public offering (IPO) is the most important stage in the evolution of an entrepreneurial firm. While numerous studies have investigated the determinants of the going public decision and the post-IPO performance, few studies have examined factors that influence the transition speed from the entrepreneurial firm stage to the professional firm stage. Leveraging a unique sample of 428 firms listed on Growth Enterprise Market in Shenzhen Stock exchange between 2009 and 2016, we assert that the entrepreneurial founder of the IPO firm is the key determinant of the transition speed. Based on the Upper Echelon theory and institution-based view, we suggest a that a founder's personal characteristics and external institutions drive the time to IPO. Our findings reveal the strategic importance of the founder and contribute to an improved understanding of why firms vary in the going public speed in an important emerging economy, China.
    Keywords: founder's characteristics; market-supporting institutions; time to IPO; emerging economy; China.
    DOI: 10.1504/EJIM.2021.10034515
  • Expatriate faculty job satisfaction and performance in public universities of Saudi Arabia   Order a copy of this article
    by Muhammad Awais Bhatti, Suzanie Adina T. Mat Saat, Ariff Syah Juhari, Megbel M. Aleidan, Leonardus W.W. Mihardjo 
    Abstract: Past researches have well-documented the area of employee job satisfaction and performance in a conventional setting, but limited research has been done in exploring the factors that affect job satisfaction and performance of employees working in multicultural environments. Therefore, the purpose of this research is to fill this gap by identifying and examining different factors affecting job satisfaction and performance of the expatriate faculty members working in a multicultural environment. Data was collected from 258 expatriate faculty members working in three public universities of Saudi Arabia. Structural equation modelling was used with Amos 18 to analyse the data. Findings revealed that multicultural leadership style and organisational culture played a vital role in boosting expatriate faculty job satisfaction and performance. Furthermore, the findings explained that the organisational culture and a multicultural leadership style worked together and enhanced organisational commitment, which also further enhanced job satisfaction and performance of the expatriate faculty working in a multicultural environment. This study also suggested that the role of organisational culture is twofold, as it explained that organisational culture (supportive culture) influenced organisational commitment, as well as expatriate faculty job satisfaction. In addition, internal LOC positively influenced expatriate faculty job satisfaction.
    Keywords: cultural diversity; organisational culture; multicultural leadership style; job performance; higher educational institutions; faculty members.
    DOI: 10.1504/EJIM.2021.10034854
  • How coopetition-driven innovation model works: A closer look at inlearning and absorptive capacity from a knowledge-based view   Order a copy of this article
    by Lobel Trong Thuy Tran 
    Abstract: This research explores whether the linkage between coopetition capability and innovation performance depends on the mediating role of inlearning, and, if so, the extent of the moderation of absorptive capacity. Drawing on the knowledge-based view, this study presents a framework to incorporate constructs and test their relationships with a sample of 235 financial service firms. The findings substantiate the mediating role of inlearning in the coopetition capability-innovation performance link, in which, at a higher level of absorptive capacity, inlearning increases rapidly as coopetition capability increases. This study recommends for incorporating inlearning and absorptive capacity into research on coopetition capability and innovation performance.
    Keywords: knowledge-based view; coopetition capability; inlearning; absorptive capacity; innovation performance.
    DOI: 10.1504/EJIM.2021.10035136
  • China's industrial policy and its implications for international business   Order a copy of this article
    by Shaomin Li, Matthew Farrell 
    Abstract: While it is common for countries to use industrial policies to protect domestic industries, the way China uses industrial policy is significantly different. First, unlike the industrial policy of other countries that mostly are guidelines, China's industrial policy is more like a corporate strategy that approves/disapproves projects and mobilises the country's resources to help its firms achieve dominance. Second, due to its size, the effect of China's industrial policy is global. Facing the rapid success of China's industrial policy, the international community needs to understand and effectively deal with it. We show how China has developed its industrial policy based on the Chinese Communist Party's governing philosophy, build our case using evidence from the electric vehicle batteries, solar panels, and high-speed rail industries, compare China's policy with Japan's in the 1960s, discuss concerns from other countries and China's replies, and comment on the implications of China's policy for the world.
    Keywords: industrial policy; China; electric vehicle battery; solar panel; high-speed rail; protectionism; national interest; trade war.
    DOI: 10.1504/EJIM.2021.10035137
  • Corporate responsibility practices and financial performance in Europe: a multilevel-pressures theory perspective   Order a copy of this article
    by Olivier Furrer, David A. Ralston, Carolyn P. Egri, Wade Danis, Knud Sinding, Jean-Pascal Gond, Nicola Berg, Mario Molteni, Tomasz Ochinowski, Francisco B. Castro, Irina Naoumova, Amandine Furrer-Perrinjaquet, Tevfik Dalgic, Ruth Alas, Marjo Siltaoja, Marina Dabic 
    Abstract: This multilevel study investigated the effect of national institutional environments on the relationship between corporate responsibility practices and financial performance in multiple European countries, controlling for firm-level predictors. By doing so, we demonstrate that neither institutional theory nor stakeholder theory is adequate to investigate results in a multilevel study, which is becoming the norm of the 21st century business world. As such, we develop the multilevel-pressures theory designed to handle the demands of multilevel analyses. It synthesises the essences of these two theories and expands upon them. To test our multilevel hypotheses, we conducted a survey of 2,622 firms from 18 European countries representing different institutional contexts in terms of societal governance, European Union integration, and economic conditions. Hierarchical linear modelling results indicated that, consistent with multilevel-pressures theory, national institutional contexts exert multi-level moderating effects on the relationships between investor, local community, and environmental corporate responsibility practices and firms' financial performance.
    Keywords: corporate responsibility; Europe; financial performance; institutional theory; multilevel-pressures theory; stakeholder theory.
    DOI: 10.1504/EJIM.2021.10036829
  • Changes in IFRS accounting policies in the European Union: a count data approach data approach   Order a copy of this article
    by Gualter Couto, Francisco Silva, Ruben Cordeiro 
    Abstract: Firms have changed their accounting policies, either due to the European Union's (EU) regulatory impositions or due to their own will, after the mandatory adoption of International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) for all listed companies in the EU member states except banks and insurance companies. We examined the changes in accounting policies between 2006 and 2011. The process of harmonisation of accounting policies within the EU is formal, as the changes introduced by such policies are essentially considered immaterial. The heterogeneity of the accounting policies might have been maintained. Furthermore, such changes have been influenced to a significant degree by the presence of the Big 4 and by the dimension of the entities. The results also suggest that the judgment used to assess the materiality of these changes is not homogeneous. Knowledge of the variables that explain IFRS adoption would allow us to determine whether the information disclosed by different companies can be compared, and it would provide regulatory bodies and European institutions with some guidance on how to improve and clarify the regulations.
    Keywords: IFRS; IASB; accounting policies; European Union; Poisson regression.
    DOI: 10.1504/EJIM.2021.10036102
  • FDI and technology transfer: the mediating role of market factors   Order a copy of this article
    by Alcides Barrichello, Rafael Ricardo Jacomossi, Rogério Morano, Paulo R. Feldmann 
    Abstract: Traditional FDI and technology transfer literature treats variables as market factors, infrastructure, and education and training as predecessors to attract foreign investment, but it does so in an individualised way This research aims to evaluate how these variables, when considered together, affect the attraction of FDI and technology transfer in the countries The study used indicators of 137 countries, extracted from Global Competitiveness Report, published by World Economic Forum Data were analyzed using structural equation modeling The research revealed that some market factors play a mediating role between the variables infrastructure, education and training regarding the attraction of FDI and technology transfer when all variables are analysed together in a single model In addition, the size of the domestic market is not necessarily an important variable in this context. This research contributes to the advancement of knowledge in the area since it shows an alternative and complementary way of understanding.
    Keywords: foreign direct investment; technology transfer; FDI attraction; structural equation modelling; World Economic Forum; international business strategy; globalisation; international markets.
    DOI: 10.1504/EJIM.2021.10036103
  • Towards an understanding of corporate heritage: its evolution from 2006 to 2019 and an agenda for future inquiry   Order a copy of this article
    by Tugra Nazli Akarsu, Reza Marvi, Pantea Foroudi 
    Abstract: Having a meaningful connotation with the longevity of the existence, the concept of heritage is being considered as a key element for international organisations to sustain the competitive advantage. The ample research on heritage made an enquiry to the domain of the research essential. Based on ISI Web of Knowledge, this paper evaluates the knowledge structure of corporate and brand heritage by reviewing 78 relevant articles with 941 citations in 50 journals from the business and management domain, between January 2006 and November 2019. By adopting co-citation analysis and multidimensional scaling, we identified five research groups. Co-occurrence network and algorithmic historiography were also utilised to identify the key themes, emerging and evolution of the seminal works. Based on the recent highly cited, a future model was proposed for researchers as well as international marketers that can provide insights on the evolving topics and trend areas within the research domain.
    Keywords: corporate heritage; brand heritage; heritage; bibliometric; co-citation analysis; co-occurrence; algorithmic historiography.
    DOI: 10.1504/EJIM.2021.10036104
  • Boundary spanning roles of financial advisors in M&As   Order a copy of this article
    by Sunny L. Sun, Young Ko 
    Abstract: How do investment banks (IBs) span informational boundaries and influence mergers and acquisitions (M&As)? By linking boundary-spanning with a network embeddedness perspective, we redefine the boundaries of focal firms and the roles of IBs. In particular, in the process of acquisition, firms build intra-firm ties by hiring IBs and relying on their inter-firm networks. We argue that IBs perform both an information-obtaining and an information-disseminating role across internal and external boundaries. IBs’ informational boundary-spanning roles become especially salient when targeting private firms. By analyzing 1,776 M&A deals with a series of interviews in China, we provide support for our predictions and suggest that IBs are rainmakers rather than supportive agents.
    Keywords: mergers and acquisitions; intra-firm ties; inter-firm networks; informational boundary spanning.
    DOI: 10.1504/EJIM.2021.10038596
  • The relationship between networks in finance and entrepreneurship   Order a copy of this article
    by Miguel-Angel Galindo-Martín, Soledad Castano Martinez, Teresa Mendez Picazo 
    Abstract: The specialised literature shows that business networks play an important role in the creation and development of business activity. Of particular importance is the activity of networks in finance to provide the resources that entrepreneurship needs. However, we must also consider the factors that may promote the emergence of these networks in finance. The objective of this paper is to analyse the effects of networks in finance on entrepreneurship, as well as the factors that influence them. A theoretical analysis of relations and an empirical study of 16 Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries are developed, considering two types of model according to the entrepreneurship index. The results obtained indicate that there is a positive and significant relationship between networks in finance and entrepreneurship and that institutions that protect property rights and economic growth favour the use of networks in finance.
    Keywords: entrepreneurship; networks in finance; institutions; rule of law; crowdfunding; economic growth; venture capital; corruption; banks; economic freedom.
    DOI: 10.1504/EJIM.2021.10036505
  • The effects of guanxi on supply chains: the role of culture   Order a copy of this article
    by Chi Zhang, Seock-jin Hong, Marc Ohana 
    Abstract: With the intensification of Sino-Western trade, an increasing number of studies recognise the importance of guanxi (Chinese interpersonal relations) in international supply chain management. However, there are different types of guanxi, and this study aims to deepen our understanding of the effects of expressive and instrumental guanxi on supply chain performance among buyers with different cultural orientations. Drawing on survey data from 200 Chinese manufacturers conducting overseas business, we find that the mediated relationship between expressive guanxi and supply chain performance through affect-based trust is stronger for collectivist buyers, whereas the mediated relationship between instrumental guanxi and supply chain performance through cognition-based trust is stronger for individualist buyers. Therefore, this study not only sheds light on the effects of two types of guanxi on supply chain performance, but also unveils the moderating role of individualist/collectivist culture on the mediated relationship between guanxi and supply chain performance through affect-based and cognition-based trust.
    Keywords: guanxi; affect-based trust; cognition-based trust; culture; buyer-supplier relationships; supply chain management.
    DOI: 10.1504/EJIM.2021.10037146
  • The nexus of internal market orientation and international HR management   Order a copy of this article
    by Sergey Kazakov, José L. Ruiz-Alba 
    Abstract: This paper examines Internal Market Orientation (IMO) in the context of international businesses (Multinational Corporations, MNCs) that execute international human resources management (IHRM) to manage their workforce overseas. Grounded in conventional IMO theory, this study suggests a novel iIMO framework that introduces the utilisation of ICTs in IMO and sets business performance metrics as an outcome of iIMO implementation. The viability of the iIMO model was verified following empirical research, which included surveying 650 employees who represent 147 international organisations in the Russian Federation. This paper posits the suitability of the iIMO concept application in the IHRM and affirms its efficacy in the improvement of MNC's business performance.
    Keywords: internal market orientation; market orientation; international human resource management; international companies; multi-national companies; organizational performance; business performance; IMO; MNC.
    DOI: 10.1504/EJIM.2021.10037605
  • Banks' e-reputation and customers' e-loyalty in the mobile-banking applications: e-trust and e-satisfaction as mediators and frequency of use as moderator   Order a copy of this article
    by Karim Ben Yahia, Sarra Berraies 
    Abstract: This paper investigates the links between banks' e-reputation, and customers' e-trust, e-satisfaction and e-loyalty in the mobile banking (MB) context, and explores the moderating role of customers' frequency of use of MB application. Structural equation modelling was used to analyse the data collected from a sample of MB applications users. Results confirm that banks' e-reputation affects positively customers' e-trust. The dimensions of customers' e-trust, namely competence, benevolence and integrity, mediate the link between banks' e-reputation and customers' e-loyalty. MB applications use frequency moderates the link between banks' e-reputation and customers' e-trust. This study highlights the effects of banks' e-reputation in building a good relationship with customers. This work highlights the drivers on which banks must focus to retain their customers, the profile of MB users and the importance of developing a digital monitoring service to manage e-reputation and to create a real sense of closeness with customers.
    Keywords: mobile banking services; online reputation; customers; e-trust; E-loyalty; E-satisfaction; Frequency of use; banks' digitalisation; benevolence; competence; integrity.
    DOI: 10.1504/EJIM.2021.10041714
  • High-performance work systems, psychological capital and future time perspective: a cross-nations study   Order a copy of this article
    by Hamzah Elrehail, Elaheh Behravesh, A. Mohammed Abubakar, Shatha M. Obeidat, Abdallah Alsaad, Mehmet Necati Cizreliogullari, Maher Alatailat 
    Abstract: This study explores central questions related to the connections between a firm's high-performance work system (HPWS) and its ability to foster the positive employee outcomes, psychological capital (PsyCap) and future time perspective (FTP). Drawing on signalling theory, this paper develops and examines two mediation models. In the first, FTP is proposed as mediating the HPWS-PsyCap relationship; and in the second, PsyCap is proposed as mediating the HPWS-FTP link. Self-reported survey data was collected from bank employees in Cyprus, Turkey and the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Results from partial least squares structural equation modelling (PLS-SEM) revealed that HPWS exerts a positive influence on FTP and PsyCap. The mediation effects hold for all the countries. Deploying signalling theory enriches our understanding of organisational HRM practices and their possible impact on employees. Implications for practice and research are highlighted.
    Keywords: work practices; hope; optimism; resilience; self-efficacy; future time perspective.
    DOI: 10.1504/EJIM.2021.10038441
  • Effect of acquisitions on R&D intensity: international evidence   Order a copy of this article
    by Halit Gonenc, Bruce Seifert 
    Abstract: This study examines the effect of acquisitions worldwide on R&D intensity of acquiring firms. Acquisitions on one hand could help acquirers with accessing innovation capabilities of target firms. On the other hand, R&D intensity of acquirers decreases after acquisitions because of integration problems between the acquirer and the target. The results do not show strong evidence that R&D intensity significantly changes after acquisitions in general. Industry relatedness and the listing status of targets do not seem to matter in regards to acquirers’ future R&D intensity, either. However, R&D intensity appears to be influenced by whether or not acquirers operate in industries with high R&D intensity. Moreover, R&D intensity of acquirers increases after cross-border acquisitions when cultural distance is high and the income level is similar between the acquirer and the target countries. An increase in R&D intensity is more pronounced when acquirers are not American firms.
    Keywords: acquisitions; R&D intensity; cross-border acquisitions; country income level; cultural distance.
    DOI: 10.1504/EJIM.2021.10038239
  • COVID-19 crisis and online businesses resilience: A moderated mediation model   Order a copy of this article
    by Pejman Ebrahimi, Maryam Soleimani, Sebastian Kot, Maria Fekete-Farkas, Hamidreza Alipour 
    Abstract: This study aims to investigate how COVID-19 pandemic crisis effect on online businesses resilience. For this purpose, an online questionnaire was designed and distributed among the sample of four online businesses, and 443 completed questionnaires were analysed following the PLS-SEM approach. Online questionnaires started on March 10, 2020 and continued until July 5, 2020. Findings revealed that the moderated mediation effect was significant not only for ADAP-BMD-RES. Findings also highlighted that innovation in the COVID-19 pandemic crisis is the key to online business resilience. Moreover, the presence of a significant specific indirect effect exhibits the extent of BMI and BMD simultaneous effect on online business resilience. The important finding that focusing simultaneously on the structures of these two structures can lead to greater online business resilience during the COVID-19 pandemic is substantial in managerial point of view and can be taken into consideration by online business managers.
    Keywords: COVID-19; online businesses resilience; business model innovation; business model development.
    DOI: 10.1504/EJIM.2021.10038240
  • Social identities of expatriates: a systematic literature review and agenda for future research   Order a copy of this article
    by Feng Liu, Xin Gu 
    Abstract: As the business world becomes more global and interweaved, multinational organisations have gradually become the major actor in international business. Meanwhile, the number of expatriates is continuously increasing during this process. Social and cultural (non-)psychologists have examined expatriate acculturation and adjustment from both empirical and theoretical perspectives. However, existing studies have not gone far enough in fully understanding the definition and categorisation of expatriates' social identity, limiting our insights of the overarching effect of it on expatriate tasks and expatriates' experiences. This article provides a systematic literature review on expatriates' social identity from cultural and ethnic perspective. The overview shows most studies have been done based on empirical investigations, the use of identity theories is limited, and put emphasis more on outcomes than on antecedents, particularly antecedents of expatriates' social identity at the organisational level are deficient. Furthermore, by reviewing the theoretical frameworks and empirical findings of studies in this field, it also provides a roadmap for future scholars to more systematically research on expatriates social identity.
    Keywords: expatriates; social identity; multinational corporations.
    DOI: 10.1504/EJIM.2021.10038242
  • Workplace bullying, organisational commitment and entrepreneurial intentions: the Serbian case   Order a copy of this article
    by Sanja Stankov, Tatjana Ilić-Kosanović, Jasmina Poštin, Eleonora Brtka, Milan Nikolić 
    Abstract: The aim of the paper is to examine the effects of workplace bullying on organisational commitment, the theory of planned behaviour and entrepreneurial intentions. The moderating effect of the respondents' level of education on the observed relationships was also examined. The data were obtained through a survey of 536 respondents employed by organisations in Serbia. The following methods were used: correlation analysis, regression analysis and hierarchical regression analysis. The main findings are: workplace bullying negatively affects organisational commitment, most strongly organisational identification; person-related bullying can damage employees' self-esteem, leading to loss of faith in their entrepreneurial skills, and a significant decline in their entrepreneurial intentions; work-related bullying can motivate employees to show their professional values and prove their business skills through entrepreneurship. The results are useful for leaders and employees, in terms of gaining a better understanding of the observed effects of workplace bullying and mitigating their consequences.
    Keywords: workplace bullying; organisational commitment; theory of planned behaviour; entrepreneurial intentions; Serbia.
    DOI: 10.1504/EJIM.2021.10038792
  • Country of origin image: Portuguese and Italian shoes in China   Order a copy of this article
    by Cristela Bairrada, Guilherme Silva, Arnaldo Coelho 
    Abstract: This study intends to reinforce the knowledge about the Country of Origin Image (COI), identifying its antecedents and consequents by analysing how Portuguese and Italian footwear are perceived in the Chinese market. The cosmopolitanism and affinity constructs were the considered antecedents of COI, and the consequents were brand equity, luxury perception and purchase intention. To respond to the objectives outlined, a questionnaire was applied to Chinese consumers with 307 valid questionnaires. Structural equation modelling was used to test the proposed hypotheses. The analysis of the data allowed us to confirm that the COI has a positive influence on luxury perception and purchase intention of footwear coming from these two countries. However, brand equity was never shown to be a consequent. The inclusion of luxury perception as a consequent of COI is the main innovative aspect of this study, and it was shown to be a relevant construct in this context.
    Keywords: country of origin image; luxury perception; purchase intention; footwear.
    DOI: 10.1504/EJIM.2021.10038802
  • Future of business learning research: a bibliometric and causal layered analysis   Order a copy of this article
    by Pouria Goldasteh, Morteza Akbari, Afsaneh Bagheri, Ali Dehkordi Mobini 
    Abstract: Numerous studies have investigated different aspects of business learning for many years, and now exploring insights and directions of the future research in this area needs more precise and detailed methods. The main contribution of this study is a novel research methodology to analyse the future of business learning research by using specific bibliometric method outputs for presenting a casual layered analysis of this domain. Accordingly, a sample of 1411 papers in this area has been retrieved from Thompson Reuters Web of Science
    Keywords: business learning; bibliometric method; causal layered analysis; strategic map.
    DOI: 10.1504/EJIM.2021.10039314
  • International entrepreneurial orientation and the international performance of returnee firms: The moderating roles of networks and timing of internationalisation   Order a copy of this article
    by Haiyan Li, Li Yu 
    Abstract: Research has shown that returnee entrepreneurial firms exhibit high levels of international entrepreneurial orientation (IEO). However, evidence suggests ambiguity regarding how the level of IEO affects firms’ international performance. Drawing on social network theory, this study theorises about and specifies the network conditions under which IEO leads to higher international performance. Furthermore, whether the effects of networks vary with the timing of internationalisation is investigated. A sample of 216 Chinese returnee entrepreneurial firms with international business operations was used to test the proposed hypotheses. Results confirm that the effect of IEO on firms’ international performance is enhanced by both international and domestic networks. Furthermore, the moderating effects of different types of networks vary between early and late internationalised firms. These findings help clarify inconsistent results on the relationship between IEO and international performance by ascertaining the concurrent effects of international and domestic networks and suggesting that the timing of internationalisation may need to be considered in exploiting the benefits of such networks.
    Keywords: Returnee entrepreneurship; IEO; international networks; Domestic networks; Timing of internationalisation.
    DOI: 10.1504/EJIM.2021.10039486
  • CSR and firm value: stock price response to repeated unfaithful disclosure in the Korean stock market   Order a copy of this article
    by Wonsik Sul, Yejee Lee 
    Abstract: Today, the importance of CSR is increasing, and disclosure is one of the indicators of the transparency of corporate governance, which constitutes an important component of CSR. However, unfaithful disclosures are increasing in Korea, with the same firms repeating them. This study verified the effects of repeated unfaithful disclosures on stock prices, using data from 2012 to 2017. First, disclosure conditions were classified. The stock market response was then analysed through cumulative average abnormal returns. The findings showed that the negative effect on firm value was greater when a firm was designated as an unfaithful disclosure corporation for the second time. Moreover, warnings about designations and actual designations were perceived as negative news, whereas non-designations were perceived as positive news.
    Keywords: corporate social responsibility; unfaithful disclosure; firm value; stock price.
    DOI: 10.1504/EJIM.2021.10039487
  • Micro-level cultural profiles on teamwork orientation and contribution   Order a copy of this article
    by Edward Akoto, Vasyl Taras 
    Abstract: This study utilised the collectivism and power distance dimensions to examine the prevalence of micro-level cultural profiles in the predefined categorisation of national cultural settings and their effect on team orientation and contribution. Based on a multi-year sample of 11,058 individuals from 157 countries, our analysis confirmed four culture-based clusters: collectivist-high power distance, collectivist-low power distance, individualist-high power distance, and the individualist-low power distance profiles. As expected, the collectivist-based profiles were prevalent among the non-western respondents, but the individualist-based profiles were not prevalent among the western respondents. Similarly, the collectivist-low power distance and individualist-low power distance profiles reported higher contributions to the team. These findings contradict the prevalent assumptions about the east-west cultural differences. The study shows that the micro-level analysis of individual values is necessary for understanding individual behaviours in workgroups.
    Keywords: profile analysis; culture configurations; micro-level values; collectivism/individualism; power distance; teamwork orientation; team contribution.
    DOI: 10.1504/EJIM.2021.10039488
  • Role of supply chain agility, sustainability and information sharing in humanitarian supply chain management: a review analysis   Order a copy of this article
    by Raeda Jamal Sa’ada 
    Abstract: The paper aims to identify the significance of humanitarian supply chain management considering multiple factors and variables Primarily, it focuses on quality dimensions of information sharing such as timely, accuracy, completeness, credibility and adequacy It investigates the relationship between information sharing, supply chain agility, and supply chain sustainability A review approach is adopted, which integrates into various phases The articles relevant to the humanitarian supply chain management were selected from 2000 to 2019 Results of the study indicated supply chain agility, sustainability and information sharing as important contributors of humanitarian supply chain management. Findings further identified different ways and agent' part of the humanitarian supply chain management
    Keywords: agility; supply chain; social responsibility; strategy development.
    DOI: 10.1504/EJIM.2021.10039490
  • Public subsidies and firm innovation: an international comparative review based on bibliometric analysis   Order a copy of this article
    by Ke Feng, Deming Zeng, Xin Zhou 
    Abstract: A fast-growing global literature examines the relationship between public subsidies and firm innovation from different perspectives. Through a systematic quantitative literature review and bibliometric analysis, this study maps the evolution of the intellectual structure of the literature on public subsidies and firm innovation through international comparison. The results indicate that the global literature developed a core collection of central topics and interconnected dominant research streams. Its focus gradually shifted from a macro to a firm-centric perspective that seeks to unravel how firms interact with external factors to use public subsidies and experience changes in innovation performance. Chinese, American, and German scholars, respectively, adopted d varied approaches, that is, real-problem driven, theory-driven, and policy-evaluation perspectives, respectively. These bibliometric results call for an integrated theoretical framework that combines resource-based view, organisational learning theory, examinations on international policy competition, and a contingency theory.
    Keywords: public subsidies; firm innovation; international comparison; bibliometric analysis; social network analysis.
    DOI: 10.1504/EJIM.2021.10040006
  • Can government R&D subsidies jointly leverage external and internal funds of enterprises to assist R&D?   Order a copy of this article
    by Xing Liu, Huan Shao, Chun Su 
    Abstract: The original intention of government R&D subsidy is not only to directly encourage enterprises to increase R&D investment, but also to guide external investors to help enterprises' innovation. Because of this, this paper, by manually collecting R&D subsidy data of Chinese A-share strategic emerging industrial enterprises from 2007 to 2017, based on the resource attribute and signal attribute of R&D subsidy, studies whether R&D subsidy can jointly leverage external and internal funds of enterprises to assist R&D. The research found that, at first, R&D subsidy can not only help enterprises with R&D by guiding external funds but also promote enterprises to increase their own funds for innovative activities. However, with the further increase of R&D subsidy intensity, external financing will gradually squeeze out the funds for R&D activities within the enterprises, thus making the R&D investment level caused by the enterprises' own funds begin to decrease continuously instead.
    Keywords: China; government R&D subsidy; external financing funds of the enterprise; own funds within the enterprise; enterprise R&D investment.
    DOI: 10.1504/EJIM.2021.10040092
    by Valeria Giovannini, Niels Noorderhaven, Andrea Prencipe 
    Abstract: Research in international business has tended to focus on macro-level factors, such as the cultural distance between home country and host country in explaining success in international activities like export. But micro-level factors, operating at the firm or individual level, may also affect export success. This study focuses on the cultural intelligence of managers. Based on survey data from Italian SMEs we find that the cultural intelligence of export managers is positively related to the export performance of their firms. We also find that this effect is stronger if the cultural distance between home and host countries is larger. Our study has implications for theory on export performance and the effects of cultural intelligence on international business.
    Keywords: small and medium-sized enterprises; culture export; cultural intelligence.
    DOI: 10.1504/EJIM.2021.10040152
  • Microfoundations of global innovative performance in Latin America: exploring the role of cultural intelligence and country of origin   Order a copy of this article
    by Jase Ramsey, Melanie Lorenz, Jack Clampit, Daniel Rottig 
    Abstract: The purpose of this study is to examine the microfoundations and emergence of firm-level cultural intelligence (CQ). Using dynamic capabilities theory, we conceptually develop a framework that proposes a positive relationship between firm-level CQ and innovative performance, moderated by a firm's country of origin. We further conduct an exploratory empirical analysis based on a lagged, cross-sectional design using multisource data, including primary survey data from 353 global managers from large Brazilian and foreign developed market MNEs operating in Brazil representing a variety of industries as well as archival data on innovative performance to include objective firm performance data. The results generally support our hypotheses. Specifically, the impact of firm-level CQ on innovative performance was supported for both the innovation input and the downstream innovation outcome of sales growth. The moderating effect of country of origin on innovation performance was partially supported.
    Keywords: innovative performance; firm-level cultural intelligence; multinational enterprises; microfoundations of firm performance; country of origin.
    DOI: 10.1504/EJIM.2021.10040185
  • The effects of organisational factors on work outcomes in hospitality: the role of resilience   Order a copy of this article
    by Ivana Blešić, Sanja Kovačić, Marko Petrović, Snežana Milićević 
    Abstract: The current study aims to analyse the relationships between organisational factors (learning culture, leadership, corporative communication, and work engagement), work outcomes (work satisfaction, turnover intention, employee participation) and employee resilience, intending to test a mediating role of employee resilience in the hotel industry. The current paper represents a quantitative study, using questionnaire as an instrument for data collection. Data were collected from a sample of 204 frontline employees in 30 hotels in Serbia. The results revealed the positive direct effects of organisational factors on employee resilience and work outcomes. Moreover, resilience is significantly affecting work outcomes. The research also showed the mediating effect of resilience in regression between organisational factors and work outcomes. The paper addresses an important research gap in hospitality research, as the mentioned model exploring organisational factors, work outcomes and employee resilience has never been applied in this field before.
    Keywords: employee resilience; organisational factors; work outcomes; hotel industry.
    DOI: 10.1504/EJIM.2021.10040417
  • Gaining insight into country image: a moderated mediation analysis of the perception of Italy across seven emerging markets   Order a copy of this article
    by Alessandro De Nisco, Michela C. Mason, Maria Rosaria Napolitano, Rubens Pauluzzo 
    Abstract: In spite of the substantial number of studies on country image, there is still a lack of a holistic understanding of the phenomenon. The aim of this paper is to examine the different aspects of macro and micro country image and their effects on behavioural outcomes towards Italian products and tourist destinations in the emerging market context. The study also deepens comprehension of the rather unexplored role of cultural heritage image. Data gathered from a sample of 3,928 respondents from seven emerging countries (Brazil, China, India, Indonesia, Russia, South Africa, and Turkey) were analysed with hierarchical cluster analysis, non-hierarchical k-means clustering algorithm, and multiple moderated mediation analysis. Results confirm the halo effect of country image in affecting consumers’ behavioural responses and show that cultural heritage image has a strong evocative power to communicate the identity of a country and the quality and appeal of its products or destinations.
    Keywords: general country image; product country image; tourist destination image; cultural heritage image; product purchase intentions; destination visit intentions; segmentation; emerging countries.
    DOI: 10.1504/EJIM.2021.10040619
  • CSR of foreign banks from Central and Eastern Europe: an international comparison   Order a copy of this article
    by Mirela Panait, Catalin Voica, Maria Palazzo, Alfonso Siano 
    Abstract: The paper analyses the chameleonic behaviour of banks with foreign capital in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) after the fall of communism. Those banks decided to maximise profits, using abusive contractual clauses, while implementing corporate social responsibility (CSR). The research explores CSR reports and statistical data provided by different bodies in nine countries and correlates the results with country risk classification. The research highlights that asymmetry of information has caused a split between the declared responsible intentions of banks involved in the economic development of CEE and their unethical actions of selling misleading financial services to consumers with low level of financial education. The paper highlights that it is important for banks to understand that reducing the asymmetry of information with customers and applying a systematic and continuous approach to CSR can help financial organisations to attract important resources and to attain economic goals.
    Keywords: foreign capitals; Central and Eastern Europe; corporate social responsibility; interest rate; chameleonic behaviour; agency theory.
    DOI: 10.1504/EJIM.2021.10040798
  • Cultural intelligence development in internationalising SMEs: experiential and social learning mechanisms for successful owner-managers   Order a copy of this article
    by Rubens Pauluzzo 
    Abstract: The aim of this paper is to measure the impact of experiential and social learning mechanisms on the creation of cultural intelligence in the small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) domain. Data gathered from 244 owner-managers of Italian SMEs involved in international business activities show that social learning mechanisms can support SMEs in developing individuals' capabilities to function and manage in cultural diverse environments more effectively than experiential learning, since the acquisition of direct experience usually requires time, costs, and risks that small ventures cannot always afford. The present paper extends prior research on global leaders’ learning mechanisms by deepening comprehension of the rather unexplored context of internationalising SMEs learning processes, thus filling the gap on how these firms can gain knowledge from international markets.
    Keywords: SMEs; international experience; cultural intelligence; leadership capabilities; learning mechanisms; Experiential Learning Theory; Social Cognitive Theory; moderated multiple regression analysis.
    DOI: 10.1504/EJIM.2021.10041522
  • Imitation and speed of the internationalisation process: an analysis of market selection process   Order a copy of this article
    by Jude N. Edeh, Francisco José Acedo González, Jose Carlos Casillas, Encarnación Ramos-Hidalgo 
    Abstract: The role of speed in the internationalisation process of firms is increasingly becoming an important research question for international business scholars. In this regard, prior research raised the importance of experiential knowledge for understanding internationalisation speed, but neglected other sources of knowledge acquisition in the internationalisation process. This paper addresses this gap by examining the impact of inter-organizational imitation on the speed at which firms locate their operations in foreign markets. The empirical analysis is based on a sample of 479 Spanish international firms covering a 23-year period (1986
    Keywords: internationalisation speed; market selection; interorganisational imitation; industry; frequency-based imitation; trait-based imitation.
    DOI: 10.1504/EJIM.2021.10041584
  • Foreign entrepreneurs' social networks and business performance: contingent effects of political networking and policy uncertainty   Order a copy of this article
    by Ali Ahmad Bodla, Yuan Li, Ali Nawaz Khan, Longwei Tian 
    Abstract: This study explores how foreign entrepreneurs' social networks influence their business venture performance and how government policy uncertainty and political networking moderate this relationship. Using survey data from foreign business ventures in China, we find that foreign entrepreneurs' network structural holes significantly contribute to their business venture performance, but government policy uncertainty negatively moderates this relationship. It suggests that the positive relationship between network structural holes and business venture performance is reinforced by political networking, especially when government policy uncertainty is low. This study contributes to the international entrepreneurship and social network literature and provides a profound understanding of the mechanism that facilitates foreign business venture performance.
    Keywords: foreign entrepreneurs; social network structures; government policy uncertainty; political networking; business venture performance.
    DOI: 10.1504/EJIM.2021.10041694
  • A marriage in a complex relationship: bank source, bank visibility and banking efficiency. Does clients' perception agree with the balance sheet data?   Order a copy of this article
    by Joy Say, Zhao Honjiang, Evans Asante Boadi, Angela A. Nusenu, Kafui Y. Girentsi, Francisca S. Agbenyegah 
    Abstract: The study sought to find out the effect of bank origin and bank visibility on bank efficiency using the commercial banks in Ghana from 2014-2017. Employing a mixed research of secondary data and primary survey analysed using DEA and Structural Equation Modelling (SEM), the study found that bank efficiency and the perception of efficiency differ in terms of the origin of the bank. Firstly, the study found disparities in the conclusions of both the secondary data and the primary data analysis. The study also found that visibility negatively correlates with efficiency and further, the more visible a bank is, the more the bank is perceived to be efficient. The study thus implies that while policy is tailored towards removal of advantages and disadvantages alluding to origin, large stakeholder consultations are required in cases such as banking sector clean-ups.
    Keywords: bank efficiency; visibility; bank origin; mixed research; Ghana.
    DOI: 10.1504/EJIM.2021.10041695
  • Dynamic impact of corporate governance on innovation: an advanced panel data estimation   Order a copy of this article
    by Jun Wen, Hamid Mahmood, Samia Khalid, Yang Bai 
    Abstract: This study examined the impact of corporate governance on innovation intensity using a sample of listed firms in three Asian innovation countries namely, China, Japan, South Korea, from 2010-2017. This study explores the link between corporate governance and innovation We employed westerlund cointegration methodology to estimate the research findings Pesaran’s cross-section dependence test and slope homogeneity test confirmed the existence of a slope heterogeneity across firms Moreover, the results confirmed the long-run relationship between the corporate governance and innovation In the long run, innovation has increased and expand against corporate governance and size of firms Additionally, the results from Augmented Mean Group (AMG) were reconfirmed by utilizing the method. Our key findings lead towards the demonstration and emphasizes of the importance of appropriate policies for good corporate governance and at the same time, upgrading product innovations in order to attain long run sustainability and development.
    Keywords: corporate governance; innovation; Westerlund cointegration.
    DOI: 10.1504/EJIM.2021.10041823
  • The status of cooperation for the organisational learning of SMEs: an empirical literature review and research agenda   Order a copy of this article
    by Susana Geraldes, Mario Franco 
    Abstract: In an increasingly global and competitive world, organisations need to search for additional methods to gain competitive advantage and enhance performance. Greater relevance is attributed to inter-organisational learning, a key factor for the success of an organisation. The aim of this research is to present a systematic review of organizational learning and cooperation in small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs), based on related articles published in Web of Science and Scopus. Over the period 19942018, a total of 49 papers were found after applying exclusion criteria. Analysis of the evolution of publications, leading journals, authors, methodologies and theories was performed. Lastly, a content study identified three main topics in the field: partners, enabling factors and results and objectives for firms to cooperate and learn.
    Keywords: organisational learning; cooperation; partnership; network; SME; empirical; systematic literature review.
    DOI: 10.1504/EJIM.2021.10042001
  • Cessation of an era, collapse of a giant: a review of Nokia with a qualitative system dynamics approach   Order a copy of this article
    by Omur Saatcioglu, Nergis Ozispa, Burhan Kayiran, Emir Ozeren 
    Abstract: This study aims at understanding the demise of Nokia, a pioneering high-tech firm and leader in the mobile phone market for nearly 14 years. It investigates the main factors influencing Nokia's business and innovation performance during its collapse from the perspective of business functions, innovation types and innovation adoption. Drawing on an extensive review of the literature on Nokia via a qualitative system dynamics approach, we developed a holistic framework based on Nokia’s past failures. The key lessons learned were: the firm's strategy between 2003 and 2013 seemed confusing with ongoing internal struggles, a lack of clear strategic vision and decisions from top management, an inconsistency in organisational design choices and inadequate response to rapid technological changes and advances in the smartphone industry prevail. The paper contributes to a more nuanced understanding of cause-and-effects of Nokia's failure by identifying major variables within qualitative system dynamics model.
    Keywords: business and innovation performance; innovation adoption; open innovation; business model innovation; reverse innovation; coopetition; Nokia; high-tech; mobile phone industry; system dynamics method.
    DOI: 10.1504/EJIM.2021.10042263
  • Predicting Chinese tourists' revisit intention through destination personality, destination image and destination self-congruity: a case study in Glasgow, UK   Order a copy of this article
    by Shaohua Yang, Salmi Mohd Isa, T. Ramayah, Ghazanfer Ali Abbasi 
    Abstract: This research intends to empirically examine the relationship between destination personality, destination image, destination self-congruity and revisit intention among Chinese tourists travelling in Glasgow, UK. This study draws quantitative data from 226 Chinese tourists who visited Glasgow. Data analysis is conducted through an approach called Partial Least Squares - Structural Equation Modelling (PLS-SEM). Findings indicate that destination image and revisit intention are under the impact of destination personality. It is also found that destination image is associated with revisit intention. However, moderating effects of destination self-congruity are identified to be insignificant between destination image and revisit intention. Valuable theoretical, practical and methodological significance can be found in this study for scholars and practitioners in the realm of tourism marketing.
    Keywords: second order construct; formative model; destination image; destination self-congruity; Chinese tourists.
    DOI: 10.1504/EJIM.2021.10042374
  • Knowledge and technology transfer in multinationals: a systematic literature review   Order a copy of this article
    by Rosivalda Pereira, Mario Franco, Margarida Rodrigues, Rui Silva 
    Abstract: The transfer of knowledge and technology in multinational firms (MNE) is fundamental for market development and is therefore a recurrent topic in the literature. This study aims to map the extensive literature on knowledge and technology transfer in multinationals, through a bibliometric review using the Bibliometrix package software, preceded by a descriptive analysis. The descriptive analysis shows the most cited articles and the journals with the greatest number of publications, among other aspects. The results of the Bibliometrix obtained show that bibliometric units are knowledge transfer, foreign direct investment and innovation, which has directed current topics towards innovation and technological transfer. The results also showed that these constructs are increasingly important to respond to unexpected challenges occurring at a global level, given that the success of these responses depends on resilience to change and the adoption of new forms of management based on digitalisation, talents and reshoring.
    Keywords: multinational; knowledge transfer; technology transfer; Bibliometrix; bibliometrics.
    DOI: 10.1504/EJIM.2021.10042375
  • From crowdfunding to crowdlending: the cases of Acero watch Perinet winery   Order a copy of this article
    by Samuel Ribeiro-Navarrete, Esther Calderón-Monge, Pilar Huerta-Zavala, Daniel Palacios 
    Abstract: Crowdlending is becoming an increasingly viable financing alternative for companies and individuals. This paper analyses the combined use of reward-based crowdfunding and crowdlending to finance ventures. It also examines the use of crowdlending to attract financing. The paper studies the cases of two companies from different sectors (watches and quality wine) and at different stages of the business life cycle. The crowdlending projects, platforms and types of loans used by these two companies also differ. Analysis based on the case method indicates that, for early-stage ventures, the combination of crowdfunding for business creation and crowdlending to support business operations is an effective way of funding an entrepreneurial venture. The choice of a crowdlending platform with a large community of investors ensures that borrowers achieve the funding they seek, as long as the loan offers high returns and low risk or the business idea is positive for the planet or society.
    Keywords: crowdlending; crowdfunding; entrepreneurship; fintech; wine; watches.
    DOI: 10.1504/EJIM.2021.10042848
  • The efficiency of financial intermediation and SMEs' cash holdings. Empirical evidence from emerging Europe   Order a copy of this article
    by Sorin Gabriel Anton 
    Abstract: The level of cash holdings and their determinants currently represent a hot issue in financial management research. Despite the extensive research conducted on the subject, topical knowledge on cash policies in the case of SMEs is still limited. The paper aims to analyse the effect of financial intermediation efficiency on the level of cash holdings for a large sample of gazelles from Central, Eastern, and South-Eastern Europe over the period 2006-2014. The empirical results suggest a negative relationship between bank lending-deposit spread and cash holdings. Equally, this study provides empirical evidence for a non-linear relationship between cash holdings and short-term debt. At the same time, large gazelles, firms with more tangible assets, and firms holding liquid assets other than cash, were shown to hold less cash. The results are robust to different econometric approaches, different sub-samples, and alternative variables for cash holdings.
    Keywords: cash holdings; efficiency; financial intermediation; gazelles; emerging economies; Europe.
    DOI: 10.1504/EJIM.2021.10043368
  • Chinese firms in developed and developing countries: the alignment of foreign direct investment motives with staffing practices   Order a copy of this article
    by Cuiling Jiang, Dorra Yahiaoui, Chi Zhang 
    Abstract: This study aims to investigate what motivates Chinese firms to expand their business abroad and how these firms align investment motives with their staffing practices in developed and developing countries. Through in-depth interviews with Chinese expatriate managers and host country managers in 21 overseas Chinese firms, our findings show that responding to China’s Belt and Road Initiative (BRI), improving China’s international reputation, benefitting from host country investment environment, and targeting host country Chinese investors, are the main investment motives to engage Chinese firms in internationalisation. To support these internationalisation motives, Chinese firms show instrumental, cognitive and moral focuses in their international staffing practices. For developed countries, Chinese firms prefer human resource management localisation, whereas for developing countries, Chinese firms staff their management positions mainly with expatriates.
    Keywords: Belt and Road Initiative; China; developed countries; developing countries; foreign direct investment; motives; staffing practices.
    DOI: 10.1504/EJIM.2021.10043763
  • Which factors moderate and mediate the relationship between enterprise risk management and firm performance? A meta-analysis and conceptual study.   Order a copy of this article
    by Lenka Syrová, Jindřch Špička 
    Abstract: The need for enterprise risk management always becomes more topical during an ongoing crisis. Implementing a formal or informal risk management system is an important part of all organisations' strategies to address crises, whether they are financial in nature or health related. Effective risk management helps achieve strategic goals, including firm performance. Enterprise risk management (ERM) does not always affect firm performance directly. The inconsistency in empirical studies' conclusions regarding this issue indicates that several mediator and moderator variables influence the association between ERM and firm performance. Therefore, the aim of this article is to propose a model of the relationship between ERM and firm performance based on a systematic literature review of 47 relevant articles. The authors found that it was necessary to investigate the moderating effect of organisational culture and the mediating effect of firm reputation on the relationship between enterprise risk management and subjective firm performance.
    Keywords: enterprise risk management; determinants; mediator; moderator; non-financial companies; organisational culture; strategy; performance.
    DOI: 10.1504/EJIM.2022.10044223
  • Can marketing counter technology leakage effects in emerging markets?   Order a copy of this article
    by Amit Bhatnagar, Siddhartha S. Syam 
    Abstract: Motivated by both cost savings and market opportunities, MNCs increasingly offshore production to emerging markets. Unfortunately, these markets often have weak copyright laws and even weaker enforcement culture that enable rampant unauthorised technology leakages. We develop an analytical model to investigate if investments in marketing and promotion can protect demand. Demand is modelled as a multiplicative function of two factors, base demand, which depends on R&D, and multiplier demand due to promotion and marketing. Three scenarios are investigated: (a) production and retailing independently in each market (b) outsourcing production for domestic and offshore markets to the offshore facility and (c) outsourcing with reverse competition in the home market from offshore competitors. We conduct an extensive simulation experiment and find that for a medium length planning horizon of five to six years, it is indeed possible to use promotion efforts to protect market share.
    Keywords: offshoring; intellectual property theft; analytical economic models.
    DOI: 10.1504/EJIM.2022.10044224
  • Preferential hiring of relatives and family SMEs' internationalisation   Order a copy of this article
    by Pablo Doucet, Ignacio Requejo, Isabel Suárez-González 
    Abstract: A well-established argument in the family business literature is that the pursuit of noneconomic goals has a remarkable impact on family firms' strategic decisions, and particularly on their international expansion intentions. But scant research explores how family goals affect family firms' internationalisation. Using survey and archival data on a sample of 1201 Spanish family SMEs, we show that altruism-induced preferences - as captured by the adoption of the preferential hiring of relatives (PHR) as a primary goal - significantly reduces foreign sales intensity and limits family business operations to their local regions. Furthermore, we find that the external threat of local unemployment exacerbates the negative effect of selecting PHR as a priority on export intensity. Our findings extend previous research on the internationalisation of family firms by highlighting the potentially adverse consequences of prioritising noneconomic goals and how the firm's environment may interact with such goals to accentuate or impede SMEs' internationalisation.
    Keywords: family SMEs; internationalisation; family goals; altruism; export intensity.
    DOI: 10.1504/EJIM.2022.10044225
  • Cross-generational analysis of anxiety, materialism and voluntary simplicity during the COVID-19 pandemic in Thailand   Order a copy of this article
    by Nuttapol Assarut, Theeranuch Pusaksrikit 
    Abstract: The coronavirus (COVID-19) outbreak represents an extremely stressful experience across the global population. People are anxious about their health, source of income, and daily routines. These COVID-19 related anxieties can lead to changes in consumer attitudes and behaviour. This study thus investigates the relationship between anxiety, materialism, and voluntary simplicity by consumers across generations during the outbreak in Thailand. Conducting survey research, our results show that this anxiety has had a direct effect on voluntary simplicity, particularly for Generation X and Generation Y. It has also had an indirect effect on voluntary simplicity through materialism on all generations, except Generation Y. This research offers insights into how to promote simplicity in living among different generations in a developing country.
    Keywords: COVID-19; anxiety; materialism; voluntary simplicity; cross-generation; sustainable consumption; Thailand; baby boomers; Generation X; Generation Y; Generation Z.
    DOI: 10.1504/EJIM.2022.10044226
  • Host and home country co-determinants of foreign establishment modes: evidence from the Chinese natural resource industries   Order a copy of this article
    by Jing Su, Ping Lv, Peter Gammeltoft, Ilan Alon 
    Abstract: We analyze the impact of home and host country co-determinants on the foreign establishment modes of Chinese multinational enterprises in natural resource industries. Using data from the Chinese Ministry of Commerce, we document that host country factors have a direct effect on establishment modes, whereas home country factors, particularly those related to the province in which the company is located, have an indirect effect through their impact on the firm's capabilities. While companies are more likely to pursue acquisitions in host countries with a rule-based governance environment, this relationship weakens when either the resource endowments of the home province increase, or the business environment of the home province improves.
    Keywords: foreign establishment modes; home country; host country; natural resource industries; hierarchical linear modeling.
    DOI: 10.1504/EJIM.2022.10044654
  • Managing the increase in the EU public debt risk amid the corona crisis   Order a copy of this article
    by Konrad Raczkowski, Marta Postula 
    Abstract: The purpose of this article is to examine the capacity for managing the public finance risk in European Union countries posed by the COVID-19 pandemic. Research has been conducted for the years between 1999 and 2020, broken down into respective periods. It is hypothesised that the management of the EU public finance risk amid the corona crisis will be determined differently for euro area countries and other EU member states, and depend on a strong protectionist policy manifesting itself in the introduction of non-standard values of subsidies and social transfers at the expense of higher public debt. The results obtained indicate the growing role of the state in driving the social and economic development in all EU countries
    Keywords: public debt; public finance; risk; corona crisis; financial stability.
    DOI: 10.1504/EJIM.2022.10044750
  • Evaluation of values, intelligence, and competencies for 'global leaders'   Order a copy of this article
    by Chiara Cannavale, Giorgia Rivieccio, Iman Zohoorian Nadali 
    Abstract: This paper explores the under-studied effects of emotional and spiritual intelligence and basic values on competencies of the 21st century global leaders and sheds light on how to further study such phenomena. This paper addresses an important gap in the literature of global leadership by considering values in the interactions among intelligences and competencies of global leaders. The theoretical bases of our exploratory paper rely on the basic values, expatriate acculturation, and the international adjustment model. Our sample observations of 46 global leaders inspire the development of some hypotheses for further studies. Analysis of the sample data suggested a mediating role of emotional intelligence in the indirect relationship between spiritual intelligence and competencies of global leaders. In contrast to conventional understandings, it was also revealed that
    Keywords: basic values; emotional intelligence; spiritual intelligence; global competencies; global leadership.
    DOI: 10.1504/EJIM.2022.10044751
  • The co-evolution of informal networks, institutions, and corruption in Russia: from an economy of favours to an economy of greed   Order a copy of this article
    by Daniel J. McCarthy, Sheila M. Puffer 
    Abstract: This article focuses on networks, institutions, and corruption in Russia in three consecutive periods from 1917 to the present. The article provides background on the country and its culture while looking at three periods individually, and discusses how corruption coevolved with networks and institutions. The change in institutions and networks that occurs during political upheavals provides fertile ground for variations in the predominant type of corruption. We posit that there is much more to be learned by studying these three phenomena as a linked set of constructs beyond analysing them individually. Additionally, our review of these phenomena co-evolving throughout the past century provides a longitudinal perspective. This article seeks to shed light on these phenomena over three consecutive periods the Soviet era, the post-Soviet period, and the current Putin era, all of which have markedly different institutional arrangements. In addition to analysing the practices of blat and sviazi, we discuss the concept of sistema which developed during the Putin years, and which provides the current foundation for corruption.
    Keywords: Russia; networks; institutions; corruption; blat; sviazi; sistema; Putin; Former Soviet Union; bribery.
    DOI: 10.1504/EJIM.2022.10044812
  • Talent management and workforce productivity: the roles of turnover and strategic HRM   Order a copy of this article
    by Young Ko, Stephen Swailes 
    Abstract: This study explores how talent management increases workforce productivity by examining the mediating mechanism of employee retention and the facilitating contingency of the strategic function of human resource management (HRM). Drawing from the resource-based view, we provide a theoretical framework linking talent management, employee turnover, workforce productivity, and strategic HRM. Analysis of three-wave time-lagged data from 294 firms in South Korea and post-hoc analysis shows that talent management influences workforce productivity through turnover and that strategic HRM is a critical contingency for the relationship. Specifically, talent management decreases voluntary turnover, which in turn increases workforce productivity. In addition, the direct and indirect effects of talent management on workforce productivity are more substantial when HRM is integrated with firm strategy.
    Keywords: talent management; workforce productivity; voluntary turnover; strategic human resource management.
    DOI: 10.1504/EJIM.2022.10045035
  • That leader is hard to beat: why words matter in international qualitative research   Order a copy of this article
    by Timothy C. Dunne, Joshua Aaron, William McDowell, Raj Mahto, Jack Marr 
    Abstract: In our highly interconnected global economy, cultural heterogeneity across regions and countries has a significant impact on management practices in organisations. This has prompted researchers to design and assess studies involving multi-culture or multi-countries samples to either gain a deeper understanding of culture or establish generalisability of their findings. We believe that cultural heterogeneity may hinder a cross-culture study owing to deep inherent underlying differences in participants from different cultures. The impact of culture heterogeneity amplifies especially in qualitative studies, where participants are engaged in interviews. Thus, in this paper we investigate the differential effects of culture on the phenomenon of priming during qualitative interviews. Using a qualitative analysis of responses to open ended questions from a sample of US and Chinese managers, two languages with very different etymological, cultural, and historical roots, we find that US and Chinese managers conceptualise various business terminology somewhat differently, therefore suggesting a difference in how priming impacts qualitative research conducted across those two samples. Our findings have significant implications for researchers and practitioners seeking to engage in multicultural work environments.
    Keywords: interview priming; cultural heterogeneity; qualitative research.
    DOI: 10.1504/EJIM.2022.10045171
  • Agglomeration economies: are they relevant for innovation and export intensity?   Order a copy of this article
    by Enrique Claver, Bartolome Marco-Lajara, Encarnación Manresa-Marhuenda 
    Abstract: Our objective is to identify the effect of agglomeration on the export intensity of a company, taking into account the different types of agglomeration as well as the effect of certain internal characteristics, including innovation capacity, foreign-ownership, age and size, among others. Using data from a survey conducted in 2016 by the Technological Innovation Panel (PITEC), an analysis was performed with a sample of 1,596 firms. The results obtained indicate that each type of agglomeration economies has a different effect on export intensity, this influence being direct or indirect through innovation. Our empirical findings open an agenda for policy-makers when deciding how they should promote innovation, agglomeration and exports, because they show that agglomeration directly and indirectly affects intensity export.
    Keywords: export intensity; agglomeration; innovation; domestic versus foreign.
    DOI: 10.1504/EJIM.2022.10045222
  • The effects of cultural intelligence, psychological safety, and teamwork climate on conflict frequency in global virtual teams   Order a copy of this article
    by David Baker, Zandra Balbinot, Eric D. Cohen, Fred Omondi Newa, Vasyl Taras 
    Abstract: This research investigates culturally sensitive management strategies to improve global virtual team (GVT) performance. The purpose is to assess the relationships between four discriminate sub-dimensions of CQ, psychological safety, work climate, and frequency of conflict in GVTs. It tests whether cognitive, metacognitive, motivational, and/or behavioral CQ differently predict individual psychological safety, which will, in turn, affect GVT work climate and conflict frequency in multicultural GVTs. Importantly, the results of this research imply that cross-cultural awareness is often more important than any specific individual cultural knowledge (i.e., cognitive CQ). Findings identified the strong significance of motivational CQ and moderate significance of meta-cognitive cultural intelligence as antecedents to perceived psychological safety, positive work climate, and reduction of perceived frequency of conflict in global virtual teams. Results did not show significant effects for cognitive CQ and behavioral CQ.
    Keywords: international culture; psychological safety; global virtual teams; team conflict; cultural intelligence; virtual teams.
    DOI: 10.1504/EJIM.2022.10045380
  • Foundations of innovativeness in the international arena: Foreign language use and creative performance   Order a copy of this article
    by Noreen Geenen, Katrin Muehlfeld, Diemo Urbig 
    Abstract: Individuals' creativity is a key resource underlying an organisation's innovativeness. With workplaces becoming increasingly multilingual, a question of growing relevance concerns whether using a native versus a foreign language affects individuals' creativity. This study integrates research on foreign language in international business and on determinants of individual creativity with cognitive psychological research. Experiments suggest a detrimental effect of foreign versus native language use on creative performance, which is stronger in verbal tasks. Subjectively perceived foreign language proficiency appears to mitigate this negative effect. In tasks framed in figural terms, foreign language use even seems to stimulate creativity compared with a native language setting. This finding implies a potential lever for organisations seeking to stimulate employees' creativity to deliberately use a foreign language context to encourage thinking outside the box, particularly when using nonverbal creativity tools. Important implications arise for future research and practice in international management and creativity and innovation management.
    Keywords: foreign language use; foreign language proficiency; foreign language anxiety; creativity; creative performance; divergent thinking; innovativeness.
    DOI: 10.1504/EJIM.2022.10045539
  • Entrepreneurial identity: a chronological and thematic literature review and research agenda   Order a copy of this article
    by Ali Rostamian, Kamal Sakhdari, Armin Khaleghi 
    Abstract: Among the burgeoning and promising topics in entrepreneurship research, entrepreneurial identity is one of the most cutting-edge and fragile phenomena. The lack of an overview of current knowledge and missing links in past studies encouraged us to conduct a systematic literature review of existing studies on entrepreneurial identity. To this end, focusing on chronological and thematic configuration, we aim to develop an integrative view of extant research by thematising the major subjects in the literature. The interrelationships between themes and sub-themes have been explored and prospective avenues for future research have been underlined through an integrative critical investigation of what we know about EI in the extant literature. In addition, we discuss the inadequacy of the literature in addressing four issues: lacking theoretical resources, the necessity for cultural understanding in contextualizing studies, implications of emergent methodological approach and, finally, the importance of the social ontology of becoming.
    Keywords: entrepreneurial identity; systematic literature review; identity theories; critical entrepreneurship studies.
    DOI: 10.1504/EJIM.2022.10046558
  • Intellectual capital and entrepreneurial ecosystem: the mediating role of organisational innovation and entrepreneurial intentions   Order a copy of this article
    by Ata Al Shraah, Ayman Abu-Rumman, Hamzeh AlShaar 
    Abstract: This study aims to explore the impact of intellectual capital on entrepreneurial ecosystem in Chinese business environment. Also, it aims to explain the mediating role of organisational innovation and entrepreneurial intents within the relationship between intellectual capital and entrepreneurial ecosystem; and to determine the differences in the relationship due to this mediation. This research adopts a quantitative approach. The design of this study is cross-sectional. Data was collected online using a structured questionnaire. The convenience sampling was used. The sample size for this study was 634 managers and their assistants in the high and middle level of management. The statistical analysis using Partial Least Squares Sequential Equation Modelling (PLS-SEM) revealed that the entrepreneurial ecosystem, as well as organisational innovation and entrepreneurial intention, are predicted by intellectual capital. Also, organisational innovation and entrepreneurial intention, as mediators, strengthen and improve the impact of intellectual capital on entrepreneurial ecosystem. However, the impact of intellectual capital on entrepreneurial ecosystem was partially mediated by both mediators.
    Keywords: intellectual capital; organisational innovation; entrepreneurial intention; entrepreneurship.
    DOI: 10.1504/EJIM.2022.10048179
  • Generation X consumer attitudes, habits, and behaviors towards sustainability related to COVID-19. A systematic literature review   Order a copy of this article
    by George Lazaroiu, Octav Neguri??, Iulia Grecu, Gheorghe Grecu, Paula Cornelia Mitran 
    Abstract: Throughout December 2020 and March 2021, a quantitative literature review of the Web of Science, Scopus, and ProQuest databases was performed, with search terms including “COVID-19 + sustainability + Generation X” + “consumer behavior”, “food”, “tourism”, “pollution”, and “fashion”. The search terms were determined as the most employed words or phrases across the investigated literature. As research published between 2020 and 2021 was inspected, only 225 articles met the eligibility criteria. By removing controversial or unclear results (insufficient/inessential data), findings unsupported by replication, too general material, or with quite identical titles, 85, mainly empirical, sources were identified. Future research should thus investigate how COVID-19-related environmental sustainability and circular economy might lead to decreased air pollution and expanded awareness of climate change.
    Keywords: generation X; sustainability; COVID-19; consumer; attitude; habit; behavior.
    DOI: 10.1504/EJIM.2022.10048388
  • A global study on how the COVID-19 pandemic impacted sustainable consumer behaviour across the generations: a systematic approach to sustainable consumption   Order a copy of this article
    by Juraj Chebeň, Drahoslav Lančarič, Raphael Lissillour, Lukasz Tomczyk 
    Abstract: This paper explores three groups of antecedents of sustainable consumption (SC) and how different generations approached sustainable consumption during Covid-19. In this study, which includes 2202 respondents, the authors use Binary Logistic Regression to explain the behavioural change (the adoption of a more sustainable approach) during Covid-19. Analysis of variance and posthoc testing were used to fill the gap in generational theory by explaining the behavioural differences of diverse generations. The findings demonstrate that change adopters to a significant degree are Generation X females with an above average income, living with a partner in big cities. Education seems to have no significant effect. Worldwide comparison of three main SC dimensions of 5 generations according to gender, household type, education, income during crisis makes this study highly valuable. The lack of cross-cultural behavioural comparison is the main research limitation. Managers should prioritize financial responsiveness over other dimensions of SC.
    Keywords: sustainable consumer behaviour; crisis; Covid-19; financial responsiveness; environmentally friendly behaviour; social influence; cross-generational; income; gender; global study.
    DOI: 10.1504/EJIM.2022.10048389
  • A systematic literature review on outsourcing nearshoring practices on the information and communication technologies industry   Order a copy of this article
    by Jorge Guedes, Leandro Ferreira Pereira 
    Abstract: With growing attention from governments and investors across the globe, the Information and Communication Technology (ICT) market is experiencing considerable growth. Advanced delivery models enabled by Outsourcing Nearshore models are a fundamental element of this business volume, being currently a fundamental piece of methodologies and practices from most global players. The academic contributions on the field reflects the same enthusiasm, showing a growing interest from the community on the subject. This paper intends to provide further visibility on the academic literature on Outsourcing Nearshoring practices on ICT over the past 10 years and it can be described as having a practical focus, while providing a review on the research outcomes, with the goal of critically analysing occurrence on a clearly defined scope in a neutral representation with a coverage limited to a representative sample, with an historical and statistical organization, having general scholars as main target audience.
    Keywords: outsourcing; nearshoring; offshoring; services; project management; digital transformation; delivery models.
    DOI: 10.1504/EJIM.2022.10048390
  • Drivers of 5G Technology Acceptance-A Bayesian Approach   Order a copy of this article
    by Morteza Akbari, Marzieh Keshavarz, Azadeh Rezvani, Asieh Bakhtiar, Elmira Shahriari 
    Abstract: 5G, or the internet of the fifth generation, is the newest technology that will play a more significant role in our lives than previous generations. The internet of the fifth generation not only connects humans but also connects machines and objects to each other and controls them. This level of efficiency enhances the user's experience and helps understand a new level of technology. Nevertheless, the successful application of 5G technologies is fundamentally influenced by the extent to which users are encouraged to accept it. Therefore, this research intends to explore drivers of 5G technology adoption. A total of 518 students from Iran and the USA were surveyed via a multistage stratified random sampling. The Bayesian approach and structural equation modelling were used for data analyses. Results indicated that self-efficacy, subjective norms, compatibility, trust, and relative advantages significantly influenced the intention to accept 5G technology.
    Keywords: 5G technology; technology acceptance; intention; Bayesian approach.
    DOI: 10.1504/EJIM.2022.10048391
  • Total quality management-innovation: a meta-analysis approach   Order a copy of this article
    by Amir Honarpour, Hasan Hosseini, Ahmad Jusoh, Khalil Md Nor, Majid Maleki 
    Abstract: So far, the relationship between total quality management and innovation has been subjected to several studies The diverse findings of these studies and the need to acquire further insights into generalized TQM practices and innovation relationships necessitate a meta-analytical study to correct and combine the results across variety of researches To examine the link more closely, the relationship between individual TQM practices and various innovation measurements hypothesized In addition, the existence of moderating variables in the relationship is also considered Numerical investigation was done, with implementing the meta-analysis of correlations approach on 25 studies to describe the distribution of the actual correlation between the independent and dependent variables (leadership, customer focus, people management, process management, information and analysis, supplier management, process innovation and product innovation), and the presence of moderators Our results show that a considerable amount of variance in innovation can be accounted for by TQM and the most
    Keywords: total quality management; innovation; meta-analysis.
    DOI: 10.1504/EJIM.2022.10048392
  • Consequences of control and monitoring: are they always perceived as negative attention?   Order a copy of this article
    by Amalia Nilsson, Hammad Haq 
    Abstract: This study examines the consequences experienced by subsidiaries when they are faced with control and monitoring by the headquarter. Previous research has equated control and monitoring with negative attention, as they are generally perceived to be value subtracting (or negative attention) by the subsidiaries. In line with previous studies, our findings show that subsidiaries experience value subtraction in the form of hampered performance, increased administrative work, and delayed decision-making. However, we also find that subsidiaries can perceive control and monitoring to be value adding. This study contributes to the literature by suggesting that control and monitoring can be perceived as either negative or positive attention, depending on the structural position or weight of the subsidiaries. Namely, the subsidiaries with a central structural position in the organization tend to perceive control and monitoring as value adding, whereas peripheral subsidiaries view it as value subtracting.
    Keywords: attention-based view; control and monitoring; negative attention; positive attention; value subtraction; value addition.
    DOI: 10.1504/EJIM.2022.10048401
  • Do consumer's sensory cues' preferences in retail differ between neighbouring countries?   Order a copy of this article
    by Adnane Alaoui, Véronique Flambard 
    Abstract: Sensory marketing enables retailers to elevate consumers’ shopping experience. Key to their success, is whether they should adapt their retail strategy to the country where they operate or not. This research contributes to better inform international retail by investigating cross-country differences in consumers’ sensorial preferences. It extends the actual conceptual framework of experiential marketing by adding an international dimension to it. It also offers the first empirical evidence that preferences for sensory cues do differ in two neighbouring European countries, when controlling for socio-economic variables, based on econometric analyses. The analysis also uncovers why shoppers like or dislike a specific sensory cue. The results suggest that French retailers cannot duplicate in England, sensory tactics used in France, and vice-versa. This is the first study that contrasts consumer’s preference for in-store sensory cues across countries to better inform the merchandising strategies of international retailers.
    Keywords: sensory marketing; sensorial cues; atmospherics; experiential marketing; international retail; shopping experience; multivariate probit.
    DOI: 10.1504/EJIM.2022.10048402
  • Cohesion and performance in global virtual teams: the moderating role of technical skills   Order a copy of this article
    by Ernesto Tavoletti, Liviu Florea, Vasyl Taras, Faruk Sahin, Fatih Çetin, Duysal Askun 
    Abstract: This study assesses the extent to which cohesion affects performance in Global Virtual Teams (GVTs) and whether this effect depends on team members technical skills. Data are collected from X-Culture, a largescale experiential learning project involving business students dispersed globally and relying on virtual electronic communication tools to solve business problems presented by multinational companies. The total number of participants we use for this study is 3001 individuals working in 679 GVTs. Results indicate that team cohesion is positively and significantly related to team performance when team members skills are high, but is not significantly related to team performance when team members skills are low. Based on the empirical results, the influence of cohesion on team performance should be predicated on the team characteristics. This study suggests the existence of boundary conditions to the cohesion-performance relationship and proposes the use of the concept of expeditious cohesion in GVTs.
    Keywords: global virtual teams; team cohesion; team performance; technical skills; X-Culture.
    DOI: 10.1504/EJIM.2022.10048936
  • Work-life balance in the service sector: predicting organisational citizenship behaviour   Order a copy of this article
    by Friday Ogbu Edeh, Isaac Monday Ikpor 
    Abstract: This study empirically investigates the effect of work-life balance on organisational citizenship behaviour (OCB) in Nigerian service organizations, using border theory and social exchange theory, as theoretical framework. The population for the study comprises of ten selected four star hotels that are registered with Ebonyi State Ministry of Commerce and Tourism. Simple random sampling was employed to selected ten registered hotels from Ebonyi State Ministry of Commerce and Tourism. Questionnaire was used to collect data from the respondents while linear regression was used to analyse the hypotheses with IBM SPSS Statistics (20.0). Our results indicate that work-life balance are significant and positively affect organisational citizenship behaviour (OCB). The study concludes that work-life balance measured in terms of supervisor support; coworker support and flexible working period are important variables in predicting OCB in four star hotels in Nigeria. Even though this study used Nigeria data, countries with similar attributes can benefit immensely from the study. This paper is expected to contribute to organisational behaviour literature and provide additional evidence on how work life balance affects organizational citizenship behaviour in Nigeria.
    Keywords: Work-life balance; coworker support; supervisor support; flexible work period; organisational citizenship behaviour.
    DOI: 10.1504/EJIM.2022.10049356
  • Why do Chinese firms pay premiums in cross-border mergers and acquisitions? An institutional perspective   Order a copy of this article
    by Zhu Zhang, Marjorie Lyles, Wu Changqi 
    Abstract: This paper studies the role of the institutional environment in affecting the size of acquisition premiums. Based on cross-border M&A data of Chinese MNEs, we find a positive relationship between institutional distance and premium. The larger the institutional distance between home and host country, the larger the premium is paid for the target. Furthermore, in order to better understand the nature of the institutional environment, we study the distinctive characteristics of the institutional environment of the host country which is often referred to as the institutional quality. Our results contribute by showing that when the institutional quality of the host country is good, the premium is reduced. When the acquirer and target are in related industries, the effect of institutional distance on the acquisition premiums is mitigated. We also contribute to previous studies by finding that the acquirer’s cross-border M&A experience does not help as expected in reducing the premiums.
    Keywords: acquisition premiums; cross-border M&A; institutional environment; EM MNEs; China.
    DOI: 10.1504/EJIM.2022.10049357
  • Examining the bidirectional relationship between ESG practices and economic performance using country-of-origin as a moderating factor   Order a copy of this article
    by Ismail Sila 
    Abstract: This study analysed the bidirectional link between environmental, social, and governance (ESG) practices and economic performance (EP) across six countries (France, Germany, the UK, the USA, Australia, and China) using longitudinal data covering the period from 2010 to 2015. The findings showed that there is a two-way relationship between ESG practices and EP. However, a specific pattern did not emerge for Australian, German, and US firms. The effect of EP on ESG was more predominant in all years for French and UK data. However, the model used to test the effect of ESG on EP was a better fit for Chinese data. Country comparisons indicated that there were significant differences across the six countries. Even when the overall model fit was similar, there were differences at the practice or hypothesis level. In particular, France and the UK differed from the rest in terms of overall model fit.
    Keywords: corporate social responsibility; ESG concept; economic performance; organisational theory; Cross-country comparison.
    DOI: 10.1504/EJIM.2022.10049557
  • Impact of global value chain participation on rural migrant labourers' employment opportunities in urban areas in developing countries   Order a copy of this article
    by Bo Li, Muhammad Mohiuddin, Qingfeng Cao 
    Abstract: This study examines whether participation in global value chains (GVC) promotes domestic rural migrant labourers' employment in cities in the developing countries. This is accomplished using a regression model and data from China’s Customs and internal Migrant population dynamics data to assess the impact of participation in GVCs on the urban employment of rural labour. The study finds that participation in the GVC significantly improves the employment probability of rural labour in cities. Additionally, the farther the destination city of rural migrant laborers, the smaller the positive effect of participation in GVCs on the probability of employment. Findings also show that the lower the skills of the rural labour force, the more significant the role of participation in the GVC in improving the probability of employment in cities. The robustness test endorses the results establishing that participation in GVCs improves low-skilled rural labourers' employment in cities in the developing countries.
    Keywords: global value chain participation; rural migrant labour; employment; urban area.
    DOI: 10.1504/EJIM.2022.10049626
  • Digitalisation, SMEs' performance and employee wellbeing in the era of Covid-19: digital leadership as a moderator.   Order a copy of this article
    by Hani El-Chaarani, Sam El Nemar, Demetris Vrontis, Badih Arnaout, Evangelia Siachou 
    Abstract: The Covid-19 pandemic has created an unparalleled social and economic calamity that has impacted organisational performance worldwide, accelerating both employers and employees to switch to digitalisation. Using the resource-based view (RBV) of the firm, this study aims at exploring the impact of digitalisation (both business and HRM) on performance of SMEs operating in local and international markets as well as on their employees' wellbeing. To this end, the role of digital leadership is proposed as a moderator in the above-mentioned relationships. The study supports that business digitalisation improves SMEs' performance during the Covid-19 pandemic period. Yet, digitalisation of HRM has negatively affected employees' wellbeing, although employees' wellbeing associates positively with SMEs' performance. The study outcomes also reveal the role of digital leadership as a facilitator to employees' wellbeing, provides implications for both theory and practice, and adds value to emerging research on SME digitalisation in the era of Covid-19.
    Keywords: Covid-19; digital transformation; digital leadership; employee wellbeing.
    DOI: 10.1504/EJIM.2022.10049695
  • Responding to the multi-faceted liabilities of origin for emerging market MNEs: a cognitive institutional entrepreneurship perspective   Order a copy of this article
    by Bo Yang, Pao Kao, Wensong Bai, Tingting Jiang 
    Abstract: Liabilities of origin (LORs) are a unique challenge for emerging market multinational enterprises (EMNEs) in internationalisation, especially in the advanced markets. In this study, we ask research questions: what types of stereotypes from the host country stakeholders may contribute to EMNEs and LORs, and how EMNEs change these stereotypes over time. We conduct a case study on Chinese telecom Huawei and examine its market entries in Europe and the US markets. Our findings show three types of country-of-origin stereotype: capability-, ethics-, and government and enterprise relationship-based stereotypes contribute to LORs. We also find that EMNEs adopt three cognitive institutional entrepreneurship strategies: differentiation, replacement, and complementation to address these stereotypes. Our study provides a more fine-grained understanding of the relationship between stereotypes and LORs, and provides a new perspective for EMNEs to mitigate multi-faceted LORs. We also contribute to institutional entrepreneurship research by discussing it at cognitive level.
    Keywords: liabilities of origin; cognitive institutional entrepreneurship; country-of-origin stereotype; legitimacy; foreign direct investment; emerging market multinational enterprises; case study.
    DOI: 10.1504/EJIM.2022.10049697
  • A spatio-temporal analysis of human capital, economic and institutional quality as determinants of international formal entrepreneurship   Order a copy of this article
    by Wided Ragmoun 
    Abstract: The purpose of this study examines the spillover effects of macroeconomics, financial and the institutional variable for formal entrepreneurship in 98 developed countries during the period 2006-2018 and demystify the investigation of entrepreneurial choice in response to each determinants and its nature. Using a spatial Durbin panel model, the results show a significant level of externality in terms of formal entrepreneurship, which means that an increase in one country’s formal entrepreneurship rate leads to an increase in this rate in its nearest neighbours. The spillover effect exists and differs from one factor to another. Direct, indirect, and total effects were identified for each determinant (macroeconomic, financial, and institutional variables). The unemployment rate seems to have a direct and indirect nonlinear impact on formal entrepreneurship. Foreign direct investment and financial development exert a negative spillover effect on the formal entrepreneurship of local countries.
    Keywords: formal entrepreneurship ; determinants; spillover effect; SDM model.
    DOI: 10.1504/EJIM.2022.10050370
  • Dynamic non-market capabilities in developing countries: an exploratory study   Order a copy of this article
    by Yusaf Akbar, Eszter Fabriczki 
    Abstract: Business executives are increasingly confronted with a non-market environment characterised by high levels of uncertainty. While dynamic capabilities and uncertainty are examined in business strategy contexts, few non-market strategy studies explicitly refer to them as a means of responding to uncertainty. This study employs an exploratory, qualitative methodology in our paper that examines the role played by dynamic capabilities deployed by executives in the management of non-market strategy. Our study makes three contributions to the extant literature. It builds exploratory theoretical and empirical linkages between dynamic capabilities and non-market strategy. It examines antecedents of dynamic non-market capabilities, and it explores three specific dynamic capabilities in a non-market context: ambidexterity, absorptive capacity, and continuous morphing. Using in-depth interviews with senior executives from developed and developing countries and employing deductive content analysis, we find the utilisation of dynamic non-market capabilities is prevalent in two cases: (a) when a manager’s professional experience has been in a developing country or (b) their life experience was in a developed country.
    Keywords: dynamic capabilities; non-market strategy; developing economies; uncertainty; qualitative; elite interviews; deductive content analysis; absorptive capacity; continuous morphing.
    DOI: 10.1504/EJIM.2022.10050645
  • Foreign entry timing, time since first entry, and internationalisation speed of exporting SMEs: when does manager domestic experience matter?   Order a copy of this article
    by Sandeep Yadav 
    Abstract: This study explores the interrelatedness between the various temporal concept of internationalisation. Using organisational learning perspective, this study explores the impact of foreign entry timing and time since first foreign entry on the speed of subsequent internationalisation intensity or growth. The author tests the proposed hypotheses on a sample of 10295 exporting small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) from 100 countries based on World Bank Enterprise Survey (WBES) data. The results show that foreign entry timing reduces the speed of internationalisation while time since first foreign entry increases the speed of internationalisation. Further, the author finds that manager prior domestic industry experience reduce disadvantages associated with the late start of internationalisation and increase the speed of internationalisation. In contrast, the author finds support for the negative moderating effect of manager domestic industry experience on time since first foreign entry and internationalisation speed relationship.
    Keywords: foreign entry timing; time since first foreign entry; time in internationalisation; speed of internationalisation; SMEs; organisational learning; manager experience; temporality; absorptive capacity.
    DOI: 10.1504/EJIM.2022.10050885
  • Transformational leadership style and non-financial performance in a moderated mediation model: evidence from Southeast Asian countries   Order a copy of this article
    by MalikA.B.U. Afifa, Nha Nguyen Minh 
    Abstract: The current study aims to determine the impact of transformational leadership style (TLS) on non-financial performance (NFP). We also discover the mediating effect of corporate social responsibility (CSR) and organizational citizenship behaviour (OCB) in this context. Moreover, bad reputation is examined as a moderator variable on the nexus between both OCB and CSR with NFP. It provides empirical evidence from developing Southeast Asian countries (i.e., Vietnam, Malaysia and Singapore). Utilizing the partial least squares structural equation modelling (PLS-SEM), our findings elucidate that TLS has a substantial positive effect on NFP. Furthermore, OCB and CSR are positive mediators for the nexus between TLS and NFP. Our results investigate and answer the questions about the extent of the antecedent variables’ (i.e., TLS, OCB and CSR) impact on NFP of developing countries. Additionally, through PROCESS 4.0 analysis, bad reputation has negatively and positively moderating effect on the OCB-NFP and CSR-NFP nexus, respectively.
    Keywords: non-financial performance; transformational leadership; organisational citizenship; corporate social responsibility; bad reputation; Southeast Asian countries.
    DOI: 10.1504/EJIM.2022.10050886
  • Entrepreneurship, financial development and threshold effects on foreign listings   Order a copy of this article
    by Xiaochen Ding, Lu Sui 
    Abstract: This paper examines financing abroad from the joint perspectives of international financial development and entrepreneurship. At the micro-level, we show that start-ups in countries with better entrepreneurial opportunities increase demand for foreign listing. Types of entrepreneurship have varying effects on foreign listing between developed and developing countries. A macro dynamic panel to 37 countries from 2006 to 2018 leads to more liquid stock markets, and countries with higher private credit/GDP, having more foreign listing at middle thresholds of financial development. Under venture capital, however, positive effects on the foreign listing are only found for high levels of venture capital.
    Keywords: entrepreneurship; foreign listing; financial development; threshold effects.
    DOI: 10.1504/EJIM.2022.10050888
  • Does ICT adoption and trade affect human development? Evidence from the EU transition economies   Order a copy of this article
    by Rita Remeikiene, Ligita Gaspareniene, Aleksandra Fedajev, Vladimir Mihajlovic, Martynas Endrijaitis, Marek Szarucki 
    Abstract: Information and communication technology (ICT) has been researched primarily in terms of its contributions to a country's economic growth. ICT may enhance many areas of human life quality. According to the human development paradigm, the increase in income resulting from ICT usage and trade is only a resource helping people to meet their economic needs. This study investigates the impact of ICT adoption and trade on human development in 11 EU transition economies over the 2000-2019 period employing the panel FMOLS approach. The empirical analysis disclosed that the use of the Internet and the share of ICT goods import in total import have a significant positive impact on human development. In contrast, the link between the share of ICT goods export in total export and human development is not statistically significant. The interesting result of this research is that mobile usage has a statistically significant negative impact on human development.
    Keywords: human development; ICT adoption; ICT trade; FMOLS approach; panel causality; EU transition economies.
    DOI: 10.1504/EJIM.2022.10050999
  • Forty-nine years of sensory research literature: a review on its development, foundation and future research directions   Order a copy of this article
    by Tugra Nazli Akarsu, Reza Marvi, Pantea Foroudi 
    Abstract: The notion of sensory is complex and bounded with different disciplines. Even though the relationship between the senses and consumer marketing has been acknowledged, the conceptual foundation is fragmented and scattered; it has become more multifaceted due to the increased attention it and its related concepts have drawn, which makes an investigation of the concept essential. We evaluate the foundational structure of sensory research over four decades. Our findings revealed twelve research groups (i.e., spatial judgement) and six research clusters (i.e., transition from experience to sensory) embodied by sensory research, which can be considered to make up the integral structure of the sensory domain. We provide a comprehensive understanding of sensory research for those who wish to understand its intellectual structure and a future research model that identifies three important perspectives (methodological, micro and macro) for researchers hoping to provide insights into sensory research based on emerging sensory topics.
    Keywords: sensory literature; bibliometrics; co-citation analysis; knowledge structure.
    DOI: 10.1504/EJIM.2022.10051055
  • The role of digitalisation in firms' international value creation: an integrative conceptual framework and a research agenda   Order a copy of this article
    by Carlos Halpern, Laura Fernandez-Mendez 
    Abstract: The new digital revolution promises to impact the way firms operate internationally even more profoundly than previous technology innovations have. This article reviews the most relevant literature on the intersection between digital technologies and international business to identify possible avenues of value creation in both the international and digital dimensions. Firms can achieve Digital International Value Creation by developing digital resources and using them in international value-creation opportunities. We identify three different value-creation paths that we label: International Going Digital, Digital Going International, and Going International with Digital. Environmental factors and the attributes of firms moderate this value-creation model. We believe that our framework will help academics and practitioners to analyse the complex implications of digital technologies in a global context, both their opportunities and their risks.
    Keywords: international business; digital revolution; information technology; multinational; MNE; global company; resources; value creation; framework; research agenda.
    DOI: 10.1504/EJIM.2022.10051243
  • Logistics influence on FDI: 'hard' versus 'soft' infrastructure components   Order a copy of this article
    by Filip Bugarcic, Viktorija Skvarciany 
    Abstract: The goal is to consider the potential of logistics in attracting FDI and to examine the degree of influence of selected LPI and GCI components related to the quality of the logistics system on FDI inflow in the EU-28. The panel data regression was employed covering the period of 2007 to 2018 (the newest data is available from 2018). The article results point to the importance of logistics as a factor of FDI inflows, with the special importance of physical infrastructure, ports, and international shipments as a segment of logistics services. The results also indicate effects in individual countries and years. Research results can serve policymakers as an instrument to improve the investment environment. Also, decision-makers can gain insight into the key factors of logistics performance that have an impact on investment decisions in the EU.
    Keywords: logistics; foreign direct investments; panel data analysis; 'hard' and 'soft' infrastructure.
    DOI: 10.1504/EJIM.2022.10051618
  • Partners' diversity and joint venture termination: the effects of business unrelatedness, size imbalance, and country experience asymmetry   Order a copy of this article
    by Daniele Cerrato, Ilaria Galavotti 
    Abstract: The objective of this paper is to analyse the relationship between partners’ diversity and the likelihood of international joint venture termination. Building on bargaining power theory, we unbundle partners' diversity into the three facets of variety, balance, and disparity, captured by business unrelatedness, size imbalance, and experience asymmetry in the target country, respectively. From a methodological standpoint, we relied on a logistic regression and a survival analysis, carried out on 117 international joint ventures established by Italian firms in 38 countries in the period 2000-2018. Our findings indicate that the effect played by partners' diversity on termination does vary depending on the nature of diversity involved. Thus, the factors that typically motivate the establishment of an international joint venture may not necessarily support its continuation. Managers should pay attention to the evolution of international joint ventures, considering that a firm's bargaining position relative to the partner may change over time.
    Keywords: joint venture termination; partners' diversity; business unrelatedness; size imbalance; country experience asymmetry.
    DOI: 10.1504/EJIM.2022.10051662
  • Antecedents of next generation succession intention in family businesses: A cross-country   Order a copy of this article
    by Rodrigo Basco, Juan Manuel Gomez Gonzalez 
    Abstract: This study theoretically extends and empirically tests the theory of the planned behaviour model in the field of family business by focusing on the antecedents that affect the succession intention of the next generation of family business members (NextGen) in eight countries. Our results showed that the perception of subjective norms and family management self-efficacy are the key antecedents to increase the next generation's intention to join their family business. The exceptions arise in Colombia, Germany, and Spain, where successors' beliefs in their ability to manage non-family human resources reduce their intention to join their family business.
    Keywords: family firms; NextGen; theory of planned behaviour; succession; succession intention; PLS-SEM.
    DOI: 10.1504/EJIM.2022.10051782
  • A systematic review of hybrid strategy: MCDM on the basis of potential research direction   Order a copy of this article
    by Alhamzah Alnoor, Khaw Khai Wah, Samah Hatem Almaki, Aws Zaidan, B.B. Zaidan 
    Abstract: To provide valuable insights into technology environments and support researchers, we must understand the options and gaps available in this type of research. Thus, in this study, a literature review is conducted to map the research landscape into a coherent classification. We conduct a focused search for every article related to (1) Porter's strategies and (2) hybrid strategy in four major databases, namely, Web of Science, ScienceDirect, IEEE Explore and Scopus. These databases contain a range of publications focusing on hybrid strategy using Porter's strategies. The final set of data generated from the classification scheme includes 126 articles divided into three categories.
    Keywords: hybrid strategy; differentiation; cost leadership; focus; pure strategy; generic strategy.
    DOI: 10.1504/EJIM.2022.10051942
  • Export intensity, intellectual property and technology development as drivers for green innovation   Order a copy of this article
    by Mohammad Jamal Bataineh, Pedro Sánchez-Sellero 
    Abstract: This study investigates how export intensity, intellectual property and advanced technology affect green innovation activities in all sectors at Spanish firms. We perform an econometrics analysis using the PITEC database for panel data at the firm level and use a fixed-effect model to control for unobserved heterogeneity over time. The findings reveal that exports promote green innovation despite having no direct effect on firm practices related to improving health, safety and the environment. Furthermore, advanced technology and intellectual property rights have a positive and significant relationship with green innovation, and patents are preferable for improving green innovation activities. However, advanced technology plays the most significant role in promoting green innovation in exporting firms.
    Keywords: green innovation; eco-innovation; export; intellectual property; patent; copyright; trademark; technology development; environmental regulation; R&D intensity; R&D cooperation.
    DOI: 10.1504/EJIM.2022.10052142
  • The influence of trust and knowledge sharing on the relationship between diversity and virtual team effectiveness: an empirical study using PLS-SEM and necessary condition analysis   Order a copy of this article
    by Philip Kardell, Joshua Hoffmann, Till Meisner 
    Abstract: The purpose of this research was to analyse the influence of trust and knowledge-sharing on the relationship between diversity and team effectiveness. A sample of 364 respondents was gathered through an online survey inquiring about their latest experience with a virtual team. The methods employed were Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modelling (PLS-SEM) and Necessary Condition Analysis (NCA). It was found that diversity has a significant negative effect on trust and knowledge-sharing and that the construct trust has a significant positive effect on performance and satisfaction. Knowledge-sharing has a significant positive effect on satisfaction. Moreover, trust and knowledge-sharing were identified as necessary conditions for achieving performance and satisfaction in virtual teams. Trust and knowledge-sharing are crucial from the beginning, especially in more diverse teams. Cooperation and joint problem solving as well as high-quality information sharing systems and routines may help to increase team effectiveness.
    Keywords: virtual teams; diversity; trust; knowledge-sharing; team effectiveness; team performance; team satisfaction; structural equation modelling; necessary condition analysis.
    DOI: 10.1504/EJIM.2022.10052238
  • Cultural and institutional determinants in international marketing channel adaptation: the case of Vichy Cosmetics in China   Order a copy of this article
    by Gangfeng Zhang 
    Abstract: The debate on whether the international marketing mix should be standardized or adapted to the host market has lasted for half a century. I applied a combined framework of the Vrontis model of influential factors in marketing standardisation/adaptation and the Jonsson-Foss replication-as-strategy framework to a case study of Vichy Cosmetics' market entry, expansion, and subsequent retail channel switch in China. The case shows that: 1) both peripheral and core elements of channels might need to be adapted to the institutional and cultural characteristics of the host market; 2) that a firm's motive to take advantage of being a first mover and the confidence in their experience decrease international marketers' awareness of the market differences that they observed, exposing the firm to additional risk; 3) that caution is required in deciding which cultural construct to include in assessing cultural distance. It must include a cultural construct closely related to the business model's core.
    Keywords: cross-border marketing; Chinese institutions and culture; channel adaptation; Vichy Cosmetics.
    DOI: 10.1504/EJIM.2022.10052311
  • Entrepreneurial ecosystem and competitiveness in different regions: A fuzzy set qualitative comparative approach   Order a copy of this article
    by Ali Davari, Morteza Akbari, Vajihe Baghersad, Azadeh Rezvani 
    Abstract: The competitiveness of industries plays a crucial role in sustainable development and promotes economic growth in regions. For competitiveness, industries are engaged in entrepreneurial ecosystems. Knowledge of which mix of entrepreneurial ecosystem (EE) components influences competitiveness in established and developing regions is limited. This research explored the causal configurations of components of entrepreneurial ecosystems that enable the competitiveness of industries in developing and underdeveloped regions and compared them. This study ranked the industries with the Herfindahl-Hirschman Index and identified five non-monopoly industries. Data was collected from 432 companies in these non-monopoly industries. We used the Partial Least Squares (SmartPLS-SEM) for the test measure model and fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis (fsQCA) to explore the causal recipes of which combinations of EE dimensions affect competitiveness in each region.
    Keywords: competitiveness; entrepreneurship; entrepreneurial ecosystem; fsQCA; policy.
    DOI: 10.1504/EJIM.2022.10052365
  • Overcoming institutional voids in emerging markets: a contingency framework   Order a copy of this article
    by Kamal Sakhdari, Fatemeh Askari 
    Abstract: Emerging markets are identified by their inefficient and underdeveloped market-supporting institutions. Yet, these markets are considered as suitable factor and consumer markets for multinational companies. Despite the growing body of the literature, void-filling strategies are mainly considered universal and less is known about the boundary conditions of the strategies. In this vein, we sought to reveal the strategies that MNEs adopt to more effectively operate in the novel context of Iran. Having designed a qualitative exploratory research on 13 MNEs active in the market, we found that MNEs use relational, substitution, signalling, and borrowing strategies to decrease the negative effect of institutional voids in the context. More importantly, the effectiveness of these strategies is subject to the target market, entry mode, and type of voids. These findings provide a more nuanced understanding of using void-filling strategies in emerging markets for better international performance.
    Keywords: institutional voids; emerging markets; void-filling strategies; MNEs; qualitative method.
    DOI: 10.1504/EJIM.2022.10052455
  • Sustainability of reverse logistics as a source of firms' competitive advantage in South Africa   Order a copy of this article
    by Progress Hove-Sibanda, Kgalalelo Confidence Bereng, Paul Igwe 
    Abstract: Reverse logistics (RL) management has become synonymous with sustainable business practices. This study examines the key practices amongst small and medium enterprises (SMEs). Based on resource-based theory (RBT), it explores the major barriers, as well as the effect of RL practices on SMEs' competitive advantage. The study applied a quantitative approach through questionnaires administered to 80 SMEs managers and owners in South Africa. It found that the adoption and implementation of waste management, remanufacturing and repackaging practices has a strongly positive and highly significant influence on SMEs' competitive advantage. Also, it identified waste management (recycle, reuse and landfill), remanufacturing and repackaging as the three broad RL practices among SMEs. The findings reveal that cost of adopting RL practices and lack of awareness of available resources and supports as the major barriers.
    Keywords: reverse logistics; small and medium enterprises; resource-based theory; competitive advantage; sustainability.
    DOI: 10.1504/EJIM.2022.10052567
  • Institutions and international entrepreneurship: the role of regulatory, normative and cognitive congruence   Order a copy of this article
    by Bruno Brandão Fischer, Celia Torrecillas, Michelle Olivero-Tallaj, Maribel Guerrero 
    Abstract: In this article, we address the impacts of institutions (regulatory, normative and cognitive) on the country-aggregate propensity to engage in export-oriented entrepreneurship. Using a panel-data of 88 countries from 2006 to 2017, we estimated the direct and moderate effects of institutions on international entrepreneurship. Although a positive institutional environment effect on international entrepreneurial activity has been observed, the nature of this effect is not consistent across models and is especially concentrated in developed economies. These findings provide insights into the complexity of institutional conditions and their impacts on export- oriented entrepreneurship. Through a multidimensional approach, our research offers novel evidence in the context of entrepreneurial internationalisation by analysing the institutional congruence hypothesis in the context of international entrepreneurship as an outcome. Indeed, we observed the lack of association between some institutional conditions and export-oriented entrepreneurship in developing economies. Key implications emerged regarding how to improve regulatory, cognitive and normative conditions in business environments by considering the notion of institutional alignment (a central issue in integrating global value chains).
    Keywords: entrepreneurship; internationalisation; institutions; export-oriented entrepreneurship; GEM.
    DOI: 10.1504/EJIM.2022.10052768
  • The role of macro-indicators in crowdfunding success: empirical evidence from Latin America   Order a copy of this article
    by Javier Ramos, Antonella Cicchiello, Maria Messina 
    Abstract: This study aims to shed light on crowdfunding success in Latin-American economies. By using fsQCA methods, it explores the shared causal conditions explaining the highest and lowest amount of money raised via crowdfunding as a result of the combined effects of macro-indicators. Although the literature on the determinants of crowdfunding success is abundant, most studies focus on micro-variables. Evidence on macro-variables such as wealth, the development of the digital society, the ease of doing business or the degree of comparative competitiveness of each economy has not been sufficiently analysed. Our results suggest different patterns of success in crowdfunding between wealthier and less prosperous economies and a threefold way of success - the Chilean, the Mexican and the Brazilian - that allow us to understand similarities with other economies following similar patterns of success.
    Keywords: crowdfunding success; macro-indicators; Latin America; QCA fuzzy-set analysis.
    DOI: 10.1504/EJIM.2022.10053118
  • Two decades of foreign direct investment in Africa: a systematic literature review, integrative framework, and agenda for future research   Order a copy of this article
    by Abdul-Kadir Ameyaw, Andrei Panibratov 
    Abstract: Despite the increase in research efforts on foreign direct investment (FDI) in international business, the literature on FDI in Africa suffers from disintegration, theoretical boundaries, and empirical vagueness. The purpose of this article is to reveal how much work has been done, what knowledge has been obtained, and what directions need to be taken for future FDI in Africa research. We conduct a systematic literature review of pertinent theoretical and empirical studies encompassing 105 articles from reputable management and economics journals. Our study contributes to this body of scholarship by identifying and discussing prior research, agglomerating them into themes, providing a structured debate about what is already known, as well as offering an explanation on why and how Africa is a distinctive context, different from other emerging markets. We further develop an integrative framework that provides extensive knowledge of contemporary and promising avenues for future research.
    Keywords: foreign direct investment; Africa; emerging markets; integrative framework; systematic review.
    DOI: 10.1504/EJIM.2022.10053164
  • Empirical measurement of Hall's communication styles theory: a new marketing segmentation scale   Order a copy of this article
    by Enav Friedmann, Tiziano Vescovi, Merav Weiss-Sidi 
    Abstract: Hall’s theory of low- and high-context cultures is particularly applicable to marketing since it emphasizes communication style. Several researchers have proposed incomplete measurements of his theories, basing their scales mostly on student samples, omitting international comparisons, failing to translate the surveys into the original language, or framing the questions from a Western perspective. This article discusses the construction of a more reliable and accurate scale that measures two of Hall’s fundamental dimensions: contextual reasoning and social relations. In four studies (n = 1285), we gained empirical support for Hall’s theoretical framework. The scale was reliable and valid, as it predicted group membership to Chinese, Israeli, and American nationalities, confirming Hall’s cultural continuum. People who scored higher on the scale preferred the product featured in the commercial emphasizing social utility more than those who scored lower on the scale, further demonstrating the scale’s usefulness in predicting consumer choice for socially relevant message content. Future studies can use the new “low - high-context” (LC-HC) scale as a cultural segmentation tool for designing efficient marketing strategies.
    Keywords: cross-cultural management; scale; low-high cultural contexts; international marketing; segmentation; China; Israel; USA.
    DOI: 10.1504/EJIM.2022.10053329
  • International standard-setting alliance and its possible negative effect on consumers' technology acceptance and technology progress   Order a copy of this article
    by Wei Li, Xuemei Wang 
    Abstract: Based on the Theory of Consumer Choice and the research method of game modelling, this paper discusses one potential outcome generated by the international standard-setting alliance. We obtain the following conclusions. First, it is shown that (international) industrial standard-setting alliance is indeed true of potential power to restrain subsequent competing technologies including superior technology, and such crowding-out effect is positively impacted by the market power (measured by alliance size) of the standard-setting alliance. Second, as optional tactics, to increase the compatibility between subsequent technology and incumbent technology, or to increase the utility of subsequent technology are helpful to correct consumer’s choice and diminish the crowding-out effect of standard-setting alliance on subsequent competing superior technology. Third, the size and market power of standard-setting alliance needs to be properly monitored and controlled, so as to mitigate its improper intervention on consumer’s technology choice and its negative influence on technology innovation and progress.
    Keywords: standard-setting alliance; technology standard; technology innovation; Hotelling model.
    DOI: 10.1504/EJIM.2022.10053330
  • 'Some like it hot': the role of identity, website, co-creation behaviour on identification and love   Order a copy of this article
    by Pantea Foroudi, Reza Marvi 
    Abstract: This study uses the social identity and perceived value perspective to fill a gap in tourism studies regarding the effect of Airbnb identity, website, and travellers' engagement in value co-creation with Airbnb. The research addresses three questions: (1) What are the main factors influencing Airbnb brand love? (2) what are the key factors that influence co-creation behaviour favourability in Airbnb? and (3) what are the key consequences of co-creation behaviour in Airbnb? This research employs complexity theory, which integrates the principle of equifinality. To examine the data, this research employs structural equation modelling and fuzzy set qualitative comparative. The favourability of an identification and love are reflected by the extent to which travellers and users positively regard the Airbnb website. Findings reveal the significance of the co-creation behaviour in enhancing the service attractiveness and perceived value. Important implications for tourism managers and researchers are highlighted.
    Keywords: identity; website; co-creation behaviour; service attractiveness; experience; perceived value; identification; love; sharing economy.
    DOI: 10.1504/EJIM.2023.10053692
  • Spillover effects in the banking sector of emerging economies: a South Africa case study   Order a copy of this article
    by Alex Pietrus, Alireza Nazarian, Z. D. Javad Izadi 
    Abstract: This article aims to identify the presence of knowledge transfer and spillover effects and investigate the mechanism in which they materialise through efficiency and performance gained resulting from two foreign banks’ majority and minority ownership in the South African (SA) banking sector. To achieve these objectives, performance and efficiency indicators of ABSA and the Standard Bank are collected and computed using the t-statistics model. The findings suggest that not only these two banks became more efficient after foreign participation in their ownership structure, but also the level of knowledge transfer depends on the type of ownership.
    Keywords: knowledge transfer; spillover effects; domestic and foreign banks; financial sector development.
    DOI: 10.1504/EJIM.2023.10053844
  • Praise of intra-organisational social capital and knowledge-sharing behaviours in MNCs: understanding the human resource development mechanism role   Order a copy of this article
    by Saheb Imani, Pantea Foroudi, Reza Marvi 
    Abstract: Reviewing the literature suggests that there are four key research gaps associated with internal marketing practices, human resource development (HRD), social capital and knowledge sharing including: (i) lack of studies on how internal marketing capacities can shape the structure of social capital within a multinational organisation (MNC); (ii) lack of studies on how HRD mechanism, intra-organisational social capital and knowledge-sharing behaviours provide a critical link (mediation role) between internal marketing practices and multinational organisation outcomes. In addition, this manuscript emphasizes (iii) lack of studies on the importance of internal marketing practices for proposing an integrative and complete framework for explaining and predicting organisational outcomes; (iv) and the importance of internal marketing as moderating factors between HRD mechanism, social capital and knowledge sharing.
    Keywords: internal marketing; intra-organisational social capital; knowledge-sharing behaviours; human resource development; moderated-mediation; paternalistic leadership; servant leadership.
    DOI: 10.1504/EJIM.2023.10053845
  • Status anxiety and executive decision making: Financial implications of reactions to unethical behaviour   Order a copy of this article
    by Justin Davis, Andrew Fodor, Robert Perkins, William C. McDowell, John Batchelor 
    Abstract: This study provides a unique perspective on the forces at play in decision-making at the top level of organisations. This study extends research in the area of organisational decision-making by examining managerial goal conflict when confronted with status anxiety. We also examine the multi-level effects of status anxiety by examining the attitudes and reactions of investors in such situations. Using market options volatility of Arthur Anderson clients throughout its quick collapse, we analyse the severing of partnerships and the investor anxiety and company performance that accompanied these decisions. Our findings suggest senior executive compensation is a driver for decision-making in situations of high-status anxiety. In addition, investors are not influenced by these status concerns either before or after the decision to discontinue an exchange partner relationship. This finding highlights the importance of continued research in the area of customer and investor behaviour as it relates to corporate social responsibility.
    Keywords: status anxiety; investor fear; market volatility; agency theory; uncertainty; implied volatility.
    DOI: 10.1504/EJIM.2022.10053886
  • Determinants influencing international relocation of production: evidence from Taiwanese firms investing in China   Order a copy of this article
    by Hsiang-Hsi Liu, Jing-Yun Shen 
    Abstract: The main purpose of this study is to examine the determinants of the international relocation of production of Taiwanese firms investing in China over the past decade. Our criteria for considering Taiwanese firms is that they have experienced international relocation of production to other countries (outside China), and have the highest proportion of investment in China in their respective industries. Using the panel logit model, the results show that international experience, comparative economic-openness and comparative political-stability have a positive impact on the international relocation of production, while company size, age, profitability, corporate governance, comparative labour costs, comparative corporate tax rates, and geographic-cultural distance have negative effects. Basically, for Taiwanese companies investing in China, the country-categorical factors that affect the international relocation of production have a higher impact than the firm-categorical factors. It is hoped that our empirical results can provide guidance for business managers and government agencies to implement appropriate relocation strategies and decisions.
    Keywords: international relocation of production; Taiwanese firms investing in China; panel logit model; random effects; generalised least squares.
    DOI: 10.1504/EJIM.2022.10054042
  • Slowing down to speed up decision-making styles and international marketing agility   Order a copy of this article
    by Yoel Asseraf, Gnizy Itzhak 
    Abstract: TThe global crisis has made it clear that international marketing agility (IMA) the ability to respond fast to market shifts is crucial. Unfortunately, the international business literature addressing IMA is scant and provides little quantitative research. Specifically, the impacts of comprehensiveness and spontaneity decision-making styles on IMA are unclear. Consequently, this study draws on the dynamic capabilities, strategic choice, and ambidexterity theories to develop a model and test it quantitatively based on data from 187 Israeli managers. Data were analysed using partial least squares-structural equation modelling and the prediction algorithm PLSpredict. The study confirms that IMA is an important driver of new products performance. Surprisingly, whereas both comprehensiveness and spontaneity drive IMA, comprehensiveness is more vital in an international context. To enhance international performance, managers are advised to slow down to speed up as it will allow them to respond faster and achieve superior new products performance.
    Keywords: decision-making; comprehensiveness; spontaneity; agility; NPD performance.
    DOI: 10.1504/EJIM.2023.10054179
  • Is guanxi prevalent across China? Evidence from seventeen provinces   Order a copy of this article
    by Ron Berger, Bradley R. Barnes, Matti Rachamim, Avi Silbiger 
    Abstract: Despite increased discourse on guanxi, studies surrounding its relevance across different regions of China have not been undertaken. Whilst guanxi may enable individuals to improve their business, avoid taxes and acquire resources, some have argued that its significance is declining as markets become more commercially developed. This school of thought considers guanxi as an outdated model that promotes corruption, detracts business from the free-market and plays a limited role today. This study seeks to examine the pivotal role or absence of guanxi across seventeen provinces to determine whether or not guanxi holds and still exists in modern day China.
    Keywords: China; ganqing; guanxi; GRX; renqing; xinren.
    DOI: 10.1504/EJIM.2022.10054675
  • Does green HRM really matter in higher educational institutions? The role of green engagement and green behaviours   Order a copy of this article
    by Qasim Ali Nisar, Qazi Muhammad Ali, Arab Ul Mateen, Abdul Khaliq, Shahbaz Haider 
    Abstract: The study aimed to examine the role of green human resource management (GHRM) in the environmental performance of higher educational institutes (HEIs). Besides, this study also focused on the mediating effect of green engagement and green behaviour in addition to the moderating role of green creativity. Data were collected from 208 individuals (senior, middle, and top management employees) working in HEIs using convenience sampling. The data were subjected to partial least square-structural equation modelling (PLS-SEM) analysis. The study provides insights regarding how GHRM practices influence environmental performance by considering psychological and behavioural mechanisms. The findings also explain the moderating influence of green creativity on the relationship between green engagement and green behaviours. Overall, the findings indicate that GHRM practices are one of the significant determinants of increasing environmental performance in HEIs.
    Keywords: green human resource management; environmental performance; green engagement; green behaviour; green creativity.
    DOI: 10.1504/EJIM.2022.10055312
  • Using digital technology to approach internationalisation: a capability threshold perspective   Order a copy of this article
    by Cizhi Wang, Zhongjuan Sun, Jialin Feng, Hejun FAN 
    Abstract: Manufacturing firms undertaking international business have widely applied digital technologies but to differing extents. Referring the current state of digital transformation in the Chinese manufacturing industry, greater digital transformation is necessary when approaching internationalisation, but it may trigger subsequent resource redeployment to merge digital technology and other, non-digital, firm resources. Therefore, we adopt the strategic flexibility theory to explore the importance of resource redeployment and examine the buffer effect of unabsorbed slack resources when upgrading the resource base with digital technology. Using a sample of 537 manufacturing firms in China, this study found the existence of a strategic flexibility threshold in the relationship between digital technology and internationalisation. Moreover, when a firm’s strategic flexibility exceeds this threshold, unabsorbed slack resources positively moderate the relationship between digital technology and internationalisation. However, absorbed slack resources negatively moderate the relationship between digital technology and internationalisation.
    Keywords: digital technology; internationalisation; resource-based view; capability-based view; strategic flexibility; slack resources; threshold effect.
    DOI: 10.1504/EJIM.2023.10055470
  • Gender board diversity: the effect on pollution targeting   Order a copy of this article
    by Ofra Bazel-Shoham, Nina Jorien Van Vulpen 
    Abstract: One of a corporate board's main tasks is establishing the corporation's targets implemented by the executive suite. We theoretically and empirically support that gender board diversity positively impacts the corporation's probability of emission reduction (ER) targets. Using a large international sample of 10,856 matched company-year observations from 2007 to 2018 for 1,841 companies in 34 different countries, we find that women on the board of directors positively influence ER policies and ER objectives. Our research makes a number of contributions to the literature on gender board diversity and environmentally friendly corporations.
    Keywords: board gender diversity; emission reduction policy; emission reduction objective.
    DOI: 10.1504/EJIM.2022.10055761
  • Liability of foreignness and liability of outsidership: understanding blockchain through Uppsala lens   Order a copy of this article
    by Bernardo Silva-Rêgo, Stephanie Moura, Yueling Sima 
    Abstract: This paper discusses how the blockchain governance model can add a new perspective to the International Business literature and shape the liability of outsidership (LOO) and liability of foreignness (LOF). Based on Uppsala tenets, we develop a conceptual model based on four propositions to show how the LOO and LOF can be less of an impeditive in a blockchain environment. The decentralised coordination allows a more symmetric distribution of information, hence lessening the power struggle, enhancing commitment, and reducing the time consumption of trust-based transactions. This paper contributes to the literature by (a) introducing a nuanced discussion about technology in international business, presenting blockchain governance as a hybrid of networks and contracts; and (b) discussing how blockchain governance mechanisms can moderate LOO and LOF impact on the firms’ legitimacy.
    Keywords: network governance; liability of Foreignness; liability of outsidership; blockchain; trust; legitimacy.
    DOI: 10.1504/EJIM.2022.10055778
  • The international multi-layer network spanning the innovation space: lessons from a cooperative case   Order a copy of this article
    by Martina Pieperhoff, Dietmar Rössl 
    Abstract: Capturing an interconnected international industry benefits from having access to a highly diversified network. In such a context, we investigated processes of innovation occurring within a network of heterogeneous members of a cooperative, a type of organisation owned by its members, who demand support from the cooperative and are involved in its decision-making processes. Because networks of cooperatives comprise actors on different levels who together form a multilayer network further enriched by the member structure of cooperatives, such a network should enable cooperatives to realise potential developments in their interconnected international industry. Applying the Gioia method, we examined innovation processes in one such organisation with a multilayer network
    Keywords: international industry; network; innovation; cooperative; Gioia method.
    DOI: 10.1504/EJIM.2023.10055798
  • Hybrid-within-hybrid: governance issues within international airline alliances   Order a copy of this article
    by Claude Ménard, Gezia Damergy 
    Abstract: Strategic alliances dominate the airline industry, with three ventures carrying the vast majority of passengers worldwide. The amplitude of this phenomenon has generated an abundant literature, mostly focused on why the industry endorsed this hybrid solution and, to a lesser degree, how it is governed. However, little attention has been paid to a more recent form in which a subset of firms implemented a specific alliance within the broader alliance, creating a hybrid within the hybrid. This article explores the institutional conditions of emergence of such arrangements and the modalities of governance securing their resilience. It does so through a careful examination of the pioneering agreement between Air France-KLM and Delta Air Lines (recently extended to Virgin). The analysis shows how this hybrid-within-hybrid relies on the adaptation of the rules of the game by intermediate (meso-) institutions and a relational contract providing partners a flexible managerial governance.
    Keywords: organisations; institutions; airline industry; strategic alliances; hybrids; governance; contracts; committees; transaction costs; metal neutral.
    DOI: 10.1504/EJIM.2022.10055799
  • Brace for impact: How strategic knowledge management determines innovation impact in MNE subsidiaries   Order a copy of this article
    by Sven Dahms, Sladjana Cabrilo, Suthikorn Kingkaew 
    Abstract: We investigate how strategic knowledge management generates high impact innovation configurations in MNE subsidiaries. A questionnaire survey was conducted among managing directors of foreign-owned subsidiaries in Singapore and Thailand. The data was analysed using fuzzy set qualitative comparative analysis techniques. We find that strategic knowledge management is a key condition for generating high impact innovations, but does require complementary conditions to do so, including inter- and intra-organizational networks along with national and subnational host country characteristics. For instance, while strategic knowledge management drives high impact innovations in subsidiaries located at a larger knowledge distance, there appears to be a trade-off between the complementarity of intra- and inter-organizational networks. Our study highlights that configurations can contribute to our theoretical and practical understanding of the role strategic knowledge management plays in the generation of impactful innovations at the subsidiary level.
    Keywords: strategic knowledge management; networks; MNE; innovation; fsQCA.
    DOI: 10.1504/EJIM.2023.10055882
  • Entrepreneurial orientation and opportunities recognition on foreign markets: empirical evidence from Central Europe   Order a copy of this article
    by Krzysztof Wach, Agnieszka G?odowska, Marek Maciejewski 
    Abstract: The article aims at exploring the links of opportunity recognition, opportunity creation and accidental discovery on foreign markets with entrepreneurial orientation (EO) and its three dimensions in the international context. The article takes an opportunity-based view toward internationalization. Apart from the literature review and its critics, the quantitative design is applied by using a CATI survey. It is based on a sample of 355 internationalized businesses from Poland. Simple and multivariate regressions were used to verify the assumed hypotheses. Based on the research sample of investigated firms, entrepreneurial orientation does influence positively recognition and creation of international opportunities. The higher the EO is, the higher the recognizing opportunities and creating opportunities are. EO has a positive impact on both recognizing opportunities and creating opportunities in international markets. On the other hand, the results are non-conclusive whether entrepreneurial orientation does or does not influence accidental opportunities discovery.
    Keywords: international entrepreneurship; international business; opportunities; opportunity creation; opportunity recognition; opportunity discovery; entrepreneurial orientation; Poland; Central Europe.
    DOI: 10.1504/EJIM.2022.10056250
  • Network effects in international entrepreneurship: a meta-analytic review   Order a copy of this article
    by Jiawen Chen, Linlin Liu 
    Abstract: Despite the recognized importance of the network effects of international entrepreneurship, they are not yet clearly and conclusively understood. We elucidate this issue by conducting a meta-analysis of 51 primary studies. Our findings show that social network ties and business network ties are both positively associated with the entrepreneurial internationalization process in terms of international speed, scale, and scope, as well as with the international performance of new ventures. More importantly, social network ties and business network ties function complementarily in promoting the entrepreneurial internationalization process and enhancing international performance. We conclude by discussing the theoretical implications of our findings and promising directions for future research.
    Keywords: entrepreneurial network; entrepreneurial internationalization; international performance; network pluralism.
    DOI: 10.1504/EJIM.2022.10056682
  • Investment decisions and family CEOs   Order a copy of this article
    by Isabel-María García-Sánchez, Jennifer Martinez-Ferrero, Emma García-Meca 
    Abstract: This study explores how family ownership and family chief executive officers (CEO) affect investment decisions. We analyse figures from 940 international firms from 2008 to 2015 and by controlling the endogeneity problem, the paper finds that family control acts as a monitoring tool that enhances investment, bringing it to an optimal level. We also show that a family CEO with blood ties improves investment decisions in a family firm. This study also confirms the positive effect of managerial ability on investments decisions in family firms, and supports the moderating role of family CEOs in achieving optimal investment decisions under able managers. The results provide a valuable refinement to family-firm literature by analysing the role of family CEOs in moderating the influence of able managers. As far as we know, this is the first paper that addresses investment decisions, managerial ability and family CEOs in family firms.
    Keywords: family firm; investment; CEO; managerial ability.
    DOI: 10.1504/EJIM.2022.10056740
  • The impact of internal marketing on knowledge sharing capability   Order a copy of this article
    by Pantea Foroudi, Reza Marvi, Saheb Imani 
    Abstract: Despite the growing interest of policymakers and scholars to better understand the impact of internal marketing capabilities on social capital and knowledge sharing capability, little is known about how the specific antecedents of knowledge sharing capability can explain variations in performance from a migrant science, technology, engineering and mathematics professionals’ (STEM) perception. What are the influences of trust and absorptive capacity in the relationships between internal marketing capabilities, social capital, and entrepreneurial orientation with knowledge sharing capability in MNCs? The study is based on a sample of 438 migrant STEM-professionals among MNCs from multi-industries such as higher education, engineering, telecoms, technology and information systems, automotive, chemical and pharmaceutical industries, and provides evidence of a significant gap. This paper shows that growing immigrant diversity and internal marketing capabilities impact on entrepreneurial orientation and social capital. Entrepreneurial orientation and social capital influence the knowledge sharing capability.
    Keywords: internal marketing capabilities; entrepreneurial orientation; social capital; knowledge sharing capability; STEM-professionals; MNCs.
    DOI: 10.1504/EJIM.2022.10056741
  • A bibliometric review of innovation networks: 30 years of study   Order a copy of this article
    by Haniye Rezaei, Morteza Akbari, Asef Karimi, Pantea Foroudi 
    Abstract: Innovation networks as the key predictor of firms’ success have received substantial attention from both academics and practitioners in recent years. However, despite increasing attention being paid to innovation networks and their role in enhancing the performance of new products/services, there is a lack of consensus regarding the key antecedents and consequences of innovation networks in the pertinent literature. To address the lack of coherence in the literature, this paper adopts a bibliometric review method to provide a comprehensive overview of the current situation as well as recent trends in the pertinent literature. We conducted our bibliometric review by examining the time distribution of existing studies and, more importantly, analyzing the most significant authors, journals, countries, institutions, co-citations, co-occurrences, content analysis, and clustering of documents on innovation networks. This comprehensive method enabled us to conduct a robust analysis of the logical continuous flows and key ideas underpinning the innovation networks
    Keywords: Bibliometric; Innovation Network; Web of Science Database; Co-citation; Co-occurrence Analysis.
    DOI: 10.1504/EJIM.2022.10056922
  • The impact of logistics performance on internet retailing: a cross-country analysis   Order a copy of this article
    by Amir Eslami Andargoli, Hassan F. Gholipour, Behzad Foroughi, Nader Sheikholeslami Kandelousi 
    Abstract: The objective of this study is to investigate the relationship between internet retailing and logistics performance index and its six components (efficiency of customs and border clearance, quality of logistics services, ease of arranging international shipments, timeliness of international shipments, tracking and tracing consignments, and quality of trade and transport infrastructure). Using data from 80 developed and emerging countries from 2007 to 2018, the findings show that logistics performance index has a positive and significant relationship with internet retailing. We also find that quality of logistics services, ease of arranging international shipments, quality of trade and transport infrastructure as well as tracking and tracing consignments are significant determinants of internet retailing. Our results provide important implications for retail companies and policymakers.
    Keywords: logistics; internet retailing; panel data; business performance; macroeconomic.
    DOI: 10.1504/EJIM.2022.10057081
  • Business relatedness and parent firm performance: is accumulated knowledge stock the missing link?   Order a copy of this article
    by Ramjanul Ahsan, Md. Imtiaz Mostafiz 
    Abstract: This study examines the relationships between business relatedness of parent firms and international joint venture (IJV), accumulated knowledge stock, and parent firm performance with the moderating effect of organisational culture. Drawing on the knowledge-based view, the Growth curve model is used to investigate parent firms’ performance in 210 IJVs in the UK and USA between 2006 and 2015. Our study shows that the impact of business relatedness on firm performance is time-variant and subject to a mediated effect. We argue that accumulated knowledge stock generated from business relatedness mediates the relationship between business relatedness and the parent firm’s performance. Moreover, the benefits of accumulated knowledge stock are more pronounced with the supportive organisational culture of parent firms. We advocate that by concentrating on the accumulation of knowledge stock, the parent firm can improve its performance. The findings provide profound implications to the top management to integrate knowledge that yields superior values and performance in the long run and forgoing marginal values in the short run.
    Keywords: business relatedness; international joint venture; organisational culture; accumulated knowledge stock.
    DOI: 10.1504/EJIM.2023.10057248
  • Managing conflict in global virtual teams: a study in cultural intelligence   Order a copy of this article
    by Sumati Varma, Richa Awasthy, Monica Adya 
    Abstract: Global Virtual Teams (GVTs) based projects provide a robust experiential learning environment to develop and enhance the global mind set and workforce readiness of dispersed teams. Yet, this learning environment can be negatively impacted by inherent team conflict, as described in this study through an incident that emerged in an online student collaboration platform (X-Culture). We view this incident through the lens of cultural intelligence and recommend that the design of pedagogy and interventions around GVST interactions can greatly improve the metacognitive intelligence of each participant and enhance the likelihood of successful GVT engagement through active conflict resolution. Key communications, informant interviews, e-mails, and Web board discussions were triangulated to demonstrate that lack of cultural intelligence and trust are the genesis of conflict between team members in multicultural GVTs. We conclude with recommendations for pedagogical and managerial practice that include pre-engagement preparatory development for GVTs..
    Keywords: constructivist approach; experiential learning; global virtual teams; global virtual student teams; conflict; cultural intelligence; trust; project X-Culture.
    DOI: 10.1504/EJIM.2022.10057524
  • Team climate and performance in global virtual teams: exploring the effects of cultural intelligence and emotional intelligence on team climate satisfaction   Order a copy of this article
    by Mahboobeh Davaei, Marjaana Gunkel, Vasyl Taras 
    Abstract: The literature has largely overlooked the role of multiple intelligences in global virtual teams (GVTs). Based on a global dataset including 723 individuals from 37 countries working in 218 GVTs, the present study aims to explore the impact of emotional intelligence (EQ) and cultural intelligence (CQ) on improving team climate satisfaction and, in turn, the effect of team climate satisfaction on the performance in GVTs. The multilevel analysis results show that team climate satisfaction mediates the effects of EQ and CQ on performance in GVTs. At the individual level, team members’ satisfaction with the team climate negatively mediates the relationship between team members’ EQ and CQ and their performance in GVTs. In contrast, at the team level, the average team climate satisfaction positively mediates the relationship between the average EQ and CQ of team members and the collective team performance in GVTs. We discuss the implications for research and practice.
    Keywords: global virtual teams; cultural intelligence; emotional intelligence; performance; team climate satisfaction.
    DOI: 10.1504/EJIM.2023.10057603
  • Automotive global production networks in peripheral locations: convergent divergence patterns of institutionalisation   Order a copy of this article
    by Tugba Gurcaylilar-Yenidogan, Hilal Erkus 
    Abstract: The rise of international networks of production and participation in global value chains (GVCs) does matter also for national comparatives over institutional interactions of governance. GVC literature pays little attention to the political economy of inter-firm governance. Global production networks (GPNs) provide a broader explanation of the interaction of global and local governance by considering the collective behaviour of actors, institutions, national business systems and power relations in value-chain governance. With this in mind, the present study explores the modes of governance in GPNs by unveiling the role of institutions, institutional complementarities and national business systems in different local sourcing strategies of automakers and auto-parts suppliers in the Turkish automotive sector. The findings verify the roles of institutions in the different modes of governance emerging in automaker-supplier relations, and more specifically, reveal a pattern of convergent divergence of institutionalism within the Turkish automotive sector.
    Keywords: global production networks; institutional complementarity; automotive industry; modes of governance; national business systems.
    DOI: 10.1504/EJIM.2023.10058755
  • Analysis of firm-specific, country-specific and sectoral determinants of international franchise survival   Order a copy of this article
    by Cintya Lanchimba Lopez, Hugo Porras, Yasmin Salazar, Dianne H.B. Welsh 
    Abstract: Franchising is a major part of the worldwide economy. Different factors at the firm and country levels simultaneously influence franchising survival, including location and governance. The purpose of this study is to wholistically view of the factors that affect franchisors’ survival. This study examines the variables that influence franchisors’ survival in different economic sectors by comparing data from Latin America and Europe from 2009 to 2017. Using survival analysis modelling, the results show that first-mover franchises with greater business experience and contract characteristics that avoid agency problems are more likely to survive. We find that compared with late entrants, franchisors that enter the market earlier are more likely to gain brand loyalty, scarce strategic resources, and advantages from the early registration of their brand, which allows them to survive longer. As the host country’s economic, institutional, infrastructure, and technology factors improve, franchise survival increases. Implications are discussed.
    Keywords: franchising; first-mover advantages; country stability; technology exports; international; Latin America; Europe; governance; survival strategy.
    DOI: 10.1504/EJIM.2022.10058964
  • The economic impact of location on multi-unit franchising   Order a copy of this article
    by Cintya Lanchimba Lopez, Eugênio Bitti, Dianne H.B. Welsh 
    Abstract: One of the most common forms of franchising is multi-unit franchising (MUF), which is the primary growth vehicle for franchising worldwide. Many of these franchises are small businesses that face several problems, such as the lack of access to financial markets to grow faster In this context and based on agency theory, Thus, we address the question of the impact of the geographical dispersion of the franchised units to headquarters, agglomeration of stores, incentive mechanism, and monitoring on the proportion of multi-unit franchising in the chain Using a unique cross-sectional dataset of 202 franchisors in 26 Brazilian States from a survey of the franchisors, we found a positive relationship between the proportion of MUF and the studied variables, in agreement with agency theory. Implications for small businesses, franchising, and the economy are discussed.
    Keywords: multi-unit franchising; location; agency theory; Brazil.
    DOI: 10.1504/EJIM.2022.10058965
  • Transnational identities in the European labour market: a multilingual perspective   Order a copy of this article
    by Anne Kari Bjørge, Sandra Tomescu Baciu, Sunniva Whittaker 
    Abstract: EU policies encourage multilingualism as a factor to enable mobility within its labour market. One aspect of this is the offshoring of language-sensitive services from high-cost to lower-cost countries, which has been largely ignored in previous research. This calls for situated research of language issues contextualized with respect to different professional and geographical categories. The present paper addresses the situation of knowledge workers providing language-sensitive services for an off-shored MNC unit. The services in question require proficiency in the language of a high-cost country (Norway) and are offshored to a unit in a lower-cost country (Romania) for financial purposes. Norwegian proficiency in addition to English is a condition for employment at entry level. The article explores how a multilingual work situation impacts on knowledge workers' personal and professional identity, the concept of transnational identity and the issue of career pathing.
    Keywords: transnationalism; identity; knowledge workers; service offshoring; multilingualism; hybrid language; European labour market; lingua franca; career pathing.
    DOI: 10.1504/EJIM.2022.10059206
  • Tacitness on multinational corporations' location choice: multi-levelled moderating of knowledge transfer and absorptive capability   Order a copy of this article
    by Fang-Yi Lo, Kun-Huang Huarng, Yu-Ling Chiang 
    Abstract: Based on both resource-based theory and knowledge-based theory, we focus on tacitness of resources influencing the international location choice of multinational corporations. Tacitly or explicitly, multinational corporations select proper international locations to invest. This study is a multilevel setting, including multinational networks of parent company and their foreign subsidiaries. To examine the factors influencing location choice, we adopted hierarchical linear model statistics method to analyse multilevel data simultaneously of parent companies’ resources and subsidiaries locations. Empirical data from Taiwan Economic Journal database include 855 Taiwanese multinational corporations and their 12,637 subsidiaries around the world. Result support explicit and tacit resources will influence location choices, and the moderator of parent companies transfer capability and subsidiary absorptive capacity successfully decrease the constraint of tacit resources on choosing international locations, and increase flexibility of multinational corporations to conduct their international investment activities.
    Keywords: hierarchical linear model; knowledge-based theory; location choice; parent companies' transfer capability; resource-based theory; subsidiary absorptive capacity.
    DOI: 10.1504/EJIM.2023.10059237
  • INTO THE UNKNOWN: the impact of coronavirus on UK hotel stock performance   Order a copy of this article
    by Javad Izadi Zadeh Darjezi, Pantea Foroudi, Alireza Nazarian 
    Abstract: As the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) spread in March 2020, it crashed economies across the world, including in the UK. This study investigates the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic outbreak on the stock return of publicly listed hotels in the UK. By employing the event-study approach, this study proposes to scrutinise (i) the effect of the coronavirus pandemic on UK hotel stock price changes, (ii) how the magnitude of the COVID-19 outbreak has affected the stock price movements on the UK market place, and (iii) how COVID-19 has impacted the hotel industry via the reactions of the stock market. Our results show that the listed hotels in the stock market experienced substantial negative cumulative abnormal returns. This article's findings could empirically be useful for business to be better prepared for a similar future pandemic disease.
    Keywords: COVID-19 pandemic; event study method; abnormal stock return; hotel industry.
    DOI: 10.1504/EJIM.2022.10059238
  • Governance mechanisms drive SME export performance via competitive advantage   Order a copy of this article
    by Maria L. Vélez, Jose M. Sánchez-Vázquez, Raquel Florez Lopez 
    Abstract: This paper provides novel empirical evidence that scrutinises how control systems and trust, as governance mechanisms, contribute to SME export performance when they use international business networks. Drawing on the arguments about a positive relationship between them, we propose an integrative model about their direct and indirect effect on performance through competitive advantage. This model is tested using a sample of 193 Spanish export ventures. The results single out mutual trust as a source of competitive advantage and a key driver of export performance. Besides, having output controls in place increases trust, and indirectly impacts export performance through trust mediation. These findings claim that trust is an exclusive, inimitable resource that allows SMEs to effectively orchestrate their relationship with their intermediaries and the role of output controls as an essential mechanism to build trust and support trusts effect on performance.
    Keywords: export performance; mutual trust; output control; behavioural control; competitive advantage.
    DOI: 10.1504/EJIM.2022.10059417
  • Team Innovation and Export Venture Performance in SMEs: A Multilevel Moderated Mediated Model   Order a copy of this article
    by Tien Luu Dung 
    Abstract: This study aims to develop a logic for leveraging innovation resources at the team level for export venture performance. The study sample comprised 466 team leaders at 167 export and import firms in Ho Chi Minh City, Da Nang, and Ha Noi, Vietnam. The data is analysed using a partial least square-structural equation model (PLS-SEM). Team innovation needs an indirect, multi-level mechanism to transfer core capabilities to export venture performance rather than a unique direct mechanism, which might contribute to the international performance of SMEs via two pathways, namely the direct mechanism of employee exploration-exploitation innovation and the buffering role as the moderator of team absorptive capacity and intermediaries of firm domestic network capacity. In addition, team-centred transformational leadership may serve as the impetus for forming a significant innovation team. This initial study contributes significantly to international business theory by using team innovation and personal and organisational resources through the lens of dynamic capabilities theory.
    Keywords: firm domestic network; employee exploitation innovation; employee exploration innovation; export venture performance; team absorptive capacity; team innovation.
    DOI: 10.1504/EJIM.2023.10059441
  • A real options perspective on international strategic alliance formation: the role of distance and strategic motives   Order a copy of this article
    by Juliane Engsig 
    Abstract: This paper investigates how distance, as a multidimensional concept, affects international strategic alliance formation. Building on the real options literature, we theorize that when faced with distance, partnering companies will choose to create a non-equity agreement. We argue that the strategic motives of an alliance play a moderating role in distance effects, which can push partners to create an equity agreement. We empirically test the CAGE (cultural, administrative, geographic, economic) distance framework on the choice to create an equity or a non-equity agreement in R&D, marketing and manufacturing collaborations. We find that it is necessary to test the interactive role of strategic motives in various values of distance to provide a nuanced account of how distance affects international alliance formation.
    Keywords: distance; international strategic alliance formation; real options strategy; strategic motives.
    DOI: 10.1504/EJIM.2023.10059518
  • Familiness and internationalisation of family firms: a resource-based view   Order a copy of this article
    by Nina Gorovaia, Franziska Pfahnl 
    Abstract: Previous research produced diverging findings regarding family firms' internationalisation. We use resource-based theory to explain family firms’ internationalisation highlighting their heterogeneity, various forms of family involvement, and unique resource bundles. The qualitative methodology allows us to identify unique resource bundles and showcase paradoxes of resource dimensions. The empirical context of the study is three family firms operating in the food industry in Austria that have successfully implemented internationalisation strategies. We contribute to the international business literature by arguing that familiness as a bundle of unique intangible resources influences the internationalisation propensity of family firms. Considering that family firms dominate the business landscape worldwide and remain an essential source of value creation, our study addresses an important topic. The qualitative methodology provides a real-life picture that escapes from quantitative studies. Future studies should investigate more specific types of companies, of a certain size, in a particular industry in order to gain more novel and practical insight.
    Keywords: familiness; resource-based view of internationalisation; family firms.
    DOI: 10.1504/EJIM.2023.10059781
  • Improving dynamic capabilities through knowledge acquisition in international strategic alliances: moderating role of knowledge integration   Order a copy of this article
    by Ahmad Qammar, Muhammad Shakeel Aslam, Muhammad Zafar Yaqub, Farhan Ahmed, Imran Ali, Murad Ali 
    Abstract: The study examines how knowledge acquisition is affected by factors such as cultural intelligence, language barriers, disagreements, and workplace camaraderie emanating from the nexus of local and foreign partners. It further investigates the mediating role of knowledge acquisition in causing the aforementioned determinants significant effects of dynamic capabilities (the outcome). It also expounds the interplay between knowledge acquisition and dynamic capabilities of local organisations while taking knowledge integration as the critical moderating contingency. Data has been collected through a survey involving 370 engineers working in six leading engineering consultancy and construction firms fostering active international alliances for mega infrastructure projects in Pakistan. The findings add to the theoretical underpinnings by creating a vinculum between determinants of organizational learning and its consequences i.e., dynamic capabilities. Engineering companies working in international alliances can benefit from the findings of this research for designing strategies to enhance their knowledge-base and dynamic capabilities.
    Keywords: knowledge acquisition; international alliances; cultural intelligence; language barriers; disagreements; workplace camaraderie; dynamic capabilities; knowledge integration.
    DOI: 10.1504/EJIM.2022.10060154
  • Innovation and internationalisation in a digital world: the focal role of innovation incubators   Order a copy of this article
    by Pengfei Fu, Weimu You, David Sarpong 
    Abstract: Riding on the back of the countrys maker movement, Chinese central government launched a mass innovation and mass entrepreneurship initiative to promote innovation and entrepreneurship across the country. This top-down initiative has contributed to an explosion of innovation incubators focusing on digital technologies and their broader implications for everyday social and cultural life in a globalised era. In this paper, we explore the focal role of these new breed of Chinese innovation incubators in shaping the internationalisation agenda of firms and how their innovation processes play out in the digital innovation environment. Data for the inquiry comes from ethnographic interviews with loosely coupled actors in the Chinese digital innovation ecosystem and two of the most prominent innovation incubators. We found innovation incubators as orchestrators of a new breed of innovation networks that provide safe crucibles for Maker ideation, experimentation, and prototyping. Our study suggests that these Chinese innovation incubators, over time, have come to play an intermediary role in linking Chinese traditional manufacturing industries to digital technologies, capital, and talents. These innovation incubators, by virtue of their extended relational networks, provide opportunities for Chinese firms to tap into international markets otherwise overlooked by their competitors.
    Keywords: China; digital infrastructure; digital innovation; innovation incubator; internationalisation.
    DOI: 10.1504/EJIM.2023.10060610
  • Exploring emerging trends and the evolution of cross-border mergers and acquisitions: a bibliometric review   Order a copy of this article
    by Yun Bai, Linjun Wang, Shaolong Sun, Shouyang Wang, Yunjie Wei 
    Abstract: With the development of globalisation, more and more companies have been stimulated to make cross-border mergers and acquisitions (M&A) to improve company strength and diversified investment across national boundaries. This study uses bibliometric methods to sort 308 articles from the core collection of international M&A studies. An integrated bibliometric analysis framework of cross-border M&As is proposed which incorporates descriptive statistical analysis, co-cited analysis, collaboration and co-occurrence networking with clustering methods to identify the most high-impact institutions, journals, and academics within this evolving field. This research analyses the keyword co-occurrence network cluster diagrams and the co-cited network clustering time-zone maps to identify research hotspots and to understand the evolution of international M&A literature. Empirical results indicate that the frontiers of international M&A are integration and technological innovations. Based on this research, two future research directions are suggested, focusing on crossover and the need to establish a quantitative base for theoretical research. The framework, methods, and conclusions derived through this research provide practicable applications for both academic research and enterprises.
    Keywords: cross-border M&As; co-citation analysis; collaboration network; keyword co-occurrence network; CiteSpace.
    DOI: 10.1504/EJIM.2022.10061194
  • Directional financial and knowledge distances and foreign direct investment location choice: The moderating role of entry mode   Order a copy of this article
    by Xuchang Chen, Ping Lv 
    Abstract: Recent international business studies have paid attention to the directionality of cross-national distance instead of solely using symmetrical and absolute value. In this paper we investigate the impact of directional financial distance and knowledge distance on emerging market firm’s foreign direct investment (FDI) location choice, and the moderating roles of entry modes. Using the sample of Chinese publicly listed manufacturing firms during 2004-2014, our results note the importance of directionality, as well as bright side of distance rather than liability. Chinese firm’s FDI location choice is encouraged by the distances between China and more financially and technologically developed countries, while is discouraged by distances between China and the less financially and technologically developed countries. In addition, this paper highlights the moderating roles of entry modes. Our findings reveal that an appropriate market entry strategy could a benefit-enhancement or risk-reduction rationale, which helps firms to manage cross-national distances.
    Keywords: financial distance; knowledge distance; directionality; foreign direct investment; entry mode; emerging market.
    DOI: 10.1504/EJIM.2022.10061386
  • The role of virtual communities in social media marketing of film productions   Order a copy of this article
    by Milena Le Viet-Błaszczyk 
    Abstract: Social media (SM) has become an important part of the marketing mix for a wide range of enterprises. Some brands hold highly engaged virtual communities (VCs) that play a significant role in their marketing campaigns. For instance, fans of film productions might also conduct their activities on film fan page in SM, which can influence their marketing results. The aim of the article is to identify how virtual communities engage in social media marketing activities of film productions. In order to achieve that goal, the author used a literature synthesis and Internet data analysis of the best social media fan pages of English language feature films. The conducted research revealed a variety of ways in which virtual communities engage in social media marketing activities of film productions. The results of the study are likely to benefit cinematography institutions in their future social media marketing activities.
    Keywords: social media; film marketing; virtual communities; Facebook; Instagram; SM engagement; marketing; digital marketing; e-marketing.
    DOI: 10.1504/EJIM.2022.10061513
  • How do strategic and financial buyers affect post-acquisition performance?   Order a copy of this article
    by Alfredo Valentino, Ulrike Mayrhofer, Eleonora Fracassi 
    Abstract: In this paper, we investigate how the type of buyer can influence cross-border acquisition performance. We combine the resource-based view with the institutional change framework to provide a more comprehensive understanding of post-acquisition performance. We hypothesise that different types of buyers can lead to divergent performances of acquired firms and that this relationship can be shaped by changes in institutional environments. Using a multi-country and multi-industry dataset of 234 cross-border acquisitions, we find that both strategic and financial buyers have a positive effect on the performance of the target firm. Our findings show that strategic buyers positively affect innovative performance whereas financial buyers positively affect the economic performance of target firms. The observed effects are moderated by institutional changes.
    Keywords: cross-border acquisitions; institutional change; host country environment; innovative performance; economic performance.
    DOI: 10.1504/EJIM.2022.10061723
  • Seen one, seen em all? A comparison of organisational culture formation in new ventures across countries   Order a copy of this article
    by Sonja Franzke 
    Abstract: While recognizing the importance of organizational culture for new ventures, research into its characteristics and how the country context influences it has been scarce. Finding persistent cross-country differences in entrepreneurial outcomes, studying the manifestations of organizational culture across countries might help explain these differences. Drawing on 84 interviews with founding CEOs, employees, and investors in Germany and China, this study identifies different types of organizational culture, grouped along the dimensions of the competing values framework. The study finds the types of organizational culture to be shaped strongly by internal relationships and external societal pressure, resulting in differing organizational cultures per country. German interviewees focus on rational and people-oriented cultures, while Chinese interviewees combine contradictions such as stability and change, or flat hierarchies and a strong leader. The study adds to the research on organizational culture and entrepreneurship by explicating organizational culture in a cross-country comparison of new ventures.
    Keywords: organizational culture; organizational culture formation; new ventures; cross country comparison; comparative case study; Germany; China.
    DOI: 10.1504/EJIM.2022.10061970
  • Innovation against the odds: how micro-political behaviours help bottom-up initiatives thrive   Order a copy of this article
    by Alexander Gorgijevski 
    Abstract: This study explores how bottom-up managers navigate the complex internal politics of organisations in order to ensure their innovative ideas are approved and implemented. It focuses on bottom-up initiatives and the behaviours of these managers seeking approval and recognition for these ideas. A qualitative case study of a European automotive manufacturer is used to capture an ongoing industrial transformation into the digital domain which calls for new ways of innovating products, methods and services. Even when confronted with hurdles in procuring resources for high-dissonance initiatives, bottom-up managers deploy micropolitical strategies to ensure their success. The findings not only offer a novel explanation for the success of bottom-up initiatives but also enrich our understanding of innovation dynamics within multinational companies. This research holds valuable insights for organizations aiming to foster a culture that champions innovation, underscoring the indispensable role of micro-politics in innovation management.
    Keywords: bottom-up initiatives; micro-political strategising; subsidiary initiatives; subsidiary manager; initiative-selling.
    DOI: 10.1504/EJIM.2024.10062461
  • An integrative approach to the internationalisation of knowledge-intensive services: a case of higher education   Order a copy of this article
    by Xiaoqing Li, Joanne Roberts, Catherine Wang 
    Abstract: Despite a wide range of industries expanding internationally, understanding of the foreign market entry strategies in knowledge-intensive services remains underdeveloped. Existing research demonstrates considerable inconsistencies and overlooks the differences between manufacturing and service organisations. This study aims to fill this gap through a conceptual lens that integrates insights from transaction cost economics, the resource-based view and the institution-based view, based on qualitative interview data from ten UK universities operating in China. The findings reveal that modes of foreign market entry are contingent upon an array of resource, transactional and institutional rationales; the choice of a specific mode results from the dominance of one of these rationales. Additionally, refined asset specificity (e.g. reputation), people-centred enduring relationships, and simultaneous production and consumption emerge as significant factors determining the entry mode choice of knowledge-intensive organisations
    Keywords: knowledge-intensive service; internationalisation strategy; foreign market entry mode; higher education; UK; China.
    DOI: 10.1504/EJIM.2022.10062562
  • Investigating the impact of airport architecture on image, experience and satisfaction   Order a copy of this article
    by Mohammad Foroudi, Pantea Foroudi, Maria Teresa Cuomo 
    Abstract: This research employs place-identity and attribution theories to understand the effect of architecture and its components on image, experience, and satisfaction. This research concentrates on a current phenomenon within a real life setting. Conceptualised relationships were evaluated using quantitative data of a convenience sample of 489 online and offline London based airport passengers. The results from fuzzy set qualitative comparative assessment and structural equation modelling and identified multiple configurations of architecture dimensions leading to travellers' satisfaction and contribute to literature on tourism and travel management. This study delivers guidelines for the tourism industry to create consumer value by organizing physical-stimuli, spatial-layout and functionality, and symbolic-artifacts together in an international environment.
    Keywords: airport architecture; travellers' experience; travellers' satisfaction; complexity theory; SEM; fsQCA.
    DOI: 10.1504/EJIM.2022.10062563
  • Impact of perceived COVID-19 risk on the employees knowledge, motivation and performance   Order a copy of this article
    by Ahmet Demir, Taylan Budur, Lubna Maroof 
    Abstract: The COVID-19 pandemic and subsequent public safety measures demanded many workplaces to allow employees to work from home (WFH). However, It is a worrisome situation for the employees to maintain a balance between staying at home and better performance to ensure their job security Hence, during this pandemic situation, it is important to encourage and support the employees in the best possible way There is little empirical evidence on the impact of perceived COVID risk on employee knowledge, motivation, and performance In this regard, this research aims to investigate the impact of perceived COVID risk on employee declarative knowledge, procedural knowledge, motivation, and performance A survey was conducted by distributing 514 questionnaires to employees of the various production and service organizations in the Kurdistan Region of Iraq The result suggests that perceived COVID risk significantly motivated employees to perform better rather than reducing their motivation.
    Keywords: perceived Covid risk; Covid-19; task performance; contextual performance; declarative knowledge; procedural knowledge; motivation.
    DOI: 10.1504/EJIM.2022.10062564
  • Corporate social responsibility, innovativeness and organisational performance in public sector: implications for international public management   Order a copy of this article
    by Dejana Zlatanović, Sladjana Savović, Jelena Nikolić 
    Abstract: This study aims to identify the impact of corporate social responsibility (CSR) towards employees on organisational performance in the public sector with the mediating role of innovativeness. The data were collected from 133 employees at public sector organisations in the Republic of Serbia. The results revealed that innovativeness and organisational performance are largely affected by CSR towards employees, as well as that innovativeness represents a mediator of relationships between CSR towards employees and organisational performance. The study provides relevant implications for international public management. Above all, by confirming that public sector organisations in a developing country demonstrate socially responsible and innovative behaviour resulting in better organisational performance, we indicate that public sector organisations can serve as an application example for socially responsible behaviour of businesses and contribute to the creation of a stimulating environment for attracting foreign investments and companies. The article also offers implications for public policy creators in developing countries to pay more attention to CSR and develop strategies and cultures promoting CSR.
    Keywords: corporate social responsibility; CSR towards employees; organisational performance; innovativeness; international public management.
    DOI: 10.1504/EJIM.2023.10062628
  • Academic pedigree diversity and global virtual team dynamics and performance   Order a copy of this article
    by Seema Pissaris, Longzhu Dong, Vasyl Taras, Willam Newburry 
    Abstract: Research on team diversity has been abundant but primarily focused on demographic and cultural diversity. The present study tests the effects of academic pedigree diversity among global virtual team (GVT) members, a facet of diversity not explored in prior research. Using a sample of 490 global virtual teams comprised of business students working on a consulting project, we find that university pedigree diversity prompts the formation of subgroups, leading to higher interpersonal conflict and lower task clarity, ultimately lowering the GVT's performance. These effects are weaker in GVTs comprised of members from more reputable countries. Implications for theory and practice are discussed.
    Keywords: global virtual teams; diversity; university pedigree; conflict; reputation.
    DOI: 10.1504/EJIM.2024.10062759
  • Digital internationalisation: dependence in multinational enterprise network and subsidiary performance   Order a copy of this article
    by Fang-Yi Lo, Phuong-Quynh Nguyen 
    Abstract: It has now become necessary for firms to internationalize in this current era of globalization. When combined with internationalization, digitalization is the current research trend for scholars as it impacts the international business landscape and creates opportunities for new analysis and growth. Digitalization is transforming the locus of entrepreneurism opportunities and practices by creating more opportunities for internationalization. The use of digital technologies creates new opportunities and leads to the structural and strategic transformation of digital multinational enterprises (DMNEs). This research focuses on the influences of one-way and mutual dependence among parties in the DMNE network on a subsidiary’s performance. The data herein are drawn from Taiwanese MNEs that operate in digital-related industries, as Taiwan is one of the best high-technology centers in the world. The empirical findings show that one-way dependence creates a curvilinear (U-shape) relationship with subsidiary performance, whereas mutual dependence positively influences subsidiary performance. We also move further to explore the moderating effects of subsidiaries’ autonomy and capabilities.
    Keywords: resource dependence theory; digital multinational enterprises; network; subsidiary performance.
    DOI: 10.1504/EJIM.2023.10062819
  • Why is creativity not enough for international business?   Order a copy of this article
    by Yoel Asseraf, Kalanit Efrat 
    Abstract: Creative thinking can help businesses solve problems and stay ahead of the competition. However, creativity may also have a dark side. Levitt (2022) argues that creativity can be destructive to business, as organizations by their nature are designed to promote order. In other words, creativity may hinder rather than help a company if it conflicts with discipline and conformity. This paper sheds light on this tension by investigating creativity and marketing capabilities and their interaction effects on international performance. Data from 179 international ventures retrieved through a survey-based approach are analyzed using structural equation modeling. Paradoxically, while both marketing and creativity capabilities are found to positively influence performance, their interaction effects are negative. Importantly, the findings reveal that for all performance outcomes tested, marketing capabilities are more beneficial than creativity capabilities. The results are viewed through the theoretical lens of effectuation and predictive logics. Based on the findings, we recommend that managers engaged in international business promote marketing capabilities while avoiding relying excessively on creativity.
    Keywords: creativity; marketing; international performance; effectuation-predictive logic; Interaction.
    DOI: 10.1504/EJIM.2023.10062852
  • Blockchain technology and the consequences for trust in international business relations   Order a copy of this article
    by Lauri-Matti Palmunen, Elina Pelto, Anna Karhu 
    Abstract: Trust has emerged as a theme of growing interest in international business (IB), where institutional and cultural differences create challenges for trust establishment. Since the core of blockchain technology is based on the concept of trust, it is predicted to diminish these challenges by improving data reliability and reducing transaction costs. In more pessimistic scenarios, blockchain technology is not perceived to replace trust. Yet, both viewpoints agree there is a lack of research on how blockchain technology affects trust in IB. Consequently, the purpose of this article is to examine how blockchain technology affects the conceptualisation of trust in IB relations. We based our study on conceptual theory development, in which we combined trust-related constructs from IB and blockchain studies with practical examples. As findings, we introduce a construct of blockchain-based trust and present a model with propositions that will aid in exploring the changing role of trust in IB.
    Keywords: blockchain; blockchain-based trust; blockchain technology; conceptualisation of trust; forms of trust; international business; international business relations; trust.

  • Belt and Road Initiative: building or buying a New Silk Road?   Order a copy of this article
    by Francisco Valderrey, Federico Trigos, Evodio Kaltenecker 
    Abstract: The Belt and Road Initiative, also known as the New Silk Road, has been the main project for China in the international arena during the last decade. Despite the many achievements, there is growing skepticism about its future. Therefore, we examine the initiative from a specific angle, studying outward foreign direct investment from Chinese enterprises along a general area covering different continents. We analice two main entry modes in global markets: greenfield investment and mergers and acquisitions. Additionally, we focus on the energy, finance, and transportation sectors. We compare data sets from the China Global Investment Tracker to show that M&A is the preferred entry mode in most significant projects, thus questioning a widespread perception of the BRI as a series of greenfield investments from Chinese enterprises. Finally, we look at factors of interest to international managers before concluding that China is simultaneously building and buying a New Silk Road.
    Keywords: Belt and Road Initiative; China; Covid-19; greenfield investment; merger and acquisition; outward foreign direct investment.
    DOI: 10.1504/EJIM.2022.10063039
  • From a domestic cluster to an internationalised firm: bridging ties in international business   Order a copy of this article
    by Isabel Diez, Marta Fernández Olmos 
    Abstract: This paper examines how the characteristics of the networks SMEs develop influence the development of international bridging ties; and further, how international bridging ties are finally linked to firms' awareness of different dimensions of international knowledge. The results from a sequential model applied to DOC Rioja wineries confirm that strength in international markets, domestic bridging ties and horizontal cooperation significantly affect international bridging ties. In addition, international bridging ties, stemming from the network characteristics of the firms, were positively and significantly related to all dimensions of international knowledge. The paper demonstrates the importance of an integrated framework for international bridging ties and international knowledge links in the SME context.
    Keywords: domestic network; international bridging ties; international knowledge; DOC Rioja.
    DOI: 10.1504/EJIM.2022.10063132
  • An interplay of internationalisation, FSAs, and performance: is there an S-curve? Evidence from Nordic firms   Order a copy of this article
    by Krishna Bhandari, Yi Wang, Jorma Larimo, Jari Salo 
    Abstract: The degree of internationalization-performance (DoI-P) research for six decades has produced mixed findings. This study enhances our understanding of whether there is a persistent S-shaped DoI-P relationship, and if not, in what shapes? Additionally, do firm-specific advantages (FSAs) influence this relationship, and in which way? We test the S hypothesis grounded in the three-stage paradigm and its moderating effects of FSAs on a unique sample of Nordic firms. Using the System GMM model that accounts for the common method variance, endogeneity, and unobserved heterogeneity, we find an S-curve when DoI is operationalized by foreign assets ratio and an inverted U-curve when DoI is measured by foreign sales ratio. Our unique measurement of combining both measures results in an inverted U-curve. Also, we reveal positive moderating effects of technology and marketing-related FSAs. Our study highlights the importance of analysing DoI-P linkage in a new context, using a new method, and across internationalization measures.
    Keywords: internationalisation; performance; three-stage paradigm; internalisation; firm-specific advantages; Nordic firms.
    DOI: 10.1504/EJIM.2022.10063170
  • The role of supply chain capabilities in customers' value co-creation process: evidence from Chinese technology firms   Order a copy of this article
    by Xiangzhi Bu, Anna Trunina, Yiqing Lu 
    Abstract: The study aims to explore the impact of customer participation in value co-creation on firm’s operational performance and to investigate if supply chain capabilities of the enterprise can mediate the relationship between customer participation on firm operational performance under the context of the widespread use of the social media platforms. Drawing on the resource-based view and customer-dominant logic, this paper investigates the influence of customer participation for value co-creation via social media platforms on sustainable firm operation performance. The data for this study was gathered via questionnaire obtained from 178 companies located in Pearl River Delta and Yangtze River Delta regions of China. The results show that customer participation has a positive impact on enterprise operational performance. Supply chain capability plays an intermediary role in the influence of customer participation on enterprise performance but each dimension of supply chain capability makes a different impact on firm operational performance.
    Keywords: customer participation; value co-creation; supply chain capability; empirical study; China.
    DOI: 10.1504/EJIM.2022.10063228
  • Does expatriates' cross-cultural psychological capital mediate the link between ethical organisational climate and turnover intention: a generational cohort comparison   Order a copy of this article
    by Amina Amari, Sarra Berraies, Mahrane Hofaidhllaoui 
    Abstract: This study examines the cross-cultural psychological capital (CCPsyCap)’s mediating effect between ethical organizational climate (EOC) and turnover intention (TI) among expatriates and explores the moderating role of expatriates’ age between EOC and CCPsyCap. Data was collected from 307 expatriates, coming from Middle East and North Africa region, and working in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) and analyzed using Partial least square-structural equation modelling. Findings demonstrate that CCPsyCap partially mediates the relationship between EOC and the expatriates’ TI. Results revealed that the link between EOC and CCPsyCap is greater for Generation Y expatriates Generation Y as compared to Baby Boomers. This study contributes to the literature by investigating the links between the research variables that lacks empirical research in the expatriation context. This research suggests to the organization managers to implement an EOC to nurture talented expatriates’ positive CCPsyCap and retain them in the context of skill shortage.
    Keywords: ethical organisational climate; cross-cultural psychological capital; turnover intention; expatriation; expatriates’ age; partial least squares.
    DOI: 10.1504/EJIM.2022.10063229
  • Absorbing digital innovation knowledge in traditional manufacturing small- and medium-sized enterprises: the case of Israeli and German furnace manufacturers   Order a copy of this article
    by Efrat Pan, Christiane Schwabe, Markus Boehm, Axel Lamprecht, Helmut Krcmar 
    Abstract: Digital innovation is crucial for all firms to survive. But especially traditional manufacturing small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) are challenged by digital innovation due to their size, lack of resources, and regional focus. This paper examines a dyad of traditional manufacturing SMEs in two innovative economies - Israel and Germany - and compares their absorptive capacity of digital innovation knowledge using qualitative expert interviews in a comparative case study . The elicited differences can be attributed to the national culture shaping the CEOs and teams mindsets and, in turn, their decision-making. When analysed using Hofstedes cultural dimensions, high uncertainty avoidance and collectivism, short-term orientation, low masculinity and low-power distance were found favourable to increase absorptive capacity and foster digital innovation. Therefore, national culture was added to the framework of absorptive capacity because it impacts its influencing factors. Furthermore, guidelines were derived for managers on how to increase firms absorptive capacity.
    Keywords: absorptive capacity; innovation; digital innovation knowledge; entrepreneurial mindset; national culture; leadership; management; managers; traditional manufacturing; SMEs; small and medium-sized enterprises; Germany; Israel.
    DOI: 10.1504/EJIM.2023.10063515
  • Big Five personality traits, cultural intelligence, and expatriate job performance: a configurational perspective   Order a copy of this article
    by Faruk Sahin, Laura Brancu 
    Abstract: Despite decades of research on personality and cultural intelligence that support expatriate success, knowledge of the interdependencies of personality and cultural intelligence for explaining expatriate job performance remains nascent. Based on the configurational perspective, we used the fuzzy set qualitative comparative analysis on a sample of 62 expatriates to examine the impact of the Big Five personality traits and cultural intelligence dimensions on job performance. The findings showed that three different configurations, in which the Big Five personality traits and CQ dimensions complement each other, explain high levels of expatriate job performance. This study provides a better understanding of the Big Five personality traits and cultural intelligence as causal conditions for a high level of expatriate job performance and enriches the relevant literature. The findings are discussed in relation to theories and practices.
    Keywords: Big Five personality; cultural intelligence; expatriate performance; configurational perspective; fsQCA.
    DOI: 10.1504/EJIM.2024.10063516
  • Multilingual practices and inclusion in context: a model based on the Big Four Accounting firms in Luxembourg   Order a copy of this article
    by Hélène Langinier, Wilhelm Barner-Rasmussen 
    Abstract: We draw on Bourdieusian field theory to develop a process model to explain how multilingual practices in multinational enterprises (MNEs) are legitimized through power relations in specific societal and industry contexts, and how these practices shape the inclusion of human resources. We illustrate the development of our model with examples from the field of Big Four professional service firms in Luxembourg, and identify the elements shaping the legitimization of multilingual practices in this specific organizational and geographical context. We conclude that greater legitimacy of multilingual practices facilitates the inclusion of employees with non-traditional linguistic capital, who may be valuable to firms in other ways.
    Keywords: Inclusion; multilingualism; Bourdieu; language; practices; context.
    DOI: 10.1504/EJIM.2022.10063605
  • Internationalisation of innovation practices: actors and linkages in crowdfunding ecosystems   Order a copy of this article
    by María José Quero, José Luis Ruiz-Alba, Cristina Mele, Bård Tronvoll, Rafael Ventura 
    Abstract: Digitalization has disrupted society and academia, especially in international management with respect to resource exchange, value propositions, and innovation processes. The connection among actors in open platforms is an example of how this challenge can drive innovation and improve ecosystem viability. This research investigates how innovation practices have arisen from connectivity and actor engagement. We use a crowdfunding context to address how the linkages can be strategically designed to join actors and resources in service ecosystems. The paper describes how actors connect in crowdfunding ecosystems by highlighting three kinds of linkage that result in actor engagement, trigger innovation, and impact ecosystem viability. Managers in international settings can facilitate the design of engagement platforms, and craft strategies that increase resource exchange and integration, to engage actors in innovation practices in order to impact the service ecosystem's viability.
    Keywords: actor; network; international management; ecosystem viability; crowdfunding; innovation; collaborative economy.
    DOI: 10.1504/EJIM.2023.10063669
  • Unveiling the dynamics of crisis and internationalisation in SMEs: an integrative review and research roadmap   Order a copy of this article
    by Liubov Ermolaeva, Nikita Kuleshov, Anna Khamidullina, Ekaterina Sorokina 
    Abstract: The crisis has been an essential part of the business world for the last couple of decades (Wenzel et al, 2020). International firms, especially small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), are particularly vulnerable to global disruptions as they significantly change their strategic course, value chains and day-to-day operations. The aim of this study is to identify how the academic literature addresses the problem of international SME resilience in times of crisis, as well as the problem of crisis effects on SME internationalization. In this paper, we review research on international firms or international small and medium-sized enterprises (iSMEs) during the different crises happened from 1997 to COVID-19 pandemic and address the following research questions: How does the crisis affect the international operations of SMEs? How does the internationality of SMEs contribute to their resilience in times of crisis?
    Keywords: international entrepreneurship; international SMEs; crisis; external shocks; internationalisation; literature review; international performance.
    DOI: 10.1504/EJIM.2023.10063759
  • Motivational differences: the moderated link between cultural experience and cultural intelligence   Order a copy of this article
    by Michael Montanye, Rimi Zakaria, Aditya Simha 
    Abstract: This study attempts to expand cultural intelligence’s (CQ) nomological network. Specifically, we examine the roles of interdependent self-construal (ISC) and generalized self-determination (GSD) in individuals to explain how motivational differences supplement the relationship between cultural experience (CE) and CQ. As we replicate the findings of prior studies on a sample of 546 respondents, our empirical analyses confirm a positive association between broad CE and overall CQ. Additionally, building on the assertions of self-determination and expectancy theories, we test the impacts of two moderators that shape the CE and CQ relationship. First, we find a substituting effect of CE and ISC on CQ. Second, we observe that GSD strengthens the overall CE-CQ connection. This study theoretically advances our conceptualization of CQ by affirming the explanatory power of motivation-based models. It provides organizations with evidence-based approaches to developing a cross-culturally effective workforce.
    Keywords: cultural intelligence; motivation; cultural experience; interdependent self-construal; generalised self-determination.
    DOI: 10.1504/EJIM.2024.10063897
  • International expansion and new CEO origin   Order a copy of this article
    by Yu-Kai Wang 
    Abstract: This study investigates how international expansion impacts the likelihood of outside CEO succession. Drawing upon existing literature on international expansion, executive job demands and executive succession, it argues there are two types of international expansion international exploitation and international exploration and that they pose different challenges for new CEOs. Specifically, it contends that international exploitation (exploration) demands existing (new) knowledge of locations that are within (beyond) the spectrum of the multinational enterprises (MNEs) existing host countries. Accordingly, it proposes that international exploitation (exploration) is associated with a smaller (greater) likelihood of outside CEO succession. This study further argues that pre-succession MNE performance moderates the above relationships. The empirical results mainly support these arguments, demonstrating that the challenges associated with international expansion are a significant determinant of new CEO origin.
    Keywords: CEO origin; executive job demands; international expansion; international exploitation; international exploration; outside CEO succession.
    DOI: 10.1504/EJIM.2023.10064241
  • Developing language performance standards in international small firms: An interplay between HR expectations and employee reactions   Order a copy of this article
    by Sazzad Talukder 
    Abstract: If language competence matters for international business success, we need to know against which standards firms assess this competence. Yet there is little research on how language performance standards are identified and established, especially in resource-constrained small firms. Adopting an inductive approach, this study addresses this gap by investigating the language performance standard development process in 22 Finland-based international small firms. A five-year longitudinal study shows that HR decision-makers engage in what they view as a systematic process of identifying, experimenting with, evaluating, and selecting specific language performance standards for specific job positions. This process evolves in the interplay between HR decision-makers' expectations on employees’ performance and employees' reactions to these expectations. It culminates in the formal integration of language standards into regularly appraised performance goals. The study sheds light on a key aspect of HR management in international small firms, aiding their survival and success.
    Keywords: language; language performance; language performance standard; performance appraisal; HR; social exchange; resource sharing; firm survival.
    DOI: 10.1504/EJIM.2024.10064578
  • Research Note: The methodological promise of configurational thinking and the importance of equifinality in international business   Order a copy of this article
    by Sonja Sperber 
    Abstract: In this Research Note, it is argued that a plurality of relations can only insufficiently be tested with correlational methods such as regression analyses or structural equation models. With the application to job embeddedness theory, it is demonstrated how configurational thinking can add knowledge to our understanding of expatriates’ job embeddedness and turnover or retention abroad. Configurational thinking as in Qualitative Comparative Analysis promises to broaden our understanding by shifting the focus away from isolated variables and towards a case-oriented, holistic perspective. Contributions of configurational thinking are primarily embedded in breaking some basic assumptions of correlational methods, i.e., the linearity of effects, symmetry between constructs as well as unifinality, while emphasising causal complexity. By employing an illustrative application using job embeddedness theory, it is demonstrated how configurational thinking augments our comprehension of expatriates job embeddedness in international assignments. It elucidates that different paths can potentially lead to identical outcomes, such as turnover or retention abroad. In order to advance the field of International Business, this Research Note eventually calls for methodological pluralism to align empirical investigations with existing theories. Additionally, it showcases the explanatory power associated with approaches that accept multiple causal paths leading to the same outcome (equifinality).
    Keywords: methodological approaches; configurational thinking; qualitative comparative analysis; regression; structural equation modeling; job embeddedness theory; international assignments.
    DOI: 10.1504/EJIM.2024.10064601
  • Dynamic capabilities and international performance: meta-analytic regression analysis   Order a copy of this article
    by Cristina Fernandes, João Jose Ferreira, Pedro Mota Veiga, Hussain Rammal, Veland Ramadani 
    Abstract: This study aims to investigate the impact of entrepreneurial orientation and market orientation - recognised as dynamic capabilities - on the international performance of small and medium-sized enterprises. To achieve this, an extensive meta-analytic regression analysis was conducted, drawing upon data from 61 articles, encompassing a substantial sample size of 14,535 observations. Through this meta-analysis, we obtained estimated effects between the dimensions of entrepreneurial orientation and market orientation and uncovered the direct and indirect relationships these dynamic capabilities have with international performance. The findings indicate that entrepreneurial orientation and market orientation can significantly enhance the performance of SMEs, with the size of these companies playing a moderating role in the association between strategic orientations and IP. By examining the impact of dynamic capabilities on small and medium-sized enterprises' international performance, our study contributes to the existing literature on strategic management, internationalisation, dynamic capabilities, and international performance.
    Keywords: international performance; entrepreneurial orientation; market orientation; SME; dynamic capabilities.
    DOI: 10.1504/EJIM.2024.10064967
  • Unveiling the black box of platform internationalisation: analysing the impact of institutional factors and network effects strength on global supply in the platform economy   Order a copy of this article
    by Xiayu Wang, Alex Rialp 
    Abstract: The emergence of digital platforms has revolutionized the landscape of firms' international expansion, posing challenges to traditional internationalization theories. However, there remains a notable gap in international business literature within the context of platform economy. Focusing on the supply side, we explore the impact of formal and informal institutional factors in host markets on the supply of platform economy by analyzing the listing of accommodations for two well-established short-term rental platforms, Airbnb and VRBO, in 246 cities across 37 countries. We find that platforms undergoing internationalization grapple with the liability of foreignness due to strict regulations in host markets and cultural distance. However, the transferable strong network effects from the home market act as a catalyst in mitigating the liability of outsidership in foreign markets. Our research contributes as an interface between international business research and the platform phenomenon, offering vital insights for practitioners in navigating international market expansion.
    Keywords: digital platform; platform economy supply; internationalisation; liability of foreignness; liability of outsidership; institutional factors; regulation; cultural distance; network effects strength.
    DOI: 10.1504/EJIM.2024.10065070
  • Developing effectuation skills in digitally operating, entrepreneurial teams: the functionality of a multi-source assessment system   Order a copy of this article
    by Rainer Hensel, Ronald C. Visser, Ellen Sjoer 
    Abstract: A structural equation analysis was conducted to analyse the functionality of a self- and multisource peer assessment methodology targeted at the development of strategic decision-making skills in small entrepreneurial teams. The strategic decision-making skills were operationalised by the effectuation framework. The final model shows that especially the multisource peer-assessment proves to be a valuable source of feedback for the developmental effectiveness, as it is closely related to the accomplishment of making an observable behavioural change. Innovative competencies function as a key variable, mediating the effect on developmental effectiveness of cognitive business skills, networking skills and goal-directed qualities. The results add to the theoretical understandings of the suitability of a self- and multisource peer-assessment as a specific strategic human-resource development methodology targeted at developing effectuation skills. Furthermore, the results show that differences exist in accordance with the actor observer theory, regarding the underlying dimensionality between the self- and the peer-assessment.
    Keywords: effectuation; multi-source feedback; entrepreneurial decision-making; innovation; business knowledge; strategic human resource development.
    DOI: 10.1504/EJIM.2024.10065071
  • Central bank digital currencies and institutional systems: design choices based on institutional characteristics   Order a copy of this article
    by Amir Sayyid, Anna Grosman, Anton Klarin 
    Abstract: A Central Bank Digital Currency (CBDC) is a state-issued digital currency. Most CBDCs are expected to be based on blockchain technology, delivering programmable digital money that is purportedly more efficient than the current fiat money systems and streamlining international business transactions. This study offers a typology of 49 countries for a better understanding of the relationship between political, social and economic factors and CBDC design choices. We contrast two case studies, the USA and China, and suggest that varying levels of rule of law, GDP per capita, international trade, CBDC development, citizen trust, freedom, and financial literacy influence decision-making on CBDC design choice. This is the first study that provides the key institutional drivers affecting the development of CBDCs and an institutional systems typology based on countries’ design of CBDCs.
    Keywords: Central Bank Digital Currency; blockchain technology; digital currency adoption; cryptocurrency; distributed ledger technology; retail CBDC; wholesale CBDC; stablecoin; financial inclusion; programmable money; institutional innovation; fintech; financial technology; digital token; bitcoin; e-CNY; tokenisation; digital ID.
    DOI: 10.1504/EJIM.2024.10065301
  • Relationship networks, dynamic capabilities, and new venture growth: the moderating role of entrepreneurs political skills   Order a copy of this article
    by Xueyan Zhang, Zhou Xiaohu, Qiao Wang, Fangyuan Li, Yan Zhang 
    Abstract: Based on social capital theory, we explored the connection between entrepreneurs’ relationship networks and new venture growth with dynamic capabilities as a mediating mechanism and political skills as a boundary condition that moderates such relationships. A sample of 326 new ventures in China was used to test the model. The results showed that entrepreneurs’ relationship networks not only have a direct positive impact on new venture growth, but they also promote new venture growth through dynamic capabilities. These capabilities play a mediating role between entrepreneurs’ relationship networks and new venture growth, while political skills play a moderating role in entrepreneurs’ relationship networks, dynamic capabilities, and new venture growth. Moreover, with the enhancement of political skills, entrepreneurs’ relationship networks were more likely to improve new venture growth through dynamic capabilities.
    Keywords: relationship networks; dynamic capabilities; political skills; new venture growth.
    DOI: 10.1504/EJIM.2023.10065373
  • Openness towards language differences and cultural differences in multicultural teams: how do they interact?   Order a copy of this article
    by Jakob Lauring, Christina L. Butler, Minna Paunova, Timur Uman, Lena Zander 
    Abstract: In this paper, we address how different types of positive attitudes towards international diversity among team members can influence team outcomes. Our study explores whether openness to language diversity could contribute to the effect of openness to value diversity becoming more salient. Data was collected from 1085 team leaders of highly globalised academic research teams in the Nordic region. The results show a significant and positive effect of openness to different cultural values on team outcomes. Furthermore, in teams rated more open to language diversity, the impact of openness to value diversity on team performance is enhanced. Effects of different types of diversity attitudes have been assessed in extant literature. No prior studies, however, have focused on the interaction between the different types of diversity attitudes. This is an important omission because one type of diversity attitudes could function as a boundary condition for other types of diversity attitudes.
    Keywords: team leader; multicultural teams; team creativity; team performance; openness to language diversity; openness to value diversity.
    DOI: 10.1504/EJIM.2021.10035139
  • A comparison of the impact of high-performance work practices in Pakistan and the UK   Order a copy of this article
    by Sadia Nadeem, Sharmeen Nasir 
    Abstract: Two key debates in the High-Performance Work Practices (HPWPs) literature relate to the comparison of HPWPs and High-Performance Work Systems (HPWSs), and the cultural effectiveness of these practices. This study contributes to both these discussions through examining the impact of HPWPs and HPWSs on individual and organisational level outcomes in Pakistan and the UK. The study is based on multi-level models on primary data from 3460 employees nested in 222 organisations in Pakistan, and secondary data from 21,981 employees nested in 1923 organisations from the British Workplace Employment Relations Survey (WERS) in the UK. Overall, individual practices explained greater variance in desired outcomes than HPWSs in both countries, suggesting that HPWSs do not necessarily work effectively. Furthermore, complexity is added in terms of understanding the effectiveness of practices when used across cultures, as results indicate differences in the impact of various HPWPs between the two countries.
    Keywords: high-performance work practices; high-performance work system; social exchange theory; cultural dimensions; cross-cultural HRM; employee outcomes; organisational outcomes; WERS 2011; Pakistan; UK.
    DOI: 10.1504/EJIM.2020.10029432
  • Learning and strategic flexibility as drivers of the internationalisation process of firms in emerging countries   Order a copy of this article
    by J.A. Gudziol-Vidal, M.T. Canet-Giner, F. Balbastre-Benavent, N. Escribá-Carda 
    Abstract: The purpose of this study is to gain a better understanding of strategic flexibility in the relationship between learning and the first stage of company internationalisation, that is, exports. We propose a mediating effect of strategic flexibility in this link. The empirical study consisted of a survey conducted among exporting Colombian firms. We used a structural model to analyse data, which was estimated through Partial Least Squares Path Modelling (PLSPM). The sample involved 206 Colombian companies. Results confirmed that the relationship between learning and the export intensity and scope takes place when the company develops the capability to be strategically flexible. Our findings support the mediating effect of strategic flexibility in the relationship between learning and a firm's exports. The results obtained in this study may serve as a reference for organisations that are strategically expanding their activities in the international arena, particularly for Latin-American firms.
    Keywords: learning; exports; strategic flexibility; emerging economy.
    DOI: 10.1504/EJIM.2021.10029652
  • The role of user experience in shaping employees' dynamic capabilities-based model of job performance   Order a copy of this article
    by Agnieszka Bieńkowska, Katarzyna Tworek, Anna Sałamacha 
    Abstract: This paper concerns inclusion of the User Experience (UX) in the Employees Dynamic Capabilities (EDC) based model of job performance, as a construct related to the currently changing job characteristics. The proposed theoretical framework is verified empirically on the sample of 550 organisations operating in Poland and in the USA. The verification shows that UX is a moderator of the relation between EDC, person-job fit, job satisfaction, work motivation, work engagement and job performance, and therefore might strengthen the overall impact of EDC on job performance.
    Keywords: management; employees' dynamic capabilities; user experience; job performance; person-job fit; work motivation; job satisfaction; work engagement.
    DOI: 10.1504/EJIM.2020.10029428
  • Competence development in crowdsourcing: examining the impact of different evaluation standards   Order a copy of this article
    by Andrey Barashev, Guoxin Li 
    Abstract: The paper aims to extend our understanding of solvers' motivation in the crowdsourcing context by examining differential effects of competence development in terms of absolute, interpersonal, and intrapersonal standards, as well as to distinguish the influence of competence striving on effort and engagement on the crowdsourcing platform. We conduct an analytic study using an online survey on the massive Chinese platform - Participants were selected on the criteria of their experience on the platform. Data were analysed using Structural Equation Modelling (SEM). Based on a survey of 291 crowdsourcing participants, the study indicates that striving to demonstrate competence related to others does not enhance engagement or effort. However, self-based and task-based competence striving both predicted crowdsourcing participants' effort positively. Furthermore, engagement was only predicted by mastery competence development when individuals tried to enhance their skills and knowledge relative to themselves. In this case, engagement also mediated the relation between self-based striving and effort. These findings shed light on the complex mechanisms underlying participants' motivation, effort, and engagement in crowdsourcing and provide implications for the theory and practice of crowdsourcing management.
    Keywords: crowdsourcing; work engagement; effort; achievement motivation; competence development; motivation.
    DOI: 10.1504/EJIM.2021.10029651
  • International students as tourists: exploring impressions of Ghana's destination image   Order a copy of this article
    by Adjoa Vyllas Ocran, Ogechi Adeola, Awele Achi, Robert E. Hinson 
    Abstract: This study explores how tourists' impressions of destination attributes influence the image formation of Ghana as a destination. A qualitative approach was utilised to conduct the research due to the exploratory nature of the investigation. The study employed focus group discussions and semi-structured interviews of a sample of 28 international students. Findings show that Ghana has a positive image in the minds of the tourists as a destination. In addition, most of the participants were willing to return to Ghana and even recommend Ghana as a vacation destination. Theoretically, the study discussed the meaning of destination image from three dimensions: perceptual, image and outcome. The practical implication of the study's findings is that Ghanaian destination marketing organisations should consider country of origin and travel motivation as factors that exert the greatest influence on how tourists assess the value of tourist destination.
    Keywords: destination image; Ghana; country of origin; tourists' impressions; historical heritage; information sources; tourism; international students; internationalisation.
    DOI: 10.1504/EJIM.2021.10029973
  • Solution strategy for inventory constrained maritime routing and scheduling: multi-commodity bulk shipping   Order a copy of this article
    by Seung-June Hwang, Seung Hyun Baek 
    Abstract: In recent years, as global distribution, overseas sourcing and overseas sales of various multinational companies have increased, efficient management of the global supply chain, which is one of the important research areas of international management, is required. Thus, ship routing and scheduling are important for the global Supply Chain Management (SCM). In this article, it deals with a solution algorithm that takes advantage of model properties for routing and scheduling problems on the maritime transport of liquid bulk products. It shows that the mixed-integer linear program can be decomposed into several sub-problems by dualising coupling constraints. Also, the minimisation problem solved by the Lagrangian Relaxation method to get a better lower bound in this article. The numerical studies to establish the goodness of the combined Lagrangian Relaxation and Dual Ascent method is conducted. The test results show an average duality gap of 26.8% and an average optimality gap of 12.5% on small sized problems. More importantly, the solution times are, on average, three orders of magnitude faster than getting a first feasible solution by CPLEX when using the default options of the solver.
    Keywords: maritime routing and scheduling; multi-commodity bulk shipping; Lagrangian relaxation; dual ascent heuristic; duality gap.
    DOI: 10.1504/EJIM.2021.10039778

Special Issue on: EMNet2021 Strategy - Governance Relationship In International Business Networks

  • Introduction: Governance, Strategy, and Management of International Business Networks in Uncertain Times
    by Muhammad Zafar Yaqub, Aveed Raha, Maria Jell-Ojobor, Josef Windsperger 
    Abstract: In today's turbulent and complex environments, international business networks (IBNs) in various forms (e.g., strategic alliances, franchise chains, export and licence relationships, cooperatives, global production networks, joint ventures, public-private partnerships, and digital platforms) are becoming increasingly important in helping multinationals to achieve competitive advantage. Owing to increased performance pressures in uncertain environments, firms embedded in networks are increasingly moving from cooperators to collaborators as value co-creators. The aim of this introductory article is to discuss how international business networks (IBNs) may mitigate uncertainty (emanating especially from disruptive digital innovations and global pandemics) through value, configuration and/or knowledge-driven governance, strategy, and management. In addition, we provide an overview of the articles included in the special issue on Governance, Strategy and Management of International Business Networks in Uncertain Times detailing their specific contributions to enrich the contemporary scholarly discourse in this regard.
    Keywords: International Business Networks; Uncertain Times; Governance; Strategy; Management.