Electronic Government, an International Journal (38 papers in press)
Arab Cultural Dimensions Model for E-Government Services Adoption in Public Sector Organisations: An Empirical Examination
by Mohannad Ayyash, Fadi A.T. Herzallah, Mohammed A. Al-Sharafi
Abstract: The aim of this study is to examine the effect of Arab culture dimensions on employees adoption of E-government services by adaptation of the cultural dimensions concept as theorised by Hofstede cultural model and nepotism as well as face-to-face interactions as derived from literature review. This study developed and examined a model that contributes to the scholarly research on E-government and information systems. The study used a survey that administered to 137 Saudi administrative employees at hospital King Fahad of the Al-Baha emirate region in the Saudi Arabia. The data was analysed employing a structural equation modelling (SEM) approach through partial least square (PLS) software. The results revealed that high power distance, low uncertainty avoidance, high collectivism, high masculinity, face-to-face interactions, and nepotism contributed positively to employees adoption of E-government services in public sector organisations. The study also helps public sector organisations to understand the effect of culture dimension on E-government adoption. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.
Keywords: Arab Culture; E-Government Adoption; Hofstede Cultural Dimensions; Nepotism; Face-To-Face Interactions; Public Sector Organizations; Saudi Arabia.
A case study of the digital agenda of the City of Vienna: e-participation design and enabling factors
by Bettina Höchtl, Noella Edelmann
Abstract: We present a case study on an Austrian e-participation initiative, the Digital Agenda of the City of Vienna, set up in September 2014 and currently still running. The Digital Agenda represents the City of Viennas digital strategy regarding research, technology and economic development, and acts as the guiding principles for setting priorities, implementing projects and designing new services. This case study shows both the extent to which digital technologies increasingly play a decisive role in urban life and the valuable insights gained by studying such processes in order to support the design of future government-led e-participation initiatives. Using a qualitative approach, this case study focuses on the design of a multi-phasic participation process and the identification of the enabling factors that can be used in new e-participation and co-creation initiatives.
Keywords: digital agenda; e-participation; case study; process design; enabling factors.
Towards a Standard-based Open Data Ecosystem: Analysis of DCAT-AP use at National and European Level
by Florian Barthelemy, Michael Cochez, Iraklis Dimitriadis, Naila Karim, Nikolaos Loutas, IOANNIS MAGNISALIS, Lina Molinas Comet, Vassilios Peristeras, Brecht Wyns
Abstract: In Europe, an open government data ecosystem is being developed. This ecosystem is implemented using various technologies and platforms. In fact, the use of a common metadata standard for describing datasets and open data portals, i.e., the DCAT-AP specification, appears as the lingua franca that connects an, otherwise, fragmented environment. In this context, the standard-based consolidation of open data promotes the subsidiarity principle, allowing open data portal owners to choose platforms and internal representations based on their specific requirements. However, the portal owners must provide an export with DCAT-AP compliant metadata about the dataset they store. In this paper we provide a detailed study of how the DCAT-AP specification is used in practice, both at the national and the European level. Consequently, we also identify issues, challenges, and opportunities for improvements that can be used as input for the next revision cycle of the standard. Essentially, our goal is to contribute towards the enrichment of a growing and promising European open data ecosystem.
Keywords: open data; metadata; data standards; open data portals; interoperability; DCAT; DCAT-AP.
Formation and development of E- government in Ukraine: synergistic approach
by Igor Oliychenko, Maryna Ditkovska
Abstract: The experience of modern public administration shows that the systems approach as the basic concept of e-government does not provide the desired results in the context of rapid transformations of the economy and society. This article deals with the scientific substantiation of the use of a synergistic approach in the practice of e-government and gives a comparative analysis of system and synergistic approaches in public administration. The authors compare the basic principles of the system approach and synergetics, investigate the exchange of public information between public authorities and users of this information in the e-government system. The article offers a model of information exchange, which allows identifying bottlenecks in the e-government system and identifying ways to eliminate negative factors. The authors summarise the results of research on the existence of self-organisation processes in public administration and the need for new approaches to e-government based on the concept of synergetics.
Keywords: public administration; information; e-government; fluctuations; attractors; information systems; synergistic approach; Ukraine.
E-social security success: Evidence from the Philippines
by Erik Paolo Capistrano
Abstract: This research undertakes e-government research via two areas: applications on social security, and applications on a developing country. In the Philippines, there are two separate organisations providing social security for private and government employees. This phenomenon provides potential for some significant discussions on e-government, given the importance of social security towards personal financial needs. Applying and extending a theoretical framework built on trust theory, prior experience, and the IS success model, this research documents 541 employees from private and government service on their perceptions of their respective e-social security services afforded to them. Structural equation modelling results reveal that trust in e-government plays a very important role in their quality perceptions of e-social security. Furthermore, problems regarding information and service quality hound usefulness, while issues of system quality beset satisfaction, leading to important implications for the e-social security service providers to continue delivering on the expectations of e-government services.
Keywords: e-government; social security; trust; prior experience; IS success model; ISM; Philippines.
A Novel Smart Security System for a Hybrid Motorcycle using IoT
by C.T.Manimegalai Murugeasn, Sabitha Gauni, K. Kalimuthu, Arkoalo Palchaudhuri
Abstract: The researchers have found that the governments of all the countries in the world need to consider 6% reduction in the fossil fuel production annually in order to prevent catastrophic warming. The increasing number of IC engine vehicle is causing a massive diminution of the storage of natural fuel which is leading to a huge down fall of the environment. The current situation of the environment is enforcing people to figure out some alternative ways for the sake of saving the planet from facing the massive disaster it is heading to. As a way out, hybrid vehicles are already introduced to the market by different automobile companies. This kind of vehicles can decrease the level of air pollution. Besides these, vehicles can decrease the burning of fuel and most importantly the electric engine attached to it makes an electronic control system. The governments should ensure the implementation of this system, which helps to attach various security features to the vehicle. This paper is basically proposing a compact electric motorcycle security system for the rider. This security system is made with five 8051 microcontrollers, ZigBee and GSM communication and cloud computing with IoT module. It can be used both in electric and hybrid motorcycles.
Keywords: hybrid vehicle; electric engine; microcontroller; sensors; Bluetooth module; GSM.
The Impact of E-Government on Transparency in the European Union: A Multivariate Analysis
by Javier Cifuentes-Faura
Abstract: E-government emerges as a new form of interaction or relationship between the governments of different countries through the use of information and communication technologies (ICT) with the aim of achieving good government and being more transparent. This paper analyses the consequences of e-government in European Union countries. In particular, it studies whether those countries where the development of e-government is greater, are also those that are more transparent. The effects of other socio-economic variables proposed by the literature on e-government (per capita GDP, unemployment rate, educational level, population, ) are also examined. The statistical analysis reveals that e-government has a positive impact on transparency (measured through the corruption perception index), as well as on GDP per capita, unemployment rate and educational level.
Keywords: e-government; electronic government; European Union; transparency; public administration; socioeconomic variables; multivariate model; information and communication technologies; ICT.
E-government adoption and employees job performance: The moderating role of age as a demographic factor
by Gaurav Chopra, Preeti Bhaskar, Muddu Vinay, Amit Joshi
Abstract: Previous technology adoption model can be applied in the situation where technology adoption is voluntary. This research will identify those e-government factors that are more important in those conditions where technology adoption is compulsory. Secondly, it is noteworthy to understand that technology adoption has an impact on the employees job performance. This research also aims to study the impact of e-government adoption of employees job performance. Thirdly, the moderating role of age is also analysed, since it is an important demographic factor that moderates the relationship between e-government adoption and employees job performance. This research has used exploratory and descriptive research design. This research found that e-government adoption has a positive impact on the job performance of employees. Organisational factor, technical factor, and trust factor are significantly important for e-government adoption. The study has concluded that age moderate the relationship between e-government adoption and employees job performance.
Keywords: e-government adoption; employees; job performance; moderating; age; India.
An agent and web services based e-government model validation
by Emna Karoui, Sameh El Hadouaj, Khaled Ghédira
Abstract: In e-government, the provision of valuable services depends upon the capacity of public administrations to coordinate their services. Different digital government solutions have been developed. Unfortunately, most of these works assume that all the involved partners are equipped with sophisticated information technology (IT) infrastructure, which limits their applicability especially in developing countries where the administrations are usually under equipped. Moreover many of the proposed solutions introduce centralised coordination methods that do not comply with the distributed nature of public administrations. This paper presents an e-government model based on agent and web services. It introduces an inter-organisational workflow (IOW) model based on the idea of interfacing. The e-government entities (GEs) are only required to describe their services using WSDL, they are distributed and interact directly with no need of a middleware. Two different case studies are carried out, to demonstrate the applicability of our approach.
Keywords: e-government; inter-organisational workflow; IOW; web services; multi-agent systems; validation.
Analyzing Information Policy Gap for Interagency Information Sharing: the Case of Indonesia
by Djoko Sigit Sayogo, Sri Budi Cantika Yuli, Firda Ayu Amalia, Agung Prasetyo Nugroho Wicaksono
Abstract: Technology-policy gap diminishes legal and policies vital role as the critical determinant of interagency information sharing. This study used a combination of content analysis of existing legal and policies and in-depth interviews with 15 public officials in the Regency of Bojonegoro to evaluate the sufficiency and roles of legal and policies to support interagency information sharing in Indonesia. Legal and policies are in place to govern data and information sharing that showcase their critical roles to support interagency information sharing. The findings indicate the government enacts legal policies supporting the sharing of data and information in Indonesia despite concentrating only on a limited number of issues. The number of legal and policies endorsing the stewardship is higher than those ensuring data and information usefulness. The findings further demonstrate the challenges concerning the sufficiency, depth, coverage, and synergy of existing policies supporting interagency information sharing.
Keywords: interagency information sharing; IIS; technology-policy gap; legal and policies; stewardship; usefulness; information policies.
Contemporary e-Government for Smart Tax Authorities
by Daniel Simon Schaebs
Abstract: This paper examines the term e-government and attempts to trace its development. Taking into account the challenges of the Tallinn Declaration, the Speyer definition of Lucke and Reinermann as well as the state-citizen-relationship described by Martini, the determinants of contemporary e-government and implementation of ICT in the tax office are presented in detail. An in-depth analysis of the state-of-the-art e-government services according to their suitability leads to the model of a smart tax authority. For this analysis, final application examples were shown for each individual departmental area. A further analysis about the bipolar requirements of citizen- and state-value was developed and revealed that most of the e-government services meet these requirements. By implementing the suggested ICT and services effectiveness and efficiency of the enforcement of tax laws can be increased, also mastering the bipolar challenges regarding citizen- and state-value.
Keywords: contemporary e-government; electronic government; smart tax authorities; tax administration; information and communication technologies; ICT; Germany.
Secure and Transparent Electronic Voting System Using Blockchain
by Sangeetha Manoharan, Shreeja Pal, Jayraj Roshan
Abstract: Electronic voting machine (EVM), the replacement of the ballot box is mainstay in the electoral process. Since 2000, in India, EVMs have been used in all elections: four Lok Sabha and 122 state legislative assemblies. In EVM security, duplication of vote and anonymity are important issues to be considered. In this paper, we propose a blockchain solution for securing the voting system, where a blockchain network with multiple nodes and a smart contract for voting mechanism is developed and deployed to store the votes so that they are immutable and cannot be tampered with, making the system highly secure and can be audited by the voters, making the system transparent. A full stack application is designed to allow voters to interact with the smart contract and vote. The unique voting ID being generated for each vote is stored alongside the votes, thus providing anonymity to the voters.
Keywords: blockchain; decentralised network; Ethereum; security; solidity; voting system; electronic voting machine; EVM.
Analyzing E-Government Maturity Models
by Omar Hujran, Ayman Alarabiyat, Mohammed Alsuwaidi
Abstract: This paper aims at assessing the current e-government maturity models to identify their strengths and limitations. In so doing, a systematic literature review has been used to examine the existing e-government maturity models during the period 20002021. Our analysis indicates that despite the fact that e-government-maturity models provide potentially useful tools for e-government evaluation, there are significant differences across the existing e-government-maturity models in terms of the number of stages, what users can do at progressive stages and particular perspectives underscored at specific stages. However, the shift from stage-based maturity models to dimensional based maturity models is clearly observed. The new wave of e-government maturity models (2012 onward) sees e-government as a path for pursuing digital, resilience, equal, and inclusive societies rather than only as a mechanism to deliver e-services. Additionally, the existing e-government maturity models reached their possibilities to demonstrate the advanced maturity levels of e-government such as smart government.
Keywords: e-government; smart government; maturity models; maturity stages; e-services.
Citizens intention to use of e-Governance in Iran: The Challenge of E-good Governance implementation
by Mona Jami Pour, Mohamad Hossien Sherkat, Mohammad Asarian
Abstract: During COVID 19, many governments have been aware of the advantages of utilising information and communication technologies (ICTs).it may be challenging to reach e-governance objectives. One of the reasons for the failure of implementing successful e-governance projects, is the lack of citizens participation and acceptance so this paper aims to overcome this challenge by developing the e-governance acceptance model in Iran. based on TAM structure, the conceptual model has been tested by structural equation modelling (SEM). The convenience sampling technique was used to select the sample of 469 Iranian citizens who used e-governance service. The findings show all e-governance service quality dimensions, except for security and trust and emotional engagement, positively and significantly affect perceived usefulness. Except for security and trust, other dimensions also positively affect perceived ease of use. The results show, the positive relationships between perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use with the intention of use.
Keywords: e-governance; e-governance quality; structural equation modelling; SEM; technology acceptance model; TAM; Iran.
Design Smart E-Government Application by Proposed A Hybrid Architecture Model Depend on Edge and Cloud Computing
by Ayad Hasan Adhab, Emir Kalik, Ahmed K. Al-Ani
Abstract: A good number of developing countries around the world are actually taking pleasure in the revolution of the e-government field to provide basic services with regards to their citizens. Yet, public sectors encounter many difficulties in implementing the e-governments solutions among its infrastructure for enhancing current products and services or developing new solutions. Consequently, the cloud computing technologies play an essential role to eliminate these problems, which expands the cloud computing processing capabilities towards the network edge, to match these needs. Therefore, in this paper, we propose an abstract of a hybrid model intended for adapting edge and cloud computing in the field of e-government in order to manage and overcome e-government implementation-related difficulties. Finally, this model recognises two different patterns which are edge and cloud for scheduling governmental products and services amongst the data centres and the intelligent devices built with low-power processors represents a highly effective option.
Keywords: e-government; cloud computing; edge computing; hybrid model.
The E-government of eXtensible Business Reporting Language Adoption Process in Malaysia: Drivers and Challenges from Environmental Perspective
by Azleen Ilias, ERLANE K. GHANI, ZUBIR AZHAR
Abstract: This study aims to investigate drivers and challenges on the XBRL adoption from mimetic, normative and coercive pressures by four regulators in Malaysia. This multiple case study involved semi-structured interviews with 16 participants. The driving factor in the knowledge and persuasion process is success stories in the form of mimetic pressure. Besides, the driving factors are motivation of regulatory pressure in the form of coercive pressure, while incentive pressure in the form of normative pressure during decision making process. Lacks of effective XBRL committee are challenges in the form of normative pressure. During implementation, limited trading partners and critical mass are classified as coercive pressure. Then, too reliant on external support, limited pressure from professional bodies and stakeholders and government support are challenges the XBRL adoption. This study shows that regulators should possess understanding about external factors and their influence on the decision to adopt XBRL.
Keywords: adoption process; eXtensible business reporting language; XBRL; mimetic; normative; coercive; regulators; Malaysia.
Who Watches the Watchers? Accessibility of the Public Prosecutor's Offices Websites in Brazil and Implications for E-government Accessibility Surveillance Policies
by Monique S. S. Siqueira, Felipe S. Dias, Silvia H. Rigatto, Michael C. N. Carvalho, Thiago A. M. Marques, André P. Freire
Abstract: Ensuring accessibility to governmental services is an essential issue to disabled people, especially to services such as the public prosecutors office, in charge of surveillance of other governmental entities. This study investigated whether public prosecutors websites are following web accessibility guidelines. The authors evaluated the websites of each of the 27 states of Brazil using the Web Content Accessibility Guidelines 2.0. The results indicated that the websites violated between 16 and 33 different success criteria out of 61 criteria. The results can help the agencies improve their accessibility and show the need to build the capability to perform technical analysis of the adherence to accessibility guidelines of governmental and private websites bounded by Brazilian legislation. By enhancing surveillance, e-government services could reach better accessibility levels and increase awareness about legal requirements.
Keywords: accessibility; Brazilian Government; public prosecutors office; accessibility surveillance; digital accessibility policy; web accessibility evaluation; disabled people; Brazil.
Improving information quality in E-Government of Ukraine
by Igor Oliychenko, Maryna Ditkovska
Abstract: Current research in the field of e-government does not take into account the growing problem of the quality of documents in public administration bodies. Recent works on information quality focus on solving technological problems of information support of public administration. However, increasing the efficiency and information systems effectiveness does not ensure the producing high-quality information in terms of its content. Therefore, the problem of information quality, when the main focus is on organisational issues and staff qualifications, is not sufficiently investigated. This paper developed a hierarchical framework for assessing information quality, conducted a study of the quality of documents in public administration authorities and identified the main characteristics of information from the point of view of the management process. The results of the study provide an opportunity to identify the main ways to improve the quality of information used in public administration.
Keywords: information quality; e-government; quality of documents; hierarchical framework; public administration; quality indicators; Ukraine.
Allowing Privacy-Preserving Fog Computing with Digital Identity Assurance in Remote Clinical Services
by Francesco Buccafurri, Gianluca Lax, Antonia Russo
Abstract: Nowadays, there is an increasing demand for cloud-based remote clinical services, both for diagnosis and monitoring. The COVID-19 pandemic has dramatically amplified this need. E-government programs should quickly go towards the expansion of this type of services, also to avoid that people (especially elderly) renounce treatment or adequate healthcare. However, to be effective, latency between IoT medical devices and the cloud should be reduced as much as possible. For this reason, fog computing appears the best approach, as part of the elaboration is moved closer to the user. However, some privacy threats arise. Indeed, these services can be delivered only based on secure digital identity and authentication systems, but the intermediate fog layer should learn nothing about the identity of users and the link among different service requests. In this paper, we propose a concrete solution to the above issue by leveraging eIDAS-compliant digital identity and by including a cryptographic protocol to provide anonymity and unlinkability of users access to fog servers.
Keywords: e-health; eIDAS; remote patient monitoring; unlinkability.
Rethinking Real Property Assessment and Tax Management System through an Interoperable e-Government Framework
by Challiz Omorog, Noel Paguio, Niño Jeffrey Luzon
Abstract: Real property taxation is the major revenue source of local government units (LGUs). However, studies in local finance reported a poor revenue performance on real property collection encumbered by systematic problems, such as outdated valuation standards, lengthy process, and the absence of centralised electronic database. The difficulties identified are addressed in this paper by redesigning the process through an interoperable real property assessment and tax management system (RPaTS) categorised into three modules. The development of RPaTS adapted the project methodology of Princeton University, and was submitted for software quality evaluation using quantitative methods based on ISO 9126 metrics. The evaluation results show that RPaTS optimised the process by almost 200% or shorten the processing time for a single transaction from 95 to 30 minutes. The respondents also commended its automation feature particularly in updating the schedule of market values (SMV). Overall, end-users gave an average 4.42 Likert score rating.
Keywords: real property assessment and tax management system; local government unit; electronic government; dynamic web programming; interoperability.
Empowered or encumbered: how digitalisation has changed the process of applying for unemployment benefits
by Karl Kristian Larsson
Abstract: This study aims to provide insights into the consequences of having citizen self-service online, as the acquisition of public services has moved from physical welfare offices to digital platforms. The context of the study is the Norwegian labour and welfare administration and claims made for unemployment benefits to the organisation over the last 15 years. By evaluating the success and failure rates of applications, the study found that while the barriers to applying for benefits have been lowered, the number of applicants making mistakes when applying has increased. This is most evident among younger applicants. Without the interference of street-level bureaucrats, the online application process has made the benefit more accessible, though more challenging to apply for correctly.
Keywords: e-government; digital divide; digital competency; electronic government; administrative burdens.
Realization of Low-Voltage Low-Power OTA using Bulk Driven Technique and RLC Band Pass Filter
by Karima Garradhi, Nejib Hassen
Abstract: In this paper, a new circuit operational transconductance amplifier OTA circuit using a bulk-driven technique is presented. Based on this technique, the proposed OTA showed a high DC gain of 39.89 dB with a unity gain frequency at 9 MHz. This circuit is operated at low-voltage of ±0.4 V with a reduced power consumption of 16 µW. The post-layout simulation (PLS) results of the proposed OTA showed a wide dynamic range and it occupies a small effective area of 18.47 µm × 35.91 µm. Based on the proposed OTA, RLC band-pass filter is implemented. It is composed by one floating inductor, one grounded resistance and one grounded capacitor. All simulations are performed by Cadence technology CMOS 0.18 µm.
Keywords: low-voltage low-power; operational transconductance amplifier; OTA; dynamic range; bulk-driven; Cadence; RLC filter.
Fuzzy based Security Risk Assessment of e-Government Data Centre in Indian Context
by Saibal Sarkar, Suvrojit Das
Abstract: E-government data centres (EDC) in India cannot be considered adequately safe and secure as these do have multiple sources of vulnerabilities that are exploited by diverse numerous threats. Therefore, these create a variety of risk postures. Published works for risk assessment are partial and mainly based on a five-point scale. Also, no work on the overall risk assessment of EDC has been found so far. We, therefore, introduce a fuzzy logic-based risk assessment system (FLRAS) to assess the aggregated risk of EDC, considering multi-sourced threats and vulnerabilities. The FLRAS is based on a set of audit-level metrics developed from a fat set of real-world audit reports of a given EDC in India. Our system of computation has been used to compute risk in the first step. We then show that once such overall risk is computed, it can be further reduced substantially by mitigating the gaps as mentioned in audit reports.
Keywords: e-government data centre; risk metric; fuzzy techniques; risk assessment.
A Framework for eGovernment Project Success: An Exploratory Study using Systematic Literature Review and Empirical Investigation
by Hasna Arshad, Sohail Asghar, Muhammad Asim Noor
Abstract: The paper addresses various eGovernment challenges in developing countries. A review of the literature on eGovernment challenges and their validation using empirical investigation is presented, and a number of research gaps and future directions are identified. The purpose of this study is to provide a framework for future researchers and practitioners. We present a significant conceptual framework for eGovernment project success, integrating theoretical and the practical domains. The framework incorporates antecedents, postcedents and the outcome. Five antecedents are organisational, managerial, operational and environmental, technical and social aspects; encompassing 21 critical factors. The two postcedents are improved service and the customer satisfaction, and the outcome of eGovernment is its success and the competitive edge. Additionally, research gaps and vital eGovernment subjects are identified. This study provides a valuable discussion on major eGovernment challenges and provides a conceptual framework for implementing the project successfully, along with several suggestions for future eGovernment research.
Keywords: barrier; challenge; developing country; eGovernment; eGov; public sector; implementation.
A novel model to improve mobile commerce acceptance based on TAM in Iran
by Taghi Javdani Gandomani, Sheida Shirian, Hadi Khosravi
Abstract: Along with traditional commerce, a new of commerce has been emerged called e-commerce which has influenced on the trade rules from different aspects. Mobile commerce is a special kind of wireless e-commerce that expands increasingly regarding spread of wireless communication technologies. Correct understanding of providers will be certain and important in facing technology of the mobile commerce. There are many general models for accepting technology in different domains depending on information technology development which technology acceptance model (TAM) is one of the most popular models. The present study focuses on offering technology acceptance model of mobile commerce in Iran (regarding the above-mentioned limitation). Therefore, some new factors like trust, training, income, experience and so on, have been added to this model by considering factors of primary model of technology acceptance and using standard questionnaire of Davis and colleagues. Then, the proposed model was analysed and shows its good acceptance.
Keywords: electronic-commerce; mobile commerce; technology acceptance model; TAM; mobile commerce; Iran.
Adoption of i-Voting Infrastructure: Addressing Network-level Cybersecurity Breaches
by Wilson Nwankwo, Paschal Chinedu, FlorenceU. Masajuwa, Simon Imoisi, ChristianC. Njoku
Abstract: Internet voting (i-voting), a form of e-voting, may emerge a potential substitute for traditional ballot-based systems. This paper addresses potential cybersecurity concerns using the sociotechnical approach and emphasised on the careful design of secure network components on which the deployment of i-voting platform thrives. Prior to such design, the various threats and cyber-attacks contemplated in an i-voting network infrastructure were categorised in line with the three major network abstractions, i.e., the core, distribution, and access levels. Configurations to mitigate network-level security issues were integrated into a network model constructed (using the eNSP tool) to support an i-voting application designed with the ASP.Net core framework. The system provided a platform to conduct penetration testing to expose any inherent security leaks in the i-voting network. From the unsuccessful penetration tests, we conclude that with appropriate cybersecurity strategy implemented, cyber-resilience and trust might be assured in an i-voting infrastructure. The implication would be a substantial cut in the expenditure during elections as well as entrenchment of public trust.
Keywords: electronic voting; internet voting; i-voting; e-voting; cyber-attacks; cyber resilience; voting systems.
Predicting intention to implement e-government of development planning using the theory of planned behavior and organizational transformation
by Ulung Pribadi
Abstract: This study examined the theory of planned behaviour and the organisational transformation to predict the intention to implement e-government by government employees in Yogyakarta Special Region, Indonesia. This study used a survey data collection method with 511 respondents for employees in five local governments. Questionnaires were generated using a Likert scale. SEM-PLS analysed data to determine validity and reliability, as well as to test hypothesis and regression. This study found that attitude and perceived behavioural control had a positive and significant effect on the intention to implement e-planning with p-values of 0.001 and 0.000, respectively. Likewise, organisational structure and process positively and significantly impacted attitude with p-values of 0.026 and 0.017, respectively. The influence of organisational structure, culture, and processes towards attitude was strong (R-square = 0.680). The limitation and implications of these findings are discussed in conclusion.
Keywords: e-government; e-planning; organisational transformation; government employees; Indonesia.
Design of Government-Citizen Participation Model for Sustainable eGovernment Ecosystem- Indian Context
by Jyoti Yadav, Anil K. Saini, Amit Kumar Yadav
Abstract: Sustainability of eGovernment projects in developing countries is being considered as a new parameter for development across the world. Though strategic guidance is available from various agencies to overcome its associated challenges and have its smooth implementation, however, as evident from literature there hasnt been much success stories for developing countries. The study conducted in this paper has made an attempt in collating the pivotal role stakeholders play in sustainability of eGovenment projects. Since most of eGovernment projects these days are being operationalised in PPP mode, the determinants are considered in such a way that it gives significant inputs for both set of employees. The case studies of two eGovernment Projects, along with dataset for 600 users have been included as part of paper. The conceptual model prepared can be used to construct quantitative simulation tools which can then be used by policy makers, during various stages of eGovernment projects.
Keywords: conceptual data modelling; eGovernment; sustainability; citizens; employees; sustainability; government citizen participation; GCP; public private partnership.
Electronic Government Maturity Index (eGMI): proposal to evaluate the maturity of local government portals
by Nadine Victor Batista, Helena Carreiras, Alexandre Moraes Ramos
Abstract: This paper proposes an evaluative index for local government portals, called the electronic government maturity index (e-GMI), as a measure of the electronic government maturity. In a congruence of the maturity models by Lee and Kwak (2012), United Nations (2014) and Lechakoski (2015), the e-GMI is composed of five maturity stages, structured in nine analysis dimensions. Each dimension has checkpoints in the portal, called analysis attributes, which measures the development stage of the portal through fuzzy logic. For empirical validation, the e-GMI was applied to the portals of the Brazilian capitals city halls and resulted in classifications of Stages 2 and 3 of maturity. The validation in these case studies confirms that the model composed by e-GMI is a robust, deep and objective electronic government maturity model, and an important instrument to evaluate local governments portals.
Keywords: electronic government maturity index; e-GMI; maturity models; e-government.
Social media adoption and reach by Ecuadorian local governments: An empirical study
by Gonçalo Paiva Dias, Mariuxi Bruzza, Manuel Tupia
Abstract: In this article, we present an empirical study about adoption and reach of Facebook, Twitter, and YouTube by Ecuadorian municipal governments. Data was collected from 55 social media profiles of municipal authorities in three provinces, representing 25% of all Ecuadorian cantons and 54% of the population. Determinants of adoption and reach were investigated by resorting to correlation, regression, and means comparison studies. We conclude that population size is a good predictor of reach in social media, but it is not relevant to explain early adoption. This may be the consequence of social media technology being inexpensive and simple to adopt, thus being accessible to any local authority, while making good use of it has more financial and administrative burdens and, consequently, is associated with bigger local authorities. Also, adoption may have been centrally driven and programmatically motivated, which would also explain the lesser relevance of population size for early adoption.
Keywords: e-government; social media; local government; Ecuador; e-participation; diffusion of innovation; DoI; adoption; Facebook; Twitter; YouTube.
Can Auditors Attributes and Organisational Resources influence Information Technology Audit Quality in the Public Sector
by Erlane K. Ghani, Siti Murni Abdol Jahim
Abstract: This study examines the effect of auditors attributes and organisational resources on information technology (IT) audit quality in a public sector organisation. Specifically, this study examines the auditors attributes in terms of their independence, accounting and audit knowledge and skills, IT competency and business process knowledge during IT audit. This study also examines the effect of organisational resources on IT audit quality. Using questionnaire survey on 88 public sector officers, this study shows a significant positive effect between auditors attributes and organisational resources. The findings in this study implicate that it is imperative for the public sector organisation to identify the factors that can affect the IT audit quality in order to enhance the effectiveness and efficiency of auditing in the public sector. These findings can also be useful for the public sector organisation as part of their quality control program and help to improve IT audit quality.
Keywords: information technology; audit quality; auditors attributes; organisational resources; public sector.
The linkage between information quality and e-government adoption: Is gender a moderating factor?
by Fahmi Zaidi
Abstract: Information quality plays an important role in influencing technology use. To date there have been many studies determining the relationship between quality information and e-government use. However, very few studies have examined genders role in simplifying the relationship between qualitative information and e-government acceptance. A total of 543 participants were involved in this study. This study determines that quality of information has a positive and significant relationship with quality of information, and the use of e-government, while explaining the variance of e-government adoption by 15%. The implications of the study have also been discussed.
Keywords: information quality; partial least square; PLS; SPSS; technology adoption; e-government.
The Journey from eGovernment to Digital Transformation: The case of Saudi Arabia
by Sotirios Zygiaris, Bassem E. Maamari
Abstract: The e-government implementation process in the world is at various stages with some countries having a pronounced success. The governments with a greater degree of success are subject to the second stage of evolution known as digital government. In the digital government stage, organisations carry on internal service improvement in an attempt to change cultural impulses. The purpose of this study is to analyse the transition process from e-government to digital government in Saudi Arabia. We aim to identify the factors that would enable this transition. The findings of our study illustrate that in the journey from e-government to digital government there are four important enabling factors, namely technology adequacy, organisational change, open government and social inclusive government. The study provides a researchers view of the factors that will lead a digital transformation process in government to incorporate internal socio-technical physiognomies that will promote a responsive, proactive, open and social government.
Keywords: electronic government; digital government; open government; social inclusive government; transition process; structural equation modelling; SEM; Saudi Arabia.
E-government and Corruption Control: the Mediating Effect of Law Enforcement
by Abdallah Alsaad
Abstract: While the role of e-government in reducing corruption level is well discussed in the literature, less attention has been given to how e-government combats corruption. This study revisits the association between e-government and corruption and contributes to the existing literature by elucidating how law enforcement mediates this association. The author conducts a cross-nation analysis of 120 countries over four years. The result of panel analysis with random effect models indicates that law enforcement does mediate the association between e-government and corruption. The result shows that e-government will have no strong effect on corruption without first affecting the enforcement of the law. E-government by automating the laws and regulations helps to achieve higher possible levels of compliance to laws and regulations, and that controls improper influence by public officials. Policymakers should consider law and regulations enforcement when design e-government systems in order to control the improper influence by public officials.
Keywords: e-government; electronic government; corruption; mediation; panel analysis; law enforcement.
Assessing the Impact of e-Government Systems from Citizens Perspective: Evidence from Ghana
by Acheampong Owusu
Abstract: This study developed a research model using the updated Delone and Mclean IS success model to examine the impact of e-government systems on the service delivery of government services to the citizenry. The study used a quantitative technique with a survey method and collected primary data of 421 respondents which were examined empirically using the partial least squares structural equation modelling (PLS-SEM). The findings indicate that except for e-government information quality and e-government service quality which did not have a significant influence on system use, all the other hypothesised relationships were supported. This study has therefore provided us with empirical evidence which confirms that implementing e-government systems in a developing country can also bring the required benefits. Regarding policy and practice, government agencies implementing the e-government initiatives must address the issues of the information quality and service quality that were not found to be supported.
Keywords: e-government; e-government systems; citizens; Delone and Mclean IS success model; Ghana.
A Secure and Efficient of Ethereum Blockchain Advancement in Public Distribution System with Decentralized MongoDB
by Devi Parameswari C, Ilayaraja M
Abstract: A countrys public distribution system (PDS) is crucial to eradicating poverty and ensuring food security. To evaluate the viability of adopting blockchain to remove inefficiencies and provide confidence in the framework, this study presented a blockchain with mongoDB. This paper proposes a comprehensive web-based system with the majority of the features and functions required to manage all forms of interactions between the central government, state governments, district offices, ration shops, and customers. As a result, all transactions are recorded in the blockchain network that connects the various components. It looks into the feasibility of implementing the proposed concept as a blockchain using Ethereum and a decentralised database (MongoDB). The usage of the blockchain system to assure confidentiality is one of the most notable features of this proposed work.
Keywords: blockchain technology; public distribution system; PDS; smart contracts; solidity; Ethereum; MongoDB; transaction; execution cost.
Access and Equity in a Technological World: An Assessment of National Government Websites
by Tony Carrizales, James Melitski
Abstract: This study seeks to inform the discussion of digital government and assess the equity of national websites through language accessibility. The research examines national government website language features to evaluate the accessibility and overall equity of digital government. A review of 193 United Nations member countries national websites is conducted and shows the diversity in language delivery options throughout the world. The research examines the characteristics of each country along with its democratic values and e-government capacity. The findings show that some nations excel in providing extensive language options while others do not, underscoring the importance of upholding equality and accessibility in a technological world. In addition, the analysis indicates that countries with stronger democratic values and greater e-government capacity are more likely to have multilingual websites.
Keywords: e-government; technology; websites; equity; language.
User satisfaction on Sistem Maklumat Kastam/customs information system by the Royal Malaysian Customs
by Ramesh Kumar Moona Haji Mohamed, Jun Ian Fung, Zi Hui Khor, Huey Ying Lau, Chee Chung Lee, Mei Jing Lew
Abstract: The purpose of this research is determined the effect of technology readiness and acceptance of Sistem Maklumat Kastam (SMK) among the customs officers in Royal Malaysian Customs. A quantitative data analysis was executed with where the target populations were focus on the custom officers in Royal Malaysian Customs. However, the exact amount of the target population for Royal Malaysian Customs is unknown, convenience sampling was used. There were 106 samples was collected from the target population and it is good enough to test the research model because the G power software calculated 92 samples size. Smart PLS version 3.2.6 was used to test five hypothesis. Through this study, the researchers found that innovativeness, discomfort, and insecurity affected the custom officers' perceived ease of use and satisfaction towards the SMK systems except optimism. Manager implication, future research study and the limitation of the study was discussed in detail.
Keywords: optimism; innovativeness; insecurity; discomfort; perceived ease of use; user satisfaction.