Electronic Government, an International Journal (19 papers in press)
Barriers to the Effective Implementation of e-Parliament in Africa: A Case Study on the 8th Nigeria National Assembly (2015-2019)
by Abdulsalam Mustafa, Ali Abdullahi
Abstract: The level of information and communication technology (ICT) implementation in a country may have a significant effect on the successful realisation of e-parliament for a more accessible, transparent, effective, efficient and representative legislature. Despite several perceived benefits of e-parliament, some African nations including Nigeria are still at the initial phase of adopting this technology. This study examines barriers to the effective e-parliament adoption and implementation in Africa with a distinct focus on the Nigerian National Assembly context. Descriptive survey research design together with multistage and stratified random sampling techniques were employed for this research; questionnaires was also used for this study. Three hypotheses were formulated and tested with Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) statistical model. The results revealed that, inter alia, limited ICT infrastructure, low level of ICT literacy and absence of necessary ICT regulatory framework are major barriers towards the successful adoption and usage of e-parliament in Nigeria.
Keywords: e-parliament; ICT adoption; open parliament; sustainable development; NASS.
Awareness of automation, data origins, and processing stakeholders by parsing the General Data Protection Regulation sanction-based articles
by Ulla Gain, Virpi Hotti
Abstract: Datafication forces to be aware of data origin and to be aware of data-based insights. Further, weak awareness of automated data processing and processing stakeholders challenge compliant data usage. The research concerns the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) articles that define sanction criteria to figure out whether awareness of automation, data categories, and processing stakeholders are increased and whether cognitive services are useful to manifest indicative semantic roles. All 49 articles (5-9, 11-22, 25-39, 41-49, 58, 85-91) concern processing stakeholders, eight articles (9, 13, 14, 15, 20, 21, 35 and 37) concern data categories, and seven articles (13, 14, 15, 20, 22, 35, and 47) concern automation. Krippendorffs Alpha was used to estimate the intercoder reliability between two coders (the cognitive service and human interpreter) and the value 0,85 refers that the parsing capability of the IBM Watson Natural Language Understanding Text Analysis cognitive service amplifies human interpretations and interventions.
Keywords: automation; data governance; data category; GDPR; natural language processing; content analysis; semantic roles.
Arab Cultural Dimensions Model for E-Government Services Adoption in Public Sector Organisations: An Empirical Examination
by Mohannad Ayyash, Fadi A.T. Herzallah, Mohammed A. Al-Sharafi
Abstract: The aim of this study is to examine the effect of Arab culture dimensions on employees adoption of E-government services by adaptation of the cultural dimensions concept as theorised by Hofstede cultural model and nepotism as well as face-to-face interactions as derived from literature review. This study developed and examined a model that contributes to the scholarly research on E-government and information systems. The study used a survey that administered to 137 Saudi administrative employees at hospital King Fahad of the Al-Baha emirate region in the Saudi Arabia. The data was analysed employing a structural equation modelling (SEM) approach through partial least square (PLS) software. The results revealed that high power distance, low uncertainty avoidance, high collectivism, high masculinity, face-to-face interactions, and nepotism contributed positively to employees adoption of E-government services in public sector organisations. The study also helps public sector organisations to understand the effect of culture dimension on E-government adoption. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.
Keywords: Arab Culture; E-Government Adoption; Hofstede Cultural Dimensions; Nepotism; Face-To-Face Interactions; Public Sector Organizations; Saudi Arabia.
Does Digital Literacy Predict E-government Performance? An Extension of DeLone & McLean Information System Success Model
by Abdulrazaq Kayode Abdulkareem, Razlini Mohd Ramli
Abstract: This study empirically investigates the predicting role of digital literacy on e-government performance in Nigeria through the public value approach. Researches have advanced public value to evaluate government activities from the perspective of the citizens. Using an extended DeLone and McLean Information System Success model, with the underlying assumption that citizens with a high digital literacy will be able to use e-government services, which will, in turn, lead to satisfaction and high e-government performance. There is sparse literature on the predicting role of digital literacies on e-government performance. The study proposed a conceptual model based on 12 hypotheses that were tested using PLS-SEM. Data were collected through a structured questionnaire from e-government users in Nigeria. The major finding of this study is that digital literacy has a significant effect on the actual use of e-government, user satisfaction, and net benefits of e-government. The implications of the findings were discussed.
Keywords: Digital literacy; E-government performance; Public value; E-service; Satisfaction.
A case study of the digital agenda of the City of Vienna: e-participation design and enabling factors
by Bettina Höchtl, Noella Edelmann
Abstract: We present a case study on an Austrian e-participation initiative, the Digital Agenda of the City of Vienna, set up in September 2014 and currently still running. The Digital Agenda represents the City of Viennas digital strategy regarding research, technology and economic development, and acts as the guiding principles for setting priorities, implementing projects and designing new services. This case study shows both the extent to which digital technologies increasingly play a decisive role in urban life and the valuable insights gained by studying such processes in order to support the design of future government-led e-participation initiatives. Using a qualitative approach, this case study focuses on the design of a multi-phasic participation process and the identification of the enabling factors that can be used in new e-participation and co-creation initiatives.
Keywords: digital agenda; e-participation; case study; process design; enabling factors.
A modified image steganographic method based on chaotic text encryption using Lifting Wavelet Transform
by K. Sheela Sobana Rani, M. Yuvaraju, V. Sathya, R. Lavanya, R. Gayathri
Abstract: Steganography is an art of concealing text into cover image over a covert channel, enabling covert communication. In this paper, a modified steganographic approach using lifting wavelet transform (LWT) is proposed. The key for encrypting the text are generated randomly using chaotic maps. The concept of confusion and diffusion is applied using one of the widely used dynamic systems namely Lorenz, Chen and Lu. By applying chaos strategy effectively in secret communication, the strength of the anticipated algorithm is improved to a significant level. The encrypted text can be concealed into the cover image using adaptive least significant bit (ALSB) algorithm. The stego image obtained at the end of data embedding process undergoes few security statistical analyses such as peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR), mean square error (MSE), elapsed time and correlation calculations. With the significant knowledge of above parameters, it is observed that the suggested methodology proves to have advantages over existing ones, providing higher level of security against some existing attacks.
Keywords: data hiding; chaos encryption; adaptive least significant bit replacement; ALSB; lifting wavelet transform; LWT; chaos decryption.
Factors Influencing E-Government Services Adoption in Libya: An Empirical Study
by Mansaf M. Elmansori, Zurida Ishak
Abstract: This study aims to identify influencing individual and technological factors on the behavioural intention to use the E-government services in Libya. Furthermore, the study seeks to identify the influence level of trust factors on the use behaviour of E-government services. TAM model is utilised to build the constructs of the study. The study carried out structural equation modelling (SEM) to empirically examine the conceptual framework. Results of the structural model indicated a significant positive effect of perceived ease of use, perceived usefulness, IT knowledge, privacy, and facilitating conditions on behavioural intention while the impact of security on behavioural intention was found an insignificant effect. On the other hand, the impact of trust in government, trust in internet, and behavioural intention on use behaviour were significantly affected. Hence, these findings imply that the government, policymakers, and the related authorities should do their best to build the trust of the citizens not only in the government but also towards the internet.
Keywords: TAM; TOE; trust; e-government; structural equation modelling; SEM; Libya.
Towards a Standard-based Open Data Ecosystem: Analysis of DCAT-AP use at National and European Level
by Florian Barthelemy, Michael Cochez, Iraklis Dimitriadis, Naila Karim, Nikolaos Loutas, IOANNIS MAGNISALIS, Lina Molinas Comet, Vassilios Peristeras, Brecht Wyns
Abstract: In Europe, an open government data ecosystem is being developed. This ecosystem is implemented using various technologies and platforms. In fact, the use of a common metadata standard for describing datasets and open data portals, i.e., the DCAT-AP specification, appears as the lingua franca that connects an, otherwise, fragmented environment. In this context, the standard-based consolidation of open data promotes the subsidiarity principle, allowing open data portal owners to choose platforms and internal representations based on their specific requirements. However, the portal owners must provide an export with DCAT-AP compliant metadata about the dataset they store. In this paper we provide a detailed study of how the DCAT-AP specification is used in practice, both at the national and the European level. Consequently, we also identify issues, challenges, and opportunities for improvements that can be used as input for the next revision cycle of the standard. Essentially, our goal is to contribute towards the enrichment of a growing and promising European open data ecosystem.
Keywords: open data; metadata; data standards; open data portals; interoperability; DCAT; DCAT-AP.
Formation and development of E- government in Ukraine: synergistic approach
by Igor Oliychenko, Maryna Ditkovska
Abstract: The experience of modern public administration shows that the systems approach as the basic concept of e-government does not provide the desired results in the context of rapid transformations of the economy and society. This article deals with the scientific substantiation of the use of a synergistic approach in the practice of e-government and gives a comparative analysis of system and synergistic approaches in public administration. The authors compare the basic principles of the system approach and synergetics, investigate the exchange of public information between public authorities and users of this information in the e-government system. The article offers a model of information exchange, which allows identifying bottlenecks in the e-government system and identifying ways to eliminate negative factors. The authors summarise the results of research on the existence of self-organisation processes in public administration and the need for new approaches to e-government based on the concept of synergetics.
Keywords: public administration; information; e-government; fluctuations; attractors; information systems; synergistic approach; Ukraine.
E-social security success: Evidence from the Philippines
by Erik Paolo Capistrano
Abstract: This research undertakes e-government research via two areas: applications on social security, and applications on a developing country. In the Philippines, there are two separate organisations providing social security for private and government employees. This phenomenon provides potential for some significant discussions on e-government, given the importance of social security towards personal financial needs. Applying and extending a theoretical framework built on trust theory, prior experience, and the IS success model, this research documents 541 employees from private and government service on their perceptions of their respective e-social security services afforded to them. Structural equation modelling results reveal that trust in e-government plays a very important role in their quality perceptions of e-social security. Furthermore, problems regarding information and service quality hound usefulness, while issues of system quality beset satisfaction, leading to important implications for the e-social security service providers to continue delivering on the expectations of e-government services.
Keywords: e-government; social security; trust; prior experience; IS success model; ISM; Philippines.
A Novel Smart Security System for a Hybrid Motorcycle using IoT
by C.T.Manimegalai Murugeasn, Sabitha Gauni, K. Kalimuthu, Arkoalo Palchaudhuri
Abstract: The researchers have found that the governments of all the countries in the world need to consider 6% reduction in the fossil fuel production annually in order to prevent catastrophic warming. The increasing number of IC engine vehicle is causing a massive diminution of the storage of natural fuel which is leading to a huge down fall of the environment. The current situation of the environment is enforcing people to figure out some alternative ways for the sake of saving the planet from facing the massive disaster it is heading to. As a way out, hybrid vehicles are already introduced to the market by different automobile companies. This kind of vehicles can decrease the level of air pollution. Besides these, vehicles can decrease the burning of fuel and most importantly the electric engine attached to it makes an electronic control system. The governments should ensure the implementation of this system, which helps to attach various security features to the vehicle. This paper is basically proposing a compact electric motorcycle security system for the rider. This security system is made with five 8051 microcontrollers, ZigBee and GSM communication and cloud computing with IoT module. It can be used both in electric and hybrid motorcycles.
Keywords: hybrid vehicle; electric engine; microcontroller; sensors; Bluetooth module; GSM.
The Impact of E-Government on Transparency in the European Union: A Multivariate Analysis
by Javier Cifuentes-Faura
Abstract: E-government emerges as a new form of interaction or relationship between the governments of different countries through the use of information and communication technologies (ICT) with the aim of achieving good government and being more transparent. This paper analyses the consequences of e-government in European Union countries. In particular, it studies whether those countries where the development of e-government is greater, are also those that are more transparent. The effects of other socio-economic variables proposed by the literature on e-government (per capita GDP, unemployment rate, educational level, population, ) are also examined. The statistical analysis reveals that e-government has a positive impact on transparency (measured through the corruption perception index), as well as on GDP per capita, unemployment rate and educational level.
Keywords: e-government; electronic government; European Union; transparency; public administration; socioeconomic variables; multivariate model; information and communication technologies; ICT.
E-government adoption and employees job performance: The moderating role of age as a demographic factor
by Gaurav Chopra, Preeti Bhaskar, Muddu Vinay, Amit Joshi
Abstract: Previous technology adoption model can be applied in the situation where technology adoption is voluntary. This research will identify those e-government factors that are more important in those conditions where technology adoption is compulsory. Secondly, it is noteworthy to understand that technology adoption has an impact on the employees job performance. This research also aims to study the impact of e-government adoption of employees job performance. Thirdly, the moderating role of age is also analysed, since it is an important demographic factor that moderates the relationship between e-government adoption and employees job performance. This research has used exploratory and descriptive research design. This research found that e-government adoption has a positive impact on the job performance of employees. Organisational factor, technical factor, and trust factor are significantly important for e-government adoption. The study has concluded that age moderate the relationship between e-government adoption and employees job performance.
Keywords: e-government adoption; employees; job performance; moderating; age; India.
An agent and web services based e-government model validation
by Emna Karoui, Sameh El Hadouaj, Khaled Ghédira
Abstract: In e-government, the provision of valuable services depends upon the capacity of public administrations to coordinate their services. Different digital government solutions have been developed. Unfortunately, most of these works assume that all the involved partners are equipped with sophisticated information technology (IT) infrastructure, which limits their applicability especially in developing countries where the administrations are usually under equipped. Moreover many of the proposed solutions introduce centralised coordination methods that do not comply with the distributed nature of public administrations. This paper presents an e-government model based on agent and web services. It introduces an inter-organisational workflow (IOW) model based on the idea of interfacing. The e-government entities (GEs) are only required to describe their services using WSDL, they are distributed and interact directly with no need of a middleware. Two different case studies are carried out, to demonstrate the applicability of our approach.
Keywords: e-government; inter-organisational workflow; IOW; web services; multi-agent systems; validation.
Analyzing Information Policy Gap for Interagency Information Sharing: the Case of Indonesia
by Djoko Sigit Sayogo, Sri Budi Cantika Yuli, Firda Ayu Amalia, Agung Prasetyo Nugroho Wicaksono
Abstract: Technology-policy gap diminishes legal and policies vital role as the critical determinant of interagency information sharing. This study used a combination of content analysis of existing legal and policies and in-depth interviews with 15 public officials in the Regency of Bojonegoro to evaluate the sufficiency and roles of legal and policies to support interagency information sharing in Indonesia. Legal and policies are in place to govern data and information sharing that showcase their critical roles to support interagency information sharing. The findings indicate the government enacts legal policies supporting the sharing of data and information in Indonesia despite concentrating only on a limited number of issues. The number of legal and policies endorsing the stewardship is higher than those ensuring data and information usefulness. The findings further demonstrate the challenges concerning the sufficiency, depth, coverage, and synergy of existing policies supporting interagency information sharing.
Keywords: interagency information sharing; IIS; technology-policy gap; legal and policies; stewardship; usefulness; information policies.
Contemporary e-Government for Smart Tax Authorities
by Daniel Simon Schaebs
Abstract: This paper examines the term e-government and attempts to trace its development. Taking into account the challenges of the Tallinn Declaration, the Speyer definition of Lucke and Reinermann as well as the state-citizen-relationship described by Martini, the determinants of contemporary e-government and implementation of ICT in the tax office are presented in detail. An in-depth analysis of the state-of-the-art e-government services according to their suitability leads to the model of a smart tax authority. For this analysis, final application examples were shown for each individual departmental area. A further analysis about the bipolar requirements of citizen- and state-value was developed and revealed that most of the e-government services meet these requirements. By implementing the suggested ICT and services effectiveness and efficiency of the enforcement of tax laws can be increased, also mastering the bipolar challenges regarding citizen- and state-value.
Keywords: contemporary e-government; electronic government; smart tax authorities; tax administration; information and communication technologies; ICT; Germany.
Secure and Transparent Electronic Voting System Using Blockchain
by Sangeetha Manoharan, Shreeja Pal, Jayraj Roshan
Abstract: Electronic voting machine (EVM), the replacement of the ballot box is mainstay in the electoral process. Since 2000, in India, EVMs have been used in all elections: four Lok Sabha and 122 state legislative assemblies. In EVM security, duplication of vote and anonymity are important issues to be considered. In this paper, we propose a blockchain solution for securing the voting system, where a blockchain network with multiple nodes and a smart contract for voting mechanism is developed and deployed to store the votes so that they are immutable and cannot be tampered with, making the system highly secure and can be audited by the voters, making the system transparent. A full stack application is designed to allow voters to interact with the smart contract and vote. The unique voting ID being generated for each vote is stored alongside the votes, thus providing anonymity to the voters.
Keywords: blockchain; decentralised network; Ethereum; security; solidity; voting system; electronic voting machine; EVM.
Analyzing E-Government Maturity Models
by Omar Hujran, Ayman Alarabiyat, Mohammed Alsuwaidi
Abstract: This paper aims at assessing the current e-government maturity models to identify their strengths and limitations. In so doing, a systematic literature review has been used to examine the existing e-government maturity models during the period 20002021. Our analysis indicates that despite the fact that e-government-maturity models provide potentially useful tools for e-government evaluation, there are significant differences across the existing e-government-maturity models in terms of the number of stages, what users can do at progressive stages and particular perspectives underscored at specific stages. However, the shift from stage-based maturity models to dimensional based maturity models is clearly observed. The new wave of e-government maturity models (2012 onward) sees e-government as a path for pursuing digital, resilience, equal, and inclusive societies rather than only as a mechanism to deliver e-services. Additionally, the existing e-government maturity models reached their possibilities to demonstrate the advanced maturity levels of e-government such as smart government.
Keywords: e-government; smart government; maturity models; maturity stages; e-services.
User satisfaction on Sistem Maklumat Kastam/customs information system by the Royal Malaysian Customs
by Ramesh Kumar Moona Haji Mohamed, Jun Ian Fung, Zi Hui Khor, Huey Ying Lau, Chee Chung Lee, Mei Jing Lew
Abstract: The purpose of this research is determined the effect of technology readiness and acceptance of Sistem Maklumat Kastam (SMK) among the customs officers in Royal Malaysian Customs. A quantitative data analysis was executed with where the target populations were focus on the custom officers in Royal Malaysian Customs. However, the exact amount of the target population for Royal Malaysian Customs is unknown, convenience sampling was used. There were 106 samples was collected from the target population and it is good enough to test the research model because the G power software calculated 92 samples size. Smart PLS version 3.2.6 was used to test five hypothesis. Through this study, the researchers found that innovativeness, discomfort, and insecurity affected the custom officers' perceived ease of use and satisfaction towards the SMK systems except optimism. Manager implication, future research study and the limitation of the study was discussed in detail.
Keywords: optimism; innovativeness; insecurity; discomfort; perceived ease of use; user satisfaction.