Forthcoming and Online First Articles

Electronic Government, an International Journal

Electronic Government, an International Journal (EG)

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Electronic Government, an International Journal (24 papers in press)

Regular Issues

  •   Free full-text access Open AccessKunta.live - a tool for participatory decision-making in local governments
    ( Free Full-text Access ) CC-BY-NC-ND
    by Osmo Leppäniemi, Tarmo Lipping, Jari Stenvall 
    Abstract: This paper presents a tool for participatory decision-making in local governments using crowdsourcing and e-democracy. The concepts of crowdsourcing and participation are discussed from the perspective of decision-making in local governments and an overview of existing tools and solutions for citizen participation in decision-making is given. The enabling/limiting aspects of national, as well as EU-level legislation related to crowdsourcing and participation are also discussed. The process design perspective, describing changes in the process of decision-making when utilising crowdsourcing, is considered. Furthermore, new phases and steps are proposed to the process of decision-making when utilising crowdsourcing and participation through the Kunta.live platform. The requirements for a platform that enables direct democracy and the obstacles that arise in the adoption of this kind of a platform are examined. Finally, theories on public decision-making and the opportunities and limitations in utilising software to supplement decision-making are discussed and topics for future research to promote utilisation of ICT, Web 2.0 technologies and e-democracy software for policy decision-making are indicated.
    Keywords: concept; technologies; techniques; design; crowdsourcing; participation; participatory decision-making; e-democracy.
    DOI: 10.1504/EG.2024.10063344
     
  • How do the US governments have their social networks for COVID-19 according to administrative levels?   Order a copy of this article
    by Seungil Yum 
    Abstract: This study explores how the US governments have their social networks according to the administrative levels. This study employs social network and content analysis for the US president, New York governor, and New York mayor’s Twitter account. This study finds some important results as follows: first, national key players play a significant role in the president networks, whereas city key players play an important role in the governor and mayor networks. Second, the president’s family plays an essential role in the president networks, the president, governor, and mayor have a significant impact on the governor networks, and many public key players in education and law enforcement exert an essential effect on the mayor networks. Third, the president, governor, and mayor play an important role in the largest group of their networks. Fourth, COVID-19 vaccines are some of the most important issues across all networks. Fifth, the topics and interests are differentiated by administrative levels. The results imply that the leaders should explore their social networks for COVID-19 to provide important news and updates for COVID-19 effectively since they have different characteristics and key players according to the administrative levels.
    Keywords: president; governor; mayor; COVID-19; social networks.
    DOI: 10.1504/EG.2024.10051657
     
  • Multidimensional perceived risk and safety needs in Palestinian e-government services context   Order a copy of this article
    by Rania Ahmad Abdalla, Normalini Md Kassim, Jasmine A. L. Yeap 
    Abstract: With the internet era, governments are using information and communication technologies (ICTs) to meet their citizens’ expectations by adopting new means for service delivery that break the organisational boundaries by transforming to electronic governments (e-governments). However, citizens’ adoption of these services is at low rates in many countries. Palestinian Government will launch its e-government services portal soon. Hence, an extended version of the unified model of electronic government adoption (UMEGA) is adopted in which a multidimensional perceived risk construct is used with four dimensions namely financial, time loss, opportunity cost, and technology risk are identified and integrated with safety needs as a new variable to investigate the factors that influence Palestinians behavioural intention towards the use of e-government services’ portal. The study will use a structured questionnaire to collect the data from the population after stratifying it using quota/purposive sampling. Data will be analysed using PLS-SEM.
    Keywords: e-government; electronic government; UMEGA; perceived risk; financial risk; time loss risk; opportunity cost risk; technology risk; safety need; behavioural intention.
    DOI: 10.1504/EG.2024.10051717
     
  • Analysis of the Nagari readiness in implementing smart village in West Sumatera, Indonesia   Order a copy of this article
    by Yuskar Yuskar, Asniati Bahari, Eri Gas Eka Putra, Jefril Ramadoni, Ihsani Mazelfi 
    Abstract: This study aims to evaluate villages’ readiness called Nagari in West Sumatra, Indonesia, in implementing the smart village. The research involved 928 Nagari in the province. However, 208 Nagari were excluded because no internet network. Questionnaires were distributed to 720 Nagari with a 25.56% response rate. The Nagari readiness variable was measured using a five-Likert scale using the TOE Framework. TOE can predict the availability of technology, organisational resources, and the environment around the organisation. The results showed that to implement smart village, Nagari in West Sumatra still needs more improvements in information technology and human resources capability. However, culture of the Nagari is adequate to achieve smart village. This research contributes to the knowledge of accounting and management information systems practice. The result of the study will also be valuable for villages’ management and West Sumatera Province policymakers, IT practitioners, and researchers to help Nagari implementing smart village.
    Keywords: smart village; TOE framework; implementation readiness; Nagari of West Sumatera; digitalisation Nagari government.
    DOI: 10.1504/EG.2024.10051966
     
  • Analytical state: framework for thinking about artificial intelligence and algorithms for state power   Order a copy of this article
    by P.R. Biju, O. Gayathri 
    Abstract: The retreat of the Leviathan state and its vast bureaucratic power due to inventions of technologies of connection in the private tech labs were popular since the revolution in computational technology. The use of artificial intelligence has chartered the ability of the private sector to monopolise smart technology that can even compete for state power. This paper adopts a review of the literature on the interplay between the state and AI algorithms and tries to understand the new configuration of state power. The paper draws insights from existing literature in the field of AI applications, and argues that once the AI technology attains a public nature, the state power takes over the realm and brings it under its command. State power is ever stronger with AI, and the state is becoming a vast technological organism, analogous to the neologism: analytical state.
    Keywords: State power; algorithms; artificial intelligence; prediction; nation-state.
    DOI: 10.1504/EG.2024.10052933
     
  • Methodological developments and innovations in e-government research
    by Jyotshna Sahoo, Basudev Mohanty, Satya Prakash Dash 
    Abstract: This study aims to assess the scholarly publications on e-government research. It highlights the research areas, developments, and innovations made concerning the research methods and methodological frameworks used to explore e-government research with specific reference to the journal'Transforming Government: People, Process and Policy' (TGPPP). Findings reveal that research papers have the dominant position. A total of 22 unique research methods were found to be used in different frequencies within the study period. Some emerging methods employed in e-government research are design science research (DSR), living lab study, and social network analysis. Many innovative methodological frameworks and models have been used to explore the research studies about various aspects of e-government research. The study offers a unique way to evaluate the publications on e-government research from the perspective of methodological innovations. The findings can be used to better understand the trends of e-government research.
    Keywords: research methods; RAKE analysis; keyword analysis; innovative methodological frameworks; scholarly communications.
    DOI: 10.1504/EG.2024.10053378
     
  • Identity management model: Algerian case
    by Ahmed Berbar, Abdelkader Belkhir 
    Abstract: The digital transforming requires the establishment of a trusted environment allowing secure identification of all stakeholders. The most challenge is to secure this digital identity in order to prevent any illegal operation such as identity falsification or access to the personal data. These challenges become more important when it comes to an e-GOV platform bringing all the services offered to citizens and carrying all of their data. In order to meet this challenge, this article proposes a structured, hierarchical and universal model of identification which uniquely identifies each stakeholder (administration, company, citizen...) While protecting the personal data against any manipulation, access or disclosure without the owner’s approval.
    Keywords: electronic identity; digital signature; trusted third party; TTP; unique identification code; UIC; electronic government; cloud; federated identity model.
    DOI: 10.1504/EG.2024.10053379
     
  • Digital management in the public sector - a framework   Order a copy of this article
    by Bendik Bygstad, Jon Iden 
    Abstract: Is digital management something else than general management? In this paper we propose that it is, both theoretically and in practice. To develop our argument, we suggest a framework for understanding the particular aspects and challenges of digital management. In order to assess our framework, we conducted in-depth interviews with 14 carefully selected top managers from the public sector, who all had a visible profile in digitalization. We contribute to the digitalization research with a precise definition of digital management, and a more detailed understanding of the implications for managers in the public sector. Further, we identify and discuss a managerial shift, from an organization-oriented view of digital management to an ecosystem perspective.
    Keywords: digital management; digitalisation; public sector.
    DOI: 10.1504/EG.2024.10054251
     
  • Election success that mediates public trust and satisfaction and balances political and managerial aspects   Order a copy of this article
    by Akmal Malik, Sujono  
    Abstract: In this study, the aim is to implement government efforts in direct and simultaneous regional head elections by building a balance between politics and managerial by encouraging public trust and satisfaction as voters. This research uses a mixed method by combining or connecting subjective (qualitative) and quantitative structures. Policies regarding the Regional Government Law and the Election Law and building the political and managerial balance of the government are expected to be able to anticipate and overcome problems that arise in direct and simultaneous regional head elections. Originality in this study is a new approach in building a balance with a managerial approach to governance and a decentralised approach. In addition, it can provide alternative suggestions and input that encourage the development of a balanced political and managerial dimension of government in direct and simultaneous local elections in Indonesia.
    Keywords: political government; managerial government; direct and simultaneous regional election; community trust; community satisfaction.
    DOI: 10.1504/EG.2024.10054550
     
  • Investigation on e-government initiatives in Saudi Arabia based on coping model of user adaption   Order a copy of this article
    by Nasser H. Binsaif, Shimas A. Nagro, Maysoon S. Aldekhail, Frederic Adam 
    Abstract: The demand for knowledge regarding e-government has increased. The internal users of new e-government technology, however, have not enjoyed its benefits on a scale commensurate with user needs, and so we have applied the coping model of user adaptation (CMUA) to evaluate the impact of adaptation strategies on the success of new systems recently implemented, particularly e-government initiatives in Saudi Arabia. Thirteen semi-structured interviews were performed in two public Saudi institutions to collect data. Each interview was analysed separately (individually). Within-case analysis was then conducted to analyse each case study at the group level. In both cases, the findings reveal a strong link between the adaptation strategies and the success or failure of the adoption of the system. The study also makes a theoretical contribution by identifying four new elements, which were then used to modify and improve CMUA framework.
    Keywords: e-government; adaptation strategies; coping model of user adaptation; CMUA; public sector; middle managers; information technology; Saudi Arabia.
    DOI: 10.1504/EG.2024.10054837
     
  • Nigeria’s digital currency in the global context: implications for the domestic socio-economic development   Order a copy of this article
    by Sunday Idowu, Odunola Aikomo, David Kosoko, Joseph Oduntan 
    Abstract: Global economic relations have witnessed changes often caused by technological revolution and states have been responding as well, especially to the wave of digital money threatening the relevance of physical cash. The Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN) joined the league by introducing the e-Naira but can the CBN effectively manage the digital currency without allowing it to exert an adverse impact on the national socio-economic terrain in a continuously emerging volatile global business environment? This paper employs the analytical research design. It found that e-naira benefits such as engendering private-public sectors cooperation, promoting financial inclusion and aiding the implementation of government social safety net programmes amongst others but not without circumventing the threats of weakening monetary and fiscal policies, global competition and Diem stablecoin. The paper recommends proactive measures to be taken by the CBN, amongst others, in tackling these threats to actualise the benefits.
    Keywords: digital currency; e-Naira; globalising world; socio-economy; Nigeria.
    DOI: 10.1504/EG.2024.10060370
     
  • COVID-19: cybersecurity issues in times of pandemic   Order a copy of this article
    by Yadigar Imamverdiyev, Lyudmila Sukhostat 
    Abstract: COVID-19 is one of the worst threats to the global community in this century. Society is facing a massive number of cyberattacks during this period. Cybersecurity is an issue for individuals and organizations, given the growing number of people using the Internet. The purpose of this survey is to identify key cybersecurity problems and solutions during a pandemic, observed in the healthcare sector, education, and critical infrastructures. Cybersecurity issues during COVID-19 are analysed and aspects of personal data security are discussed. We studied the most prominent cyberattacks during the pandemic and found that they were related to phishing, ransomware, malware, and hacking. Measures to combat infodemics and the role of social media are explored. The evolution of infodemic risk from 2020 to 2022 is analysed. This research is expected to be very useful for improving cybersecurity systems in the context of heightened demands during COVID-19 and in the post-pandemic period.
    Keywords: COVID-19; cyberattacks; cybersecurity; privacy; infodemics.
    DOI: 10.1504/EG.2024.10060533
     
  • Exploring success factors for developing citizen-centric digital public services - insights from a case study   Order a copy of this article
    by Katrin M. Wyrtki, Christoph Buck, Anna Krombacher, Maximilian Röglinger 
    Abstract: Digital technologies open opportunities to use e-government to increase service quality beyond statutory duties. However, most digital public services are not designed to be citizen-centred, i.e., personalised to the heterogeneous range of citizens’ needs. Hence, public sector organisations do not tap the full service quality potential, and research and practice alike require guidance on developing citizen-centric digital public services (CCDPS). This article provides success factors for CCDPS development using an exploratory case study. Building on a deductively derived conceptual foundation on the success factors of information technology projects for public sector organisations, we conducted a 16-month case study investigating a German region’s CCDPS development project. This led to the empirically compiled framework for CCDPS development, which comprises 18 success factors. Our work provides guidance and a blueprint for CCDPS development using the success factors from our exploratory case study.
    Keywords: citizen-centric digital public service; digital service; e-government; requirements engineering; service innovation; success factors; IT project.
    DOI: 10.1504/EG.2024.10062240
     
  • Understanding e-Government readiness and practices from the lens of behavioural and organisational change theories: a case of intelligence-led policing (ILP)   Order a copy of this article
    by M. Ibrahim Mohammed Ibrahim Alblooshi, Erne Suzila Kassim 
    Abstract: Intelligence-led policing (ILP), as part of an electronic government initiative, has become policing institution’s central component towards safeguarding public safety and security. ILP requires changes to broad range of organisational aspects and acceptance. Hence, the research was conducted to identify how organisational change and human factors affect the ILP readiness, and to examine the linkage between practices and policing effectiveness. We conducted a survey with police intelligence officers of the Abu Dhabi Police (ADP). The findings suggest readiness of change is the key to ILP practices, and the readiness is determined by officers’ attitude, climate of change and process of change. More importantly, ILP is an important component of policing effectiveness, with organisational strategy and human factors as important antecedents. Therefore, the findings have shed some lights on the critique of the government structural reluctant of the traditional police culture in accepting changes towards electronic inventiveness.
    Keywords: electronic government; electronic government readiness; intelligence-led policing; ILP; Abu Dhabi Police; ADP; policing; organisational change.
    DOI: 10.1504/EG.2024.10062466
     
  • Partisan politics and the impact on corporate tax fees   Order a copy of this article
    by James S. White, Barbara S. White, Sherwood L. Lambert 
    Abstract: This study evaluates tax service fees from 2003 to 2020, considering the impact of partisan politics on the level of fees paid. We review the major tax provisions as they impact the level of corporate taxation and the potential cost of tax minimisation strategies. The results find that the lowest average yearly tax fees occurred (2017-2020) after Republican President Trump enacted a major reduction in corporate tax rates to 21% from 2017 to the present. During Republican President Bush’s last six years (2003-2008), the average yearly tax fees were higher than during Democratic President Obama’s eight-year term (2009-2016). The results suggest that while the political party and the partisan nature of tax policy would seem to impact the costs for tax services, the largest impact comes from actions taken by specific presidents in tax policy.
    Keywords: corporate tax rate; tax policy; tax fees; partisan politics; tax provisions; political party.
    DOI: 10.1504/EG.2024.10062634
     
  • Neighbourhood councils’ use of social media and citizen engagement during a crisis situation using the example of the COVID-19 pandemic   Order a copy of this article
    by Krzysztof Janc, Wojciech Jurkowski 
    Abstract: This study examines local neighbourhood councils' use of social media as well as citizen engagement during crisis situations. The aim is to answer the questions: what content is published by neighbourhood councils? How is engagement with posted content shaped by its subject matter? How has it evolved over time? The study's reference point is the emergence and proliferation of the COVID-19 pandemic, which may be treated as a global crisis situation. The analysis was conducted based on neighbourhood councils Facebook profiles in one of the largest Polish cities Wroclaw. Neighbourhood councils are grounded in their neighbourhood, and therefore are able to act more effectively as an information transmitter and broker. They serve as a platform for neighbourhood residents activity, representing their interests in the city arena. The most important finding is that information on this crisis situation was the centre of local communities' attention for only a short period of time. The research results show that from the perspective of neighbourhood councils and their constituencies, i.e., residents, content closely related to their immediate surroundings was the most important and was characterised by the greatest engagement.
    Keywords: social media; crisis situation; neighbourhood councils; COVID-19 pandemic.
    DOI: 10.1504/EG.2024.10062889
     
  • Social media integrated mobile government adoption model: investigating adoption behaviour in Karnataka's smart cities   Order a copy of this article
    by Sunith Hebbar, K.B. Kiran 
    Abstract: Digital transformation like m-government and social media (SM) plays an ornamental role in boosting government services and supports smart city mission. However, the public’s dissatisfaction with government’s use of SM and lower adoption of m-government, necessitates more research into citizens’ perspective on these. Hence, the study integrates diffusion of innovation and uncertainty reduction theories with SM-influence and few external variables to analyse people’s usage-intention in Karnataka’s smart cities. The questionnaire survey yielded 1444 citizen responses, which were statistically tested using PLS-SEM. The factors relative advantage, compatibility, facilitating condition, and trust were proved significant. Also, importance of being aware of specific aspects like relative advantage and compatibility (mediators), is proved vital. Information quality and transparency were found critical in enhancing trust and thereby impacting usage-intention. Finally, SM is proven significant in strengthening trust, transparency, social influence, image and awareness. The discussions and research implications are expanded upon in this paper.
    Keywords: m-government; social media; diffusion; innovation; uncertainty reduction; quality; behavioural intention.
    DOI: 10.1504/EG.2024.10062892
     
  • CBDC as a means of payment and its implications for tax administrations   Order a copy of this article
    by Lara Dourado Vasconcelos Nascimento, Paulo Caetano Da Silva, Daniel Jose Diaz, Clovis Belbute Peres 
    Abstract: Cryptocurrencies and central bank digital currencies (CBDCs) are leading a new phase on the increasing money digitalisation trend. However, unlike credit cards and other well established digital payment services and solutions, digital currencies bring new and complex challenges for the economies, including legal and regulatory implications. Private cryptocurrencies such as Bitcoin have impacted the financial system primarily as a speculative trading instrument. However, with the emergence of central bank digital currencies, the digital money has the potential to revolutionise the payment system, since their features can assure the stability needed for a transactional currency. In this context, tax administrations will be affected both on policy and operational aspects. In this article, we focus on the main aspects that can influence the use of cryptocurrencies and CBDCs as a payment method and investigate the consequences and possibilities of this application to the taxation processes.
    Keywords: central bank digital currency; CBDC; digital currencies; blockchain; taxation.
    DOI: 10.1504/EG.2025.10062902
     
  • Users’ perception towards e-governance adoption benefits: evidence from Indian corporate sector   Order a copy of this article
    by Amandeep Kaur  
    Abstract: Many developed and developing countries have embarked on an e-governance journey in the last decade with plethora of e-governance initiatives being launched every year. MCA21 (Ministry of Corporate Affairs) is one such e-governance initiative which strengthened the corporate governance practices and investor protection measures in India. The present study attempts to capture the perceptions of users about MCA21 e-governance initiative, in terms of various benefits derived in e-governance adoption. A structured questionnaire was used through which the responses of 150 users have been examined. The factor analysis technique has been used to identify the dimensions of e-governance benefits. Further, the users’ perceptions with the identified dimensions are also examined in terms of chosen demographic variables. The study is expected to be useful for practitioners to be aware about such dimensions to promote the acceptance of e-governance services.
    Keywords: e-governance; MCA21; users’ perception; Indian corporate sector.
    DOI: 10.1504/EG.2024.10063208
     
  • Acceptance and usability of e-governance services rendered by Indian Government: the Indian citizen perspective   Order a copy of this article
    by Archana Singh, Manisha Paliwal, Hoshiar Mal 
    Abstract: E-governance services rendered by central to local governments and citizens were the need of the hour during the pandemic (COVID 19). Citizens explored many e-governance services during the pandemic, making it easier for them to use various e-governance services. During COVID-19, the importance of e-governance initiatives for an ordinary person in our country has seen a paradigm shift in applicability and acceptance. The study examined the acceptance and usability of e-governance services offered by the Indian Government, particularly during the pandemic. The authors adapted an extended UMEGA model with five variables. The study also highlights the magnitude of citizens' trust for adopting e-governance services in times of crisis, ultimately leading the nation towards sustainable development. The study started with the problem identification through literature which eventually gave rise to the research questions. The researchers further adapted scales from previous research and collected data on the Likert scale using Google form.
    Keywords: e-governance; Indian citizen; UMEGA model; pandemic; effort expectancy; COVID-19; performance expectancy; website quality.
    DOI: 10.1504/EG.2024.10049774
     
  • Designing a blockchain-based citizen identification document authentication: the case of Addis Ababa city administration   Order a copy of this article
    by Tibebe Beshah, Yonas Engida 
    Abstract: In Ethiopia, social services are mostly dependent on Kebele identification number (KIN). Unfortunately, some serious concerns originate from the ineffective management of citizen profiles, which encourages the production of forged documents. Forging critical documents, such as KIN, results in a person having many IDs and contributes significantly to corruption. Thus, it is necessary to study viable methods for protecting IDs from counterfeiting. Blockchain technology can play a critical role in resolving the such problem. In this study, we created and built private blockchain-based citizen identity authentication system realised using hyperledger fabric on the IBM cloud environment. The proposed model is validated using mutual authentication, to ensure privacy, secrecy, and integrity. It is justified that the model is secure and that it is the best option for resolving the problem as all the actors in the proposed model are authenticated, authorised, and auditable as well as traceable.
    Keywords: blockchain; Kebele ID; authentication; Addis Ababa; Ethiopia; hyper-ledger; identity; Kebele identification number; KIN; social services; citizen.
    DOI: 10.1504/EG.2024.10049934
     
  • Assessing the status quo of e-government maturity in Namibia   Order a copy of this article
    by Carsten Rietmann, Victoria Hasheela-Mufeti 
    Abstract: This paper assesses the status quo of e-government maturity in Namibia. We employ Siau and Long's (2005) five-stage maturity model to investigate the research goal. All Namibian Government offices, ministries, and agencies (OMAs) are included in our analysis. We examine the websites of all these 35 organisations, and further take additional documents such as strategic plans into account. We find that most Namibian OMAs can be classified as currently belonging to intermediary stages of e-government maturity, with a few solely relying on web presence thus far. Features of all websites are described in the paper, and enriched with recommendations on advancing e-government in Namibia.
    Keywords: e-government; Namibia; digitalisation; public administration.
    DOI: 10.1504/EG.2024.10050752
     
  • Exploring determinants of M-government services for the Ministry of Housing: a study from the citizens' perspective in Oman   Order a copy of this article
    by Yahya Alwahaibi, Shamsul Arrieya Ariffin, Aslina Saad, Ramalingam Dharmalingam, Salem Garfan 
    Abstract: The Sultanate of Oman has implemented M-government to improve service delivery. It provides the Ministry of Housing with unique opportunities for real-time and customised access to government information and services. However, despite the Oman Government's best efforts, low citizen acceptance of M-government services is a common problem in Arab countries. Therefore, to increase the adoption rate, this paper investigates the factors influencing citizens' intentions to adopt and use M-government programs for the Ministry of Housing. The technology acceptance model (TAM) was utilised for this research. In addition, three considerations were added to the equation: experience, confidence, and time. Data was gathered, and 428 relevant responses were included in the final survey. All of the proposed factors in our TAM model were statistically important in affecting citizens' intention to embrace and use M-government services for the Ministry of Housing, according to the descriptive research provided in this paper.
    Keywords: mobile government; M-government; Sultanate of Oman; technology acceptance model; TAM; Ministry of Housing.
    DOI: 10.1504/EG.2024.10051879
     
  • Mapping the intellectual ecosystem of e-government and e-governance: a bibliometric approach   Order a copy of this article
    by Sudesh Sheoran, Sanket Vij 
    Abstract: The prolific and incessant growth in technology energises governments worldwide in reinforcing their operations and transactions with their citizens and other stakeholders through electronic government and electronic governance. Over the past two decades, there has been a massive volume of research in this field in technological and operations perspectives. This study carries out a comprehensive bibliometric analysis of literature on e-government and e-governance with the purpose of mapping the evolution of research in the field and generating an amalgamation of knowledge with prominent journals, influential authors and relevant articles. A wide range of tools, including citation analysis, thematic analysis, co-citation network and collaboration network, is used to study the cognitive structure and trend in the field and to explore the patterns and relationships among authors, journals, institutions and countries. The findings of the study could give a solid intellectual base and impart a deep insight for researchers in the field.
    Keywords: digital government; e-government; e-governance; e-participation; electronic government information; government transparency; information and communication technology; ICT; information systems; public administration; smart government.
    DOI: 10.1504/EG.2024.10051685