Electronic Government, an International Journal (58 papers in press)
Analyzing Information Policy Gap for Interagency Information Sharing: the Case of Indonesia
by Djoko Sigit Sayogo, Sri Budi Cantika Yuli, Firda Ayu Amalia, Agung Prasetyo Nugroho Wicaksono
Abstract: Technology-policy gap diminishes legal and policies vital role as the critical determinant of interagency information sharing. This study used a combination of content analysis of existing legal and policies and in-depth interviews with 15 public officials in the Regency of Bojonegoro to evaluate the sufficiency and roles of legal and policies to support interagency information sharing in Indonesia. Legal and policies are in place to govern data and information sharing that showcase their critical roles to support interagency information sharing. The findings indicate the government enacts legal policies supporting the sharing of data and information in Indonesia despite concentrating only on a limited number of issues. The number of legal and policies endorsing the stewardship is higher than those ensuring data and information usefulness. The findings further demonstrate the challenges concerning the sufficiency, depth, coverage, and synergy of existing policies supporting interagency information sharing.
Keywords: interagency information sharing; IIS; technology-policy gap; legal and policies; stewardship; usefulness; information policies.
Contemporary e-Government for Smart Tax Authorities
by Daniel Simon Schaebs
Abstract: This paper examines the term e-government and attempts to trace its development. Taking into account the challenges of the Tallinn Declaration, the Speyer definition of Lucke and Reinermann as well as the state-citizen-relationship described by Martini, the determinants of contemporary e-government and implementation of ICT in the tax office are presented in detail. An in-depth analysis of the state-of-the-art e-government services according to their suitability leads to the model of a smart tax authority. For this analysis, final application examples were shown for each individual departmental area. A further analysis about the bipolar requirements of citizen- and state-value was developed and revealed that most of the e-government services meet these requirements. By implementing the suggested ICT and services effectiveness and efficiency of the enforcement of tax laws can be increased, also mastering the bipolar challenges regarding citizen- and state-value.
Keywords: contemporary e-government; electronic government; smart tax authorities; tax administration; information and communication technologies; ICT; Germany.
Analyzing E-Government Maturity Models
by Omar Hujran, Ayman Alarabiat, Mohammed Alsuwaidi
Abstract: This paper aims at assessing the current e-government maturity models to identify their strengths and limitations. In so doing, a systematic literature review has been used to examine the existing e-government maturity models during the period 20002021. Our analysis indicates that despite the fact that e-government-maturity models provide potentially useful tools for e-government evaluation, there are significant differences across the existing e-government-maturity models in terms of the number of stages, what users can do at progressive stages and particular perspectives underscored at specific stages. However, the shift from stage-based maturity models to dimensional based maturity models is clearly observed. The new wave of e-government maturity models (2012 onward) sees e-government as a path for pursuing digital, resilience, equal, and inclusive societies rather than only as a mechanism to deliver e-services. Additionally, the existing e-government maturity models reached their possibilities to demonstrate the advanced maturity levels of e-government such as smart government.
Keywords: e-government; smart government; maturity models; maturity stages; e-services.
The E-government of eXtensible Business Reporting Language Adoption Process in Malaysia: Drivers and Challenges from Environmental Perspective
by Azleen Ilias, ERLANE K. GHANI, ZUBIR AZHAR
Abstract: This study aims to investigate drivers and challenges on the XBRL adoption from mimetic, normative and coercive pressures by four regulators in Malaysia. This multiple case study involved semi-structured interviews with 16 participants. The driving factor in the knowledge and persuasion process is success stories in the form of mimetic pressure. Besides, the driving factors are motivation of regulatory pressure in the form of coercive pressure, while incentive pressure in the form of normative pressure during decision making process. Lacks of effective XBRL committee are challenges in the form of normative pressure. During implementation, limited trading partners and critical mass are classified as coercive pressure. Then, too reliant on external support, limited pressure from professional bodies and stakeholders and government support are challenges the XBRL adoption. This study shows that regulators should possess understanding about external factors and their influence on the decision to adopt XBRL.
Keywords: adoption process; eXtensible business reporting language; XBRL; mimetic; normative; coercive; regulators; Malaysia.
Who Watches the Watchers? Accessibility of the Public Prosecutor's Offices Websites in Brazil and Implications for E-government Accessibility Surveillance Policies
by Monique S. S. Siqueira, Felipe S. Dias, Silvia H. Rigatto, Michael C. N. Carvalho, Thiago A. M. Marques, André P. Freire
Abstract: Ensuring accessibility to governmental services is an essential issue to disabled people, especially to services such as the public prosecutors office, in charge of surveillance of other governmental entities. This study investigated whether public prosecutors websites are following web accessibility guidelines. The authors evaluated the websites of each of the 27 states of Brazil using the Web Content Accessibility Guidelines 2.0. The results indicated that the websites violated between 16 and 33 different success criteria out of 61 criteria. The results can help the agencies improve their accessibility and show the need to build the capability to perform technical analysis of the adherence to accessibility guidelines of governmental and private websites bounded by Brazilian legislation. By enhancing surveillance, e-government services could reach better accessibility levels and increase awareness about legal requirements.
Keywords: accessibility; Brazilian Government; public prosecutors office; accessibility surveillance; digital accessibility policy; web accessibility evaluation; disabled people; Brazil.
Improving information quality in E-Government of Ukraine
by Igor Oliychenko, Maryna Ditkovska
Abstract: Current research in the field of e-government does not take into account the growing problem of the quality of documents in public administration bodies. Recent works on information quality focus on solving technological problems of information support of public administration. However, increasing the efficiency and information systems effectiveness does not ensure the producing high-quality information in terms of its content. Therefore, the problem of information quality, when the main focus is on organisational issues and staff qualifications, is not sufficiently investigated. This paper developed a hierarchical framework for assessing information quality, conducted a study of the quality of documents in public administration authorities and identified the main characteristics of information from the point of view of the management process. The results of the study provide an opportunity to identify the main ways to improve the quality of information used in public administration.
Keywords: information quality; e-government; quality of documents; hierarchical framework; public administration; quality indicators; Ukraine.
Allowing Privacy-Preserving Fog Computing with Digital Identity Assurance in Remote Clinical Services
by Francesco Buccafurri, Gianluca Lax, Antonia Russo
Abstract: Nowadays, there is an increasing demand for cloud-based remote clinical services, both for diagnosis and monitoring. The COVID-19 pandemic has dramatically amplified this need. E-government programs should quickly go towards the expansion of this type of services, also to avoid that people (especially elderly) renounce treatment or adequate healthcare. However, to be effective, latency between IoT medical devices and the cloud should be reduced as much as possible. For this reason, fog computing appears the best approach, as part of the elaboration is moved closer to the user. However, some privacy threats arise. Indeed, these services can be delivered only based on secure digital identity and authentication systems, but the intermediate fog layer should learn nothing about the identity of users and the link among different service requests. In this paper, we propose a concrete solution to the above issue by leveraging eIDAS-compliant digital identity and by including a cryptographic protocol to provide anonymity and unlinkability of users access to fog servers.
Keywords: e-health; eIDAS; remote patient monitoring; unlinkability.
Rethinking Real Property Assessment and Tax Management System through an Interoperable e-Government Framework
by Challiz Omorog, Noel Paguio, Niño Jeffrey Luzon
Abstract: Real property taxation is the major revenue source of local government units (LGUs). However, studies in local finance reported a poor revenue performance on real property collection encumbered by systematic problems, such as outdated valuation standards, lengthy process, and the absence of centralised electronic database. The difficulties identified are addressed in this paper by redesigning the process through an interoperable real property assessment and tax management system (RPaTS) categorised into three modules. The development of RPaTS adapted the project methodology of Princeton University, and was submitted for software quality evaluation using quantitative methods based on ISO 9126 metrics. The evaluation results show that RPaTS optimised the process by almost 200% or shorten the processing time for a single transaction from 95 to 30 minutes. The respondents also commended its automation feature particularly in updating the schedule of market values (SMV). Overall, end-users gave an average 4.42 Likert score rating.
Keywords: real property assessment and tax management system; local government unit; electronic government; dynamic web programming; interoperability.
Realization of Low-Voltage Low-Power OTA using Bulk Driven Technique and RLC Band Pass Filter
by Karima Garradhi, Nejib Hassen
Abstract: In this paper, a new circuit operational transconductance amplifier OTA circuit using a bulk-driven technique is presented. Based on this technique, the proposed OTA showed a high DC gain of 39.89 dB with a unity gain frequency at 9 MHz. This circuit is operated at low-voltage of ±0.4 V with a reduced power consumption of 16 µW. The post-layout simulation (PLS) results of the proposed OTA showed a wide dynamic range and it occupies a small effective area of 18.47 µm × 35.91 µm. Based on the proposed OTA, RLC band-pass filter is implemented. It is composed by one floating inductor, one grounded resistance and one grounded capacitor. All simulations are performed by Cadence technology CMOS 0.18 µm.
Keywords: low-voltage low-power; operational transconductance amplifier; OTA; dynamic range; bulk-driven; Cadence; RLC filter.
A Framework for eGovernment Project Success: An Exploratory Study using Systematic Literature Review and Empirical Investigation
by Hasna Arshad, Sohail Asghar, Muhammad Asim Noor
Abstract: The paper addresses various eGovernment challenges in developing countries. A review of the literature on eGovernment challenges and their validation using empirical investigation is presented, and a number of research gaps and future directions are identified. The purpose of this study is to provide a framework for future researchers and practitioners. We present a significant conceptual framework for eGovernment project success, integrating theoretical and the practical domains. The framework incorporates antecedents, postcedents and the outcome. Five antecedents are organisational, managerial, operational and environmental, technical and social aspects; encompassing 21 critical factors. The two postcedents are improved service and the customer satisfaction, and the outcome of eGovernment is its success and the competitive edge. Additionally, research gaps and vital eGovernment subjects are identified. This study provides a valuable discussion on major eGovernment challenges and provides a conceptual framework for implementing the project successfully, along with several suggestions for future eGovernment research.
Keywords: barrier; challenge; developing country; eGovernment; eGov; public sector; implementation.
A novel model to improve mobile commerce acceptance based on TAM in Iran
by Taghi Javdani Gandomani, Sheida Shirian, Hadi Khosravi
Abstract: Along with traditional commerce, a new of commerce has been emerged called e-commerce which has influenced on the trade rules from different aspects. Mobile commerce is a special kind of wireless e-commerce that expands increasingly regarding spread of wireless communication technologies. Correct understanding of providers will be certain and important in facing technology of the mobile commerce. There are many general models for accepting technology in different domains depending on information technology development which technology acceptance model (TAM) is one of the most popular models. The present study focuses on offering technology acceptance model of mobile commerce in Iran (regarding the above-mentioned limitation). Therefore, some new factors like trust, training, income, experience and so on, have been added to this model by considering factors of primary model of technology acceptance and using standard questionnaire of Davis and colleagues. Then, the proposed model was analysed and shows its good acceptance.
Keywords: electronic-commerce; mobile commerce; technology acceptance model; TAM; mobile commerce; Iran.
Adoption of i-Voting Infrastructure: Addressing Network-level Cybersecurity Breaches
by Wilson Nwankwo, Paschal Chinedu, FlorenceU. Masajuwa, Simon Imoisi, ChristianC. Njoku
Abstract: Internet voting (i-voting), a form of e-voting, may emerge a potential substitute for traditional ballot-based systems. This paper addresses potential cybersecurity concerns using the sociotechnical approach and emphasised on the careful design of secure network components on which the deployment of i-voting platform thrives. Prior to such design, the various threats and cyber-attacks contemplated in an i-voting network infrastructure were categorised in line with the three major network abstractions, i.e., the core, distribution, and access levels. Configurations to mitigate network-level security issues were integrated into a network model constructed (using the eNSP tool) to support an i-voting application designed with the ASP.Net core framework. The system provided a platform to conduct penetration testing to expose any inherent security leaks in the i-voting network. From the unsuccessful penetration tests, we conclude that with appropriate cybersecurity strategy implemented, cyber-resilience and trust might be assured in an i-voting infrastructure. The implication would be a substantial cut in the expenditure during elections as well as entrenchment of public trust.
Keywords: electronic voting; internet voting; i-voting; e-voting; cyber-attacks; cyber resilience; voting systems.
Predicting intention to implement e-government of development planning using the theory of planned behavior and organizational transformation
by Ulung Pribadi
Abstract: This study examined the theory of planned behaviour and the organisational transformation to predict the intention to implement e-government by government employees in Yogyakarta Special Region, Indonesia. This study used a survey data collection method with 511 respondents for employees in five local governments. Questionnaires were generated using a Likert scale. SEM-PLS analysed data to determine validity and reliability, as well as to test hypothesis and regression. This study found that attitude and perceived behavioural control had a positive and significant effect on the intention to implement e-planning with p-values of 0.001 and 0.000, respectively. Likewise, organisational structure and process positively and significantly impacted attitude with p-values of 0.026 and 0.017, respectively. The influence of organisational structure, culture, and processes towards attitude was strong (R-square = 0.680). The limitation and implications of these findings are discussed in conclusion.
Keywords: e-government; e-planning; organisational transformation; government employees; Indonesia.
Design of Government-Citizen Participation Model for Sustainable eGovernment Ecosystem- Indian Context
by Jyoti Yadav, Anil K. Saini, Amit Kumar Yadav
Abstract: Sustainability of eGovernment projects in developing countries is being considered as a new parameter for development across the world. Though strategic guidance is available from various agencies to overcome its associated challenges and have its smooth implementation, however, as evident from literature there hasnt been much success stories for developing countries. The study conducted in this paper has made an attempt in collating the pivotal role stakeholders play in sustainability of eGovenment projects. Since most of eGovernment projects these days are being operationalised in PPP mode, the determinants are considered in such a way that it gives significant inputs for both set of employees. The case studies of two eGovernment Projects, along with dataset for 600 users have been included as part of paper. The conceptual model prepared can be used to construct quantitative simulation tools which can then be used by policy makers, during various stages of eGovernment projects.
Keywords: conceptual data modelling; eGovernment; sustainability; citizens; employees; sustainability; government citizen participation; GCP; public private partnership.
Social media adoption and reach by Ecuadorian local governments: An empirical study
by Gonçalo Paiva Dias, Mariuxi Bruzza, Manuel Tupia
Abstract: In this article, we present an empirical study about adoption and reach of Facebook, Twitter, and YouTube by Ecuadorian municipal governments. Data was collected from 55 social media profiles of municipal authorities in three provinces, representing 25% of all Ecuadorian cantons and 54% of the population. Determinants of adoption and reach were investigated by resorting to correlation, regression, and means comparison studies. We conclude that population size is a good predictor of reach in social media, but it is not relevant to explain early adoption. This may be the consequence of social media technology being inexpensive and simple to adopt, thus being accessible to any local authority, while making good use of it has more financial and administrative burdens and, consequently, is associated with bigger local authorities. Also, adoption may have been centrally driven and programmatically motivated, which would also explain the lesser relevance of population size for early adoption.
Keywords: e-government; social media; local government; Ecuador; e-participation; diffusion of innovation; DoI; adoption; Facebook; Twitter; YouTube.
Can Auditors Attributes and Organisational Resources influence Information Technology Audit Quality in the Public Sector
by Erlane K. Ghani, Siti Murni Abdol Jahim
Abstract: This study examines the effect of auditors attributes and organisational resources on information technology (IT) audit quality in a public sector organisation. Specifically, this study examines the auditors attributes in terms of their independence, accounting and audit knowledge and skills, IT competency and business process knowledge during IT audit. This study also examines the effect of organisational resources on IT audit quality. Using questionnaire survey on 88 public sector officers, this study shows a significant positive effect between auditors attributes and organisational resources. The findings in this study implicate that it is imperative for the public sector organisation to identify the factors that can affect the IT audit quality in order to enhance the effectiveness and efficiency of auditing in the public sector. These findings can also be useful for the public sector organisation as part of their quality control program and help to improve IT audit quality.
Keywords: information technology; audit quality; auditors attributes; organisational resources; public sector.
The Journey from eGovernment to Digital Transformation: The case of Saudi Arabia
by Sotirios Zygiaris, Bassem E. Maamari
Abstract: The e-government implementation process in the world is at various stages with some countries having a pronounced success. The governments with a greater degree of success are subject to the second stage of evolution known as digital government. In the digital government stage, organisations carry on internal service improvement in an attempt to change cultural impulses. The purpose of this study is to analyse the transition process from e-government to digital government in Saudi Arabia. We aim to identify the factors that would enable this transition. The findings of our study illustrate that in the journey from e-government to digital government there are four important enabling factors, namely technology adequacy, organisational change, open government and social inclusive government. The study provides a researchers view of the factors that will lead a digital transformation process in government to incorporate internal socio-technical physiognomies that will promote a responsive, proactive, open and social government.
Keywords: electronic government; digital government; open government; social inclusive government; transition process; structural equation modelling; SEM; Saudi Arabia.
Assessing the Impact of e-Government Systems from Citizens Perspective: Evidence from Ghana
by Acheampong Owusu
Abstract: This study developed a research model using the updated Delone and Mclean IS success model to examine the impact of e-government systems on the service delivery of government services to the citizenry. The study used a quantitative technique with a survey method and collected primary data of 421 respondents which were examined empirically using the partial least squares structural equation modelling (PLS-SEM). The findings indicate that except for e-government information quality and e-government service quality which did not have a significant influence on system use, all the other hypothesised relationships were supported. This study has therefore provided us with empirical evidence which confirms that implementing e-government systems in a developing country can also bring the required benefits. Regarding policy and practice, government agencies implementing the e-government initiatives must address the issues of the information quality and service quality that were not found to be supported.
Keywords: e-government; e-government systems; citizens; Delone and Mclean IS success model; Ghana.
A Secure and Efficient of Ethereum Blockchain Advancement in Public Distribution System with Decentralized MongoDB
by Devi Parameswari C, Ilayaraja M
Abstract: A countrys public distribution system (PDS) is crucial to eradicating poverty and ensuring food security. To evaluate the viability of adopting blockchain to remove inefficiencies and provide confidence in the framework, this study presented a blockchain with mongoDB. This paper proposes a comprehensive web-based system with the majority of the features and functions required to manage all forms of interactions between the central government, state governments, district offices, ration shops, and customers. As a result, all transactions are recorded in the blockchain network that connects the various components. It looks into the feasibility of implementing the proposed concept as a blockchain using Ethereum and a decentralised database (MongoDB). The usage of the blockchain system to assure confidentiality is one of the most notable features of this proposed work.
Keywords: blockchain technology; public distribution system; PDS; smart contracts; solidity; Ethereum; MongoDB; transaction; execution cost.
Access and Equity in a Technological World: An Assessment of National Government Websites
by Tony Carrizales, James Melitski
Abstract: This study seeks to inform the discussion of digital government and assess the equity of national websites through language accessibility. The research examines national government website language features to evaluate the accessibility and overall equity of digital government. A review of 193 United Nations member countries national websites is conducted and shows the diversity in language delivery options throughout the world. The research examines the characteristics of each country along with its democratic values and e-government capacity. The findings show that some nations excel in providing extensive language options while others do not, underscoring the importance of upholding equality and accessibility in a technological world. In addition, the analysis indicates that countries with stronger democratic values and greater e-government capacity are more likely to have multilingual websites.
Keywords: e-government; technology; websites; equity; language.
Perspectives and Challenges of Common Service Centres towards E-Governance
by Sanjay Thakur, Lekh Raj, Jitender Tiwari, Kokila Negi
Abstract: Common service centres (CSC) run by village level entrepreneurs (VLEs) are expected to contribute significantly towards e-governance by providing government services. Even after 12 years of their inception rural people are not much aware about facilities in these centres vis-a-vis VLEs running them are still facing a lot of challenges. The study conducted in the year 2019 to 2020 by conducting a survey of 200 respondents in rural areas supported by both qualitative and quantitative data. The present study is aimed to investigate the reasons for poor performance of CSC. Challenges and problems faced by VLEs running them. The study contributes towards interdisciplinary study of digital initiatives to serve rural, semi urban population in India and challenges of micro entrepreneurship.
Keywords: electric governance; common service centres; CSC; village level entrepreneur; VLE.
Assessing SADC e-government maturity through the lens of its cities
by Vusumuzi Maphosa, Mfowabo Maphosa
Abstract: Efforts to integrate information and communication technologies (ICTs) by municipalities in developing countries to improve access to information, service delivery, promote citizen participation and engagement is worth pursuing. This research sought to evaluate 41 Southern African Development Community (SADC) cities websites to determine the e-government level each municipality had attained regarding information flow, transactional processing, and website usability. During a two-month observation period of the selected 41 cities, eight cities did not have websites, 11 were not available, leaving 22 websites for evaluation. The evaluation was based on a heuristic assessment matrix we developed based on information maturity level and usability. The results revealed that most municipality websites excelled in one-way information flow and two-way interaction while lacking advanced levels. Overall, cities in South Africa ranked highly in terms of evaluations. The results appeal to governments to develop policies that stimulate e-government initiatives.
Keywords: e-government; e-services; service maturity levels; usability; website evaluation.
An Analytical Study of the Factors Influencing Trust in Kuwait E-Government
by Zainab Aljazzaf
Abstract: The internet has an impact on every aspect of modern life, such as education and government. E-government is an approach to use the web to convey government data and administrations to people. This research studied the intention of people towards trusting e-government in Kuwait. Specifically, e-government in Kuwait is still developing and there is insufficient studies conducted about trust in e-government. Specifically, this paper studied the trust factors that may have an influence towards trust in Kuwait e-government. Accordingly, a questionnaire is designed to test the trust factors and its outcome is analysed. The analysed data revealed that different factors, such as perceived usefulness, security, quality, and social influence determine peoples intention to trust Kuwait e-government. In addition, the study provides a comparative study between this study and other studies in the literature to highlight the main trust factors and to identify possible future research in the area.
Keywords: trust; e-government; trust factor; Kuwait.
An empirical investigation into organization cyber security readiness from the IT employee and manager perspectives
by Zainab AlMeraj, Ali AlEnezi, Paul Manuel
Abstract: The rise of the internet has led to an increase in cyber security threats targeting government, private sectors, citizens and data. Due to rapid advances in technologies, cyber security has become a national priority. However, without national level enforced policies, organisations are left to put in place their own cyber security strategies. These practices limit measuring state of the art and compel an understanding of cyber security readiness. As a first step this research investigates readiness from the perspectives of IT experts and studies the relationship between five cyber security readiness factors: employee expertise, awareness, organisation investment, compliance with standards and risk assessment. The results of this work show that expertise, compliance with standards and risk assessment have significant effect on perceived organisation cyber security readiness. In addition, the findings show that expertise is highly affected by investment which is also highly affected by awareness.
Keywords: cyber security readiness; IT; Kuwait; expertise; awareness; investment; risk assessment; compliance; survey; path validation.
e-Governance through social media: An Analysis on the use of Facebook and Twitter by Indian Government
by Anita Saroj, Sukomal Pal
Abstract: The study explores the adoption of social media (SM) by 46 ministries of the Government of India. This trend is new in India but steadily increasing. We analyse how government ministries use SM, particularly Twitter and Facebook, to disseminate information, engage with stakeholders and take feedback on government initiatives. The study, based on three years of SM data analysis, captures activities, discussion topics, inter-connectedness, public engagement, and popularity of GoI ministries. Among eight different SM channels that GoI ministries use, Twitter and Facebook are the most common and popular ones. Primary topics of discussion are meetings and projects like Prime Ministers (PM) projects, railways projects, GST, and different development schemes. The Ministry of Railways and the Ministry of Agriculture post maximum in SM, but the PMs account is followed by the most. The Ministry of Information and Broadcasting serves as a coordinator with a good hub, authority, and PageRank score.
Keywords: social media; e-governance; citizen; Twitter; Facebook; tweets; hub; authority; latent Dirichlet allocation; LDA.
An Owner Estimate Cost Model: Testing for Medium Software Projects
by Sholiq Sholiq, Ragesa Mario Junior, Apol Subriadi
Abstract: One of the most crucial factors for software project managers is determining the projects cost before the project is executed. Likewise, for clients, the price offered to third parties should neither be too high nor too low. Therefore, they need a method or model to determine the correct cost or price for a software project. In a previous study, we have proposed an owner estimate cost (OEC) model for a software project on which small scale. The model has had three parts: personnel direct cost (PDC), non-personnel direct cost (NPDC), and taxes. The PDC was obtained by applying the use case points (UCP) method that has been developed. Originally, UCP was a method of calculating effort for software projects. In this study, we tested the model using a medium-scale software project to know the consistency of the model. The test results show that the model tested is acceptable.
Keywords: cost estimation; use case point; UCP; owner estimate cost; OEC; software project; software cost.
E-Readiness Assessment for Public e-Services in Morocco
by Hanane Benaddi, Yaâcoub Hanad, Mohamed Askour, Elkettani Elyoussefi
Abstract: E-government concept is not limited to introduce ICT techniques into public organisations, but it has several facets like conceptions, strategies and knowledge to restructure and strengthen relationship between government and citizens. The aim of this paper is to check whether public e-services in Morocco are adopting ICT activities in efficient manner, to identify their maturity level and assess their e-readiness index. Conducted by the Ministry of Administration and Public service reform, the main goal of this study is to examine the effective factors that impact the e-readiness of national public e-services, and determine obstacles that prevent public administration development. The finding of the study will guide the government to improve the delivery of public e-services, thereby increasing the adoption of ICT in e-government programs.
Keywords: e-government; maturity model; e-readiness; public e-service; Morocco.
Trust as a Leveraging Factor for Civic Engagement
by Suha AlAwadhi
Abstract: This paper aims to investigate trust as a critical factor that increases e-government information and services usage that lead to civic engagement in a developing country. The study developed a theoretical framework that hypothesises several relationships between the trust in government, trust in technology, perceived usefulness, trust in e-government, the intention to use e-government and civic engagement. More than 500 individuals are eligible to use e-government services in Kuwait participated in the survey. The results supported the majority of the relationships to confirm the role of trust in the use of e-government services. The study provides theoretical contributions as well as practical implications for researchers and practitioners working on the improvement of e-government projects to increase their adoption and use.
Keywords: e-government; electronic government; trust; civic engagement; adoption; e-government information and services; e-government use; trust in government; trust in technology.
Towards a based-Agents and Web Services Framework for Managing Algerian E-Government Applications
by Mahmoud BRAHIMI
Abstract: Despite the efforts and investments made by Algerias government, many of the government services provided online are still deemed immature. Algerias e-government initiatives have been criticised for being fragmented and weak in coordination and information sharing. As a result, citizen participation remains low, and government electronic services appear inefficient. In order to increase efficiency and homogeneity between these diverse projects, we offer a framework for managing e-government apps by unifying the multiple digitisation efforts by using the same standards and citizen information. The framework is built around the coupling of agents and web services. This combination allows for the reinforcement of e-government systems that are characterised by their scalability and complexity. The proposed framework provides a generic and structural solution for launching and managing e-government initiatives. Furthermore, it enables interaction across multiple projects and provides users with the necessary assistance and direction.
Keywords: e-government; framework; agents; web services; ontologies; FIPA-ACL; Algeria.
Inhibiting and Enabling Factors Influencing Employees Adoption of E-government: Prioritization Using Analytic Hierarchy Process
by Kriti Priya Gupta, Preeti Bhaskar, Priyanka Bhaskar
Abstract: In India, the NeGP was approved in the year 2006 by Union Cabinet and a total of 44 mission mode projects were initiated at various phases. At present, out of 44, only 15 are delivering full services and others are delivering services partially or either in the implementation, design and development phase. Thus, it is clear that from 2006 till present, e-government projects are implementing at a very slow pace. Many researchers claimed that the primary reason for this slow growth is that e-government was not adopted by the employees. In this paper, various factors have been investigated and prioritised which inhibit and enable employees e-government adoption. The findings reveal that among the four main inhibiting factors; institutional barriers secure the highest ranking followed by personal barriers, technical barriers and operational barriers. Similarly, among the three main enabling factors, organisational support secure highest rank, followed by auxiliary services and government support.
Keywords: inhibiting factors; enabling factors; employees; e-government adoption; analytic hierarchy process; AHP; India.
Readiness and Acceptability for Use of E-Government Services in Kuwait: A Case Study
by Eiman Tamah Al-Shammari
Abstract: The purpose of electronic government is to promote transparency and public participation in government operations and processes. However, in order to be considered successful, e-government must match the needs and satisfaction of the citizen or user. Identifying the level of user satisfaction can help to figure out the systems strengths and weaknesses. The purpose of this study is to determine the primary elements that influence user satisfaction when using the Kuwait e-government portal. It is based on a survey of relevant literature, using the extended technology acceptance model to validate the research model. Although 298 people submitted the surveys, only 277 responses were complete and useful for analysis. The study results show that users higher perception of usefulness, ease of use, quality, and trust of e-government services directly impact their readiness to accept e-government services in Kuwait.
Keywords: e-government; electronic government; trust; perceived ease of use; PEOU; perceived usefulness; technology acceptance model; TAM; Kuwait.
Specifics of project management in modern conditions of digital transformation of the economy
by Askar B. Sembin, Leila A. Tussupova, Irina V. Selezneva, Marina V. Shtiller, Madina S. Tulegenova
Abstract: The current stage of modernisation of production can provide a significant impetus for economic growth and is a priority for governments and business leaders. Therefore, it is important to study project management strategies in the context of digital transformation in order to implement them in the enterprises of Kazakhstan. The purpose of the paper is to investigate the features and specifics of project management in modern conditions and search for methods of adaptation to a changing space and new technologies. The leading research method was the analysis of global and Kazakhstani trends in the field of project management. As a result of the study, the features of project management for creating a platform for the implementation of the Industry 4.0 were identified. The authors concluded that the knowledge intensive business services need a deep understanding of user preferences and needs. They must skilfully link and monetise a lot of data.
Keywords: Industry 4.0; innovations; modern technologies; enterprise modernisation; management.
Optimization of information and communication system of local government
by Oleg A. Diegtiar, Tetyana A. Kravchenko, Olena L. Yevmieshkina, Tetiana V. Sych, Yana M. Linetska
Abstract: The article is devoted to the study of innovative methods of optimising the information and communication system of the local government of Ukraine in the changing conditions of nowadays. The authors definition of the category public service is given. It was found that effective servicing of the needs of civil society and economic entities is impossible without the involvement of information systems and technologies and requires the implementation of systematic information support for the management and service activities of local self-government bodies. An innovative information and communication system has been formed to ensure the activities of local self-government bodies in the provision of public services. The working subsystems of the developed system have been investigated and ways of their improvement and innovation in the prospects of their development have been proposed.
Keywords: public service; civil society; municipal administration; socio-economic development; regional authorities.
From open government to open government data: a bibliometric view
by Vanessa Oliveira, Paulo Pinheiro, Nelson Pinto
Abstract: Many countries have promoted open government initiatives for greater transparency, inclusiveness, responsiveness, and effectiveness, leading many researchers to expand their research to different areas over the last decade. This requires a systematic review of the literature to determine the detailed status of open government research. This study takes a bibliometric perspective to identify 560 publications from the Web of Science and Scopus databases published between 1977 and 2021. The results reveal that current research focuses on open government data, digital government, and civic engagement, and that the scientific knowledge base is formed by studies centred on open government data. This study provides a comprehensive overview of the scientific literature on open government to serve as a guide for researchers who wish to understand the intellectual and social structure of this field of research.
Keywords: bibliometric; open government; open government data; public sector; digital government.
Information support of institutions activities in the context of e-governance implementation
by Liubov I. Demchyna, Tetiana D. Hantsiuk, Liliia Yu. Burkivska, Svitlana M. Hryhorash, Oksana V. Laba
Abstract: The current state of development of society and government institutions in the field of information space use directly affects socio-political stability in state administration. The purpose of writing this paper is to study the level of information support for the activities of institutions, which is due to the introduction of e-governance and its improvement for a full-fledged functioning of state authorities. For this scientific work, the methods of logical analysis, the method of content analysis, the method of comparative analysis, the method of deduction, the method of analysis of scientific literature, as well as the economic and statistical method of analysis were used. The result of this study is the developing and implementing methods that will speed up and make more efficient the process of information support for institutions, improve the skills of civil servants in the field of information technology.
Keywords: digitalisation; digital economy; state apparatus; administrative services; document management.
Digitalisation as a tool of public administration (on the example of Tyumen)
by Daria A. Kostyreva, Anastasia Yu. Kretova, Boris M. Likhtenshtein
Abstract: The relevance of the study is conditioned by the prospects for interaction of executive power structures of regions and municipalities with the population by informing and receiving feedback. The purpose of the study is a detailed comprehensive systematic analysis and investigation of the problems of using forms, tools, and means of informatisation and digitalisation of the administration system, both in Russia as a whole and in a single region (Tyumen Oblast and the capital centre Tyumen). The results were obtained by means of the theoretical and methodological analysis of research papers devoted to the problems and issues of digitalisation of public administration structures, informatisation and technologisation of the entire administration system in various countries. This study allowed identifying the main problems associated with the processes of digitalisation of administrative tools in the activities of public authorities and affecting the overall state policy in the country.
Keywords: executive bodies; municipal policy; technologisation of administrative processes; global network; electronic state services.
Social Media Use for Public Policy Making Cycle A Meta-Analysis
by Achmad Nurmandi, Herpita Wahyuni, María-Dolores Guillamón, Salahudin Salahudin, Isnaini Muallidin
Abstract: This study aims to determine the role of social media in policymaking by reviewing journals from 2010 to 2020. This study is a meta-model for the role of social media in policymaking. The method combines the method with data from various data sources, including published documents. Vosviewer and Words were used to examine patterns of relationships or clusters in analysed journals. The data obtained from Scopus helps discuss findings and draw conclusions. The results of the study indicate that social media has a significant influence on public policymaking and governance through: 1) data acquisition and pre-processing; 2) the opinion tracking component addresses hot topics as well as the selection and tracking of sensitive issues; 3) the distributed processing component performs fast processing of data access; 4) public opinion analysis component; 5) public opinion measurement component. This study only compares the results of an analysis of scientific developments in social media and government policies. Future research should examine approaches to making reliable policies and promoting transparency through social media. This study encourages the use of social media as an alternative approach in the policy cycle.
Keywords: social media; policy making; government; literature review; participation.
Critical path-dependencies affecting digital government innovation in low-income countries: a case study from Woredas in Ethiopia
by Debas Senshaw, Hossana Twinomurinzi
Abstract: The paper aims to identify the path dependencies around existing government digital platforms. The study adopted a qualitative case study strategy using three Woredas (government administrative districts) in Ethiopia around their digital innovation of the WoredaNet (government digital platform). The path dependencies that significantly stifle digital innovation are mainly psychosocial and micro-political, technophobia, fear-based learning barriers and power conflicts which have developed into daily working processes. Another key finding is that a governance model where power is centralised does limit local digital innovation. The research provides insights for policymakers and officials to overcome critical path dependencies that limit digital innovation in government. This paper contributes to the ongoing discourse on how to implement government digital platforms in low-income countries through non-technical solutions but by scrutinising and examining social and political factors as well.
Keywords: government digital platforms; WoredaNet; digital innovation; path dependency; Ethiopia.
Why does Effort Expectancy have not a Significant Effect on the Utilization of E-Report in Sleman Regency
by Muhammad Iqbal, Ulung Pribadi
Abstract: The application of e-government in Sleman Regency is an online complaint service. This study will analyse the factors that influence the public to use the e-report media. This research uses quantitative research methods. The number of research respondents was 370 respondents and processed using SmartPLS 3.0 Software. The findings of this study are that only variable effort expectancy does not have a significant influence on attitudes to use e-report applications. This is because the user considers usability more important than ease of use. They are resulting in effort expectations are not too seen as a factor supporting the adoption of new technologies. The need for online channels to submit complaints online in the digital age is considered important for the effective and efficient community to get excellent service. In addition, all research variables have been shown to have a significant influence on the use of the e-report media.
Keywords: e-government; electronic government; e-report; electronic report; Sleman Regency.
The Effects of Mobile Network Performance and Affordability on E-Government Development.
by Ibrahim Osman Adam, Muftawu Dzang Alhassan
Abstract: The increasing growth and use of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) have enabled governments around the world to rely on electronic means to enhance participatory citizenship and governance. Despite the dominance of literature in e-government development research, very few studies have examined the role of mobile technology penetration on e-government development in general and the effects of mobile network performance and mobile phone affordability. This study explores e-government development at the global level by examining the effects of mobile network performance, mobile phone affordability and a countrys regulatory environment. We relied on a model based on the technology-organization-environment framework and data from 106 countries analyzed using partial least squares-structural equation modelling (PLS-SEM). Our findings show that mobile network performance and mobile phone affordability are critical facilitators of e-government development. However, the moderating role of the regulatory environment was not supported. Implications are discussed.
Keywords: Mobile network performance; Mobile affordability; E-government development; technology-organization-environment framework; PLS-SEM.
Public opinion analysis in pandemic management: an evolutionary game theory perspective
by Yaying Zhou, Yanhuai Lang, Kevin Lu
Abstract: The ways the government releases information to the general public through social media is an important method of communication. Currently, such communication plays a crucial role in pandemic control and management due to the popularity of social media, and in fact, it has become an integral part of daily life. This study examines the issues related to public opinion management during a pandemic. To achieve this, it applies evolutionary game theory to analyse the factors in the information that affect public opinion in a pandemic, in particular, using payoff matrices for modelling the likely outcomes from different situation management strategies. Social media has gradually become a key platform for opinion sharing and exchange during a pandemic, so it is necessary to understand the multi-players of government, social media, and the general public in this process as well as paying attention to the strategic choices of those multi-players and their impact on public opinion. This study has developed a tripartite behaviour evolutionary game model of three players, namely, the government, social media, and the general public, and has constructed the replicator dynamic equation. The equilibrium point has been examined, and its stability has been analysed. Simulation-based evaluations have been conducted.
Keywords: opinion; evolutionary game theory; strategic choices.
A Comparative Analysis of Social Media Usage: The Case of Social Media Use by USA and Brazilian capital cities
by Lazar Rakovic, Stojanka Dakic
Abstract: Social media has completely transformed the way people communicate in every sphere of life. A comparative analysis is conducted in the paper, covering the capitals of the USA and Brazil. The aim of the research was to find out if the USA and Brazil capitals have accounts on social networks, which social networks they are using, whether links to those social networks are at the top or bottom of the official website home pages of the cities involved, and whether they use social networks for promotion and/or communication with citizens. The analysis includes 78 capital cities, 51 in the USA and 27 in Brazil. The research results showed that bodies competent for social systems in the states covered by the analysis, recognise the importance of social networks in the modern world of communication.
Keywords: social networks; comparative analysis; USA; Brazil.
Moderating Role of Government Policy on Electronic Government Adoption Among Algerian Petroleum Companies
by Mohammed Soufiane Benmoussa, Marhaiza Ibrahim, Cindy Augustie
Abstract: E-government is a global trend that accelerates across countries, which affiliates firms internal and external connections and transactions, resulting in firms transparency and efficiency. However, interoperability within organisations is limited and ineffective in developing countries like Algeria. Thus, the current study examines the factors influencing e-government adoption using the DOI and TOE frameworks, which encompasses IT infrastructure, security, top management support, organisational culture, awareness, and training. This research also examines the role of government policy as the moderating effect between the interrelationships. Stratified sampling was used to test the hypotheses. The data were collected through a survey from 170 top management executives of petroleum companies in four regions of Algeria (South, North, West, and East). SPSS version 26.0 and PLS-SEM 3.3.3 were used to analyse the data. The findings indicated that only IT infrastructure and top management support influencing e-government adoption. Only security and training were moderated by government policy, whereas awareness was negatively moderated. The findings of this study will assist researchers, policymakers, and Algerian petroleum companies to priorities in improving IT infrastructure and top management support to enhance the e-government adoption in Algeria.
Keywords: DOI; TOE factors; e-government adoption; Algeria; petroleum companies.
Understanding the E-government Adoption Behaviour in Developing Country: A Case of Bangladesh
by Jakia Sultana, Md Golam Kibria, Say Yen Teoh
Abstract: This study examines the factors that stimulate developing country citizens E-government adoption behaviour. The UTAUT model was adopted along with technology anxiety (TA) as an extended construct. Based on the quantitative research method, a total of 297 survey data was collected to perform data analysis through Structural equation modelling (SEM). This study reveals that variables like - performance expectancy (PE), effort expectancy (EE), social influence (SI) and facilitating conditions (FC) were positively related to behavioural intention (BI) to use e-government services (E-govS). Additionally, TA was a negative predictor of BI. In implication, this study enriches the understanding of influencing factors behind the uses of E-GovS in Bangladesh. Additionally, the stimulus factors identified in this study will benefit the government and other relevant policymakers of developing countries, particularly Bangladesh, to increase and modify the rate of acceptance and adoption of E-GovS.
Keywords: Bangladesh; e-government; technology acceptance; technology adoption; UTAUT model.
Assessing ICT and E-Government Services through UDC in Bangladesh: Rural Dwellers Economic Benefits
by Shah Md. Safiul Hoque, Md. Awal Al Kabir
Abstract: The study aimed to assess users perceptions regarding the services about information and communication technology (ICT) and e-government through union digital centre (UDC) in Bangladesh to benefit rural dwellers. The study adopted a case study method. A survey questionnaire was distributed among 639 individuals asking about their demographic details and assessing users perceptions regarding ICT and e-government services through UDC, including a 5-point Likert scale. The findings anticipated a positive response regarding availability, cost, convenience and delivery of services. People were satisfied with the e-services provided by the Bangladeshi government to the rural dwellers. The study results would help the Bangladesh government acknowledge awareness of services in rural areas. It would also highlight the critical role played by UDC in rendering different e-services to rural people at low costs.
Keywords: Bangladesh; e-government services; information and communication technology; ICT; rural dwellers; union digital centre; UDC.
Participatory Governance Capacity Building: The Missing Link of Poverty Eradication in Food Diversification Policies in Indonesia
by Rulinawaty Rulinawaty, Sofjan Arifin, Andriyansah Andriyansah, Lukman Samboteng
Abstract: Womens empowering is a movement to improve the quality of womens lives in the economic, educational, social, communication and information fields in order to be free from the cycle of poverty and underdevelopment. This study explores the capacity of participatory governance in Indonesia with a focus on CBOs in participatory action. The object of this qualitative research is the second-class community who interacts with government programs, formulating and implementing food diversification policies. The results reveal three roles of participatory governance for poverty reduction: information-based policies at the grassroots level, ensuring all actors are committed to avoiding participatory non-governmental arrangements, and making policy implementation more effective and efficient. The implications of participatory governance for developing countries are positive synergies for designing and implementing poverty alleviation strategies.
Keywords: capacity building; governance participatory network; public policy; policy implementation; community-based organisation; food diversification; Indonesia.
Surveying Motor Vehicles Office Staff Members Attitudes and Behavioral Intentions toward E-learning
by CHIH-KAI CHANG, River Su
Abstract: The main purpose of this study was to use the concept of a three-tier technology use model (3-TUM) to design a questionnaire for measuring the use of the Taipei e-campus and e-learning+ platforms by the motor vehicles office staff. This study explored the attitudes and behaviours of the motor vehicle office staff on an e-learning platform. The study found that that e learning had a number of positive effects on the participating staff members. The usefulness of ones e-learning perception had a positive impact on learner self-efficacy and system environmental function quality. The learners behavioural intentions had a positive impact on their satisfaction with the system and perceived usefulness. Interactive learning and multimedia teaching had a positive impact on the e-learning effect and the functional quality of the system environment. The other effects and the functional quality of the system environment had no significant effect on the quality of the e-learning system.
Keywords: e-learning; electronic learning; three-tier use model; motor vehicles office; self-efficacy; behavioural intention.
Variables Affecting the Adoption of Information and Communication Technologies in the Government from the Perspectives of Public Administrators in Kuwait
by Hani Alsarraf, Husain Ebrahim, Helaiel Almutairi
Abstract: This research examines some of the attitudes that have impacts on the adoption of new information and communication technologies (ICTs) by public administrators in Kuwait. Kuwait ranks among the highest countries in the region in terms of e-government readiness, which is based on strong ICT infrastructure. However, public administrators in Kuwait were found to be slow in adopting new ICT, which represents a barrier that weakens the efforts to transform traditional services to e-government services. The diffusion of innovation theory (DOI) is the theoretical framework used to shed light on some of these barriers by examining the impact of the attributes of innovation on the adoption of new ICT by public administrators. This study found a significant positive impact of relative advantage and compatibility on the adoption of ICT in government. The findings would enhance the capability of the government to adopt new ICT in order to manage e-government more effectively.
Keywords: information and communication technology; ICT; electronic government; diffusion of innovation; Kuwait; public administrators; public policy; attributes of innovation.
Expected Benefits of Crowdsourcing in Government: Identifying and Explaining some of the Mechanisms
by Cesar Renteria
Abstract: Literature in crowdsourcing has focused primarily on understanding what is crowdsourcing and how it is composed, but we still do not have enough clarity about how and why crowdsourcing is expected to benefit governments. This is, why use crowdsourcing? To clarify this question, in this article, I map and integrate the scholars and public managers perspectives about the expected benefits from crowdsourcing in government. I find 16 explanations about how and why crowdsourcing benefits governments. Besides clarifying the areas of opportunity from government crowdsourcing, the findings provide insights for future research on these propositions.
Keywords: crowdsourcing; citizen participation; participatory democracy; open innovation; lawmaking; co-production; co-creation; urban planning; policy design; bureaucratic performance.
Measuring governments' online accountability
by Paola Hermosa Del Vasto, Susana Jorge, Elena Urquía-Grande, Cristina Del Campo
Abstract: This paper aims to propose an electronic accountability index of information disclosure on the web - named e-accountability index (e-AI). In particular, the methodology used to develop the e-AI, based on seven areas of the Global Reporting Initiative (GRI) survey, is described and explained. The application of the index is then illustrated using central governments' websites of the 12 South American countries, often referred to as not discharging enough accountability. The e-AI scores can be recorded for different countries that may be, therefore, ranked accordingly. This research contributes by developing an important index of electronic accountability that takes into account the standards of good governance and the accessibility and usability of each government's website, to improve the disclosure of information and evaluate their level of accountability in a comparative-international perspective.
Keywords: accountability; accessibility; usability; index; central governments; South America.
Investigating the role of transformational leadership and TOE framework to adopt e-government in Indonesia: the case of village information system
by Dony M. Sihotang, Achmad Nizar Hidayanto, Kongkiti Phusavat, Etti Diana
Abstract: This study aims to determine the factors that influence the adoption of village information system (VIS). We propose a conceptual model involving leadership theory and technology-organisation-environment (TOE) framework. The model was examined empirically using data collected from 184 village apparatus in Indonesia. The findings reveal that a village can adopt the VIS as a form of e-government if it has a transformational village leader. This study also demonstrates the role of the TOE framework that can mediate transformational leadership factors and the intention to adopt VIS. Practically, the result of this study indicates that the adoption of VIS can be implemented if the village government has transformational leaders who can motivate awareness of the benefits of VIS (technological context), mobilise village resources (organisational context), and synergise with supra-village (environmental context).
Keywords: e-government; village information system; transformational leadership; TOE framework.
User satisfaction on Sistem Maklumat Kastam/customs information system by the Royal Malaysian Customs
by Ramesh Kumar Moona Haji Mohamed, Jun Ian Fung, Zi Hui Khor, Huey Ying Lau, Chee Chung Lee, Mei Jing Lew
Abstract: The purpose of this research is determined the effect of technology readiness and acceptance of Sistem Maklumat Kastam (SMK) among the customs officers in Royal Malaysian Customs. A quantitative data analysis was executed with where the target populations were focus on the custom officers in Royal Malaysian Customs. However, the exact amount of the target population for Royal Malaysian Customs is unknown, convenience sampling was used. There were 106 samples was collected from the target population and it is good enough to test the research model because the G power software calculated 92 samples size. Smart PLS version 3.2.6 was used to test five hypothesis. Through this study, the researchers found that innovativeness, discomfort, and insecurity affected the custom officers' perceived ease of use and satisfaction towards the SMK systems except optimism. Manager implication, future research study and the limitation of the study was discussed in detail.
Keywords: optimism; innovativeness; insecurity; discomfort; perceived ease of use; user satisfaction.
An agent and web services-based e-government model validation
by Emna Karoui, Sameh El Hadouaj, Khaled Ghédira
Abstract: In e-government, the provision of valuable services depends upon the capacity of public administrations to coordinate their services. Different digital government solutions have been developed. Unfortunately, most of these works assume that all the involved partners are equipped with sophisticated information technology (IT) infrastructure, which limits their applicability especially in developing countries where the administrations are usually under equipped. Moreover, many of the proposed solutions introduce centralised coordination methods that do not comply with the distributed nature of public administrations. This paper presents an e-government model based on agent and web services. It introduces an inter-organisational workflow (IOW) model based on the idea of interfacing. The e-government entities (GEs) are only required to describe their services using WSDL, they are distributed and interact directly with no need of a middleware. Two different case studies are carried out to demonstrate the applicability of our approach.
Keywords: e-government; inter-organisational workflow; IOW; web services; multi-agent systems; validation.
Citizens' intention to use e-governance in Iran: the challenge of e-good governance implementation
by Mona Jami Pour, Mohamad Hossien Sherkat, Mohammad Asarian
Abstract: During COVID 19, many governments have been aware of the advantages of utilising information and communication technologies (ICTs). It may be challenging to reach e-governance objectives. One of the reasons for the failure of implementing successful e-governance projects, is the lack of citizens' participation and acceptance so this paper aims to overcome this challenge by developing the e-governance acceptance model in Iran. Based on TAM structure, the conceptual model has been tested by structural equation modelling (SEM). The convenience sampling technique was used to select the sample of 469 Iranian citizens who used e-governance service. The findings show all e-governance service quality dimensions, except for security and trust and emotional engagement, positively and significantly affect perceived usefulness. Except for security and trust, other dimensions also positively affect perceived ease of use. The results show, the positive relationships between perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use with the intention of use.
Keywords: e-governance; e-governance quality; structural equation modelling; SEM; technology acceptance model; TAM; Iran.
Empowered or encumbered: how digitalisation has changed the process of applying for unemployment benefits
by Karl Kristian Larsson
Abstract: This study aims to provide insights into the consequences of having citizen self-service online, as the acquisition of public services has moved from physical welfare offices to digital platforms. The context of the study is the Norwegian Labour and Welfare Administration and claims made for unemployment benefits to the organisation over the last 15 years. By evaluating the success and failure rates of applications, the study found that while the barriers for applying the benefits have been lowered, the number of applicants making mistakes when applying has increased. This is most evident among younger applicants. Without the interference of street-level bureaucrats, the online application process has made the benefit more accessible, though more challenging to apply for correctly.
Keywords: e-government; digital divide; digital competency; electronic government; administrative burdens.
Designing a smart e-government application using a proposed hybrid architecture model dependent on edge and cloud computing
by Ayad Hasan Adhab, Emir Mahmood Kalik, Ahmed K. Al-Ani
Abstract: A good number of developing countries around the world are taking pleasure in the revolution of the e-government field to provide basic services with regards to their citizens. Yet, public sectors encounter many difficulties in implementing the e-governments' solutions among its infrastructure for enhancing current products and services or developing new solutions. Consequently, the cloud computing technologies play an essential role to eliminate these problems, which expands the cloud computing processing capabilities towards the network edge, to match these needs. Therefore, in this paper, we propose an abstract of a hybrid model intended for adapting edge and cloud computing in the field of e-government in order to manage and overcome e-government implementation-related difficulties. Finally, this model recognises two different patterns which are edge and cloud for scheduling governmental products and services amongst the data centres. The intelligent devices built with low-power processors represents a highly effective option.
Keywords: e-government; cloud computing; edge computing; hybrid model.
Fuzzy based security risk assessment of e-government data centre in Indian context
by Saibal Sarkar, Suvrojit Das
Abstract: E-government data centres (EDC) in India cannot be considered adequately safe and secure as these do have multiple sources of vulnerabilities that are exploited by diverse numerous threats. Therefore, these create a variety of risk postures. Published works for risk assessment are partial and mainly based on a five-point scale. Also, no work on the overall risk assessment of EDC has been found so far. We, therefore, introduce a fuzzy logic-based risk assessment system (FLRAS) to assess the aggregated risk of EDC, considering multi-sourced threats and vulnerabilities. The FLRAS is based on a set of audit-level metrics developed from a large set of real-world audit reports of a given EDC in India. Our system of computation has been used to compute risk in the first step. We then show that once such overall risk is computed, it can be further reduced substantially by mitigating the gaps as mentioned in audit reports.
Keywords: e-government data centre; risk metric; fuzzy techniques; risk assessment.
Secure and transparent electronic voting system using blockchain
by Manoharan Sangeetha, Shreeja Pal, Jayraj Roshan
Abstract: Electronic voting machine (EVM), the replacement of the ballot box is the mainstay in the electoral process. Since 2000, in India, EVMs have been used in all elections: four Lok Sabha and 122 state legislative assemblies. In EVM security, duplication of vote and anonymity are important issues to be considered. In this paper, we propose a blockchain solution for securing the voting system, where a blockchain network with multiple nodes and a smart contract for voting mechanism is developed and deployed to store the votes so that they are immutable and cannot be tampered with, making the system highly secure and can be audited by the voters, making the system transparent. A full stack application is designed to allow voters to interact with the smart contract and vote. The unique voting ID being generated for each vote is stored alongside the votes, thus providing anonymity to the voters.
Keywords: blockchain; decentralised network; Ethereum; security; solidity; voting system; electronic voting machine; EVM.