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Electronic Government, an International Journal
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Electronic Government, an International Journal (54 papers in press)
Abstract: This study aims to determine the role of social media in policymaking by reviewing journals from 2010 to 2020. This study is a meta-model for the role of social media in policymaking. The method combines the method with data from various data sources, including published documents. Vosviewer and Words were used to examine patterns of relationships or clusters in analysed journals. The data obtained from Scopus helps discuss findings and draw conclusions. The results of the study indicate that social media has a significant influence on public policymaking and governance through: 1) data acquisition and pre-processing; 2) the opinion tracking component addresses hot topics as well as the selection and tracking of sensitive issues; 3) the distributed processing component performs fast processing of data access; 4) public opinion analysis component; 5) public opinion measurement component. This study only compares the results of an analysis of scientific developments in social media and government policies. Future research should examine approaches to making reliable policies and promoting transparency through social media. This study encourages the use of social media as an alternative approach in the policy cycle.
Keywords: social media; policy making; government; literature review; participation; transparency.
Adoption of i-Voting Infrastructure: Addressing Network-level Cybersecurity Breaches
by Wilson Nwankwo, Paschal Chinedu, FlorenceU. Masajuwa, Simon Imoisi, ChristianC. Njoku
Abstract: Internet voting (i-voting), a form of e-voting, may emerge a potential substitute for traditional ballot-based systems. This paper addresses potential cybersecurity concerns using the sociotechnical approach and emphasised on the careful design of secure network components on which the deployment of i-voting platform thrives. Prior to such design, the various threats and cyber-attacks contemplated in an i-voting network infrastructure were categorised in line with the three major network abstractions, i.e., the core, distribution, and access levels. Configurations to mitigate network-level security issues were integrated into a network model constructed (using the eNSP tool) to support an i-voting application designed with the ASP.Net core framework. The system provided a platform to conduct penetration testing to expose any inherent security leaks in the i-voting network. From the unsuccessful penetration tests, we conclude that with appropriate cybersecurity strategy implemented, cyber-resilience and trust might be assured in an i-voting infrastructure. The implication would be a substantial cut in the expenditure during elections as well as entrenchment of public trust.
Keywords: electronic voting; internet voting; i-voting; e-voting; cyber-attacks; cyber resilience; voting systems.
Can Auditors Attributes and Organisational Resources influence Information Technology Audit Quality in the Public Sector
by Erlane K. Ghani, Siti Murni Abdol Jahim
Abstract: This study examines the effect of auditors attributes and organisational resources on information technology (IT) audit quality in a public sector organisation. Specifically, this study examines the auditors attributes in terms of their independence, accounting and audit knowledge and skills, IT competency and business process knowledge during IT audit. This study also examines the effect of organisational resources on IT audit quality. Using questionnaire survey on 88 public sector officers, this study shows a significant positive effect between auditors attributes and organisational resources. The findings in this study implicate that it is imperative for the public sector organisation to identify the factors that can affect the IT audit quality in order to enhance the effectiveness and efficiency of auditing in the public sector. These findings can also be useful for the public sector organisation as part of their quality control program and help to improve IT audit quality.
Keywords: information technology; audit quality; auditors attributes; organisational resources; public sector.
Assessing the Impact of e-Government Systems from Citizens Perspective: Evidence from Ghana
by Acheampong Owusu
Abstract: This study developed a research model using the updated Delone and Mclean IS success model to examine the impact of e-government systems on the service delivery of government services to the citizenry. The study used a quantitative technique with a survey method and collected primary data of 421 respondents which were examined empirically using the partial least squares structural equation modelling (PLS-SEM). The findings indicate that except for e-government information quality and e-government service quality which did not have a significant influence on system use, all the other hypothesised relationships were supported. This study has therefore provided us with empirical evidence which confirms that implementing e-government systems in a developing country can also bring the required benefits. Regarding policy and practice, government agencies implementing the e-government initiatives must address the issues of the information quality and service quality that were not found to be supported.
Keywords: e-government; e-government systems; citizens; Delone and Mclean IS success model; Ghana.
A Secure and Efficient of Ethereum Blockchain Advancement in Public Distribution System with Decentralized MongoDB
by Devi Parameswari C, Ilayaraja M
Abstract: A countrys public distribution system (PDS) is crucial to eradicating poverty and ensuring food security. To evaluate the viability of adopting blockchain to remove inefficiencies and provide confidence in the framework, this study presented a blockchain with mongoDB. This paper proposes a comprehensive web-based system with the majority of the features and functions required to manage all forms of interactions between the central government, state governments, district offices, ration shops, and customers. As a result, all transactions are recorded in the blockchain network that connects the various components. It looks into the feasibility of implementing the proposed concept as a blockchain using Ethereum and a decentralised database (MongoDB). The usage of the blockchain system to assure confidentiality is one of the most notable features of this proposed work.
Keywords: blockchain technology; public distribution system; PDS; smart contracts; solidity; Ethereum; MongoDB; transaction; execution cost.
Access and Equity in a Technological World: An Assessment of National Government Websites
by Tony Carrizales, James Melitski
Abstract: This study seeks to inform the discussion of digital government and assess the equity of national websites through language accessibility. The research examines national government website language features to evaluate the accessibility and overall equity of digital government. A review of 193 United Nations member countries national websites is conducted and shows the diversity in language delivery options throughout the world. The research examines the characteristics of each country along with its democratic values and e-government capacity. The findings show that some nations excel in providing extensive language options while others do not, underscoring the importance of upholding equality and accessibility in a technological world. In addition, the analysis indicates that countries with stronger democratic values and greater e-government capacity are more likely to have multilingual websites.
Keywords: e-government; technology; websites; equity; language.
Assessing SADC e-government maturity through the lens of its cities
by Vusumuzi Maphosa, Mfowabo Maphosa
Abstract: Efforts to integrate information and communication technologies (ICTs) by municipalities in developing countries to improve access to information, service delivery, promote citizen participation and engagement is worth pursuing. This research sought to evaluate 41 Southern African Development Community (SADC) cities websites to determine the e-government level each municipality had attained regarding information flow, transactional processing, and website usability. During a two-month observation period of the selected 41 cities, eight cities did not have websites, 11 were not available, leaving 22 websites for evaluation. The evaluation was based on a heuristic assessment matrix we developed based on information maturity level and usability. The results revealed that most municipality websites excelled in one-way information flow and two-way interaction while lacking advanced levels. Overall, cities in South Africa ranked highly in terms of evaluations. The results appeal to governments to develop policies that stimulate e-government initiatives.
Keywords: e-government; e-services; service maturity levels; usability; website evaluation.
An Analytical Study of the Factors Influencing Trust in Kuwait E-Government
by Zainab Aljazzaf
Abstract: The internet has an impact on every aspect of modern life, such as education and government. E-government is an approach to use the web to convey government data and administrations to people. This research studied the intention of people towards trusting e-government in Kuwait. Specifically, e-government in Kuwait is still developing and there is insufficient studies conducted about trust in e-government. Specifically, this paper studied the trust factors that may have an influence towards trust in Kuwait e-government. Accordingly, a questionnaire is designed to test the trust factors and its outcome is analysed. The analysed data revealed that different factors, such as perceived usefulness, security, quality, and social influence determine peoples intention to trust Kuwait e-government. In addition, the study provides a comparative study between this study and other studies in the literature to highlight the main trust factors and to identify possible future research in the area.
Keywords: trust; e-government; trust factor; Kuwait.
An empirical investigation into organization cyber security readiness from the IT employee and manager perspectives
by Zainab AlMeraj, Ali AlEnezi, Paul Manuel
Abstract: The rise of the internet has led to an increase in cyber security threats targeting government, private sectors, citizens and data. Due to rapid advances in technologies, cyber security has become a national priority. However, without national level enforced policies, organisations are left to put in place their own cyber security strategies. These practices limit measuring state of the art and compel an understanding of cyber security readiness. As a first step this research investigates readiness from the perspectives of IT experts and studies the relationship between five cyber security readiness factors: employee expertise, awareness, organisation investment, compliance with standards and risk assessment. The results of this work show that expertise, compliance with standards and risk assessment have significant effect on perceived organisation cyber security readiness. In addition, the findings show that expertise is highly affected by investment which is also highly affected by awareness.
Keywords: cyber security readiness; IT; Kuwait; expertise; awareness; investment; risk assessment; compliance; survey; path validation.
e-Governance through social media: An Analysis on the use of Facebook and Twitter by Indian Government
by Anita Saroj, Sukomal Pal
Abstract: The study explores the adoption of social media (SM) by 46 ministries of the Government of India. This trend is new in India but steadily increasing. We analyse how government ministries use SM, particularly Twitter and Facebook, to disseminate information, engage with stakeholders and take feedback on government initiatives. The study, based on three years of SM data analysis, captures activities, discussion topics, inter-connectedness, public engagement, and popularity of GoI ministries. Among eight different SM channels that GoI ministries use, Twitter and Facebook are the most common and popular ones. Primary topics of discussion are meetings and projects like Prime Ministers (PM) projects, railways projects, GST, and different development schemes. The Ministry of Railways and the Ministry of Agriculture post maximum in SM, but the PMs account is followed by the most. The Ministry of Information and Broadcasting serves as a coordinator with a good hub, authority, and PageRank score.
Keywords: social media; e-governance; citizen; Twitter; Facebook; tweets; hub; authority; latent Dirichlet allocation; LDA.
An Owner Estimate Cost Model: Testing for Medium Software Projects
by Sholiq Sholiq, Ragesa Mario Junior, Apol Subriadi
Abstract: One of the most crucial factors for software project managers is determining the projects cost before the project is executed. Likewise, for clients, the price offered to third parties should neither be too high nor too low. Therefore, they need a method or model to determine the correct cost or price for a software project. In a previous study, we have proposed an owner estimate cost (OEC) model for a software project on which small scale. The model has had three parts: personnel direct cost (PDC), non-personnel direct cost (NPDC), and taxes. The PDC was obtained by applying the use case points (UCP) method that has been developed. Originally, UCP was a method of calculating effort for software projects. In this study, we tested the model using a medium-scale software project to know the consistency of the model. The test results show that the model tested is acceptable.
Keywords: cost estimation; use case point; UCP; owner estimate cost; OEC; software project; software cost.
E-Readiness Assessment for Public e-Services in Morocco
by Hanane Benaddi, Yaâcoub Hanad, Mohamed Askour, Elkettani Elyoussefi
Abstract: E-government concept is not limited to introduce ICT techniques into public organisations, but it has several facets like conceptions, strategies and knowledge to restructure and strengthen relationship between government and citizens. The aim of this paper is to check whether public e-services in Morocco are adopting ICT activities in efficient manner, to identify their maturity level and assess their e-readiness index. Conducted by the Ministry of Administration and Public service reform, the main goal of this study is to examine the effective factors that impact the e-readiness of national public e-services, and determine obstacles that prevent public administration development. The finding of the study will guide the government to improve the delivery of public e-services, thereby increasing the adoption of ICT in e-government programs.
Keywords: e-government; maturity model; e-readiness; public e-service; Morocco.
Trust as a Leveraging Factor for Civic Engagement
by Suha AlAwadhi
Abstract: This paper aims to investigate trust as a critical factor that increases e-government information and services usage that lead to civic engagement in a developing country. The study developed a theoretical framework that hypothesises several relationships between the trust in government, trust in technology, perceived usefulness, trust in e-government, the intention to use e-government and civic engagement. More than 500 individuals are eligible to use e-government services in Kuwait participated in the survey. The results supported the majority of the relationships to confirm the role of trust in the use of e-government services. The study provides theoretical contributions as well as practical implications for researchers and practitioners working on the improvement of e-government projects to increase their adoption and use.
Keywords: e-government; electronic government; trust; civic engagement; adoption; e-government information and services; e-government use; trust in government; trust in technology.
Towards a based-Agents and Web Services Framework for Managing Algerian E-Government Applications
by Mahmoud BRAHIMI
Abstract: Despite the efforts and investments made by Algerias government, many of the government services provided online are still deemed immature. Algerias e-government initiatives have been criticised for being fragmented and weak in coordination and information sharing. As a result, citizen participation remains low, and government electronic services appear inefficient. In order to increase efficiency and homogeneity between these diverse projects, we offer a framework for managing e-government apps by unifying the multiple digitisation efforts by using the same standards and citizen information. The framework is built around the coupling of agents and web services. This combination allows for the reinforcement of e-government systems that are characterised by their scalability and complexity. The proposed framework provides a generic and structural solution for launching and managing e-government initiatives. Furthermore, it enables interaction across multiple projects and provides users with the necessary assistance and direction.
Keywords: e-government; framework; agents; web services; ontologies; FIPA-ACL; Algeria.
Inhibiting and Enabling Factors Influencing Employees Adoption of E-government: Prioritization Using Analytic Hierarchy Process
by Kriti Priya Gupta, Preeti Bhaskar, Priyanka Bhaskar
Abstract: In India, the NeGP was approved in the year 2006 by Union Cabinet and a total of 44 mission mode projects were initiated at various phases. At present, out of 44, only 15 are delivering full services and others are delivering services partially or either in the implementation, design and development phase. Thus, it is clear that from 2006 till present, e-government projects are implementing at a very slow pace. Many researchers claimed that the primary reason for this slow growth is that e-government was not adopted by the employees. In this paper, various factors have been investigated and prioritised which inhibit and enable employees e-government adoption. The findings reveal that among the four main inhibiting factors; institutional barriers secure the highest ranking followed by personal barriers, technical barriers and operational barriers. Similarly, among the three main enabling factors, organisational support secure highest rank, followed by auxiliary services and government support.
Keywords: inhibiting factors; enabling factors; employees; e-government adoption; analytic hierarchy process; AHP; India.
Readiness and Acceptability for Use of E-Government Services in Kuwait: A Case Study
by Eiman Tamah Al-Shammari
Abstract: The purpose of electronic government is to promote transparency and public participation in government operations and processes. However, in order to be considered successful, e-government must match the needs and satisfaction of the citizen or user. Identifying the level of user satisfaction can help to figure out the systems strengths and weaknesses. The purpose of this study is to determine the primary elements that influence user satisfaction when using the Kuwait e-government portal. It is based on a survey of relevant literature, using the extended technology acceptance model to validate the research model. Although 298 people submitted the surveys, only 277 responses were complete and useful for analysis. The study results show that users higher perception of usefulness, ease of use, quality, and trust of e-government services directly impact their readiness to accept e-government services in Kuwait.
Keywords: e-government; electronic government; trust; perceived ease of use; PEOU; perceived usefulness; technology acceptance model; TAM; Kuwait.
Specifics of project management in modern conditions of digital transformation of the economy
by Askar B. Sembin, Leila A. Tussupova, Irina V. Selezneva, Marina V. Shtiller, Madina S. Tulegenova
Abstract: The current stage of modernisation of production can provide a significant impetus for economic growth and is a priority for governments and business leaders. Therefore, it is important to study project management strategies in the context of digital transformation in order to implement them in the enterprises of Kazakhstan. The purpose of the paper is to investigate the features and specifics of project management in modern conditions and search for methods of adaptation to a changing space and new technologies. The leading research method was the analysis of global and Kazakhstani trends in the field of project management. As a result of the study, the features of project management for creating a platform for the implementation of the Industry 4.0 were identified. The authors concluded that the knowledge intensive business services need a deep understanding of user preferences and needs. They must skilfully link and monetise a lot of data.
Keywords: Industry 4.0; innovations; modern technologies; enterprise modernisation; management.
Optimization of information and communication system of local government
by Oleg A. Diegtiar, Tetyana A. Kravchenko, Olena L. Yevmieshkina, Tetiana V. Sych, Yana M. Linetska
Abstract: The article is devoted to the study of innovative methods of optimising the information and communication system of the local government of Ukraine in the changing conditions of nowadays. The authors definition of the category public service is given. It was found that effective servicing of the needs of civil society and economic entities is impossible without the involvement of information systems and technologies and requires the implementation of systematic information support for the management and service activities of local self-government bodies. An innovative information and communication system has been formed to ensure the activities of local self-government bodies in the provision of public services. The working subsystems of the developed system have been investigated and ways of their improvement and innovation in the prospects of their development have been proposed.
Keywords: public service; civil society; municipal administration; socio-economic development; regional authorities.
From open government to open government data: a bibliometric view
by Vanessa Oliveira, Paulo Pinheiro, Nelson Pinto
Abstract: Many countries have promoted open government initiatives for greater transparency, inclusiveness, responsiveness, and effectiveness, leading many researchers to expand their research to different areas over the last decade. This requires a systematic review of the literature to determine the detailed status of open government research. This study takes a bibliometric perspective to identify 560 publications from the Web of Science and Scopus databases published between 1977 and 2021. The results reveal that current research focuses on open government data, digital government, and civic engagement, and that the scientific knowledge base is formed by studies centred on open government data. This study provides a comprehensive overview of the scientific literature on open government to serve as a guide for researchers who wish to understand the intellectual and social structure of this field of research.
Keywords: bibliometric; open government; open government data; public sector; digital government.
Information support of institutions activities in the context of e-governance implementation
by Liubov I. Demchyna, Tetiana D. Hantsiuk, Liliia Yu. Burkivska, Svitlana M. Hryhorash, Oksana V. Laba
Abstract: The current state of development of society and government institutions in the field of information space use directly affects socio-political stability in state administration. The purpose of writing this paper is to study the level of information support for the activities of institutions, which is due to the introduction of e-governance and its improvement for a full-fledged functioning of state authorities. For this scientific work, the methods of logical analysis, the method of content analysis, the method of comparative analysis, the method of deduction, the method of analysis of scientific literature, as well as the economic and statistical method of analysis were used. The result of this study is the developing and implementing methods that will speed up and make more efficient the process of information support for institutions, improve the skills of civil servants in the field of information technology.
Keywords: digitalisation; digital economy; state apparatus; administrative services; document management.
Digitalisation as a tool of public administration (on the example of Tyumen)
by Daria A. Kostyreva, Anastasia Yu. Kretova, Boris M. Likhtenshtein
Abstract: The relevance of the study is conditioned by the prospects for interaction of executive power structures of regions and municipalities with the population by informing and receiving feedback. The purpose of the study is a detailed comprehensive systematic analysis and investigation of the problems of using forms, tools, and means of informatisation and digitalisation of the administration system, both in Russia as a whole and in a single region (Tyumen Oblast and the capital centre Tyumen). The results were obtained by means of the theoretical and methodological analysis of research papers devoted to the problems and issues of digitalisation of public administration structures, informatisation and technologisation of the entire administration system in various countries. This study allowed identifying the main problems associated with the processes of digitalisation of administrative tools in the activities of public authorities and affecting the overall state policy in the country.
Keywords: executive bodies; municipal policy; technologisation of administrative processes; global network; electronic state services.
Critical path-dependencies affecting digital government innovation in low-income countries: a case study from Woredas in Ethiopia
by Debas Senshaw, Hossana Twinomurinzi
Abstract: The paper aims to identify the path dependencies around existing government digital platforms. The study adopted a qualitative case study strategy using three Woredas (government administrative districts) in Ethiopia around their digital innovation of the WoredaNet (government digital platform). The path dependencies that significantly stifle digital innovation are mainly psychosocial and micro-political, technophobia, fear-based learning barriers and power conflicts which have developed into daily working processes. Another key finding is that a governance model where power is centralised does limit local digital innovation. The research provides insights for policymakers and officials to overcome critical path dependencies that limit digital innovation in government. This paper contributes to the ongoing discourse on how to implement government digital platforms in low-income countries through non-technical solutions but by scrutinising and examining social and political factors as well.
Keywords: government digital platforms; WoredaNet; digital innovation; path dependency; Ethiopia.
Why does Effort Expectancy have not a Significant Effect on the Utilization of E-Report in Sleman Regency
by Muhammad Iqbal, Ulung Pribadi
Abstract: The application of e-government in Sleman Regency is an online complaint service. This study will analyse the factors that influence the public to use the e-report media. This research uses quantitative research methods. The number of research respondents was 370 respondents and processed using SmartPLS 3.0 Software. The findings of this study are that only variable effort expectancy does not have a significant influence on attitudes to use e-report applications. This is because the user considers usability more important than ease of use. They are resulting in effort expectations are not too seen as a factor supporting the adoption of new technologies. The need for online channels to submit complaints online in the digital age is considered important for the effective and efficient community to get excellent service. In addition, all research variables have been shown to have a significant influence on the use of the e-report media.
Keywords: e-government; electronic government; e-report; electronic report; Sleman Regency.
The Effects of Mobile Network Performance and Affordability on E-Government Development.
by Ibrahim Osman Adam, Muftawu Dzang Alhassan
Abstract: The increasing growth and use of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) have enabled governments around the world to rely on electronic means to enhance participatory citizenship and governance. Despite the dominance of literature in e-government development research, very few studies have examined the role of mobile technology penetration on e-government development in general and the effects of mobile network performance and mobile phone affordability. This study explores e-government development at the global level by examining the effects of mobile network performance, mobile phone affordability and a countrys regulatory environment. We relied on a model based on the technology-organization-environment framework and data from 106 countries analyzed using partial least squares-structural equation modelling (PLS-SEM). Our findings show that mobile network performance and mobile phone affordability are critical facilitators of e-government development. However, the moderating role of the regulatory environment was not supported. Implications are discussed.
Keywords: Mobile network performance; Mobile affordability; E-government development; technology-organization-environment framework; PLS-SEM.
Public opinion analysis in pandemic management: an evolutionary game theory perspective
by Yaying Zhou, Yanhuai Lang, Kevin Lu
Abstract: The ways the government releases information to the general public through social media is an important method of communication. Currently, such communication plays a crucial role in pandemic control and management due to the popularity of social media, and in fact, it has become an integral part of daily life. This study examines the issues related to public opinion management during a pandemic. To achieve this, it applies evolutionary game theory to analyse the factors in the information that affect public opinion in a pandemic, in particular, using payoff matrices for modelling the likely outcomes from different situation management strategies. Social media has gradually become a key platform for opinion sharing and exchange during a pandemic, so it is necessary to understand the multi-players of government, social media, and the general public in this process as well as paying attention to the strategic choices of those multi-players and their impact on public opinion. This study has developed a tripartite behaviour evolutionary game model of three players, namely, the government, social media, and the general public, and has constructed the replicator dynamic equation. The equilibrium point has been examined, and its stability has been analysed. Simulation-based evaluations have been conducted.
Keywords: opinion; evolutionary game theory; strategic choices.
A Comparative Analysis of Social Media Usage: The Case of Social Media Use by USA and Brazilian capital cities
by Lazar Rakovic, Stojanka Dakic
Abstract: Social media has completely transformed the way people communicate in every sphere of life. A comparative analysis is conducted in the paper, covering the capitals of the USA and Brazil. The aim of the research was to find out if the USA and Brazil capitals have accounts on social networks, which social networks they are using, whether links to those social networks are at the top or bottom of the official website home pages of the cities involved, and whether they use social networks for promotion and/or communication with citizens. The analysis includes 78 capital cities, 51 in the USA and 27 in Brazil. The research results showed that bodies competent for social systems in the states covered by the analysis, recognise the importance of social networks in the modern world of communication.
Keywords: social networks; comparative analysis; USA; Brazil.
Moderating Role of Government Policy on Electronic Government Adoption Among Algerian Petroleum Companies
by Mohammed Soufiane Benmoussa, Marhaiza Ibrahim, Cindy Augustie
Abstract: E-government is a global trend that accelerates across countries, which affiliates firms internal and external connections and transactions, resulting in firms transparency and efficiency. However, interoperability within organisations is limited and ineffective in developing countries like Algeria. Thus, the current study examines the factors influencing e-government adoption using the DOI and TOE frameworks, which encompasses IT infrastructure, security, top management support, organisational culture, awareness, and training. This research also examines the role of government policy as the moderating effect between the interrelationships. Stratified sampling was used to test the hypotheses. The data were collected through a survey from 170 top management executives of petroleum companies in four regions of Algeria (South, North, West, and East). SPSS version 26.0 and PLS-SEM 3.3.3 were used to analyse the data. The findings indicated that only IT infrastructure and top management support influencing e-government adoption. Only security and training were moderated by government policy, whereas awareness was negatively moderated. The findings of this study will assist researchers, policymakers, and Algerian petroleum companies to priorities in improving IT infrastructure and top management support to enhance the e-government adoption in Algeria.
Keywords: DOI; TOE factors; e-government adoption; Algeria; petroleum companies.
Understanding the E-government Adoption Behaviour in Developing Country: A Case of Bangladesh
by Jakia Sultana, Md Golam Kibria, Say Yen Teoh
Abstract: This study examines the factors that stimulate developing country citizens E-government adoption behaviour. The UTAUT model was adopted along with technology anxiety (TA) as an extended construct. Based on the quantitative research method, a total of 297 survey data was collected to perform data analysis through Structural equation modelling (SEM). This study reveals that variables like - performance expectancy (PE), effort expectancy (EE), social influence (SI) and facilitating conditions (FC) were positively related to behavioural intention (BI) to use e-government services (E-govS). Additionally, TA was a negative predictor of BI. In implication, this study enriches the understanding of influencing factors behind the uses of E-GovS in Bangladesh. Additionally, the stimulus factors identified in this study will benefit the government and other relevant policymakers of developing countries, particularly Bangladesh, to increase and modify the rate of acceptance and adoption of E-GovS.
Keywords: Bangladesh; e-government; technology acceptance; technology adoption; UTAUT model.
Assessing ICT and E-Government Services through UDC in Bangladesh: Rural Dwellers Economic Benefits
by Shah Md. Safiul Hoque, Md. Awal Al Kabir
Abstract: The study aimed to assess users perceptions regarding the services about information and communication technology (ICT) and e-government through union digital centre (UDC) in Bangladesh to benefit rural dwellers. The study adopted a case study method. A survey questionnaire was distributed among 639 individuals asking about their demographic details and assessing users perceptions regarding ICT and e-government services through UDC, including a 5-point Likert scale. The findings anticipated a positive response regarding availability, cost, convenience and delivery of services. People were satisfied with the e-services provided by the Bangladeshi government to the rural dwellers. The study results would help the Bangladesh government acknowledge awareness of services in rural areas. It would also highlight the critical role played by UDC in rendering different e-services to rural people at low costs.
Keywords: Bangladesh; e-government services; information and communication technology; ICT; rural dwellers; union digital centre; UDC.
Expected Benefits of Crowdsourcing in Government: Identifying and Explaining some of the Mechanisms
by Cesar Renteria
Abstract: Literature in crowdsourcing has focused primarily on understanding what is crowdsourcing and how it is composed, but we still do not have enough clarity about how and why crowdsourcing is expected to benefit governments. This is, why use crowdsourcing? To clarify this question, in this article, I map and integrate the scholars and public managers perspectives about the expected benefits from crowdsourcing in government. I find 16 explanations about how and why crowdsourcing benefits governments. Besides clarifying the areas of opportunity from government crowdsourcing, the findings provide insights for future research on these propositions.
Keywords: crowdsourcing; citizen participation; participatory democracy; open innovation; lawmaking; co-production; co-creation; urban planning; policy design; bureaucratic performance.
Measuring governments' online accountability
by Paola Hermosa Del Vasto, Susana Jorge, Elena Urquía-Grande, Cristina Del Campo
Abstract: This paper aims to propose an electronic accountability index of information disclosure on the web - named e-accountability index (e-AI). In particular, the methodology used to develop the e-AI, based on seven areas of the Global Reporting Initiative (GRI) survey, is described and explained. The application of the index is then illustrated using central governments' websites of the 12 South American countries, often referred to as not discharging enough accountability. The e-AI scores can be recorded for different countries that may be, therefore, ranked accordingly. This research contributes by developing an important index of electronic accountability that takes into account the standards of good governance and the accessibility and usability of each government's website, to improve the disclosure of information and evaluate their level of accountability in a comparative-international perspective.
Keywords: accountability; accessibility; usability; index; central governments; South America.
Investigating the role of transformational leadership and TOE framework to adopt e-government in Indonesia: the case of village information system
by Dony M. Sihotang, Achmad Nizar Hidayanto, Kongkiti Phusavat, Etti Diana
Abstract: This study aims to determine the factors that influence the adoption of village information system (VIS). We propose a conceptual model involving leadership theory and technology-organisation-environment (TOE) framework. The model was examined empirically using data collected from 184 village apparatus in Indonesia. The findings reveal that a village can adopt the VIS as a form of e-government if it has a transformational village leader. This study also demonstrates the role of the TOE framework that can mediate transformational leadership factors and the intention to adopt VIS. Practically, the result of this study indicates that the adoption of VIS can be implemented if the village government has transformational leaders who can motivate awareness of the benefits of VIS (technological context), mobilise village resources (organisational context), and synergise with supra-village (environmental context).
Keywords: e-government; village information system; transformational leadership; TOE framework.
Analysis of the Demographic Situation in the Republic of Azerbaijan: Challenges and Opportunities for the Country
by Rasim Alguliyev, Ramiz Aliguliyev, Yadigar Imamverdiyev, Lyudmila Sukhostat
Abstract: Changes in population size and age structure have serious economic, social and geopolitical consequences for the entire world. In this study, we analyse the current demographic situation of the Republic of Azerbaijan. The issues of changes in the population dynamics in recent years in the light of the demographic transition theory are considered. The paper presents demographic data of the countrys economic zones according to the latest national censuses of the Republic of Azerbaijan. The influences of the economic development level, youth migration, and the policies carried out by the government are analysed. This analysis aims to effectively identify the gaps and needs in the countrys demographic policy development. The study of the considered issues will assist in implementing operational, tactical, and strategic decisions. As a result, it will be possible to prevent the emergence of the main challenges facing the government.
Keywords: demography; migration; economic activity of the population; population pyramid; fertility; marriages and divorces; population aging.
A Proposed Methodology for Designing a Government to Business E-Services Roadmap
by Nikolaos A. Panayiotou, Vasileios P. Stavrou
Abstract: The article aims to provide a roadmap methodology regarding the planning and the implementation of government to business (G2B) e-services. The methodology intents to establish a number of consecutive steps, in order to ensure that the voice of businesses will be taken into account during the e-services prioritisation. An original business-centric roadmap methodology was created, combining a plethora of previously designed e-government roadmaps with professionals opinions from the government and the business sector. The proposed methodology achieves a balance between future businesses needs, future government strategy and the current situation, as the e-services prioritisation is exported. It also demonstrated the high importance of the stakeholders participation during the prioritisation of G2B e-services, providing useful alternative perspectives, based on their preferences. The methodology has the potential to be adopted by governments worldwide, as it gives a business centric, complete and analytical view of G2B e-services prioritisation process.
Keywords: e-government; e-services; business centric; roadmap; government to business; G2B.
Robustness realization in Image Steganography using Frequency Domain based transforms for E- Voting
by Vivek M, Anusuya K. V
Abstract: E-voting, a sensitive application, intensifies the need for highly secured data transmission from the voters device to the exclusive storage for achieving confidentiality and integrity of voted data. The security breach on voting information leads to an indecisive political affair. Hence, the robust steganography technique is preferred to embed the acute text file of voter data in a cover image. Here, two steganography models employed with frequency domain-based discrete cosine transform (DCT) and discrete wavelet transform (DWT) fused with linear congruential generators (LCG) are proposed. The bits of the covert message are embedded into the assigned blocks of the cover image as per the pseudo-random number sequence generated (PRNG) by LCG. The robustness of the models is evaluated from the values of PSNR and RMSE under Gaussian, median, speckle, Poisson, salt, and pepper noise environments. It is revealed that the DWT-based technique yields superior performance under limited payloads.
Keywords: e-voting; discrete cosine transform; DCT; discrete wavelet transform; DWT; linear congruential generators; LCG; peak signal to noise ratio; PSNR; robustness.
Acceptance and usability of e-governance services rendered by Indian Government: The Indian citizen perspective
by Archana Singh, Manisha Paliwal, Hoshiar Mal
Abstract: E-governance services rendered by central to local governments and citizens were the need of the hour during the pandemic (COVID 19). Citizens explored many e-governance services during the pandemic, making it easier for them to use various e-governance services. During COVID-19, the importance of e-governance initiatives for an ordinary person in our country has seen a paradigm shift in applicability and acceptance. The study examined the acceptance and usability of e-governance services offered by the Indian Government, particularly during the pandemic. The authors adapted an extended UMEGA model with five variables. The study also highlights the magnitude of citizens trust for adopting e-governance services in times of crisis, ultimately leading the nation towards sustainable development. The study started with the problem identification through literature which eventually gave rise to the research questions. The researchers further adapted scales from previous research and collected data on the Likert scale using Google form.
Keywords: e-governance; Indian citizen; UMEGA model; pandemic; effort expectancy; COVID-19; performance expectancy; website quality.
Designing a Blockchain-Based Citizen Identification Document Authentication: The Case of Addis Ababa City Administration
by Tibebe Beshah, Yonas Engida
Abstract: In Ethiopia, social services are mostly dependent on Kebele identification number (KIN). Unfortunately, some serious concerns originate from the ineffective management of citizen profiles, which encourages the production of forged documents. Forging critical documents, such as KIN, results in a person having many IDs and contributes significantly to corruption. Thus, it is necessary to study viable methods for protecting IDs from counterfeiting. Blockchain technology can play a critical role in resolving the such problem. In this study, we created and built private blockchain-based citizen identity authentication system realised using hyperledger fabric on the IBM cloud environment. The proposed model is validated using mutual authentication, to ensure privacy, secrecy, and integrity. It is justified that the model is secure and that it is the best option for resolving the problem as all the actors in the proposed model are authenticated, authorised, and auditable as well as traceable.
Keywords: blockchain; Kebele ID; authentication; Addis Ababa; Ethiopia; hyper-ledger; identity; Kebele identification number; KIN.
UTAUT and Determinant Factors for Adopting E-Government in Jordan Using a Structural Equation Modelling Approach
by Sahem Nawafleh, Aseel Fares
Abstract: This study was guided by the unified theory of acceptance and use of technology (UTAUT) to determine factors that affect citizens adoption and use of e-government in Jordan. Quantitative exploratory descriptive methodology was adopted, data was collected using questionnaires targeting Jordanian citizens through non-probability purposive sampling, the sample comprised of 277 respondents. The data was analysed using SPSS and SEM-AMOS. The results show that the UTAUT factors explained moderate variance in behavioural intentions R2 scored 55%. Moreover, behavioural intentions and facilitating conditions achieved moderate variance in e-government use R2 = 41%. Further, education and residence were observed to be significant moderators. Following the results, implications, recommendations and directions for future studies are provided.
Keywords: determinants; UTAUT; e-government; SEM; Jordan.
PROBLEMS OF IMPROVING PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION IN THE CONDITIONS OF DIGITALISATION AND INFORMATISATION
by Sultanmurat M. Srapilov, Gulnar A. Alibayeva, Aizhan Ye. Zhatkanbayeva, Dina M. Baimakhanova, Nazilya R. Razzak
Abstract: The importance of a single information space is conditioned by the need to address important factors of interaction, both within the state administration apparatus, departments and local government, and the interaction of government bodies and citizens. The purpose of the study is to analyse the development of the institution of digitalisation and informatisation in the field of public administration, to identify the advantages and disadvantages of this system for the Republic of Kazakhstan on the experience of foreign states, and also to provide a legal assessment of the ongoing changes in the national legislative framework. The features of public administration and its digitalisation in the USA, South Korea, Singapore, Denmark were discovered. The modern system of public administration was analysed, and the processes of digitalisation and informatisation and their impact on the areas of personal data protection, industrial and foreign trade activities, tax, customs and social-labour spheres were described.
Keywords: digital economy; advanced IT technologies; digital Kazakhstan; management innovation; information society.
Assessing the status quo of e-government maturity in Namibia
by Carsten Rietmann, Victoria Hasheela
Abstract: This paper assesses the status quo of e-government maturity in Namibia. We employ Siau and Longs (2005) five-stage maturity model to investigate the research goal. All Namibian Government offices, ministries, and agencies (OMAs) are included in our analysis. We examine the websites of all these 35 organisations, and further take additional documents such as strategic plans into account. We find that most Namibian OMAs can be classified as currently belonging to intermediary stages of e-government maturity, with a few solely relying on web presence thus far. Features of all websites are described in the paper, and enriched with recommendations on advancing e-government in Namibia.
Keywords: e-government; Namibia; digitalisation; public administration.
How do the US governments have their social networks for COVID-19 according to administrative levels?
by Seungil Yum
Abstract: This study explores how the US governments have their social networks according to the administrative levels. This study employs social network and content analysis for the US president, New York governor, and New York mayors Twitter account. This study finds some important results as follows: first, national key players play a significant role in the president networks, whereas city key players play an important role in the governor and mayor networks. Second, the presidents family plays an essential role in the president networks, the president, governor, and mayor have a significant impact on the governor networks, and many public key players in education and law enforcement exert an essential effect on the mayor networks. Third, the president, governor, and mayor play an important role in the largest group of their networks. Fourth, COVID-19 vaccines are some of the most important issues across all networks. Fifth, the topics and interests are differentiated by administrative levels. The results imply that the leaders should explore their social networks for COVID-19 to provide important news and updates for COVID-19 effectively since they have different characteristics and key players according to the administrative levels.
Keywords: president; governor; mayor; COVID-19; social networks.
Mapping the Intellectual Ecosystem of e-Government and e-Governance: A bibliometric approach
by Sudesh Sheoran, Sanket Vij
Abstract: The prolific and incessant growth in technology energises governments worldwide in reinforcing their operations and transactions with their citizens and other stakeholders through electronic government and electronic governance. Over the past two decades, there has been a massive volume of research in this field in technological and operations perspectives. This study carries out a comprehensive bibliometric analysis of literature on e-government and e-governance with the purpose of mapping the evolution of research in the field and generating an amalgamation of knowledge with prominent journals, influential authors and relevant articles. A wide range of tools, including citation analysis, thematic analysis, co-citation network and collaboration network, is used to study the cognitive structure and trend in the field and to explore the patterns and relationships among authors, journals, institutions and countries. The findings of the study could give a solid intellectual base and impart a deep insight for researchers in the field.
Keywords: digital government; e-government; e-governance; e-participation; electronic government information; government transparency; information and communication technology; ICT; information systems.
Multidimensional Perceived Risk in Palestinian E-government Services Context Conceptual Paper
by Rania A. M. Abdalla, Normalini Md Kassim, Jasmine A. L. Yeap
Abstract: With the internet era, governments are using information and communication technologies (ICTs) to meet their citizens expectations by adopting new means for service delivery that break the organisational boundaries by transforming to electronic governments (e-governments). However, citizens adoption of these services is at low rates in many countries. Palestinian Government will launch its e-government services portal soon. Hence, an extended version of the unified model of electronic government adoption (UMEGA) is adopted in which a multidimensional perceived risk construct is used with four dimensions namely financial, time loss, opportunity cost, and technology risk are identified and integrated with safety needs as a new variable to investigate the factors that influence Palestinians behavioural intention towards the use of e-government services portal. The study will use a structured questionnaire to collect the data from the population after stratifying it using quota/purposive sampling. Data will be analysed using PLS-SEM.
Keywords: e-government; electronic government; UMEGA; perceived risk; financial risk; time loss risk; opportunity cost risk; technology risk; safety need; behavioural intention.
Exploring Determinants of M-government Services for the Ministry of Housing: A Study from the Citizens' Perspective in Oman
by YAHYA ALWAHAIBI, Shamsul Arrieya Ariffin, Aslina Saad, Ramalingam Dharmalingam, Salem Garfan
Abstract: The Sultanate of Oman has implemented M-government to improve service delivery. It provides the Ministry of Housing with unique opportunities for real-time and customised access to government information and services. However, despite the Oman Governments best efforts, low citizen acceptance of M-government services is a common problem in Arab countries. Therefore, to increase the adoption rate, this paper investigates the factors influencing citizens intentions to adopt and use M-government programs for the Ministry of Housing. The technology acceptance model (TAM) was utilised for this research. In addition, three considerations were added to the equation: experience, confidence, and time. Data was gathered, and 428 relevant responses were included in the final survey. All of the proposed factors in our TAM model were statistically important in affecting citizens intention to embrace and use M-government services for the Ministry of Housing, according to the descriptive research provided in this paper.
Keywords: mobile government; M-government; Sultanate of Oman; technology acceptance model; TAM; Ministry of Housing.
Analysis of the Nagari Readiness in Implementing Smart Village in West Sumatera, Indonesia
by Yuskar Yuskar, Asniati Bahari, Eri Gas Eka Putra, Jefril Ramadoni, Ihsani Mazelfi
Abstract: This study aims to evaluate villages readiness called Nagari in West Sumatra, Indonesia, in implementing the smart village. The research involved 928 Nagari in the province. However, 208 Nagari were excluded because no internet network. Questionnaires were distributed to 720 Nagari with a 25.56% response rate. The Nagari readiness variable was measured using a five-Likert scale using the TOE Framework. TOE can predict the availability of technology, organisational resources, and the environment around the organisation. The results showed that to implement smart village, Nagari in West Sumatra still needs more improvements in information technology and human resources capability. However, culture of the Nagari is adequate to achieve smart village. This research contributes to the knowledge of accounting and management information systems practice. The result of the study will also be valuable for villages management and West Sumatera Province policymakers, IT practitioners, and researchers to help Nagari implementing smart village.
Keywords: smart village; TOE framework; implementation readiness; Nagari of West Sumatera; digitalisation Nagari government.
Analytical State: Framework for Thinking about Artificial Intelligence and Algorithms for State power
by Biju P. R. Puthupparambil, Gayathri O
Abstract: The retreat of the Leviathan state and its vast bureaucratic power due to inventions of technologies of connection in the private tech labs were popular since the revolution in computational technology. The use of artificial intelligence has chartered the ability of the private sector to monopolise smart technology that can even compete for state power. This paper adopts a review of the literature on the interplay between the state and AI algorithms and tries to understand the new configuration of state power. The paper draws insights from existing literature in the field of AI applications, and argues that once the AI technology attains a public nature, the state power takes over the realm and brings it under its command. State power is ever stronger with AI, and the state is becoming a vast technological organism, analogous to the neologism: analytical state.
Keywords: State Power; Algorithms; Artificial Intelligence; Prediction; Nation-State.
Methodological Developments and Innovations in e-Government Research
by Jyotshna Sahoo, Basudev Mohanty, Satya Prakash Dash
Abstract: This study aims to assess the scholarly publications on e-government research. It highlights the research areas, developments, and innovations made concerning the research methods and methodological frameworks used to explore e-government research with specific reference to the journal'Transforming Government: People, Process and Policy' (TGPPP). Findings reveal that research papers have the dominant position. A total of 22 unique research methods were found to be used in different frequencies within the study period. Some emerging methods employed in e-government research are design science research (DSR), living lab study, and social network analysis. Many innovative methodological frameworks and models have been used to explore the research studies about various aspects of e-government research. The study offers a unique way to evaluate the publications on e-government research from the perspective of methodological innovations. The findings can be used to better understand the trends of e-government research.
Keywords: research methods; RAKE analysis; keyword analysis; innovative methodological frameworks; scholarly communications.
IDENTITY MANAGEMENT MODEL: ALGERIAN CASE
by Ahmed BERBAR, Abdelkader Belkhir
Abstract: The digital transforming requires the establishment of a trusted environment allowing secure identification of all stakeholders. The most challenge is to secure this digital identity in order to prevent any illegal operation such as identity falsification or access to the personal data. These challenges become more important when it comes to an e-GOV platform bringing all the services offered to citizens and carrying all of their data. In order to meet this challenge, this article proposes a structured, hierarchical and universal model of identification which uniquely identifies each stakeholder (administration, company, citizen...) While protecting the personal data against any manipulation, access or disclosure without the owners approval.
Keywords: electronic identity; digital signature; trusted third party; TTP; unique identification code; UIC; electronic government; cloud; federated identity model.
Improving information quality in e-government of Ukraine
by Igor Oliychenko, Maryna Ditkovska
Abstract: Current research in the field of e-government does not take into account the growing problem of the quality of documents in public administration bodies. Recent works on information quality focus on solving technological problems of information support of public administration. However, increasing the efficiency and information systems effectiveness does not ensure the producing high-quality information in terms of its content. Therefore, the problem of information quality, when the main focus is on organisational issues and staff qualifications, is not sufficiently investigated. This paper developed a hierarchical framework for assessing information quality, conducted a study of the quality of documents in public administration authorities and identified the main characteristics of information from the point of view of the management process. The results of the study provide an opportunity to identify the main ways to improve the quality of information used in public administration.
Keywords: information quality; e-government; quality of documents; hierarchical framework; public administration; quality indicators; Ukraine.
Social media adoption and reach by Ecuadorian local governments: an empirical study
by Gonçalo Paiva Dias, Mariuxi Bruzza, Manuel Tupia
Abstract: In this article, we present an empirical study about adoption and reach of Facebook, Twitter, and YouTube by Ecuadorian municipal governments. Data was collected from 55 social media profiles of municipal authorities in three provinces, representing 25% of all Ecuadorian cantons and 54% of the population. Determinants of adoption and reach were investigated by resorting to correlation, regression, and means comparison studies. We conclude that population size is a good predictor of reach in social media, but it is not relevant to explain early adoption. This may be the consequence of social media technology being inexpensive and simple to adopt, thus being accessible to any local authority, while making good use of it has more financial and administrative burdens and, consequently, is associated with bigger local authorities. Also, adoption may have been centrally driven and programmatically motivated, which would also explain the lesser relevance of population size for early adoption.
Keywords: e-government; social media; local government; Ecuador; e-participation; diffusion of innovation; DoI; adoption; Facebook; Twitter; YouTube.
Allowing privacy-preserving fog computing with digital identity assurance in remote clinical services
by Francesco Buccafurri, Gianluca Lax, Antonia Russo
Abstract: Nowadays, there is an increasing demand for cloud-based remote clinical services, both for diagnosis and monitoring. The COVID-19 pandemic has dramatically amplified this need. E-government programs should quickly go towards the expansion of this type of services, also to avoid that people (especially elderly) renounce treatment or adequate healthcare. However, to be effective, latency between IoT medical devices and the cloud should be reduced as much as possible. For this reason, fog computing appears the best approach, as part of the elaboration is moved closer to the user. However, some privacy threats arise. Indeed, these services can be delivered only based on secure digital identity and authentication systems, but the intermediate fog layer should learn nothing about the identity of users and the link among different service requests. In this paper, we propose a concrete solution to the above issue by leveraging eIDAS-compliant digital identity and by including a cryptographic protocol to provide anonymity and unlinkability of user's access to fog servers.
Keywords: e-health; eIDAS; remote patient monitoring; unlinkability.
Participatory governance capacity building: the missing link of poverty eradication in food diversification policies in Indonesia
by Rulinawaty, Sofjan Aripin, Andriyansah, Lukman Samboteng
Abstract: Women's empowerment is a movement to improve the quality of women's lives in the economic, educational, social, communication and information fields in order to be free from the cycle of poverty and underdevelopment. This study explores the capacity of participatory governance in Indonesia with a focus on CBOs in participatory action. The object of this qualitative research is the second-class community who interacts with government programs, formulating and implementing food diversification policies. The results reveal three roles of participatory governance for poverty reduction: information-based policies at the grassroots level, ensuring all actors are committed to avoiding participatory non-governmental arrangements, and making policy implementation more effective and efficient. The implications of participatory governance for developing countries are positive synergies for designing and implementing poverty alleviation strategies.
Keywords: capacity building; governance participatory network; public policy; policy implementation; community-based organisation; food diversification; Indonesia.
Design of government-citizen participation model for sustainable eGovernment ecosystem - Indian context
by Jyoti Yadav, Anil K. Saini, Amit Kumar Yadav
Abstract: Sustainability of eGovernment projects in developing countries is being considered as a new parameter for development across the world. Though strategic guidance is available from various agencies to overcome its associated challenges and have its smooth implementation, however, as evident from literature there has not been much success stories for developing countries. The study conducted in this paper has made an attempt in collating the pivotal role stakeholders play in sustainability of eGovenment projects. Since most of eGovernment projects these days are being operationalised in PPP mode, the determinants are considered in such a way that it gives significant inputs for both set of employees. The case studies of two eGovernment projects, along with dataset for 600 users have been included as part of paper. The conceptual model prepared can be used to construct quantitative simulation tools which can then be used by policymakers, during various stages of eGovernment projects.
Keywords: conceptual data modelling; eGovernment; sustainability; citizens; employees; sustainability; government citizen participation; GCP; public private partnership; PPP; NeGP.
A novel model to improve mobile commerce acceptance based on TAM in Iran
by Taghi Javdani Gandomani, Sheida Shirian, Hadi Khosravi Farsani
Abstract: Along with traditional commerce, a new commerce has emerged called e-commerce which has influenced trade rules from different aspects. Mobile commerce is a special kind of wireless e-commerce that expands the spread of wireless communication technologies. Correct understanding of providers is certain and important in facing the technology of mobile commerce. With the development of information technology and in order to understand a user's acceptance of a given technology in different domains, many general models were created, and the technology acceptance model (TAM) is one of the most popular models. The present study focuses on offering technology acceptance model of mobile commerce in Iran (regarding the above-mentioned limitation). Therefore, some new factors like trust, training, income, experience and so on, have been added to this model by considering factors of primary model of technology acceptance and using standard questionnaire of Davis and colleagues. Then, the proposed model was analysed and shows its good acceptance.
Keywords: electronic-commerce; mobile commerce; technology acceptance model; TAM; mobile commerce; Iran.