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World Review of Science, Technology and Sustainable Development

World Review of Science, Technology and Sustainable Development (WRSTSD)

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World Review of Science, Technology and Sustainable Development (40 papers in press)

Regular Issues

  • Prediction of CI Engine Combustion Characteristics Operating with HHO Gas as the Supplementary Fuel   Order a copy of this article
    by P.V. MANU, Navaneeth Kishan T R, S. Jayaraj 
    Abstract: Substitution for diesel in CI engines is the immediate need, considering the depletion of fossil fuels at a faster rate. In the present work, a zero-dimensional two-zone model is implemented to predict the combustion characteristics of a CI engine operating in dual fuel mode with diesel and oxy-hydrogen. A double Wiebe function is used to estimate the mass fraction burned in the premixed and diffused stages. The estimated mass fraction burned is then used to calculate the heat released during combustion. Basic thermodynamic relations are used to determine the pressure and temperature at all crank positions and engine kinematics is used to find the variation in the cylinder volume with respect to crank angle considering specific amount of heat transfer to the cylinder walls. The effect of temperature on various properties such as specific heat, viscosity, density, and thermal conductivity are considered in the analysis. The equations are solved in MATLAB
    Keywords: Two zone model; Combustion; Theoretical model; HHO gas; Double Wiebe function.

  • Selection of sanitary landfill site by integrated fuzzy AHP and GIS for Multan, Pakistan   Order a copy of this article
    by Samra Fatima, Zulfa Hanan Ash’aari, Mohammad Firuz Ramli, Amir Hamzah Sharaai, Muhammad Nawaz Chaudhry 
    Abstract: Sanitary landfill is a common solution for the final solid waste disposal in developing countries. The appropriate landfill location is a very complicated task, as the site selection process involves several factors and guidelines. In this study, suitable candidate landfill sites with minimum risks to public health and environment for the Multan district of Pakistan were identified by integrating the Fuzzy set theory and Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) within GIS. The socio-economic (i.e., distance to main roads, railway lines, airport, settlements and slope), ecological (i.e., distance to the protected area, distance to the source of surface water, groundwater level, soil type, and land cover type), and infrastructure (distance to tube wells and electric power lines) criteria were taken into consideration. In the Fuzzy set, criteria standardisation was done by using different membership functions, whereas the weighting was performed using AHP method to determine the relative importance of the sub-criteria. The results showed that almost 8.5% of the total study area was the most suitable for landfills. After ground-truthing, the three best suitable landfill sites were selected across the district in terms of significant criteria.
    Keywords: multi-attribute decision making; multi-attribute decision-making; MADM; solid waste; site selection; suitability map; ground validation.
    DOI: 10.1504/WRSTSD.2021.10040310
    Abstract: Purpose: The Financial Asset Management Industry (such as hedge funds, mutual funds, pension funds, portfolio management services etc.) is looking for avenues to cut fund maintenance cost, optimize their processes and easy way of staying in compliance with regulations. Blockchain provides a feasible solution to these requirements. This paper explores the operational and implementational aspects of how the Enterprise Blockchain the business grade version of the blockchain technology can benefit all stakeholders in the asset management industry. Both managerial and technical perspectives are kept into consider to provide a feasible solution for practical applicability. Methodology/approach: This research uses a theory-driven approach by taking through the concepts of enterprise blockchain and explaining how each of them fit into the practical implementations in the industry. Technology, process, policy and social aspects of the implementation are being discussed. Enterprise Ethereum Alliances (EEA) Ethereum Architecture Stack is used to describe the architectural framework in the technical implementation. Findings: There is a significant potential for the application of blockchain in the asset management industry. The architecture provided by EEA eases practical implementation and derives benefits to various stakeholders. Research Implications: This paper brings together the existing body of knowledge and latest developments on enterprise blockchain and explains how these features give a value proposition for the asset management ecosystem from a practical implementation perspective thereby furthering our understanding on the subject. Practical Implications: Stakeholders of the asset management industry (Regulators, Asset Management Companies, Registrars etc.) and other financial intermediaries will have to migrate their systems to the blockchain network sooner or later. When the entire financial eco-system moves to the blockchain, lazy laggards will be forced to migrating with technology flow sooner or later.
    Keywords: asset management; fund management; smart contract; regulatory technology; Ethereum; enterprise blockchain; dapp.

  • Flood Risk: A capacity and vulnerability analysis of Newham and Hammersmith, UK   Order a copy of this article
    by Arzoo Hassan, Cody Morris Paris 
    Abstract: The intensity of floods due to climate change has significantly increased in both developed and developing countries. Flood prevention measures are assumed to be more robust in more developed economies with the ability to dedicate greater economic resources. However, in London, a deeper interrogation of flood risk management (FRM) tells a different story. This study presents a comparative capacity and vulnerability analysis of the Newham and Hammersmith areas of London. The analysis suggests lower levels of resiliency for Newham, a lower-income and ethnically diverse area. On the contrary, the more affluent area of Hammersmith is more likely to be better equipped to respond and recover in the event of flooding.
    Keywords: Climate Change; Natural Disaster; Social Justice; Sustainable Development; Disaster Risk Reduction; Natural Hazards; Resilience; Community Development.

  • Review on anticipation of blackhole attack in MANET environment   Order a copy of this article
    by Padmini Devi Balachandran 
    Abstract: A mobile ad hoc network (MANET) is most recent and developing research subject among analysts. The purpose for the ubiquity of MANET is adaptability and autonomy of system foundation. MANET has some exceptional trademark like unique system topology, constrained power and restricted data transfer capacity for correspondence. In MANET every last hub goes about as a customer and server. Any hub in the MANET can join and leave the system with no consent. MANET is a mobile ad hoc network in which hubs are get associated with one another without a passageway. Messages are traded and transferred between hubs. Steering calculations are used for sending parcels between aberrant hubs not in coordinate range with help of moderate hubs. Because of the open correspondence media the versatile specially appointed system has some security restrictions there are the likelihood of data spillage in the system. Dark gap assault is a genuine danger, in this assault a malignant hub include parody course and promote most limited way to goal hub and ingests all information bundle in it. Numerous scientists have purposed diverse procedures of AODV convention to recognise and shield from dark gap assault.
    Keywords: ad hoc networks; routing protocol; ad hoc on-demand distance vector; black hole attack.
    DOI: 10.1504/WRSTSD.2022.10045151
  • Removal of methylene blue using naturadsorbents   Order a copy of this article
    by Lincy Arulraj, Jegathambal Palanichamy, E.J. James 
    Abstract: The main aim of this study is to present a novel green and cost-effective method to synthesise magnetite nanoparticles (Fe3O4) using biological method. Magnetite nanoparticles play a significant role in remediation of toxic metal ions. Fe3O4 was successfully synthesised using four different natural wastes such as mosambi peel, pomegranate peel, moringa leaf powder and tea waste. These plant materials and tea waste have high polyphenol content and they form complex with metal ions and will increase the adsorption rate. The prepared materials were characterised by UV-visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis spectroscopy) and Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR). The synthesised nanoparticles where then incorporated into beads. The maximum removal of blue dye was 93.72% for pomegranate peel, 81.34% for mosambi peel, 73.25% for moringa leaf powder, 24.54% for Tea waste at the initial 100 ppm. Pomegranate beads were more effective than other adsorbents in the removal of blue dye.
    Keywords: magnetite; biological method; beads.
    DOI: 10.1504/WRSTSD.2021.10042573
  • Comparative assessment of carbon sequestration potential of sodium bicarbonate supplemented marine and freshwater algae   Order a copy of this article
    by Smriti Mehrotra, Bhawana Pathak 
    Abstract: The present study aims to compare the carbon sequestration potential of marine algae (Dunaliella salina) and freshwater algae (Scenedesmus dimorphus) by supplying sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) to the culture medium as a source of inorganic carbon. Increasing concentration of NaHCO3 0.25 g/l, 0.5 g/l, 0.75 g/l and 1 g/l was supplied to the culture medium of both algae. Results revealed maximum growth rate and biomass productivity at 0.5 g/l concentration, with Scenedesmus dimorphous obtaining a biomass productivity of 46.22 +- 2.13 mg/l/d in comparison to Dunaliella salina 38.92 +- 2.56 mg/l/d. However, lipid productivity was found to be highest at NaHCO3 supplementation of 1 g/l in Dunaliella salina with 24.77 +- 1.23 mg/l/d. Thus these findings prove the freshwater microalgal strain of Scenedesmus dimorphous to be a potent carbon sequester and the marine strain of Dunaliella salina to be an efficient feedstock for biodiesel production.
    Keywords: biomass productivity; CO2 fixation rate; carbon sequestration; Dunaliella salina; Scenedesmus dimorphus; microalgae; sodium bicarbonate; lipid.
    DOI: 10.1504/WRSTSD.2021.10041776
    Abstract: In this research paper, a piezoelectric material is embedded into a composite material in the form of a beam structure. Structural Health Monitoring system is created to find the mechanical parameters under dynamic loading condition. The Finite Element Simulation Software tool is used to predict the failure, deformation and the induced stress during the loading condition. A Multiphysics COMSOL
    Keywords: Piezoelectric; Composite; COMSOL®; Finite Element Simulation; Dynamic Simulation; Condition Monitoring.

  • Highly cited articles about organic leachate treatment by Fenton method in 21st century: a bibliometric and visualised analysis   Order a copy of this article
    by Erfan Nabavi, Mohammadreza Sabour, GhorbanAli Dezvareh, Majid Ehteshami 
    Abstract: The debate of leachate is one of the hot topics of world today, and the purification of this factor is one of the challenges of many experts. Organic wastewater treatment becomes a critical problem in sustainable advancement, while it involves a high number of refractory and toxic organic pollutants. Finding the best method of leachate treatment, especially the leachate of organic waste is one of the significant problems and concerns of researchers today. Applying Fenton method, Research and articles on leachate and waste treatment have dramatically increased in recent years. In comparison to other AOPs, Fenton process is the most popular due to its some exciting benefits. This bibliometric study was performed using the authoritative source of the Scopus site using VOSviewr analytical software. Brillas had the highest number of articles and researches with 30 works and chong m.n with 2,709 citations had the highest number of citations to articles.
    Keywords: author citations; Fenton process; organic leachate treatment; review article; research trends.
    DOI: 10.1504/WRSTSD.2021.10041092
  • COVID-19 and MSMEs: basic insights from India on revival through financial inclusion backed by digital technologies   Order a copy of this article
    by K. Rajamani, A.G. Rekha 
    Abstract: MSMEs are facing a double-edged sword that of a health crisis combined with an economic crisis. They have been worst hit due to COVID-19 and prolonged lockdown and are facing a myriad of challenges with regard to restarting of business. One of the frequently identified challenges to the development of the MSME sector is access to finance. The significance of this challenge is higher than ever in the pandemic and post-pandemic scenario. This paper explores the issues involved in MSME financing and the opportunities offered by ICT for overcoming those issues. Digital technologies offer the potential to radically improve financial inclusion in the MSME sector by overcoming the obstacles that affect the supply and demand for financial services. This study contends and proposes a financial ecosystem backed by emerging innovative technologies that offer a holistic approach for achieving inclusive growth and bridging the gap between demand and supply in MSMEs.
    Keywords: digital transformation; COVID-19; financial inclusion; micro small and medium enterprises; MSME; India.
    DOI: 10.1504/WRSTSD.2021.10042056
  • Deconstruction of sustainable development discourses: avoiding skepticism pitfalls with a postmodern perspective   Order a copy of this article
    by Sina Shokoohyar, Sajjad Shokohyar, Vahid Ghomi, Amirsalar Jafari Gorizi 
    Abstract: Although many countries have joined together under the umbrella of sustainable development and its goals, two unsolved issues have remained: the ambiguity in its definition and the skepticism about it. In this paper, for understanding the roots of skepticism, by adopting a postmodern approach to the related discourses, the footprint of forming a metanarrative was seen. To avoid the pitfalls, deconstruction suggests that that the first thing to do is to acknowledge the ambiguity of that definition that comes from the inefficiency of using the binary oppositions - the needs and ambitions, and the present and future generations - and holding to its constructive narrative; limitation. The second step is creating a more engaging narrative of sustainable development. Talking about a climate crisis with force and fury is the new narrative that President Biden has started. He added that with unity, we can confront the climate crisis with American jobs and ingenuity.
    Keywords: sustainability; sustainable development; climate change; postmodernism; poststructuralism; deconstruction; skepticism.
    DOI: 10.1504/WRSTSD.2021.10043475
  • ICT infrastructure and innovation: determinants, potentials, and policy implications   Order a copy of this article
    by Ajoy Ketan Sarangi, Rudra P. Pradhan, Madhusmita Misra 
    Abstract: The paper studies emerging ICT infrastructure qualitatively and represents the determinants and their influence on innovations conceptually using design thinking. It proposes ICT adoption factors, delivers techno-managerial values for strategic resource management, and reveals their interplay dynamics to propose policies for triggering digital innovations and research output. It identifies artificial intelligence, robotic process automation, cloud, edge, fog and quantum computing for product, process, organisation innovations and knowledge engineering. It delivers technical structure and determinants, conceptual framework, technological, business, innovation potentials and advantages of ICT infrastructure to facilitate innovation, decision-making, design, and implementations with social and economic ramifications.
    Keywords: ICT-infrastructure; innovation; ICT determinant; ICT effectiveness; innovation potential.
    DOI: 10.1504/WRSTSD.2021.10043646
  • Integrating Eco-efficiency and Artificial Intelligence to Assess the Environmental Sustainability of Wheat Production in Mechanized and Semi-Mechanized Systems   Order a copy of this article
    by Mobin Amoozad-Khalili, Yaser Feizabadi, Ghasem Norouzi 
    Abstract: The Eco-efficiency index (EF) is known as a proper criterion for studying the economic and environmental sustainability in production simultaneously. In this regard, this study investigated the sustainability of the mechanized system (MS) and semi-mechanized system (SMS) of wheat production in northern Iran using EF under conventional and optimal conditions. Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) and Genetic Algorithm (GA) were also applied to model and optimize the wheat production system. Under conventional conditions, the EF of the SMS (0.65 $ kgCO2eq-1) was higher than the MS (0.52 $ kgCO2eq-1). The results of optimization suggested that a decrease in the consumption of chemical fertilizers, biocides, and seeds, and an increase in the consumption of other inputs should be sought to achieve optimal conditions in both systems. Under optimal conditions, the results demonstrated that the EF of MS and SMS significantly increased to 1.09 and 1.15 $ kgCO2eq-1, respectively.
    Keywords: Eco-efficiency; Model; Optimization; Sustainability; Wheat.

  • Simulation of a solar absorption air conditioning system for a tropical wet region in Brazil   Order a copy of this article
    by Antonio Gabriel Souza Almeida, Luan Kaique Bastos 
    Abstract: The objective of the present study is to simulate and verify the technical feasibility of an absorption cooling system powered by solar energy for air conditioning in part of an administrative building in a Brazilian tropical wet region. The project consists of an H2O/LiBr single-effect absorption chiller associated to flat plate collectors and a thermal storage tank. Salvador, a coastal city in NE Brazil, was selected as the meteorological reference for the calculations. The results showed that a flat plate collector field with an area of 331 m
    Keywords: air conditioning; absorption cooling; solar refrigeration; solar collectors.

  • Optimal value determination using traditional and newly developed method based on using initial basic feasible solution of a transportation problem using northwest and Russell method   Order a copy of this article
    by Chandrasekhar Putcha, Subhas C. Misra, Leo-Paul Dana, Karthik Sai Somarajupalli, John Holleran, Sharayu Satish Bode 
    Abstract: This paper utilises a transportation problem scenario to conduct a study on optimisation of transportation problems that are formatted as linear programming problem. Initially, Northwest corner rule and the Russell’s method are used to obtain the highest initial basic feasible (IBF) solutions and then a Putcha-Bhuiyan method is proposed to obtain an optimal solution. The Putcha-Bhuiyan method provides the optimal solution with fast convergence of transportation problems. This method results in an optimal solution by making appropriate changes to the IBF solution and eliminating the need to conduct iterations using chain reaction or transportation simplex algorithm. To explain and justify the advantages of the Putcha-Bhuiyan method, the solution to the problem scenario was compared with the transportation simplex method. While the justification of the Putcha-Bhuiyan method is with only one problem scenario, it will be very useful for solving multiple and large-scale optimisation problems that are faced in many disciplines. These concepts are dominantly utilised in disciplines like industrial engineering, mechanical engineering, smart manufacturing, and supply chain management.
    Keywords: optimal value; traditional method; newly developed method; transportation problems; northwest method; Russell method; IBF; initial basic feasible solutions; Putcha Bhuiyan method.
    DOI: 10.1504/WRSTSD.2022.10048347

Special Issue on: Sustainable Business Practices for Marketers in Emerging Markets

  • Does employee retention depend on spiritual work environment and organisational internal branding? – A study in the context of emerging market   Order a copy of this article
    by Vikas Arya 
    Abstract: The study was conducted to identify whether spiritually charged organisations are capable of retaining their employees and whether internal branding of the organisation has an effect on employees' retention rate. The current study addressed the role of spiritual practices in the corporate workplace through the employee's perspectives, especially their retention in the organisation. This study is descriptive in nature, where primary data were collected from 251 respondents who work in Patanjali Yogpeeth, Uttarakhand, India. For structural analysis of the conceptual relationship, we used structural equation modelling imploring AMOS and ADANCO software. The findings of the study identified that being spiritually charged led organisations to have high employee retention rates, as employees attain self-satisfaction in professional as well as personal lives if they are able to explore their values, customs, and spiritual inclinations. This study explored the spiritual practices that influence employees to have a positive attitude towards the organisation and stay loyal to the firm. Spiritual practices at the workplace reflect employees' happiness, which helps the organisation to strengthen its internal branding.
    Keywords: spiritual work environment; SWE; employee retention; organisational internal branding; employees' behaviour at work; nature of spirituality at work.
    DOI: 10.1504/WRSTSD.2022.10047874
  • The usage and economic effects of biomass energy   Order a copy of this article
    by Ümit Koç 
    Abstract: Carbon emission rates have been increasing continuously in the last 200 years and consequently, this increase has dangerous and irreversible effects on climate. The rise in the planet's temperature is not the only negative result of climate change and global warming, triggered by the depletion of the ozone layer. Increased frequency and impact of extreme weather events such as drought, floods, violent hurricanes, rising sea levels and acid rates, melting glaciers are some of the known effects. As a result of these effects plants, animals and ecosystems, as well as humankind are at serious risk. For this reason, many institutions such as OECD and the World Bank are trying to control climate change and prevent the destruction of nature by announcing the concept of green growth. Increasing energy efficiency, using renewable energy sources and increasing forest lands are extremely critical for preventing the destruction of nature. The use of biomass, which is a very old and traditional energy resource, has entered the agenda of the governments as a serious renewable type of energy in parallel with the recent developments. This study will focus on the use of biomass as a renewable energy resource and its economic effects.
    Keywords: biomass; renewable energy; biomass energy; economic growth; energy supply.
    DOI: 10.1504/WRSTSD.2021.10038665
  • The impacts of wind energy generation on the economic growth: a dynamic panel data analysis   Order a copy of this article
    by Şükrü Apaydın, Ümit Koç 
    Abstract: Energy is a crucial factor in both production and consumption processes. It is a critical component not only for economic growth but also for social, technological and environmental issues. With the events and facts in these areas, the importance of the energy has increased more and the research for alternative energy sources has accelerated in the last 50 years. Renewable energy sources have become more preferable by considering the goal of sustainable growth. In this context, wind energy production, which is almost the half of the total renewable energy production, has gained significant importance especially in the post-1990 period. The objective of this study is to assess the impact of wind energy production on economic growth with GMM method on a sample of 60 countries between the time period 1990 and 2017 (N = 60, T = 28). The findings suggest that wind energy positively affects economic growth, thus, supporting the growth hypothesis.
    Keywords: renewable energy; wind energy generation; economic growth; dynamic panel data.
    DOI: 10.1504/WRSTSD.2021.10038664
  • An impact of FPI inflows, Nifty returns, and S&P returns on India VIX volatility   Order a copy of this article
    by Parul Kumar, Sunil Kumar, R.K. Sharma 
    Abstract: This paper analyses the relationship between FPI and the implied volatility. The daily data have been used for analysing the impact of FPI, Nifty returns, S&P 500 returns and CBOE VIX (the proxy of volatility expectation in the US) on India VIX, the proxy for volatility expectations. The time period for this study starts from March 2008-December 2017. The overall objective of the study was to analyse the impact of FPI, Nifty returns, S&P returns, volatility of US market and interaction effect among them on the implied volatility index (India VIX). ARIMA GARCH has been used to test the hypothesis of the study. It was concluded that implied volatility is impacted by the FPI investment in India, Nifty returns, S&P returns and CBOE VIX. It was also found that the volatility has not increased by the emergence of FPIs in India, rather the expected volatility decreased with the increased investment by FPIs. Another observation from the study was that the past volatility affect was more on the future volatility as the GARCH effect was more as compared to the ARCH effect.
    Keywords: GARCH; PGARCH; EGARCH; implied volatility; NSE; S&P 500; India.
    DOI: 10.1504/WRSTSD.2021.10041030
  • Workplace spirituality in the Indian IT sector: development and validation of the scale   Order a copy of this article
    by Anshul Gupta, Arti Arun Kumar 
    Abstract: The Indian information technology (IT) sector faces a unique challenge of managing their knowledge workers. Workplace spirituality, defined as recognising employees as a spiritual being, is seen as a new solution to the challenges faced by the IT sector. There are many conceptual models, but very few empirical ones to measure spirituality at work in the Indian context. The present study aims to develop an instrument that measures workplace spirituality. In-depth interviews were conducted with 20 IT professionals and seven themes emerged from these interviews, based on which a 66-item questionnaire was developed which was further reduced to 33 items as per recommendations from experts. The questionnaire was administered to 172 Indian IT professionals and its reliability and construct validity were determined using convergent and discriminant validity. As a future scope, the questionnaire could be tested in other sectors and suitable changes be generalised in the Indian context.
    Keywords: workplace spirituality; Indian information technology sector; scale construction; reliability; construct validity.
    DOI: 10.1504/WRSTSD.2022.10047869
  • Bank segmentation at the bottom of the pyramid: a developing country perspective   Order a copy of this article
    by Sonal Purohit, Rakhi Arora 
    Abstract: The paper explored the segmentation of the financial services sector at the bottom of the pyramid (BoP) in India. This could help managers in financial institutions to devise appropriate marketing strategies to address the needs of various segments. The study used a benefit segmentation approach and studied the demographic characteristics of various segments. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data from a sample of 400 individuals in the BoP from both urban and rural areas of Delhi National Capital region. To identify the segments, factor analysis and cluster analysis were employed. The study shows that there are several statistically distinct segments in the BoP. There was a significant difference in the benefits sought by individuals with varying demographic profiles. The study contributes to the existing literature on bank segmentation at the BoP, particularly in the context of developing countries, where the area is under-researched.
    Keywords: bottom of the pyramid; BoP; financial services; segmentation; services marketing; cluster analysis; factor analysis.
    DOI: 10.1504/WRSTSD.2022.10047870
  • Factors for contact lens denial: contact lens dispensers' perspective about wearers   Order a copy of this article
    by Deependra Sharma, Satyam Gupta 
    Abstract: Contact lens dispensers play a significant role in wearers' decision of choosing vision correction devices like contact lenses. This study aims to identify the factors of contact lens denial in the contact lens dispensers' perception about wearers' perspective and explore the relationship between dispensers' 'work experience' and 'role in the optical store' with factors of contact lens denial. A questionnaire was constructed and distributed among contact lens dispensers. Cost, care, and maintenance of contact lenses, fear of worsening the vision, interest in the spectacle, fear of contact lens side effects, and handling issues were identified as major reasons for contact lens denial. Among all 'fear of contact lens side effects' was found most widely accepted barrier in contact lens acceptance. The study identifies the relationship between various characteristics of contact lens dispensers and factors of contact lens denial.
    Keywords: contact lenses; dispensers; vision; care and maintenance; side effects; work experience; cost; spectacles; denial; opinion survey.
    DOI: 10.1504/WRSTSD.2022.10047871
  • Volatility study in some of the emerging stock markets: a GARCH approach   Order a copy of this article
    by Navita Nathani, Silky Vigg Kushwah 
    Abstract: The current study analyses the volatility of stock indices of some developing and developed economies regarding the emerging index of India, Nifty. It also tries to understand the trends of the volatility of stock indices and the interdependence among the stock markets of these economies. Stock market indices of the USA, Japan, India, China and Iran have been regressed with the emerging stock market index of India. The study uses GARCH models to analyse the co-movement and volatility transmission among various stock indexes considered. The result indicates that ARCH and GARCH effect has been seen but the terms are not significant in Tepix, SSE Composite and Nikkei stock indices while significant among Nifty and Nasdaq Composite. The volatility interactions between Nifty and Nasdaq Composite are more prominent as compared to other stock indices considered and investors are suggested to study the movements of Nasdaq Composite before making an investment decision for Nifty.
    Keywords: volatility; GARCH/ARCH; developing and developed nations; time series; emerging stock market.
    DOI: 10.1504/WRSTSD.2021.10038838
  • The rise of the era of technological amenities and their adoption in the hotel industry   Order a copy of this article
    by Vaibhav Verma, Sheetal Thakur 
    Abstract: Technology has transformed every industry in the world and the tourism and hospitality industry is no exception. The advent of information technology has transformed the hospitality industry in numerous ways, but now the advent of the technological amenities has taken this transformation to a whole new level. The provisioning of technological amenities such as keyless entry, electronic lockers, smart rooms, smart mirrors, etc. by the hotels is creating a new form of satisfaction for the tech-savvy generation of travellers. The adoption of these technological amenities can upgrade the hotel industry and increase customer satisfaction. Himachal Pradesh being one of the most important tourist destinations in India attracts millions of guests to its hotel industry and thus there is a need to identify the State Tourism's adoption of these technological amenities. The research has found that the technological amenity adoption at the hotels of Himachal Pradesh is in its cradle at the moment. Out of the 100 hotels visited only 8.04% of the hotels are providing one or more types of such amenities and thus the tourism industry of the state requires considering better adoption for enhanced guest satisfaction.
    Keywords: digital menu; digital footprint; electronic locker; HSIA; keyless entry; pay per view; smart mirrors; smart room; technological amenity; hotel amenities.
    DOI: 10.1504/WRSTSD.2021.10040067
  • Impact of marketing semiotics on branding towards the interest of customers in Indian retails: an exploration of factors   Order a copy of this article
    by Subhajit Paul, Anirban Dutta 
    Abstract: Over the past 20 years all over the world, the retail industry has undergone a radical change and India has also experienced the same. Hence, competition has risen drastically. To survive in this competition, various retail organisations have come up with various strategies to attract customers. In this scenario, the marketing semiotic elements played a vital role in framing the branding strategies. In this research paper, we have taken Reliance Trends, which is one of the biggest pan India garment retail chain as a case study. The research objective is to find out the most important factors, which are responsible for creating brand interest of customers in Indian retails by the three important marketing semiotic elements such as brand name, logo and symbol and brand ambassador. The methodology adopted for this research work is descriptive in nature and primary data has been collected through a structured questionnaire from 356 valid respondents. Using factor analysis, seven factors have been identified after the completion of the data analysis, which can be considered as the most important factors responsible for creating customers' interest towards Indian retail brands.
    Keywords: marketing semiotics; brand name; logo and symbol; brand ambassador; factor analysis.
    DOI: 10.1504/WRSTSD.2022.10047872
  • Exploring the relationship between seller selection and purchase intention: the mediating role of e-WOM and trust   Order a copy of this article
    by Priyadarshi Ranjan, G.V.R.K. Acharyulu 
    Abstract: The emergence of the e-commerce marketplace has witnessed impressive growth over the years, attracting several players, large and small. While it has made shopping convenient, it has also brought in its share of challenges for marketplace operators to facilitate the development of seller selection criteria. Sellers play an essential role in e-commerce marketplaces because business activities such as product price, product quality, delivery lead time, delivery quality, and delivery cost depend on them. This study aims to explore the relationship between seller selection and customer purchase intention. A theoretical framework is constructed using trust and electronics word of mouth (e-WOM) to form a combined research model to describe how seller selection influences purchase intention. Web-based questionnaires, created using Google Survey, are used to collect data from people with online shopping experience and the responses are analysed using structural equation modelling with SmartPLS 3.0. The results show that seller selection significantly affects purchase intention and sets strong precedents for trust and e-WOM. Trust and e-WOM are found to be good mediators between seller selection and purchase intention.
    Keywords: seller selection; e-commerce marketplace; electronic commerce; purchase intention; trust; electronics word of mouth; e-WOM; PLS.
    DOI: 10.1504/WRSTSD.2022.10047873
  • Analysis of wastewater from medical institutions in India   Order a copy of this article
    by Aastha Dhingra, Nadeem A. Khan, Sirajuddin Ahmed, Siddhartha Gautam, Sergij Vambol, Viola Vambol, Svitlana Kovalenko 
    Abstract: The quality of surface water degraded especially due to entry of pharmaceuticals, hazardous material into it. These micro-pollutant are hard to degrade as well as detect in water or wastewater system. Based on research, organic and inorganic particles, as well as soluble organic and soluble inorganic substances, are contained in medical wastewater. Among these harmful and dangerous substances: vomiting, faeces, metal particles, hydrogen sulphide, urea and much more. In some countries, such as India and Ukraine, hospital wastewater is discharged to urban wastewater treatment plants. A survey was conducted in 75 hospitals, including 25 hospitals from the categories of high, medium and low. The average water consumption per bed per day in a hospital of Delhi ranges between 500-600 LPD. The annual water consumption in hospitals of Delhi is about 9,000 million litres. The study purpose is to study the details of water consumption in hospitals to develop recommendations for protection of the environment from hazardous pollutants.
    Keywords: wastewater; medical institutions; pharmaceuticals; natural waters; wastewater discharge; India.
    DOI: 10.1504/WRSTSD.2022.10047867

Special Issue on: CONCOVID 2020 The Global Economy, The Tourism Sector and Sustainable Development

  • Effects of Covid-19 pandemics on the cost items of hotel operations   Order a copy of this article
    by Muammer Mesci, Mehmet Akif Öncü, Aslinur Yavuz 
    Abstract: The outbreak of the new type coronavirus (Covid-19) has affected all commercial sectors including the tourism sector, nearly bringing mobility in tourism to a halt. The aim of this study is to determine the possible effects of the outbreak on the cost items of hotel businesses. The method of the study is based on the qualitative research method. In this context, a large five-star hotel enterprise (luxury segment) in Istanbul Province was examined. The work is designed in the context of a case-by-case method. In this respect, the effects of the outbreak on the cost items of the business were examined by the hotel employees. Data of the study were obtained through the semi-structured questions form. The study concluded that food and beverages, front office, sales and booking, parking and spa-health departments were the most affected cost items. Ahead, the Covid-19 outbreak can negatively affect people economically, and subsequently, peoples purchasing power may also decline. For this reason, suggestions are made for how businesses can create affordable pricing policies for consumers and their own businesses in their products and services.
    Keywords: Covid-19; tourism; cost elements.
    DOI: 10.1504/WRSTSD.2021.10036108
  • Potential impacts of COVID-19 pandemic on Turkish economy and its carbon dioxide emissions: an extended input-output analysis   Order a copy of this article
    by Levent Aydin, Izzet Ari 
    Abstract: COVID-19 pandemic has lead to societal transformation in terms of economic, social, and environmental behaviours. Like other countries, Turkey has suffered from the pandemic. The aim of this study was to investigate the impacts of COVID-19 on the following major indicators: total hours worked by employees, number of employees, labour compensation, capital compensation, gross value added and nominal capital stock at current basic prices, and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. Throughout the study, an extended input-output (EIO) analysis was employed. The scope of the study was based on the decline in economic activities in the restricted sectors such as accommodation and food services, travel agencies, tour operators and other reservation and related services, air transport, land tourism, water transport, and leisure activities. Three main scenarios, i.e., fast recovery scenario, continuing slowdown scenario, and economic recession scenario, were set to analyse the effects of COVID-19 on the Turkish economy and CO2 emissions.
    Keywords: COVID-19; extended input-output analysis; Turkish economy; carbon dioxide emission.
    DOI: 10.1504/WRSTSD.2021.10036251
  • Covid-19 pandemic period reflections on problems experienced in distance education at the primary school level: teacher opinions   Order a copy of this article
    by Nefise Celik Omeraga, Nurdan Ozrecberoglu, Sema Yilmaz Genc, Rui Alexandre Castanho 
    Abstract: The Covid-19 pandemic, which began in December 2019 and quickly spread throughout the world, led to the closure of the world as well as our country and affected all sectors, including the education sector. As a result of the impact of Covid-19, face-to-face education was interrupted all over the world and in our country and distance education systems were initiated. During this whole process, various problems occurred in education; consequently, this study aims to investigate the opinions of teachers in primary schools in the TRNC working during this time to determine the nature of these problems. Information was gathered using the qualitative research scanning model; for this purpose, an easily accessible sample group selected on a volunteer basis was studied and their views on the subject were determined using a semi-structured interview form. The data obtained from the research were analysed by content analysis.
    Keywords: Covid-19 distance education; Covid-19 distance education teacher opinions; distance education in TRNC.
    DOI: 10.1504/WRSTSD.2021.10037379
  • An impact study on Covid-19 and tourism sustainability: intelligent solutions, issues and future challenges   Order a copy of this article
    by Saumendra Das, Janmenjoy Nayak, Bighnaraj Naik 
    Abstract: Tourism is the deed of every individual who loves to travel for leisure, entertainment, sports, or other purpose and usually stay in places outside their environment. It involves hospitality, health, sports, education, or entertainment. Tourism is often connected with the individual intentions to discover the facts and findings of the environment. But, the Covid-19 pandemic contamination has furiously affected the kind of tourism industry across the world and waiting for the biggest downfall ever in the history of tourism. It not only affected the common inter and intraregional travel but also badly hit the global tourism sectors. In this article, an impact study of Covid-19 on tourism sustainability is performed with an in-depth discussion on various issues and challenges. Further, an effective analytical perspective is presented on the applications of intelligent computing techniques to meet the challenges of tourism concerning Covid-19. This study will be helpful for effective analysis on different tourism sectors in a post-pandemic scenario along with a special focus towards the enhancement of domain knowledge of different stakeholders, industries, and government organisations.
    Keywords: tourism; sustainability; Covid-19; pandemic; machine learning.
    DOI: 10.1504/WRSTSD.2021.10038456
  • Impact of the COVID-19 on MSCI world equity market index   Order a copy of this article
    by Nurhan Toğuç 
    Abstract: This article aims to analyse and measure the impact of the COVID-19 daily fatality cases, along with the BRENT prices and the financial volatility index (VIX) on the global economy, proxied by MSCI global market index (MXWO) both in the long run and the short-run and discuss policy responses using the ARDL methodology. The study contributes to the literature as it is one of the first studies aimed at measuring the impact and direction of COVID-19 daily fatality cases on the global markets investigated through financial contagion. The ARDL model estimates indicated a significant and negative effect of the coronavirus crisis on MXWO. BRENT prices seem to have no direct effect on the global economy proxied by MXMO index, both in the long and the short term. But, it is likely to have an indirect effect through financial volatility as BRENT prices reacted sharply to the rise in financial volatility.
    Keywords: COVID-19; autoregressive distributed lag; ARDL; MSCI world index; BRENT; volatility index; financial contagion.
    DOI: 10.1504/WRSTSD.2021.10038774
  • How SARS-CoV-2 crisis could influence the tourism intentions of Azores Archipelago residents? A study based on the assessment of the public perceptions   Order a copy of this article
    by Gualter Couto, Rui Alexandre Castanho, Pedro Pimentel, Célia Barreto Carvalho, Áurea Sousa 
    Abstract: Tourism shows to be one of the most affected activities by the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 (responsible for COVID-19) outbreak. This situation is not only to because of the cancelled flights but also to the fear of being infected with the virus. In this regard, a study was carried out intending to define and analyse the consequences of SARS-CoV-2 over the tourism intentions of Azores residents in 2020 by studying their perceptions. Throughout the research, it was possible to verify that the Azores Archipelago Residents tourism intentions were considerably modified due to SARS-CoV-2, with approximately 70% of the Azores Region residents saying that will spending their 2020 vacations in the region. Moreover, this article also provides insights into the enhancement of tourism safety models in regional tourism activities and consequently, in regional sustainable development and growth.
    Keywords: Azores Region; COVID-19 pandemic; regional studies; socio-economy; sustainable development; sustainable tourism.
    DOI: 10.1504/WRSTSD.2021.10038775
  • The situation of the tourist sectors after the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic - tourism covidisation   Order a copy of this article
    by Bartosz Korinth 
    Abstract: The article puts forward a proposal for a new concept enabling a more in-depth analysis of the impact of the development of the COVID-19 pandemic on the tourism sector, dating back from the turn of 2019 and 2020. In order to present the concept of 'tourism covidisation', subject literature has been analysed. While analysing the literature, it was found that the spread of the COVID-19 pandemic has affected all tourism sectors: the accommodation and catering sector, the tourist attractions sector, the transport sector as well as the tourism organisers sector. This prompted the author of this publication to create a new definition tourism covidisation, which may be defined as "any effects on the tourism industry sector directly or indirectly connected to the COVID-19 pandemic."
    Keywords: pandemic; COVID-19; tourists sectors; covidisation; concept.
    DOI: 10.1504/WRSTSD.2021.10040396
  • CSR: analysing shifting paradigm from climate change to global health emergencies   Order a copy of this article
    by Kritika Singh, Priya Kumari 
    Abstract: The pandemic that has hit our economy hard has forced corporations to see the coronavirus crisis as an opportunity to rethink corporate social responsibility and its role and purpose in the corporate sector. With corporate social responsibility in place, corporations need to answer how they can give back to the stakeholders and society. The authors are trying to analyse whether corporate social responsibility in India can tackle pandemics and climate change. If not, has it just become a utopian ideology hijacked by the politicians?
    Keywords: corporate social responsibility; climate change; COVID pandemic; global health emergencies.
    DOI: 10.1504/WRSTSD.2021.10040849
  • Public health system in promotion of water sanitation and hygiene: an analytical study   Order a copy of this article
    by Bikash Bage 
    Abstract: Public health is defined as the science of preventing disease, prolonging life and improving quality of life through organised efforts, choices of society, communities and individuals which are achieved by promoting healthy lifestyles, prevention, detecting, and responding to diseases. Prevention is carried out by implementation of educational programs, recommending policies, administering services and conducting research. The aim of public health is reached through surveillance of cases and health indicators, promotion of healthy behaviours and limiting the health disparities by promoting healthcare equity, quality and accessibility. The concept of health takes into account physical, psychological, and social well-being as prescribed by World Health Organization that health is not merely the absence of disease or infirmity and more recently, a resource for everyday living. Common initiatives also include promotion of hygiene, education on water and water borne diseases, sanitation, vaccinations, etc.
    Keywords: public health; water sanitation and hygiene; WASH.
    DOI: 10.1504/WRSTSD.2022.10044466

Special Issue on: REAIM2020 Sustainable and Intelligent Manufacturing

  • Eco-friendly flagging tape   Order a copy of this article
    by Rachel Cordeiro, João Meneses, Fernando Dourado, Paula Pascoal-Faria, Carla Moura, Nuno Alves 
    Abstract: One of the problems of using commercial flagging tapes is that they are produced with non-degradable plastic and remain in the environment for long periods. To find a solution, an eco-friendly flagging tape was developed. Bacterial cellulose (BC) was used to produce a cellulose-based film and it was hypothesised that coating the tapes with a polymer would improve their resistance. So, two natural polymers (chitosan and hyaluronic acid) were used to coat the BC tapes. The wet BC was also stained with natural pigments extracted from carrot and spinach. Mechanical testing showed that uncoated BC tapes have similar resistance to hyaluronic acid coated tape. However, the chitosan-coated tapes and the tapes pigmented with the selected pigments showed a decrease in mechanical resistance. Biodegradability tests showed that the uncoated BC tape and BC tape coated with chitosan or hyaluronic acid did not fully degrade within three months.
    Keywords: bacterial cellulose; flagging tape; sustainable; foot-print; environment; hyaluronic acid; chitosan.
    DOI: 10.1504/WRSTSD.2021.10040395
  • Decision support system for production improvement in a cork flooring company   Order a copy of this article
    by Luis Rodrigues, Luís Pinto Ferreira, Francisco J.G. Silva, José Carlos Sá 
    Abstract: Information is a company’s key factor for optimal activity efficiency. Gathering and processing data for decision making provides optimal solutions in production, quality control, distribution, sales, etc. resulting in reduced waste costs regarding materials, time, consumables, repairs, etc. This research demonstrates the importance of decision support systems (DSS) and simulation tools in process optimisation, focusing on the industrial sector and Industry 4.0 concept. Consequently, a DSS, named ARSimTool, was developed in a cork processing company, to perform the simulation of occupational levels of its production lines. This was requested as an alternative to the existing method, offering advanced representation capabilities of the real model and additional functionality on interface accessibility, autonomous data recovering, creation of testing scenarios, management of the workflow along the production floor, among others.
    Keywords: decision support system; DSS; lean manufacturing; agile manufacturing; strategic manufacturing; smart manufacturing; Industry 4.0; production improvement; simulation; productivity; capacity usage efficiency; production planning.
    DOI: 10.1504/WRSTSD.2021.10041725
  • Biodigital design and symbolism in the Sagrada Familia Biodigital Bridge   Order a copy of this article
    by Alberto T. Estévez, Yomna K. Abdallah 
    Abstract: Faced with an unresolved problem, such as the design of the access of the main facade of the Sagrada Familia by Antoni Gaudi, an architectural design was proposed here, using digital techniques, organic forms, biological approaches and symbolic backgrounds as the methodology. Searching solutions more in line with what Gaudis work deserves, appropriate to our times, to our Zeitgeist, having already started the third decade of the 21st century. Since the pragmatic drawings that his earliest collaborators made for this purpose are far from adapting to what the Sagrada Familia now is and means. The study of a very particular symbolism of the Sagrada Familia was also developed on the proposed design: the relationship that Gaudi establishes for the design of the Sagrada Familia with the book of the Apocalypse (VV.AA., 2002), which is less known and most 'secret'.
    Keywords: Sagrada Familia; Glory Fa├žade; symbolism; hyperbolic paraboloid; catenary arches; computational design; algorithms; form finding; simulation; biased random walk.
    DOI: 10.1504/WRSTSD.2022.10044035
  • Development of a biocompatible hydrogel based on native temporomandibular joint extracellular matrix powder   Order a copy of this article
    by Daniela Trindade, Carla Moura, Cecília Calado, David Ângelo, Nuno Alves 
    Abstract: The temporomandibular joint disc (TMJd) is an avascular and fibrocartilaginous tissue with low regeneration capacities. To date there is no permanent solution upon its damage. So, our group hypothesise that the combination of a synthetic material [poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate, PEGDA] and decellularised matrices may be the answer, since it has the advantage of retaining extracellular matrix (ECM) components. For this purpose, lamb TMJd were decellularised with ethanol (96%)/ acetone (99.5%) followed by an analysis to the ECM obtained. Afterwards, different concentrations of ECM powder were added to the PEGDA to obtain hybrid hydrogels. Their swelling capacities and mechanical behaviour (hydrated or dry) were assessed. Results show a reduction of the proteoglycans in the disc, except in the posterior region. Dried hydrogels with 2% ECM powder are the ones with the closer compressive modulus to the native disc, along with greater viscoelastic capacity, representing a possible approach to a TMJd replacement.
    Keywords: decellularisation; extracellular matrix powder; poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate hydrogels; temporomandibular joint disc.
    DOI: 10.1504/WRSTSD.2022.10044167