Forthcoming articles

World Review of Science, Technology and Sustainable Development

World Review of Science, Technology and Sustainable Development (WRSTSD)

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World Review of Science, Technology and Sustainable Development (33 papers in press)

Regular Issues

  • Sustainability risk management: An integrative framework to evaluate emerging risks and other non-quantifiable risks affecting company survival   Order a copy of this article
    Abstract: The importance of sustainability risk management (SRM) in managing emerging risks and other non-quantifiable risks has recently been the subject in many discussions. The debate focuses on the flaws of the risk management programme, which excluded sustainability risk in the risk assessment. Thus, this study attempts to develop an SRM framework for company survival by adopting the triangulation approach which integrates both quantitative and qualitative methods to identify the key components of an SRM framework. A total of 88 respondents from public listed companies participated in the survey and 4 companies were interviewed. The findings highlight that stakeholders expectations, board and senior management risk oversights, resources and capabilities, risk assessments and methods, and risk reporting are the key factors in developing an SRM framework. As a general conclusion, this study develops a generic SRM framework which is applicable to all types of companies, irrespective of its size or business type.
    Keywords: sustainability risk management; emerging risks; non-quantifiable risks; company survival.

  • Green Campus Governance for Promoting Sustainable Development in Institutions of Higher Learning-Evidence from a Theoretical Analysis   Order a copy of this article
    by Bokolo Anthony Jnr., Mazlina Majid, Awanis Romli, Shahid Anwar 
    Abstract: This study examines the current Green practice implementation in Institutions of Higher Learning (IHL) towards attaining sustainable development. Accordingly, a theoretical analysis was conducted based on primary data from Green practice documents and secondary data from review of prior studies. Based on the findings from the theoretical data, a Green campus governance model grounded on economic, social and environmental dimension of sustainability was developed to further extend the collaboration among sustainability practitioners by providing incorporated data on factors that influences sustainable development in universities. Accordingly, findings from this study present the declarations and summits, background, importance and issues faced by institutions of higher learning in attaining sustainable development. Moreover, evidence from this study presents sixteen universities in Malaysia that currently implements Green practices. Respectively, the derived factors in the developed Green campus governance model can be employed as an assessment tool for benchmarking sustainable development in universities.
    Keywords: Sustainable development policies; Green growth; Green campus governance; Green policies; Institutions of higher learning.

  • Technology, sustainable development, and corporate growth - striking a balance   Order a copy of this article
    by Vinod Durge, Shirish Sangle 
    Abstract: This paper presents a theoretical study focused on three objectives: (i) to integrate evolving concepts of technology, sustainable development, and corporate growth; (ii) to establish the importance of performance management for developing sustainability capabilities; and (iii) to devise a sustainability balanced scorecard for operationalising multi-dimensional strategies of sustainability. The study highlights the changing perceptions of technology right from a cause of pollution to a source of the solution. A revolutionary improvement in technology is essential for sustainable development. Corporations can achieve competitive advantage by implementing sustainability strategies based on technological and organisational innovations. The sustainability strategies are dynamic capabilities that can be developed through a continuous practice of addressing emerging issues of sustainable development. The competing and multi-faceted dimensions of sustainability strategies can be operationalised by using sustainability balanced scorecard. This study contributes to the literature on natural resource-based view by integrating sustainable value framework with sustainability balanced scorecard. An illustration of how to design the sustainability balanced scorecard is provided to guide researchers and practitioners on the implementation of sustainability strategies.
    Keywords: technology; sustainable development; corporate growth; sustainability strategies; dynamic capabilities; sustainability balanced scorecard.

  • Ionic Liquids as Solvents in Biodiesel production   Order a copy of this article
    by Anitha Arivarasu, Jini D. 
    Abstract: Biodiesel, an alternative fuel, has garnered much attention recently due to its eco-friendly nature. It is being produced using varied oil sources with the help of different catalysts and alcohols. Organic as well as inorganic solvents have widely been employed as catalysts, extraction agents and solvents in biodiesel production. But their toxic and hazardous nature has paved way for greener solvents like Ionic Liquids (ILs) owing to their environmental and process improvements. Low vapour pressure, good solubility and miscibility with co-reactants, better phase transition behaviour, high thermal stability, acidic and basic nature, and reusability make ILs very promising for use in biodiesel production. The main objective of this review is to highlight the versatility of ILs as solvents for biodiesel production.
    Keywords: Ionic liquids; Biodiesel; Green solvents; Enzymes.

    by Cijil B John, S. Antony Raja 
    Abstract: The increasing pollution problems caused by conventional fuels and fuel scarcity are forcing the scientists all over the world to look for sustainable fuel alternatives. The suitability of Hemp biodiesel derived from non-edible industrial grade hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) seed as a biofuel in C.I engines is discussed in this paper. The performance, emission and combustion attributes of different Hemp biodiesel combinations are tested on a Kirloskar VCR engine at a standard compression ratio 17.5:1 and the outcomes are contrasted with those of standard diesel fuel. Hemp biodiesel blends exhibit an average increment of 7.35% in the mechanical efficiency in comparison to neat diesel. Hemp biofuel blends also results in a moderate decrement in CO and HC emissions by 20.83% and 24.5% accordingly at peak load. The experimental findings show the suitability of Hemp biodiesel blends as a nature-friendly alternate fuel.
    Keywords: Bio-diesel; Alternative fuel; Hemp oil; Diesel engine; Compression ratio; Performance; Combustion; Emission.

Special Issue on: PRE 14 Environmental Challenges and Sustainable Development

  • A Review Article Vermibiotechnology and Waste Management   Order a copy of this article
    by Keshav Singh, Deepak Kumar Bhartiya 
    Abstract: Abundant use of chemical fertilizers disturbs the soil texture and physicochemical properties of soil and affects the human health as well as environment. The use of chemical fertilizers has posed a serious threat to the environment and caused destruction of useful microorganisms, insects and worms in soil. The biological wastes caused environmental hazards and various adverse effects on human health and their domesticated animals, if their proper management and disposal practices are not available. Organic farming through vermibiotechnology is a better option for management of wastes by the earthworms and improvement of soil quality. It is one of the interesting aspects, since it contributes to a broad relationship among food, environmental quality and safety of human and animal health. Vermicomposting is an easy and effective way to recycling of biological wastes through vermic-activity. During this process important plant nutrients such as nitrogen, phosphorus potassium, calcium etc. are present in feed materials converted in to more absorbable form for plant. Vermicompost has not only plant nutrients but also growth regulators, beneficial bacterial and actinomycetes population with large number of worms eggs. It increases the porosity aeration, drainage water holding capacity, which reduces the irrigation water requirement for crops. It improves nutrients availability and could act as complex fertilizer granules and evolves great reduction in the population of harmful pathogenic microorganisms. Vermicompost of wastes is easily pre-parable, biodegradable, most effective, easily transportable, non-hazardous to animal, human and environment and eco-friendly which is boon for the farmers. So, we can say that the vermibiotechnology is a suitable way for sustainable development and now today need of uses of biofertilizers in crop fields.
    Keywords: Vermibiotechnology; Biological Wastes; Earthworm; Vermicomposting; Biofertilizer; Sustainable Development.

  • Sustainable management approaches for underground heritage structures threatened by the environment and the human presence   Order a copy of this article
    by Vasiliki Kyriakou, Vassilios Panoskaltsis 
    Abstract: Cultural heritage can be considered as a "non-renewable resource of values" for humanity. Aiming at protecting and safeguarding this resource for future generations, the concept of sustainability should be applied in the management of monuments and historical sites, considering that the preservation of cultural heritage is one of the crucial topics of the Unesco Sustainable Development Goals. This paper studies the Macedonian tombs in northern Greece. Macedonian tombs are monuments of great historic importance and precious educational value, with strong particularities in their hygrothermal status. Systematic monitoring and evaluation of the indoor climatic conditions has shown that the deterioration processes are mainly caused by cyclical changes in temperature and relative humidity when the monuments are exposed to the environment and the presence of visitors. Protection against future deterioration can only be assured through proper interventions to stabilize the indoor microclimate. The purpose of this paper is to show that prior to the final decision-making, it is very important to acquire data with systematic recordings in situ, analyze them and get metadata. Recordings are used as an input in a simulation tool in order to export numerical data and diagrams as an output. This output is used in order that the right decisions are made regarding the monuments preservation. The paper concludes with recommendations for optimal preservation, based on the principles of sustainability. It should be emphasized that the proposed methodology can be applied to all Macedonian tombs.
    Keywords: heritage structures; Macedonian tombs; microclimate; hygrothermal performance; numerical simulation; sustainable management; SDG11.

Special Issue on: WRSTSD CITED2018 Sustainable Development Science, Technology and Education to Achieve Global Goals

  • Multivariate analysis of volumetric shrinking of industrial cassava varieties   Order a copy of this article
    by Angelica Torregroza, Jhonatan Rodriguez, Rafael Ruiz, Rolando Lopez 
    Abstract: The drying of cassava (mandioca) is the process by which most of the water contained in the roots of the plant is extracted, which can be stored for a long period. The objective of this research was to analyze the factors that affect the volumetric contraction of three varieties of industrial cassava, by analyzing the same covariance matrices, under a linear multivariate model (Manova). Methodologically, a drying process was carried out of three varieties of industrial cassava (Corpoica Tai, Corpoica Ver
    Keywords: Volumetric contraction; Multivariate Analysis; mass transfer.

  • Visual methodology for agile creation of IoT applications for LoRaWAN networks   Order a copy of this article
    by Sebastián Yesid Tabares Amaya, José Noé Poveda Zafra, Elvis Eduardo Gaona-García 
    Abstract: This paper presents the recommended guidelines for the creation of applications for LoRaWAN, an IoT LP-WAN network technology. This work is based on the LoRa Alliance documentation and also from the different applications for the LoRaWAN network tested in laboratories of Universidad Distrital laboratories. Since LoRaWAN is an open technology, an alternative to the suggested methods was development for a practical implementation of applications based on IoT protocols such as MQTT, following a flow-oriented programming paradigm. The main objective is to suggest the configuration and software units requirements that must be considered for communication in the application layer.
    Keywords: LoRaWAN; Node-RED; application; IoT; flow-based.

  • Equal access to quality higher education: consolidation of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG), case of virtual software engineering of the Manuela Beltr   Order a copy of this article
    by Brigitte Rodriguez, Jose Rodriguez Munca, Javier Ochoa Avila, Alejandro De Mendoza 
    Abstract: The Manuela Beltran University, located in Cajic
    Keywords: Sustainable Development Goals; quality education; virtual modality; educational access; software engineering.

Special Issue on: ICSSB-2019 Innovative Approaches Towards Sustainable Development in a Globalised World

  • Employee Happiness in Indian Banking Sector: An Exploration of Factors   Order a copy of this article
    by Arijit Choudhury, Anirban Dutta, Sonit Dutta 
    Abstract: Employee happiness is an emerging area of interest in management as well as in psychology. The purpose of this study is to identify the significant factors responsible for employee happiness in commercial banks. The methodology adopted for this study is descriptive in nature and primary data were collected through a structured questionnaire from scheduled commercial banks in the North-Eastern states of India, comprising of a sample of 246 bank employees. After using factor analysis the study revealed eleven factors that are significant for employee happiness, among these factors values and relationships' act as the major contributor.
    Keywords: Employee happiness; banking sector; factor analysis; India.

  • Employer Branding: Attracting and Retaining Employees for Sustainable Development in Disruptive Economy   Order a copy of this article
    by Geeta Rana, Ravindra Sharma 
    Abstract: Disruptive trends provide firms with openings for new capability development and competitive advantage attainment. Substantial research attention has been paid to employer branding and organizational attractiveness in the past due to their importance in disruptive economy. Drastic changes in economies, societies, and technologies due to globalization, social structure and digital transformation and disruption over decades have caused problems for employers in drawing employees in competitive advantages. Firms need to stay competitive, and to do so, employers carry out several exercises to draw and retain talent. This study seeks to empirically test employer branding-organizational attractiveness relationship in the context of IT companies in India. Job engagement was found to partially mediate between employer branding and organizational attractiveness.
    Keywords: Employer Branding; Organizational Attractiveness; Attraction; Engagement; Disruptive Economy; Digitalization; Retention; Sustainable Development; Competitive Advantage; Human Resource Management.

  • Home-based entrepreneuring for Empowerment and Sustainability of Muslim women: A Study in Indian Context   Order a copy of this article
    by Safoora Habeeb, Vikas Arya, Naseeb Ahmad 
    Abstract: The position of Indian women in India is sort of a paradox. Every sixth woman of the world is Indian and they grossly differ in their status and condition among themselves. India is a country of high gender inequality index that stands with tremendous need to empower its women for sustainable development. Here woman prime minister held central power for eleven years; numerous women of the country are still powerless and spend their life in glass ceiling. Women empowerment through entrepreneurship has been an area of active research and many studies established the positive relation of women empowerment and sustenance with their entrepreneurial activity. The aim of this research study is to explore the liberation and emancipation of Muslim women through their home-based entrepreneuring. Also, the dimension of work stress as impact of home based entrepreneurship is also covered. Home based entrepreneurial activities include - beauty salon, tailoring and fashion designing and tuition services of the sample investigated for the study. The impact of flexibility of home based entrepreneuring to manage home and entrepreneurial responsibility at the same time and place is studied.
    Keywords: Muslim women entrepreneurship; Home based entrepreneuring; Empowerment; Sustainability.

  • Knowledge sharing intention and consumer perception in social networking sites   Order a copy of this article
    by Anshuman Sharma 
    Abstract: Social networking sites (SNSs) are vital sources for knowledge sharing for various travellers in a contemporary environment. The present study aims to examine the knowledge sharing intention by travellers on SNSs through factors such as perceived ease of use, switching cost, integrity perception and subjective norms. A conceptual model was developed and tested using structural equation modelling technique. The data, to test the model, was collected from 341 respondents, who uses online travelling services in UAE. The findings of data analyses show that the selected factors; integrity perception, subjective norms, switching cost and perceived ease of use, have a positive and significant impact on the knowledge sharing intention. There have not been too many studies in this area thus far; therefore, the present study has both practical and theoretical implications and relevance.
    Keywords: Social networking sites; knowledge sharing intention; integrity perception.

Special Issue on: CUDC - 2019 Emerging Trends in Business and Management

  • Electric Vehicles (EVs) Business Models: An Integrative Framework for Adoption of Electric Mobility   Order a copy of this article
    by Kumar Shalender 
    Abstract: The study presents four business models currently being operational in different parts of the world in order to support the commercialization drive of electric vehicles (EVs). With the help of extant literature, the author develops systematic and multidimensional frameworks on value creation and customers adoptions barriers related to EVs. These multidimensional frameworks are then used to analyze the selected business models for their strengths and weaknesses. Findings of the study underscore differences in the business models adopted by the selected players with Tesla and e2o emphasizing on product innovation while the other two, i.e., Carma and Wanxiang focusing on the service dimension. The study recommends that adoption of a holistic approach combining product and service orientation in business models is necessary for wide spread adoption of EVs. Besides, the role of forging partnerships across the value-chain partners and having policy support are also highlighted as key success factors for EVs.
    Keywords: Business model; Customer; Electric vehicles (EVs); Mobility; Strategy; Sustainability; Value.

  • Challenges faced by Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises: A systematic review   Order a copy of this article
    Abstract: Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises (MSMEs) play a pivotal role in the growth of the economy but their progress has been marred by problems. Given this premise, the authors attempted to identify the challenges faced by MSMEs in India. An examination of the long-standing literature revealed five categories of challenges namely finance, human resource, market/export, technology/infrastructure, and government. The study recommended measures such as simplification of loan disbursal process, provision to accept alternative arrangements of collateral from MSMEs, up-gradation of skills and knowledge of employees, improvement in productivity and product quality, simplification of labor laws and other statutory requirements, usage of IT tools in the business processes amongst others for sustainable growth of MSMEs in India.
    Keywords: Micro; Small and Medium Enterprises (MSMEs); challenges; sustainability; economic growth.

    by Kamrunnisha Nobi, Manjit Singh 
    Abstract: This study attempts to explore the conceptual framework of Islamic finance emphasising on Shariah index in India. To bring forth the conceptual framework of Islamic finance huge body of literature has been reviewed concerning the Shariah Islamiiah (Islamic teachings), historical background of Islamic finance, Shariah law, different components of Islamic finance, introduction to Islamic capital market and discussed the screening practices followed by the companies under different Industries. It is observed that there is a need to bring in certain amendments in the rules and regulations by the Indian government to pave the way for introducing various forms of Islamic finance as it may gain by the way of investments, financial inclusion of Muslims, upliftment of Muslims, agricultural development and so on. It is recommended to make diversification concerning to the avenue of investment by introducing more Shariah funds and ETF. Further, it is revealed that there is a difference in screening practices of different countries. Therefore, it is suggested to have uniform screening practices to hold the faith of investors on Islamic finance.
    Keywords: Conceptual Framework; Shariah Index; Shariah Screening; Shariah Law; Islamic finance.

  • A Stakeholder Perception of TQM in Engineering Education   Order a copy of this article
    by Kasturi Lal Sapra, Shuchi Dawra, Satish Kapoor 
    Abstract: This paper attempts to study the gap between quality of Engineering Education as offered and as required. The current model of education is content heavy, involving a lot of information and testing with little emphasis on experimental learning, real world exposure to industries, problem solving and creative intelligence. The study is focused primarily towards understanding the existing system of Engineering Education in the Institutions in Punjab and Chandigarh and how the TQM approach of benchmarking, QMS,continuous improvement and stackeholders' involvement affects the quality of Engineering Education both from the perspective of students as well as of the Faculty- the two most important stakeholders. The perception of students considering the corporate and industry connect, faculty quality, placement and career counseling ; and perception of Faculty considering curriculum and learning, research, corporate connect and infrastructure as variables is being analyzed with the help of PLS-SEM in relation to TQM variables in engineering Education.
    Keywords: Total Quality Management(TQM); Engineering Education; Continuous Improvement (CI); Faculty; Benchmarking; Industry Connect and Stakeholder Involvement ( SI ).

Special Issue on: IC2AIS 2019 Technological Innovation for Sustainable Development

    by Rajasekar Boopalan 
    Abstract: Micro strip patch antennas are noticed because the ones that have placed a most vital role in trendy wireless communications, during this project, analysis of high potency multiband antenna fed with two-dimensional wave guide for wireless applications is mentioned, two-dimensional wave guide(CPW) fed antennas give inherent electrical resistance matching for broader frequency vary, This planned style uses pattern patch as diverging layer with CPW feed. Performance of the planned style is investigated on range of pattern iterations with defected ground structure. The planned antenna is written on a awfully low value substrate material known as FR4 that has relative permittivity 4.4. HFSS simulation tool is employed so as to style the planned antenna.

  • Low-Complexity Particle Swarm Optimization based Adaptive User Clustering for Downlink Non-Orthogonal Multiple Access deployed for 5G systems.   Order a copy of this article
    by S.Prabha Kumaresan, Chee Keong Tan, Ching Kwang Lee, Yin Hoe Ng 
    Abstract: Non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) has been envisioned as a fundamental method towards fifth generation (5G) cellular networks. Typical clustering schemes employ adaptive user clustering (AUC) to improve the performance of the NOMA system using brute-force search (BF-S). But, the search to perform AUC is computationally complex and practically infeasible. Therefore, AUC using particle swarm optimisation (PSO) algorithm is proposed to minimise the computational complexity. PSO is an intellectual algorithm, implements using a random number of particles moving in a search space. The particles are evaluated by the fitness value on each iteration until it reaches the optimal solution. Simulation results demonstrate that NOMA system employing PSO-based AUC is able to reduce the complexity with acceptable throughput performance compared with BF-S-based AUC. Furthermore, it is noteworthy that the proposed PSO-based AUC outperforms the conventional clustering with fixed number of users in NOMA system and orthogonal multiple access (OMA) system in terms of throughput performance.
    Keywords: non-orthogonal multiple access; NOMA; adaptive user clustering; AUC; particle swarm optimisation; PSO; throughput maximisation; low complexity.
    DOI: 10.1504/WRSTSD.2020.10030143
  • An efficient Data Mining Process on Temporal data using Relevance feedback method   Order a copy of this article
    by Yuvaraj D, Dinesh M, Sivaram M, Nageswari S 
    Abstract: Some data is historical such as the judicial or medical which the factor of time is very important. temporal databases can deals with these data because it provide a systematic way of dealing with historical data.The new generation type of data mining which is called temporal data mining deals with these type of data that has time stamping and influnces by the factor of time after mining.the relevance feedback technique is included in the individuals revisitation habits and memory strength. we have additionally executed and assessed the performance by utilizing a trace driven methodology dependent on the online real behavior dataset. the exploratory outcomes demonstrate that our plan bolsters successfully on both overall aggregate queries and the different specific aggregate queries with correspondence overheads and satisfactory calculation.we also presented the efficient technique for calculating competitiveness in large level datasets introducing a profile that encode the user subjective notation of similarity in domain. These profiles can be gained ceaselessly from connection with client. we further show how the client profile might be embedded in a system that utilization relevance feedback mechanism. Finally, we calculate the quality of our results and the scalability of our technique by using multiple datasets from the different domains.
    Keywords: Data Mining ,Process; Temporal; data ,Relevance.

    by Suji Priya Jeyabalan, Padma Theagarajan 
    Abstract: The customer requirements increases day by day so the radio spectrum demand also increases. The situation is far worse if data usage is getting higher. To overcome these issues, spectrum sharing techniques are used. The cognitive radio system increases the efficiency of spectrum usage through sharing process. Even though several spectrum sharing techniques are available in literature, different features and application requires new methods. The methods vary from mode of operation, interference management, and application used. This paper presents a study on various spectrum sensing and sharing techniques.
    Keywords: Cognitive radio; spectrum sensing; spectrum sharing; energy detection; ACO; swarm intelligence; data.

  • XSS Attack Prevention Using Machine Learning   Order a copy of this article
    by Kanav Raj Farishta, Vivek Kumar Singh, Rajeswari Devarajan 
    Abstract: Web Applications are extensively used all over the world-wide net. These are the applications that have made our regular day to day existence easy and straightforward. We share incredibly confidential information over the web and keeping the information confidential is the most important priority of these web-based applications. These web-based applications are vulnerable to different attacks, XSS and SQL Injection being one of the most perceived attacks. Attackers inject malicious code into the web application and can cause cataclysmic harm to the person without his/her consent. Cross Site Scripting (XSS) and SQL Injection strikes are the most generally perceived sort of attacks that a web application experience. The XSS attack is caused by executing malicious code to a web browser which runs in the server about which the user isnt aware of and is capable of catastrophic disaster. Recognizing a script that is malicious or benign can keep an unwanted attack from happening and can help the web application from keeping the data of the users confidential. The work accentuates on a portion of the conceptual approaches to identify the XSS Script on the customer side dependent on a portion of the highlights extracted from the vindictive contents.
    Keywords: Xss attack; Machine learning.

Special Issue on: WEECON'19 Science, Technology and Innovation for Sustainable Development

  • One Step Low Temperature Synthesis of Poly Vinyl Alcohol Stabilised ?-Ni (OH) 2 Nanoparticles Structural, Morphological and Optical Studies.   Order a copy of this article
    by Annie Albert, D.G. Harris Samuel, V. Parthasarathy, J. Selvi 
    Abstract: This research work reports a facile method for the synthesis of α-nickel hydroxide nanoparticles (NPs). The synthesis of α-Ni (OH) 2 NPs was performed at low temperature using Poly Vinyl Alcohol (PVA) as a stabilising agent. The structure of the nanoparticles was studied using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and X Ray Diffraction (XRD). Scherrers formula was employed to calculate the average size of the nanoparticles. The estimated size was 4nm. High resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) revealed the formation nanobristles of 2 nm diameter forming a 2D layer with PVA intercalated between the layers. The UV absorption spectrum further confirmed the nano size of the particle and formation of α-Ni(OH)2. The band gap value of Ni (OH) 2 was determined for various precursor concentrations.
    Keywords: ?-Ni(OH)2; PVA; one step synthesis; intercalation; HRTEM; band gap decrease; quantum effect deviation.

  • The Review and Investigation of Sustainable Thirteen Level Multilevel Inverter Control Strategies   Order a copy of this article
    by Muthukumar Paramasivan, MADDUKURI VENKATA RAMESH, Eswaramoorthy K, Veeramuthulingam N, Jarin T 
    Abstract: This paper deals with review and the comparative analysis of three different closed loop control approaches for Cascaded H-Bridge Multilevel inverter (CHBMLI) fed three phase induction motor. The sustainable solar energy has been efficiently used as input of the proposed MLI. The three phase CHBMLI consists of twelve switches per phase, totally thirty six switches to reach thirteen levels. The analysis of thirteen level CHBMLI with ANFIS, FUZZY and PID controllers are designed. The percentage of THD and steady state error, settling time, peak time are revealed and compared through the simulation at two different speeds of three phase induction motor under open loop and closed loop operations. The simulation studies are approved though the MATLAB Simulink.
    Keywords: Cascaded H-Bridge Multilevel inverter; ANFIS controller; FUZZY controller; PID controller Three phase Induction motor.

  • Energy of chemical graphs with adjacency Rhotrix   Order a copy of this article
    by Kaladevi V, Kavitha G 
    Abstract: The characteristic polynomial of a simple graph G is the determinant value of the matrix A(G)-(lambda)I, where A(G) is the adjacency matrix of G and I is the identity matrix. The roots of the characteristic polynomial equation are known as eigen values of G. Energy of any graph G is the aggregate of the eigen values of G. The largest eigen value is known as spectral radius of G. The recurrence relation of characteristic polynomial of certain graphs are derived in this proposed paper.
    Keywords: Characteristic polynomial; Recurrence relation; Rhotrix; Coupled matrix.

  • Investigation on Metallurgy and Material Strength Enhancement of 20MnCr5 Forged Link Chain in Cement Mill   Order a copy of this article
    by Krishnakumar K, Arockia Selvakumar A 
    Abstract: A study on failure analysis of forged link chains used in a cement plant for scraper application is presented. The forged steel linkages are generally subjected to cyclic loading in abrasive environments. Fractured components were fabricated by forged 20MnCr5 structural steel and case hardened. The fractured samples were initially subjected to visual and stereo-binocular observations. The scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used to examine fractured surface. It was observed that the major cause of the chain failure was due to wear the reduction of case depth at the outer surface was worn out in abrasive environment. The novel idea in the proposed work is selection of material and choosing the proper heat treatment process to improve the tensile strength of forged link. By analytical approach EN30B steel is proposed with through hardening process. In experimental tensile test validation, 16% of average tensile strength is enhanced in proposed EN30B steel compared to existing 20MnCr5 steel.
    Keywords: Drag conveyor chain; Failure analysis; Fatigue; Dimpled fracture; 20MnCr5.

    by Ajitha S, Judy M V 
    Abstract: Glaucoma can be metaphorically called gruesome thief who steals away the most precious eyesight slowly, silently and forever which often remains a frightening prospect to patients and frustrates ophthalmologist. It is a persisting disease and the advancement of which can be routed out if diagnosed in the beginning. Here a novel hybrid method for automated detection of Glaucoma is being proposed, which has the ability to support the ophthalmologists in disease detection in the early stage. The algorithm proposed here takes a pre-processed fundus image and calculates CDR from extracted optic cup and optic disc. The suggested system applies hybrid features for conformation of training and testing the glaucoma image, SVM classifier for detection of glaucoma. When the proposed system is estimated by utilizing Drishti_GS1 database. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy obtained in our methods are being compared with other methods in the literature survey. The glaucoma cases diagnosed by the suggested has not been since to be normal, hence the 100 % accuracy is ascertained hence the glaucoma is being diagnosed using automated medical system.
    Keywords: Glaucoma; Optic Disc; Cup to Disc ratio (CDR); Optic Cup; LBP.

  • Prediction of solids outlet moisture content in a continuous wall heated fluidized bed dryer for uniform and binary solid mixtures   Order a copy of this article
    by Gowrishetty Srinivas, Y. Pydi Setty 
    Abstract: Most of the industries perform drying of solids to enhance the durability of the product. The solids nature and available resources will play important role in selection of dryer and there are more than hundred types of dryers currently used in different industries. In the dryer, the heat to wet solids is supplied in different ways such as conduction, convection or in combination of them. In the application of fluidization phenomena to the drying, there are several advantages and disadvantages associated with this. The advantages are the drying rate is higher than most of the dryers, due to high transfer rate of heat and mass and also applicable for various range of particle sizes. There are several disadvantages associated with continuous fluidized bed dryers such as high energy consumption for heating of gas and that the solids are dried at high temperature. In the present study air at room temperature is used instead of hot gas and also the heat to wet solids is provided from wall. The significance of various influencing parameters on drying behavior is studied. The significance of mixture of different sizes of particles is also studied in the present study. The true density, bulk density and porosity of sand particles have been determined experimentally. The experimental results have been complied with Tanks in Series Model using Golden Search Method. The Number of Tanks for each experiment has been estimated and the effect has been compared with each parameter.
    Keywords: Fluidized bed drying; Continuous drying; Golden search method.

  • Composites materials for sustainable space industry: A review of recent developments   Order a copy of this article
    by Mubarak Ali, Nived N 
    Abstract: Composite materials have extraordinary properties such as high specific stiffness, high specific strength and other unique properties, which are indispensable in many industries such as aerospace, automotive and space application. Composite materials in space applications demands specific stiffness properties and it has to perform its intended at extreme environment at space. Space shuttles, satellites and other space vehicles have started using composites replacing aluminum, which had once dominated space industry. Adding to weight reduction and fuel savings, composite materials offers multi-functionality properties, which are indispensable for sustainable space industry. The most common used composites in space industry are polymer, ceramic, metal matrix composites respectively. Polymer matrix composites are used in larger proportion to other composites in designing of satellites particularly CubeSat. Ceramic composites are used in designing of heat shields in space shuttles due to ability to resist high temperature. Metal Matrix Composites are used in designing of truss, frames of spacecrafts. This review paper will first explain the need of composites in space industry and then critically review various types of advanced composites used in space. Polymer matrix composites applications in space industry and effect of space environments in properties of polymer matrix composites has been reviewed. Applications of ceramic matrix composites and the challenges in usage of ceramic composites in space has also been presented. Application of Metal matrix composites in designing of truss and antenna of satellites has been elucidated.
    Keywords: Ceramic matrix composites; Metal Matrix composites; Polymer matrix composites; Satellites; Sustainable Space Materials.

    by Reshma Jose, Shanty Chacko 
    Abstract: In this modern era, the clinical laboratories have given greater attention to produce an accurate, sustainable and the efficient results for every test, particularly in diagnosing the liver tumor. The liver tumor is very essential to detect as well as to follow the treatment of many stages like benign, malignant etc. This paper is focusing on the sustainable segmentation part in order to identify the tumor region in the liver. For finding the tumor region in liver three stages are followed. First stage is the image acquisition in which input liver image is read and then resized. Second stage is the image pre-processing. Third stage is the segmentation where the Otsus segmentation, Fuzzy C-Means Clustering and Region based Active Contour segmentation are used. The tumor region is not clearly found in the existing journals. The research gap for the base paper is to find the tumor region in the liver.
    Keywords: Histogram equalization; Otsu’s segmentation; Fuzzy C-Mean clustering; Region based Active Contour.

Special Issue on: ICGLOW 2019 Environmental Law and Technology to Achieve Sustainable Development

  • A Critical Review of the Discrepancy between the Spatial Planning Map and the Spatial Planning Regulation of Agricultural Lands in Indonesia: Kulon Progo Regency Case Study   Order a copy of this article
    by Sri Wahyu Handayani, Suparjo Sujadi, Arie Sukanti Sumantri 
    Abstract: This research critically investigates discrepancies between the spatial planning map and the spatial planning regulation of agricultural land in Kulon Progo Regency, the Special Region of Yogyakarta, Indonesia. Data were analysed using jurimetrics, which were employed to explore the spatial map as a legal document listed in the appendix of regulation through the Geographic Information System (GIS) analysis. The study offers a critical review of the discrepancy between the spatial planning map and the spatial planning regulation for agricultural land; it demonstrates the consistency and inconsistency between the spatial patterns and the regulatory order of spatial management. Its findings show differences in spatial function in the same coordinates, despite the use of geospatial technology. Based on Loevingers jurimetrics theory and Kelsens pure theory of law, it is suggested that policy makers attend to the spatial map appendix and use jurimetrics in the area of law.
    Keywords: spatial planning; spatial planning map; spatial planning regulation; Kulon Progo Regency; agricultural lands; jurimetrics.

Special Issue on: ICSDEE'19 Sustainable Development in Energy and Environment

  • Analysis of wastewater from medical institutions in India   Order a copy of this article
    by Aastha Dhingra, Nadeem A Khan, Sirajuddin Ahmed, Viola Vambol, Svitlana Kovalenko 
    Abstract: One of the main reasons for the deterioration of the quality of natural waters is industrial and household human activity. Medical wastewaters contain significant amounts of chemical waste, such as antibiotics, disinfectants and others. Wastewater from health-care facilities contains organic particles (faeces, hair, food, vomit, paper, fibres), soluble organic material (urea, proteins, pharmaceuticals), inorganic particles (sand, grit, metal particles), soluble inorganic material (ammonia, cyanide, hydrogen sulfide, thiosulfates) etc. The problem is intense as these get discharged into the ground and surface water, due to improper treatment before being discharged as part of the hospital effluents. In some countries, such as India and Ukraine, hospital wastewater is discharged to urban wastewater treatment plants. The quantity of wastewater produced in a health-care facility depends on the amount of water used and is best measured by the water consumption. A survey was conducted in 75 hospitals, including 25 hospitals from the categories of high, medium and low. The average water consumption per bed per day in a hospital of Delhi ranges between 500-600 LPD. The annual water consumption in hospitals of Delhi is about 9000 million litres. Since the composition of the wastewater of medical institutions is diverse, it is necessary to conduct an extensive characterization to study the composition of the wastewater for their further use.
    Keywords: wastewater; medical institutions; pharmaceuticals; natural waters; wastewater discharge.