Forthcoming articles

World Review of Science, Technology and Sustainable Development

World Review of Science, Technology and Sustainable Development (WRSTSD)

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World Review of Science, Technology and Sustainable Development (42 papers in press)

Regular Issues

    by Suji Priya Jeyabalan, Padma Theagarajan 
    Abstract: The customer requirements increases day by day so the radio spectrum demand also increases. The situation is far worse if data usage is getting higher. To overcome these issues, spectrum sharing techniques are used. The cognitive radio system increases the efficiency of spectrum usage through sharing process. Even though several spectrum sharing techniques are available in literature, different features and application requires new methods. The methods vary from mode of operation, interference management, and application used. This paper presents a study on various spectrum sensing and sharing techniques.
    Keywords: Cognitive radio; spectrum sensing; spectrum sharing; energy detection; ACO; swarm intelligence; data.

  • Emerging Trends and Growth of Banking Frauds in India: A Substantial Obstacle in the Pathway of Sustainable Development   Order a copy of this article
    by Neha Sharma, Dhiraj Sharma, Arun Aggarwal 
    Abstract: The present research paper examines the increasing trends of fraud in the banking industry. The current research seeks to evaluate the growth and trends of fraud in the Public sector and Private sector banks in India. The image of the ugly part of the Indian banking system has been tried to analyze in the study. An overall picture of both the public and private banking sectors have been shown here in the research. The research also reveals the inter-sector comparative results from the perspective of fraud in both the sectors in the span of the last fifteen years. The results of the study indicate that the public sector banks are suffering from this huge loss of amount due to fraud in banking activities. From the angle of economic growth, it is a huge setback for the whole monetary circle of the Indian economy. The results indicate that in both the sectors that are public sector and private sector banks, the increasing number of fraud cases is a big reason for increasing the amount which is involved in bank fraud cases.
    Keywords: Sustainable Development; Public Sector Banks; Private Sector Banks; Fraud trends; Inter-sector Comparisons.

  • Experimental Studies on Treatment of Wastewater using Cladophora Sp. and Advanced Oxidation   Order a copy of this article
    by Saravanan A.M, Ahmed Soud Said Al Hatmi, Adeeb Mohammed Salim, Anna Jesil, Nisha Sherief 
    Abstract: In this research, micro-algae Cladophora Sp. collected from Nizwa region of Oman was used to treat domestic wastewater through continuous process and batch process. In continuous process, the data shows that, micro-algae can be used to treat domestic wastewater as the percentage reduction observed were Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) 87%, Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD) 52 %, Total Organic Carbon (TOC) 99%, and turbidity of 93.1%. On the other hand, for the batch process, the optimum conditions at which the maximum removal of pollutant was determined to be at residence time of 144 hours, algal dosage of 0.5 kg and agitation period of 10 hours using Response Surface Methodology (RSM). The higher the retention time, algae dosage and agitation time, the better the removal of contaminants from domestic wastewater. The percentage removal at optimum in batch process of COD, TDS, TOC, and turbidity were 93.25%, 23%, 88.2%, and 90.3% respectively.
    Keywords: Biochemical Oxygen Demand; Cladophora Sp.; Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD); Batch process (BOD); Total Dissolved Solids (TDS).

  • A Non-Formal Education Approach of Medicinal Plant sellers   Order a copy of this article
    by Busisiwe Ndawonde 
    Abstract: The article reports on the results of a non-formal education intervention programme that involved medicinal plant sellers in northern KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. The study was done in two phases. The study identified and explored the prevalent challenges of the medicinal plant selling businesses. A selected number of medicinal plant sellers was exposed to a capacity building instructional intervention strategy aimed at addressing the skills and knowledge gaps identified. The principles of Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) were followed as part of the studys theoretical foundation. Data were collected through semi-structured and focus group interviews. The results reveal that the medicinal plant sellers face a number of in-processing methods and techniques, and packaging, and lack business acumen. They have, for example, poor marketing and pricing skills, low banking esteem and poor record keeping, particularly of stock. This indicates their slow implementation and application of the information and skills as discussed in previous workshops. Positively, there is evidence that some of the medicinal plant sellers had begun revisiting their business practices based on previous discussions. Overall, the processing of medicinal plant materials and packaging need urgent attention.
    Keywords: education for sustainable development; indigenous knowledge; approach medicinal plant sellers; non-formal education; community engagement.

  • Innovative method for linking anthropization process to vulnerability   Order a copy of this article
    by Alessandra Capolupo, Lorenzo Boccia 
    Abstract: Coastal areas have been gradually modified by humans in order to face emerging social needs. This phenomenon can be traced in the Amalfi Coast (Southern Italy) through the presence of terraces, constructed to make its steep slope habitable and arable, and the construction of new buildings. The current research is aimed to investigate geomorphological and volumetric changes of the Amalfi Coast, in order to detect the anthropization process in Minori, the most ancient municipality in the Amalfi Coast, and to identify the most vulnerable areas where debris flows. Debris flow, triggered by catastrophic rainfall, is recognized as the most dangerous natural hazard for terraced landscapes. Two photogrammetric datasets, acquired in 1956 and 2017, respectively, have been analyzed to generate two fine resolution Digital Elevation Models (DEMs); orthophotos were subsequently compared and applied to calculate the Normalized Remaining Vegetation Index (NRVI) and the Digital Elevation Model of Differences (DODs). These two indices have allowed us to quantify the anthropization process suffered by the area of interest between 1956 and 2017. The two orthophotos were also classified by applying the OBIA approach for extracting a binary map: terraced versus non-terraced areas. A new Vulnerability Expeditious Index (EVI) was calculated. The comparison of those maps shows an increase of 800% of man-made infrastructures, while the extension and the location of terraces have not been subjected to any transformation. The EVI index represents a strong increment of vulnerability in the Minori municipality. The proposed method looks promising for analyzing the anthropization process and for linking it to the vulnerability of the study area.
    Keywords: anthropization process analysis; vulnerability; OBIA classification; terraces debris flow.

Special Issue on: PRE 14 Environmental Challenges and Sustainable Development

  • A Review Article Vermibiotechnology and Waste Management   Order a copy of this article
    by Keshav Singh, Deepak Kumar Bhartiya 
    Abstract: Abundant use of chemical fertilizers disturbs the soil texture and physicochemical properties of soil and affects the human health as well as environment. The use of chemical fertilizers has posed a serious threat to the environment and caused destruction of useful microorganisms, insects and worms in soil. The biological wastes caused environmental hazards and various adverse effects on human health and their domesticated animals, if their proper management and disposal practices are not available. Organic farming through vermibiotechnology is a better option for management of wastes by the earthworms and improvement of soil quality. It is one of the interesting aspects, since it contributes to a broad relationship among food, environmental quality and safety of human and animal health. Vermicomposting is an easy and effective way to recycling of biological wastes through vermic-activity. During this process important plant nutrients such as nitrogen, phosphorus potassium, calcium etc. are present in feed materials converted in to more absorbable form for plant. Vermicompost has not only plant nutrients but also growth regulators, beneficial bacterial and actinomycetes population with large number of worms eggs. It increases the porosity aeration, drainage water holding capacity, which reduces the irrigation water requirement for crops. It improves nutrients availability and could act as complex fertilizer granules and evolves great reduction in the population of harmful pathogenic microorganisms. Vermicompost of wastes is easily pre-parable, biodegradable, most effective, easily transportable, non-hazardous to animal, human and environment and eco-friendly which is boon for the farmers. So, we can say that the vermibiotechnology is a suitable way for sustainable development and now today need of uses of biofertilizers in crop fields.
    Keywords: Vermibiotechnology; Biological Wastes; Earthworm; Vermicomposting; Biofertilizer; Sustainable Development.

  • Sustainable management approaches for underground heritage structures threatened by the environment and the human presence   Order a copy of this article
    by Vasiliki Kyriakou, Vassilios Panoskaltsis 
    Abstract: Cultural heritage can be considered as a "non-renewable resource of values" for humanity. Aiming at protecting and safeguarding this resource for future generations, the concept of sustainability should be applied in the management of monuments and historical sites, considering that the preservation of cultural heritage is one of the crucial topics of the Unesco Sustainable Development Goals. This paper studies the Macedonian tombs in northern Greece. Macedonian tombs are monuments of great historic importance and precious educational value, with strong particularities in their hygrothermal status. Systematic monitoring and evaluation of the indoor climatic conditions has shown that the deterioration processes are mainly caused by cyclical changes in temperature and relative humidity when the monuments are exposed to the environment and the presence of visitors. Protection against future deterioration can only be assured through proper interventions to stabilize the indoor microclimate. The purpose of this paper is to show that prior to the final decision-making, it is very important to acquire data with systematic recordings in situ, analyze them and get metadata. Recordings are used as an input in a simulation tool in order to export numerical data and diagrams as an output. This output is used in order that the right decisions are made regarding the monuments preservation. The paper concludes with recommendations for optimal preservation, based on the principles of sustainability. It should be emphasized that the proposed methodology can be applied to all Macedonian tombs.
    Keywords: heritage structures; Macedonian tombs; microclimate; hygrothermal performance; numerical simulation; sustainable management; SDG11.

  • Sustainable coastal zone management of Strymonikos Gulf: implementation of the Analytic Hierarchy Process through an application designed by the programming language C# (Sharp)   Order a copy of this article
    by EFSTATHIOS OIKONOMOU, Elisavet Yiannakopoulou 
    Abstract: Coastal areas are of interest as they usually include a wide variety of habitats and ecosystems, as well as many important economic activities. Human coastal population increases continually and consequently, there is much stress from all settlements and economic activities to coastal zones. A proposed methodological approach for coastal management plans environmental strategic evaluation, in the context of sustainable coastal zone management, is described. Therefore, alternative management scenarios for the examined area of the coastal zone of Strymonikos Gulf, are presented. The selection of the prevailing alternative proposal is made through the process of multi-criteria analysis and more specifically, with the aid of the Analytic Hierarchy Process. For the implementation of the suggested multicriteria method, within the context of coastal zone sustainable development, a program in programming language C # (sharp) was designed, in order to help researchers with the selection of the best alternative scenario.
    Keywords: sustainable coastal zone management; multicriteria analysis; Analytic Hierarchic Process; C sharp; Strymonikos Gulf.

  • Innovative method for linking anthropization process to vulnerability   Order a copy of this article
    by Alessandra Capolupo, Lorenzo Boccia 
    Abstract: Coastal areas have been gradually modified by humans in order to face emerging social needs. This phenomenon can be traced in the Amalfi Coast (Southern Italy) through the presence of terraces, constructed to make its steep slope habitable and arable, and the construction of new buildings. The current research is aimed to investigate geomorphological and volumetric changes of the Amalfi Coast, in order to detect the anthropization process in Minori, the most ancient municipality in the Amalfi Coast, and to identify the most vulnerable areas where debris flows. Debris flow, triggered by catastrophic rainfall, is recognized as the most dangerous natural hazard for terraced landscapes. Two photogrammetric datasets, acquired in 1956 and 2017, respectively, have been analyzed to generate two fine resolution Digital Elevation Models (DEMs); orthophotos were subsequently compared and applied to calculate the Normalized Remaining Vegetation Index (NRVI) and the Digital Elevation Model of Differences (DODs). These two indices have allowed us to quantify the anthropization process suffered by the area of interest between 1956 and 2017. The two orthophotos were also classified by applying the OBIA approach for extracting a binary map: terraced versus non-terraced areas. A new Vulnerability Expeditious Index (EVI) was calculated. The comparison of those maps shows an increase of 800% of man-made infrastructures, while the extension and the location of terraces have not been subjected to any transformation. The EVI index represents a strong increment of vulnerability in the Minori municipality. The proposed method looks promising for analyzing the anthropization process and for linking it to the vulnerability of the study area.
    Keywords: anthropization process analysis; vulnerability; OBIA classification; terraces debris flow.

Special Issue on: WRSTSD CITED2018 Sustainable Development Science, Technology and Education to Achieve Global Goals

  • Multivariate analysis of volumetric shrinking of industrial cassava varieties   Order a copy of this article
    by Angelica Torregroza, Jhonatan Rodriguez, Rafael Ruiz, Rolando Lopez 
    Abstract: The drying of cassava (mandioca) is the process by which most of the water contained in the roots of the plant is extracted, which can be stored for a long period. The objective of this research was to analyze the factors that affect the volumetric contraction of three varieties of industrial cassava, by analyzing the same covariance matrices, under a linear multivariate model (Manova). Methodologically, a drying process was carried out of three varieties of industrial cassava (Corpoica Tai, Corpoica Ver
    Keywords: Volumetric contraction; Multivariate Analysis; mass transfer.

  • Visual methodology for agile creation of IoT applications for LoRaWAN networks   Order a copy of this article
    by Sebastián Yesid Tabares Amaya, José Noé Poveda Zafra, Elvis Eduardo Gaona-García 
    Abstract: This paper presents the recommended guidelines for the creation of applications for LoRaWAN, an IoT LP-WAN network technology. This work is based on the LoRa Alliance documentation and also from the different applications for the LoRaWAN network tested in laboratories of Universidad Distrital laboratories. Since LoRaWAN is an open technology, an alternative to the suggested methods was development for a practical implementation of applications based on IoT protocols such as MQTT, following a flow-oriented programming paradigm. The main objective is to suggest the configuration and software units requirements that must be considered for communication in the application layer.
    Keywords: LoRaWAN; Node-RED; application; IoT; flow-based.

  • Emerging Needs of Human Talent Training in Leading Information Technology Companies, a Socioformative Analysis   Order a copy of this article
    by Belinda Pastrana, Sergio Tobón 
    Abstract: This study takes the challenge of identifying the areas of opportunity in relation to innovation training of human talent that are required to meet the demand in leading companies, the analysis is presented from the context, with a socioformative approach, identifying indicators and metrics applied by high productivity companies that are world leaders; it is presented through a documentary analysis, which made it possible to conclude that there are useful coincidences to elaborate a comprehensive strategy that enables individuals to be competitive and systemic by being providers of labor from software exporting countries, having as a strategic factor the training of human talent in the development of innovation.
    Keywords: Formation; Knowledge Society; Socioformative Approach; Innovation; Human Talent.

  • Equal access to quality higher education: consolidation of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG), case of virtual software engineering of the Manuela Beltr   Order a copy of this article
    by Brigitte Rodriguez, Jose Rodriguez Munca, Javier Ochoa Avila, Alejandro De Mendoza 
    Abstract: The Manuela Beltran University, located in Cajic
    Keywords: Sustainable Development Goals; quality education; virtual modality; educational access; software engineering.

Special Issue on: ICSSB-2019 Innovative Approaches Towards Sustainable Development in a Globalised World

  • Employee Happiness in Indian Banking Sector: An Exploration of Factors   Order a copy of this article
    by Arijit Choudhury, Anirban Dutta, Sonit Dutta 
    Abstract: Employee happiness is an emerging area of interest in management as well as in psychology. The purpose of this study is to identify the significant factors responsible for employee happiness in commercial banks. The methodology adopted for this study is descriptive in nature and primary data were collected through a structured questionnaire from scheduled commercial banks in the North-Eastern states of India, comprising of a sample of 246 bank employees. After using factor analysis the study revealed eleven factors that are significant for employee happiness, among these factors values and relationships' act as the major contributor.
    Keywords: Employee happiness; banking sector; factor analysis; India.

  • Employer Branding: Attracting and Retaining Employees for Sustainable Development in Disruptive Economy   Order a copy of this article
    by Geeta Rana, Ravindra Sharma 
    Abstract: Disruptive trends provide firms with openings for new capability development and competitive advantage attainment. Substantial research attention has been paid to employer branding and organizational attractiveness in the past due to their importance in disruptive economy. Drastic changes in economies, societies, and technologies due to globalization, social structure and digital transformation and disruption over decades have caused problems for employers in drawing employees in competitive advantages. Firms need to stay competitive, and to do so, employers carry out several exercises to draw and retain talent. This study seeks to empirically test employer branding-organizational attractiveness relationship in the context of IT companies in India. Job engagement was found to partially mediate between employer branding and organizational attractiveness.
    Keywords: Employer Branding; Organizational Attractiveness; Attraction; Engagement; Disruptive Economy; Digitalization; Retention; Sustainable Development; Competitive Advantage; Human Resource Management.

  • Home-based entrepreneuring for Empowerment and Sustainability of Muslim women: A Study in Indian Context   Order a copy of this article
    by Safoora Habeeb, Vikas Arya, Naseeb Ahmad 
    Abstract: The position of Indian women in India is sort of a paradox. Every sixth woman of the world is Indian and they grossly differ in their status and condition among themselves. India is a country of high gender inequality index that stands with tremendous need to empower its women for sustainable development. Here woman prime minister held central power for eleven years; numerous women of the country are still powerless and spend their life in glass ceiling. Women empowerment through entrepreneurship has been an area of active research and many studies established the positive relation of women empowerment and sustenance with their entrepreneurial activity. The aim of this research study is to explore the liberation and emancipation of Muslim women through their home-based entrepreneuring. Also, the dimension of work stress as impact of home based entrepreneurship is also covered. Home based entrepreneurial activities include - beauty salon, tailoring and fashion designing and tuition services of the sample investigated for the study. The impact of flexibility of home based entrepreneuring to manage home and entrepreneurial responsibility at the same time and place is studied.
    Keywords: Muslim women entrepreneurship; Home based entrepreneuring; Empowerment; Sustainability.

  • Knowledge sharing intention and consumer perception in social networking sites   Order a copy of this article
    by Anshuman Sharma 
    Abstract: Social networking sites (SNSs) are vital sources for knowledge sharing for various travellers in a contemporary environment. The present study aims to examine the knowledge sharing intention by travellers on SNSs through factors such as perceived ease of use, switching cost, integrity perception and subjective norms. A conceptual model was developed and tested using structural equation modelling technique. The data, to test the model, was collected from 341 respondents, who uses online travelling services in UAE. The findings of data analyses show that the selected factors; integrity perception, subjective norms, switching cost and perceived ease of use, have a positive and significant impact on the knowledge sharing intention. There have not been too many studies in this area thus far; therefore, the present study has both practical and theoretical implications and relevance.
    Keywords: Social networking sites; knowledge sharing intention; integrity perception.

Special Issue on: CUDC - 2019 Emerging Trends in Business and Management

  • Electric Vehicles (EVs) Business Models: An Integrative Framework for Adoption of Electric Mobility   Order a copy of this article
    by Kumar Shalender 
    Abstract: The study presents four business models currently being operational in different parts of the world in order to support the commercialization drive of electric vehicles (EVs). With the help of extant literature, the author develops systematic and multidimensional frameworks on value creation and customers adoptions barriers related to EVs. These multidimensional frameworks are then used to analyze the selected business models for their strengths and weaknesses. Findings of the study underscore differences in the business models adopted by the selected players with Tesla and e2o emphasizing on product innovation while the other two, i.e., Carma and Wanxiang focusing on the service dimension. The study recommends that adoption of a holistic approach combining product and service orientation in business models is necessary for wide spread adoption of EVs. Besides, the role of forging partnerships across the value-chain partners and having policy support are also highlighted as key success factors for EVs.
    Keywords: Business model; Customer; Electric vehicles (EVs); Mobility; Strategy; Sustainability; Value.

  • Challenges faced by Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises: A systematic review   Order a copy of this article
    Abstract: Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises (MSMEs) play a pivotal role in the growth of the economy but their progress has been marred by problems. Given this premise, the authors attempted to identify the challenges faced by MSMEs in India. An examination of the long-standing literature revealed five categories of challenges namely finance, human resource, market/export, technology/infrastructure, and government. The study recommended measures such as simplification of loan disbursal process, provision to accept alternative arrangements of collateral from MSMEs, up-gradation of skills and knowledge of employees, improvement in productivity and product quality, simplification of labor laws and other statutory requirements, usage of IT tools in the business processes amongst others for sustainable growth of MSMEs in India.
    Keywords: Micro; Small and Medium Enterprises (MSMEs); challenges; sustainability; economic growth.

    by Kamrunnisha Nobi, Manjit Singh 
    Abstract: This study attempts to explore the conceptual framework of Islamic finance emphasising on Shariah index in India. To bring forth the conceptual framework of Islamic finance huge body of literature has been reviewed concerning the Shariah Islamiiah (Islamic teachings), historical background of Islamic finance, Shariah law, different components of Islamic finance, introduction to Islamic capital market and discussed the screening practices followed by the companies under different Industries. It is observed that there is a need to bring in certain amendments in the rules and regulations by the Indian government to pave the way for introducing various forms of Islamic finance as it may gain by the way of investments, financial inclusion of Muslims, upliftment of Muslims, agricultural development and so on. It is recommended to make diversification concerning to the avenue of investment by introducing more Shariah funds and ETF. Further, it is revealed that there is a difference in screening practices of different countries. Therefore, it is suggested to have uniform screening practices to hold the faith of investors on Islamic finance.
    Keywords: Conceptual Framework; Shariah Index; Shariah Screening; Shariah Law; Islamic finance.

  • A Stakeholder Perception of TQM in Engineering Education   Order a copy of this article
    by Kasturi Lal Sapra, Shuchi Dawra, Satish Kapoor 
    Abstract: This paper attempts to study the gap between quality of Engineering Education as offered and as required. The current model of education is content heavy, involving a lot of information and testing with little emphasis on experimental learning, real world exposure to industries, problem solving and creative intelligence. The study is focused primarily towards understanding the existing system of Engineering Education in the Institutions in Punjab and Chandigarh and how the TQM approach of benchmarking, QMS,continuous improvement and stackeholders' involvement affects the quality of Engineering Education both from the perspective of students as well as of the Faculty- the two most important stakeholders. The perception of students considering the corporate and industry connect, faculty quality, placement and career counseling ; and perception of Faculty considering curriculum and learning, research, corporate connect and infrastructure as variables is being analyzed with the help of PLS-SEM in relation to TQM variables in engineering Education.
    Keywords: Total Quality Management(TQM); Engineering Education; Continuous Improvement (CI); Faculty; Benchmarking; Industry Connect and Stakeholder Involvement ( SI ).

Special Issue on: IC2AIS 2019 Technological Innovation for Sustainable Development

  • XSS Attack Prevention Using Machine Learning   Order a copy of this article
    by Kanav Raj Farishta, Vivek Kumar Singh, Rajeswari Devarajan 
    Abstract: Web Applications are extensively used all over the world-wide net. These are the applications that have made our regular day to day existence easy and straightforward. We share incredibly confidential information over the web and keeping the information confidential is the most important priority of these web-based applications. These web-based applications are vulnerable to different attacks, XSS and SQL Injection being one of the most perceived attacks. Attackers inject malicious code into the web application and can cause cataclysmic harm to the person without his/her consent. Cross Site Scripting (XSS) and SQL Injection strikes are the most generally perceived sort of attacks that a web application experience. The XSS attack is caused by executing malicious code to a web browser which runs in the server about which the user isnt aware of and is capable of catastrophic disaster. Recognizing a script that is malicious or benign can keep an unwanted attack from happening and can help the web application from keeping the data of the users confidential. The work accentuates on a portion of the conceptual approaches to identify the XSS Script on the customer side dependent on a portion of the highlights extracted from the vindictive contents.
    Keywords: Xss attack; Machine learning.

  • An Analysis of A Secure Communication for Healthcare System Using Wearable Devices Based on Elliptic Curve Cryptography   Order a copy of this article
    by Pandiaraja Perumal 
    Abstract: In recent years, security and privacy are becoming more challenging which the major concerns in cloud are computing. The usable healthcare not only provides the accurate outcome but also maintains the confidentiality of medical results since the health information is highly sensitive. Nowadays, heart attack is considered as a more chronic disease and the use wearable sensors to monitor the patient continuously help the patient to take immediate medication with the help of SMS alerts through the patients mobile phone. At present, the mobile phones provide secure and private communications among the healthcare systems. It performs the authentication and secure communication of patient, doctor and other healthcare entities involved in healthcare scenario. The healthcare system aims to achieve a secure communication with high efficiency and low computational overheads. This paper focuses on various cryptographic algorithms and wireless technologies for secure and efficient communication.
    Keywords: Cloud security; mobile healthcare; wearable devices; group key management.

  • Time-Interleaved Digitization Systems for Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry: A Review   Order a copy of this article
    by R.S.Karthic R., Raghu Madhavan, Aravind Britto K. R., Vimala R, Arivalagan M. 
    Abstract: rnrnHigh speed analog to digital converters (ADC) are comprehensively used in several physical structures going from correspondence systems to nuclear instrumentation. Time Interleaved Analog to Digital Converters (TIADC) are utilized to recognize higher breaking down rate structures. We consider TIADC structure with respect to Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry (ToF-MS) which require higher assessing rate to perceive the mixture creation in a precedent analyte. TIADC systems have some basic scatter botches: offset, increment and timing puzzles. Of the three jumble botches time skew is a primary thought ruining the system execution and is a strong limit of data banner repeat. Concerning ToF-MS time skew defiles the objectives and settling power. Diminishing time skew can be improves the ToF-MS execution. This paper tells about the diverse disclosure and correction part of time skew. Three sorts of confound review systems are open: Analog, Digital Background and Digital Foreground. Simple strategy supplements the time estimation module of ToF-MS with simple hardware to address mistakes. In any case, this has some intrinsic simple issues like commotion, impedance and is slower contrasted with advanced circuits. Foundation mistake revision strategies utilize a few procedures. Advanced channel and channel bank strategies add to circuit multifaceted nature are computationally serious and face combination issues. Measurements put together adjustment techniques depend on the insights of the info flag. Dazzle computerized foundation strategies force extra imperatives toward the front like a wide sense stationary (WSS) band constrained info flag and the requirement for oversampling. Accordingly, their adequacy depends incredibly on the measurements of the information flag. Advanced forefront immaculate remaking technique utilizes a pilot tone to identify and address blunders. This technique is relevant just to limit data transmission signals.
    Keywords: Time-Interleaved Analog-to-Digital Converters (TIADC); Time of Flight Mass Spectrometer (ToFMS); time skew; foreground; background.rnrn.

  • A Literature Survey Of Automated Detection Of Cervical Cancer Cell In Pap Smear Images   Order a copy of this article
    by LAVANYA DEVI, P. Thirumurugan 
    Abstract: Cervical cancer is one of the major reasons for gynecologic cancer even though it can be treated if detected in the early stage. Pre-cancer identification of the uterine cervix can be done by the Pap Smear test. In the present day scenario, the pap smear images are taken and the patient has to wait for an experts suggestion. This time consuming conventional method can be replaced by automating the process which gives a rapid and accurate result. The automated screening of cervical cancer saves human resources and material and gives better accuracy by reducing human errors than an experts review.The major steps involved in the automated classification are preprocessing the image, segmentation, feature extraction, classification, and analyzing the classification result. This paper discusses the various algorithms that were used for segmenting and classifying the abnormal and normal cells based on the features extracted.
    Keywords: Preprocessing; segmentation; classification; feature extraction; Pap smear test.

    by A.Santhi Mary Antony 
    Abstract: Power stability is an important fact for the development of power. This power stability is maintained when voltage and current are in phase with each other. More harmonics are generated led to poor output voltage regulation and power factor is reduced. An effective way to achieve power factor correction is attained by power stability analysis. A Single stage PFC three level converter is proposed by using renewable energy as an input. The proposed converter integrates an AC-DC boost PFC converter into three level dc-dc converter. A flexible DC link voltage is used to achieve power factor correction at high line voltage. The power factor is improved and output voltage regulation is increased. An enhancement of load efficiency of the converter is obtained by less number of switches. The converter operation is explained and simulated by using renewable energy source as an input. The implementation of hardware is done for PV system and results are determined.
    Keywords: Three level AC-DC converter; Power factor correction converter (PFC); Single Stage Full bridge converter (SSFB); Power Stability.

    by Rajasekar Boopalan 
    Abstract: Micro strip patch antennas are noticed because the ones that have placed a most vital role in trendy wireless communications, during this project, analysis of high potency multiband antenna fed with two-dimensional wave guide for wireless applications is mentioned, two-dimensional wave guide(CPW) fed antennas give inherent electrical resistance matching for broader frequency vary, This planned style uses pattern patch as diverging layer with CPW feed. Performance of the planned style is investigated on range of pattern iterations with defected ground structure. The planned antenna is written on a awfully low value substrate material known as FR4 that has relative permittivity 4.4. HFSS simulation tool is employed so as to style the planned antenna.

  • Low-Complexity Particle Swarm Optimization based Adaptive User Clustering for Downlink Non-Orthogonal Multiple Access deployed for 5G systems.   Order a copy of this article
    by S.Prabha Kumaresan, Chee Keong Tan, Ching Kwang Lee, Yin Hoe Ng 
    Abstract: Non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) has been envisioned as a fundamental method towards fifth generation (5G) cellular networks. Typical clustering schemes employ adaptive user clustering (AUC) to improve the performance of the NOMA system using brute-force search (BF-S). But, the search to perform AUC is computationally complex and practically infeasible. Therefore, AUC using particle swarm optimisation (PSO) algorithm is proposed to minimise the computational complexity. PSO is an intellectual algorithm, implements using a random number of particles moving in a search space. The particles are evaluated by the fitness value on each iteration until it reaches the optimal solution. Simulation results demonstrate that NOMA system employing PSO-based AUC is able to reduce the complexity with acceptable throughput performance compared with BF-S-based AUC. Furthermore, it is noteworthy that the proposed PSO-based AUC outperforms the conventional clustering with fixed number of users in NOMA system and orthogonal multiple access (OMA) system in terms of throughput performance.
    Keywords: non-orthogonal multiple access; NOMA; adaptive user clustering; AUC; particle swarm optimisation; PSO; throughput maximisation; low complexity.
    DOI: 10.1504/WRSTSD.2020.10030143
  • An efficient Data Mining Process on Temporal data using Relevance feedback method   Order a copy of this article
    by Yuvaraj D, Dinesh M, Sivaram M, Nageswari S 
    Abstract: Some data is historical such as the judicial or medical which the factor of time is very important. temporal databases can deals with these data because it provide a systematic way of dealing with historical data.The new generation type of data mining which is called temporal data mining deals with these type of data that has time stamping and influnces by the factor of time after mining.the relevance feedback technique is included in the individuals revisitation habits and memory strength. we have additionally executed and assessed the performance by utilizing a trace driven methodology dependent on the online real behavior dataset. the exploratory outcomes demonstrate that our plan bolsters successfully on both overall aggregate queries and the different specific aggregate queries with correspondence overheads and satisfactory calculation.we also presented the efficient technique for calculating competitiveness in large level datasets introducing a profile that encode the user subjective notation of similarity in domain. These profiles can be gained ceaselessly from connection with client. we further show how the client profile might be embedded in a system that utilization relevance feedback mechanism. Finally, we calculate the quality of our results and the scalability of our technique by using multiple datasets from the different domains.
    Keywords: Data Mining ,Process; Temporal; data ,Relevance.

Special Issue on: WEECON'19 Science, Technology and Innovation for Sustainable Development

  • One Step Low Temperature Synthesis of Poly Vinyl Alcohol Stabilised ?-Ni (OH) 2 Nanoparticles Structural, Morphological and Optical Studies.   Order a copy of this article
    by Annie Albert, D.G. Harris Samuel, V. Parthasarathy, J. Selvi 
    Abstract: This research work reports a facile method for the synthesis of α-nickel hydroxide nanoparticles (NPs). The synthesis of α-Ni (OH) 2 NPs was performed at low temperature using Poly Vinyl Alcohol (PVA) as a stabilising agent. The structure of the nanoparticles was studied using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and X Ray Diffraction (XRD). Scherrers formula was employed to calculate the average size of the nanoparticles. The estimated size was 4nm. High resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) revealed the formation nanobristles of 2 nm diameter forming a 2D layer with PVA intercalated between the layers. The UV absorption spectrum further confirmed the nano size of the particle and formation of α-Ni(OH)2. The band gap value of Ni (OH) 2 was determined for various precursor concentrations.
    Keywords: ?-Ni(OH)2; PVA; one step synthesis; intercalation; HRTEM; band gap decrease; quantum effect deviation.

  • The Review and Investigation of Sustainable Thirteen Level Multilevel Inverter Control Strategies   Order a copy of this article
    by Muthukumar Paramasivan, MADDUKURI VENKATA RAMESH, Eswaramoorthy K, Veeramuthulingam N, Jarin T 
    Abstract: This paper deals with review and the comparative analysis of three different closed loop control approaches for Cascaded H-Bridge Multilevel inverter (CHBMLI) fed three phase induction motor. The sustainable solar energy has been efficiently used as input of the proposed MLI. The three phase CHBMLI consists of twelve switches per phase, totally thirty six switches to reach thirteen levels. The analysis of thirteen level CHBMLI with ANFIS, FUZZY and PID controllers are designed. The percentage of THD and steady state error, settling time, peak time are revealed and compared through the simulation at two different speeds of three phase induction motor under open loop and closed loop operations. The simulation studies are approved though the MATLAB Simulink.
    Keywords: Cascaded H-Bridge Multilevel inverter; ANFIS controller; FUZZY controller; PID controller Three phase Induction motor.

  • Energy of chemical graphs with adjacency Rhotrix   Order a copy of this article
    by Kaladevi V, Kavitha G 
    Abstract: The characteristic polynomial of a simple graph G is the determinant value of the matrix A(G)-(lambda)I, where A(G) is the adjacency matrix of G and I is the identity matrix. The roots of the characteristic polynomial equation are known as eigen values of G. Energy of any graph G is the aggregate of the eigen values of G. The largest eigen value is known as spectral radius of G. The recurrence relation of characteristic polynomial of certain graphs are derived in this proposed paper.
    Keywords: Characteristic polynomial; Recurrence relation; Rhotrix; Coupled matrix.

  • Investigation on metallurgy and material strength enhancement of 20MnCr5 forged link chain in cement mill   Order a copy of this article
    by Krishnakumar Krishnasamy, Arockia Selvakumar Arockia Doss 
    Abstract: A study on failure analysis of forged link chains used in a cement plant for scraper application is presented. The forged steel linkages are generally subjected to cyclic loading in abrasive environments. Fractured components were fabricated by forged 20MnCr5 structural steel and case hardened. The fractured samples were initially subjected to visual and stereo-binocular observations. The scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used to examine fractured surface. It was observed that the major cause of the chain failure was due to wear the reduction of case depth at the outer surface was worn out in abrasive environment. The novel idea in the proposed work is selection of material and choosing the proper heat treatment process to improve the tensile strength of forged link. By analytical approach EN30B steel is proposed with through hardening process. In experimental tensile test validation, 16% of average tensile strength is enhanced in proposed EN30B steel compared to existing 20MnCr5 steel.
    Keywords: drag conveyor chain; failure analysis; fatigue; dimpled fracture; 20MnCr5.
    DOI: 10.1504/WRSTSD.2020.10032341
    by Ajitha S, Judy M V 
    Abstract: Glaucoma can be metaphorically called gruesome thief who steals away the most precious eyesight slowly, silently and forever which often remains a frightening prospect to patients and frustrates ophthalmologist. It is a persisting disease and the advancement of which can be routed out if diagnosed in the beginning. Here a novel hybrid method for automated detection of Glaucoma is being proposed, which has the ability to support the ophthalmologists in disease detection in the early stage. The algorithm proposed here takes a pre-processed fundus image and calculates CDR from extracted optic cup and optic disc. The suggested system applies hybrid features for conformation of training and testing the glaucoma image, SVM classifier for detection of glaucoma. When the proposed system is estimated by utilizing Drishti_GS1 database. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy obtained in our methods are being compared with other methods in the literature survey. The glaucoma cases diagnosed by the suggested has not been since to be normal, hence the 100 % accuracy is ascertained hence the glaucoma is being diagnosed using automated medical system.
    Keywords: Glaucoma; Optic Disc; Cup to Disc ratio (CDR); Optic Cup; LBP.

  • Prediction of solids outlet moisture content in a continuous wall heated fluidized bed dryer for uniform and binary solid mixtures   Order a copy of this article
    by Gowrishetty Srinivas, Y. Pydi Setty 
    Abstract: Most of the industries perform drying of solids to enhance the durability of the product. The solids nature and available resources will play important role in selection of dryer and there are more than hundred types of dryers currently used in different industries. In the dryer, the heat to wet solids is supplied in different ways such as conduction, convection or in combination of them. In the application of fluidization phenomena to the drying, there are several advantages and disadvantages associated with this. The advantages are the drying rate is higher than most of the dryers, due to high transfer rate of heat and mass and also applicable for various range of particle sizes. There are several disadvantages associated with continuous fluidized bed dryers such as high energy consumption for heating of gas and that the solids are dried at high temperature. In the present study air at room temperature is used instead of hot gas and also the heat to wet solids is provided from wall. The significance of various influencing parameters on drying behavior is studied. The significance of mixture of different sizes of particles is also studied in the present study. The true density, bulk density and porosity of sand particles have been determined experimentally. The experimental results have been complied with Tanks in Series Model using Golden Search Method. The Number of Tanks for each experiment has been estimated and the effect has been compared with each parameter.
    Keywords: Fluidized bed drying; Continuous drying; Golden search method.

  • Composites materials for sustainable space industry: A review of recent developments   Order a copy of this article
    by Mubarak Ali, Nived N 
    Abstract: Composite materials have extraordinary properties such as high specific stiffness, high specific strength and other unique properties, which are indispensable in many industries such as aerospace, automotive and space application. Composite materials in space applications demands specific stiffness properties and it has to perform its intended at extreme environment at space. Space shuttles, satellites and other space vehicles have started using composites replacing aluminum, which had once dominated space industry. Adding to weight reduction and fuel savings, composite materials offers multi-functionality properties, which are indispensable for sustainable space industry. The most common used composites in space industry are polymer, ceramic, metal matrix composites respectively. Polymer matrix composites are used in larger proportion to other composites in designing of satellites particularly CubeSat. Ceramic composites are used in designing of heat shields in space shuttles due to ability to resist high temperature. Metal Matrix Composites are used in designing of truss, frames of spacecrafts. This review paper will first explain the need of composites in space industry and then critically review various types of advanced composites used in space. Polymer matrix composites applications in space industry and effect of space environments in properties of polymer matrix composites has been reviewed. Applications of ceramic matrix composites and the challenges in usage of ceramic composites in space has also been presented. Application of Metal matrix composites in designing of truss and antenna of satellites has been elucidated.
    Keywords: Ceramic matrix composites; Metal Matrix composites; Polymer matrix composites; Satellites; Sustainable Space Materials.

    by Reshma Jose, Shanty Chacko 
    Abstract: In this modern era, the clinical laboratories have given greater attention to produce an accurate, sustainable and the efficient results for every test, particularly in diagnosing the liver tumor. The liver tumor is very essential to detect as well as to follow the treatment of many stages like benign, malignant etc. This paper is focusing on the sustainable segmentation part in order to identify the tumor region in the liver. For finding the tumor region in liver three stages are followed. First stage is the image acquisition in which input liver image is read and then resized. Second stage is the image pre-processing. Third stage is the segmentation where the Otsus segmentation, Fuzzy C-Means Clustering and Region based Active Contour segmentation are used. The tumor region is not clearly found in the existing journals. The research gap for the base paper is to find the tumor region in the liver.
    Keywords: Histogram equalization; Otsu’s segmentation; Fuzzy C-Mean clustering; Region based Active Contour.

  • Performance Analysis of a PCM Integrated Domestic Solar Water Heater by Numerical simulations   Order a copy of this article
    by Dileep Karuthedath, Dishnu Divakaran, Arun KR, Srinivas M, Jayaraj S 
    Abstract: This work is aimed to analyze the performance of a non-pressurized domestic solar water heater (DSWH) integrated with phase change material (PCM) during the charging and discharging. PCM
    Keywords: CFD; Finite volume; PCM; ETC; Solar energy; Domestic solar water heater; FVM.

  • Structural and compositional evaluation of Waste Cooking Oil Algal Oil Biodiesel using FTIR and GC- FID for improved fuel properties   Order a copy of this article
    by Nirmala N, Dawn S S 
    Abstract: Energy demand and need for sustainable sources for fuel production have resulted in the development of alternative fuel technologies. Biodiesel has better fuel properties than the conventional diesel because of its renewable nature, non-toxic, zero sulfur and aromaticity. It can fuel the diesel engine without any further modifications. The present study aims to produce biodiesel from 1.25% of Algal oil blended with Waste Cooking Oil (WCO - AO) and optimizes the transesterification conditions by varying the concentration of alkali catalyst, oil: methanol ratio, time and temperature conditions using Response Surface Methodology. The chemical structure and composition of WCO- AO biodiesel was studied by performing Analytical characterization of Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Gas Chromatography with Flame Ionization Detector (GC- FID). Properties were also studied for the WCO-AO blended biodiesel and observed to meet ASTM standards.
    Keywords: Chlorella variabilis MK039712.1 lipid; Waste cooking oil; FTIR; Gas Chromatography – FID; Property Testing.

  • A Review on Performance, Heat Transfer and Exergy Analysis of Solar Flat Plate Collectors   Order a copy of this article
    by JEBARAJ S, Ali Mubarak Al-Qahtani 
    Abstract: The practice of solar energy usage has reached a remarkable level in recent years. Solar collectors are used to trap solar radiations incident on it and these trapped energy can be used for various applications such as heating the water and space, and other commercial purposes. Flat plate collectors are most widely used for low and medium heating applications. It is the need of the hour to analyze the solar collectors for enhancing the thermal efficiency, heat transfer rate and reduce the size. This paper presented an overview of the performance analysis, heat transfer analysis, transient analysis and energy and exergy study of various solar flat plate collectors. This review paper will be beneficial for the scientists, academicians, energy planners and policymakers to promote the use of solar flat plate collectors for thermal applications for sustainable development and cleaner production.
    Keywords: Flat plate collector; sustainable development; performance analysis; heat transfer analysis; transient analysis; numerical analysis; energy and exergy analysis.

Special Issue on: ICGLOW 2019 Environmental Law and Technology to Achieve Sustainable Development

  • A Critical Review of the Discrepancy between the Spatial Planning Map and the Spatial Planning Regulation of Agricultural Lands in Indonesia: Kulon Progo Regency Case Study   Order a copy of this article
    by Sri Wahyu Handayani, Suparjo Sujadi, Arie Sukanti Sumantri 
    Abstract: This research critically investigates discrepancies between the spatial planning map and the spatial planning regulation of agricultural land in Kulon Progo Regency, the Special Region of Yogyakarta, Indonesia. Data were analysed using jurimetrics, which were employed to explore the spatial map as a legal document listed in the appendix of regulation through the Geographic Information System (GIS) analysis. The study offers a critical review of the discrepancy between the spatial planning map and the spatial planning regulation for agricultural land; it demonstrates the consistency and inconsistency between the spatial patterns and the regulatory order of spatial management. Its findings show differences in spatial function in the same coordinates, despite the use of geospatial technology. Based on Loevingers jurimetrics theory and Kelsens pure theory of law, it is suggested that policy makers attend to the spatial map appendix and use jurimetrics in the area of law.
    Keywords: spatial planning; spatial planning map; spatial planning regulation; Kulon Progo Regency; agricultural lands; jurimetrics.

Special Issue on: ICSDEE'19 Sustainable Development in Energy and Environment

  • Analysis of wastewater from medical institutions in India   Order a copy of this article
    by Aastha Dhingra, Nadeem A Khan, Sirajuddin Ahmed, Viola Vambol, Svitlana Kovalenko 
    Abstract: One of the main reasons for the deterioration of the quality of natural waters is industrial and household human activity. Medical wastewaters contain significant amounts of chemical waste, such as antibiotics, disinfectants and others. Wastewater from health-care facilities contains organic particles (faeces, hair, food, vomit, paper, fibres), soluble organic material (urea, proteins, pharmaceuticals), inorganic particles (sand, grit, metal particles), soluble inorganic material (ammonia, cyanide, hydrogen sulfide, thiosulfates) etc. The problem is intense as these get discharged into the ground and surface water, due to improper treatment before being discharged as part of the hospital effluents. In some countries, such as India and Ukraine, hospital wastewater is discharged to urban wastewater treatment plants. The quantity of wastewater produced in a health-care facility depends on the amount of water used and is best measured by the water consumption. A survey was conducted in 75 hospitals, including 25 hospitals from the categories of high, medium and low. The average water consumption per bed per day in a hospital of Delhi ranges between 500-600 LPD. The annual water consumption in hospitals of Delhi is about 9000 million litres. Since the composition of the wastewater of medical institutions is diverse, it is necessary to conduct an extensive characterization to study the composition of the wastewater for their further use.
    Keywords: wastewater; medical institutions; pharmaceuticals; natural waters; wastewater discharge.