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World Review of Entrepreneurship, Management and Sustainable Development

World Review of Entrepreneurship, Management and Sustainable Development (WREMSD)

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World Review of Entrepreneurship, Management and Sustainable Development (24 papers in press)

Regular Issues

  • What is Remote-rural and why is it important?   Order a copy of this article
    by Sayed Gilani, Naveed Yasin, Peter Duncan, Anne Smith 
    Abstract: The discourse related to explaining the meaning of rural, particularly in contrast to urban areas, is well established and crucial for policy as well as other decision makers. However, it can be argued that not all rural can be classified as the same. The aim of this paper is to contribute towards the understanding of the concept as well as definitions related to remote-rural, particularly (but not exclusively) in a Scottish context. Based on a conceptual literature review, key findings in this paper are introduced in the form of five dimensions of rurality. The dimensions are (1) population and population density, (2) proximity to urban areas; (3) development, (4) culture and (5) social perceptions. This paper also proposes for policymakers to consider the concept of remote-rural while formulating policy to improve broadband adoption/use in isolated/remote areas in Scotland.
    Keywords: KEYWORDS: Remote-rural; rural areas; isolated areas; rural classification and rural.

    by Rajni Bala, Sandeep Singh, Sandhir Sharma 
    Abstract: From the past decade concept of sustainable development must be seen as one of the big tales of India. Corporate social responsibility is a hot item in the business world and one of the challenges for the future. Corporate environmental responsibility is an integral part of corporate social responsibility and encompasses environment commitment to continuous improvement, awareness, measuring, reporting, auditing and going beyond compliance. The study aims to brief the viewers about the ecological degradation and capturing their perception about the role of corporate houses towards a sustainable growth and eco development of the country. The present research work has been carried out to examine the factors affecting the role of corporate houses in sustainable growth and eco-development of economy in Punjab state of India. The sample of the study was 300 general masses. Exploratory factor analysis was conducted to determine the underlying factors on the primary data and seven factors were confirmed.
    Keywords: Sustainable Development; Corporate Social Responsibility; Ecological Degradation; Exploratory Factor Analysis.

    by Jeffrey Overall, Hector Gonzalez-Jimenez 
    Abstract: Diversity researchers have focused on asserting a relationship between equality and positive economic returns. However, a theory that can explain how and why this relationship exists, while also accounting for internationalisation, has so far been limited. To this end, we draw on natural selection and hybridisation theory to explain how equality and a natural reduction in discrimination appears to be occurring over time and why this is leading to positive economic outcomes. Using a unified structure of cases from the extant literature, we create a five-stage multilevel conceptual framework. Through this model, we show that when entities are exposed (through hybridisation) to the economic benefits that can be achieved through embracing equality, they will likely imitate these equality-embracing behaviours via natural selection. Embracing equality will become the norm in society over time, leading to a natural reduction in discrimination. This research is important because researchers and practitioners should be in an improved position to account for not only the temporal nature, but also the stages likely to follow in sequence in the transition toward total equality.
    Keywords: Discrimination; diversity; equality; human resources management; hybridisation; natural selection.

  • Consumer behaviour towards adopting sustainable alternative electronic payment methods.   Order a copy of this article
    by Sandeep Prabhu, Vishal Kumar 
    Abstract: Purpose: Alternative electronic payment methods are, the sustainable development alternative to millions of small cash transactions. Financial transactions at global levels are built-up through local adoption of payment methods. Governments are developing knowledge systems and policy network for managing financial transactions through various alternative payment methods. This research aims to identify factors that studies consumer behaviour towards various electronic payment methods. Research Methodology: Concepts and factors of consumer behaviour towards adoption of electronic payment methods are studied from extensive literature review. The concepts are operationalized and tested using Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA), checked for validity & reliability, and then tested by Structural Equation Modelling (SEM). The research employs a questionnaire with 33 items, scaled on 7-point Likert scale. Data is collected from a sample of 467 respondents having experience of alternative electronic payment methods. Findings: CFA confirms five-factor structure of consumer behaviour towards alternative electronic payment methods as; facilitating conditions, effort expectancy, performance expectancy, perceived security, and behavioural intention. The SEM methodology suggests payment facilitating conditions and payment system performance expectancy leads to consumers effort expectancy; and effort expectancy and consumer perceived security leads to consumer behaviour towards alternative payment method. Research Implications: The conceptual model of electronic payment method adoption can be useful in developing sustainable alternatives to cash transactions. Customer convenience ecosystem can resolve the global challenge of cash transactions locally by integrating alternative payment systems. Novelty / Originality: The research is significant considering recent consumer shift towards alternative payment methods away from cash transaction. The nature of proposed factors can be generalised to other methods of electronic payments.
    Keywords: electronic payment; consumer behaviour; confirmatory factor analysis; technology management; sustainable development; structural equation modelling; policy.

  • An empirical comparison between ESG 100 & sectoral indices with perspective of circular economy   Order a copy of this article
    by Zakir Mujeeb Shaikh, R. Suguna 
    Abstract: The past decade has seen the renewed importance of Environment Social Governance (ESG) awareness raising in the financial market. In this perspective, the circular economy (CE) becomes the central relevance. This study aims to examine the impact of the circular economy on sectoral indices over the ESG100 index. To investigate ESG scores, quantitative measures are performed. Our experimental setup is designed using a python programming language. The National Stock Exchange India (NSEI) data for the period of 1 January 2011 to 28 February 2022 is obtained from public domain. By comparing the ESG 100 index with other sectoral indices, we found that the ESG 100 index portfolio has a positive impact on stock performance. Although ESG 100 index score does not express higher performance in CE, further, our analysis shows that, to date, there is no evidence that CE initiative can influence stock returns.
    Keywords: environment; social; governance; sector; correlation; financial market.
    DOI: 10.1504/WREMSD.2022.10052762
  • The impact of quality management dimensions on the competitive advantage   Order a copy of this article
    by Ayman Al Armoti, Khaled M.K. Alhyasat, Hasan Juned Bukhari 
    Abstract: This study examines the impact of quality management dimensions on the competitive advantage of Masafi water company in Al Ain city. Primary data was obtained by administering surveys to a target population of 568 grocery stores in Al Ain city. The importance of this study is to create value for the local and typical business entity, and pave a productive gateway for the UAE economy since it presents a strategic approach to interacting with customers while they compete with the competitors, that will increase the quality of the plans that follow eventually and will reflect on the market share positively. The analysis through SPSS was used to test the data, and the results showed that dimensions of service quality were extensively implemented by Masafi and had a positive correlation to the firms competitive advantage. However, the competitive strategy and product were insignificant on Masafis competitive advantage.
    Keywords: quality management; product; service; competitive strategy; competitive advantage.
    DOI: 10.1504/WREMSD.2023.10053647
  • Technical sustainability with hybrid approach in tourism sector   Order a copy of this article
    by Anuj Kumar, Bindu Roy, Archana Bhatia 
    Abstract: COVID-19 pandemic has brought about forced technological shift in the tourism and hospitality sector with incorporation of artificial intelligence, virtual reality and robotics. The aim of the study is to find the extent and sustenance of technological adaptation in this sector and to critically analyse the far reaching reverberations of this adaptation in the aftermath of the pandemic. This study is based on a traditional narrative review method where global tourism is the primary area of focus. The findings have revealed that AI technologies are a phenomenon in this sector with virtual tourism being the only alternative during the pandemic. While practical usage of robotics technology still poses some challenges in developing countries due to internet connections and a lack of skilled personnel. In sight of this the researchers have designed a model of hybrid approach for tourism sustainability which will aid and steer the tourism and hospitality stakeholders.
    Keywords: post-COVID-19; tourism; sustainability; artificial intelligence; robotics; virtual reality.
    DOI: 10.1504/WREMSD.2023.10056827
  • Way for social sustainability by making rural people self- reliant: An Evaluation of NABARDs initiatives in India   Order a copy of this article
    by Jyoti Yadav, Ravinder Kaur, Suyash Mishra 
    Abstract: For sustainable development, the Self-Reliant India Mission was announced with the economic package to revive the Indian economy battered due to COVID19 pandemic. Government of India has been planning and implementing various tremendous schemes/programmes for making India self-sufficient and self-reliant including Self-Help Group-Bank linkage programme (SHG-BLP) which is one of the initiatives of NABARD for making rural people self-dependent. This paper aims to investigate the role of SHG-BLP in achieving the goal of social sustainability. For empirical analysis, data on the performance of SHG-BLP and other initiatives taken by NABARD have been considered. The analysis explored that SHG-BLP and other initiatives are working as an energy booster for Self-Help Groups (SHGs) and pathways for social sustainability by making Indian rural people self-dependent.
    Keywords: Sustainable development; social sustainability; self-reliant; self-help group-bank linkage programme; SHG-BLP; self-help groups; SHGs; women empowerment.

  • A systematic review of environmental sustainability and economic growth   Order a copy of this article
    by Sukhwinder Singh, Manoj Sharma, Yogesh Gupta 
    Abstract: With the deadline for sustainable development goals nearly a decade away, it becomes relevant to conduct a cost-benefit analysis and ascertain the cost of a sustainable economy. Divergent discourses reveal that elements responsible for economic growth and environmental sustainability constantly interact with each other in an inefficient manner. For instance, an increase in foreign direct investment (FDI) in polluting industries deteriorates the environment, and then changing climatic conditions with high pollution levels impact the output, health, and quality of life. Whereas this effect will be larger for developing countries who are keeping the environment at toe with their detrimental policies. Developed countries are also giving a disadvantage to lower-income countries by utterly exploiting their natural capital stock and worsening their ecological footprint. Analysing extensive literature by using PRISMA analysis makes it practicable for developing countries to understand the causality between indicators of economic growth and environment and draft policies accordingly.
    Keywords: abatement cost; climate change; ecological footprint; economic development; EKC hypothesis; energy consumption; environmental economics; environmental pollution; environmental taxes; industrial activities; social cost of pollution; sustainable development.
    DOI: 10.1504/WREMSD.2023.10053822
  • Fuzzy Integration into Sustainability Review   Order a copy of this article
    by Enis Kucuk, Hatice Camgoz Akdag 
    Abstract: Fuzzy Logic Integration is a promising solution to overcome vagueness included in sustainability via dealing with vague and missing data in the sustainability concept. This study aims to advance sustainability evaluation research by a systematic review and how sustainability issues can be overcome in different disciplines and fields using fuzzy logic under the Triple Bottom Line (TBL) framework. A systematic literature search was performed by querying keywords on Scopus and Web of Science databases that consider dealing with fuzziness included in sustainability concept and TBL dimensions. Besides abstracts, full texts were also scanned to ensure the relevance of the papers, and the determined articles were examined in detail for their fuzzy approach to dealing with the sustainability issue. In this study, all types of fuzzy techniques were considered and evaluated (not only focusing on any specific method, e.g., focusing on only fuzzy multi-attribute decision-making and so forth). The searching returned 514 papers, and after the screening process, 70 papers remained and were evaluated due to containing sufficient information regarding fuzziness and sustainability. Most of the publications are on fuzzy multi-criteria decision making, such as fuzzy AHP and fuzzy TOPSIS techniques, and focused on solutions in the supply chain management area. The results demonstrate that the fuzzy methods in sustainability examination have promising potential in dealing with the complexities and can support decision-makers.
    Keywords: Sustainability; Fuzzy; Triple Bottom Line; Indicator,.

  • Developing emotionally intelligent organisations: an imperative for sustainable competitive edge   Order a copy of this article
    by Priyanka, Shikha N. Khera, Pradeep Kumar Suri 
    Abstract: This paper tries to identify the human capabilities and competencies that work as enablers to achieve Sustainable Competitive Advantage (SCA). It also discusses the emerging conceptualisation of Emotionally Intelligent Organisations (EIO). By examining various people competencies associated with sustainable competitive edge and the characteristics of EIO, it is observed that a high degree of commonality exists between them. Evidence is presented that supports the argument that creating EIO can pave the way for sustainable competitive edge. Skills such as leadership, creativity, innovation and teamwork, which are deemed necessary to use and design the core competencies in a manner that creates superior response than competitors and thereby, results in a sustainable competitive edge for the organisations, are the very capabilities which form the lifeblood of EIO. Paper concludes with the recommendations to help organisations become emotionally intelligent.
    Keywords: emotionally intelligent organisations; emotional intelligence; sustainable competitive advantage; leadership; learning; agility; innovation; creativity; flexibility; teamwork.
    DOI: 10.1504/WREMSD.2023.10054935
  • Upper Echelon Theory versus Dynamic Capabilities Theory Relevance for Current Sustainability Entrepreneurs   Order a copy of this article
    by Danjuma T. Nimfa, Ahmad Shaharudin Abdul Latiff, Sazali Abdul Wahab 
    Abstract: The main purpose of this study was to compare the suitability of the upper echelon theory (UET) and the dynamic capabilities theory (DCT) for sustainability entrepreneurs. The study investigated which theory was more appropriate and suitable as the underpinning theory that could be anchored as a pedestal for studies on the sustainability of entrepreneurs. The methodological approach was literature analysis by gathering the information that would validate the practical application and contributions of UET and DCT relevance for current sustainability entrepreneurs. Therefore, this study concluded that UET and DCT support sustainability theories because of their pragmatic and dynamic ability to address the current changing phenomenon in order to protect future businesses. This study also recommends that UET and DCT be applied as ground-breaking theories that may not have existed in previous literature for the sustainability of entrepreneur support which could improve management.
    Keywords: Upper echelon theory; Dynamic capabilities theory; Sustainability; Entrepreneurs.

  • Entrepreneurial competence and commitment of smallholder farmers in Madagascar   Order a copy of this article
    by Boris Urban, Mc Edward Murimbika, Radomalala Ratsimanetrimanana 
    Abstract: Entrepreneurial capital (EC) is a crucial driver of performance for smallholder famers which represents a major share of economic activity for many developing. This article examines the extent to which EC, in the form of interactions between entrepreneurial competence and entrepreneurial commitment, affects the performance of smallholder farmers in Madagascar, while taking into consideration the effects of their gender, age and level of education. The study context is the under-researched rural areas of the central region of Analamanga, which comprises of seven rural districts with a total of 139 municipalities, where a sample of 411 smallholder farmers are surveyed. The results reveal a positive relationship between entrepreneurial competencies (perceived capacity, perceived opportunity, and role models) and entrepreneurial commitment (affective commitment) which together positively influence performance, while several demographic factors also play a significant role. Study implications relate to how increased EC may help local people in a developing country context improve their enterprise performance. Government is advised to encourage entrepreneurship in Madagascar by advancing the numerous factors involved in enhancing EC.
    Keywords: entrepreneurial capital; entrepreneurial competence; entrepreneurial commitment; smallholder farmers; Madagascar; perceived capacity; perceived opportunity; role models; performancernrn.

  • Collective linkage for rural community welfare: a collaborative effort by Amul Dairy and Tribhuvandas Foundation   Order a copy of this article
    by Darshana R. Dave, Srinivas Sajja 
    Abstract: Inter-organisational arrangements can benefit stakeholders and the community at large. Collaborations exhibit potential in community healthcare services as they address native problems efficiently and are less reliant on public infrastructure. The paper attempts to throw light upon the successful linkage of a farmer cooperative (Amul Dairy) with an NGO (Tribhuvandas Foundation (TF)), an integrated, symbiotic developmental approach with a keen focus on community-based primary healthcare. The study adopts a holistic design with an inductive, longitudinal case approach and follows an exploratory research methodology. Amul Dairy provides sustainable livelihood opportunities to dairy farmers to acquire financial stability and multi-dimensional growth thereby empowering them to contribute to their communities at large, while TF contributes to community healthcare and social welfare through myriad initiatives. These joint efforts have paved the way to address member well-being in cooperative set-ups, apart from providing wider social community welfare benefits through a unique collaborative model.
    Keywords: dairy cooperatives; India; NGO; community welfare; community-based primary healthcare programmes; village health workers; child care; nutrition; social community; clinical services; Covid-19.
    DOI: 10.1504/WREMSD.2022.10051792
  • Statistics of Sustainable Development evolution in Colombia   Order a copy of this article
    by Fabio Bermejo, Luis Ramirez-Polo, Norberto Acuña 
    Abstract: Sustainable development currently forms the cross-cutting axis of government programs at the national, regional, and municipal levels of most countries in the world. Colombia has not been immune to this trend, and through its last governments, it has implemented programs aimed at this aim. This article shows how sustainable development in Colombia has been evolving in recent years, analyzed through national and international databases indicators of ecological footprint, biocapacity, human development Index (HDI), and energy, numerically detailing each Factor and analyzing its trends. At the end of the study could be concluded that the increase in the human development index has generated an increase in the ecological footprint (maintaining a reserve in 1.6 hags per capita), 1.25 planets earth would be needed if all humanity lived at the pace of life of Colombians, but the energy intensity and the intensity of emissions have decreased. Long-term policies seek to diversify the energy matrix by increasing generation through non-conventional renewable sources, positioning energy as the principal source of development, emphasizing environmental management, energy efficiency, service coverage, and regional integration.
    Keywords: Sustainable development; Human Development Index; ecological footprint; energy intensity.

  • Factors Influencing Sustainable Entrepreneurship: A Systematic Review   Order a copy of this article
    by Jayaram R, Sanjeet Singh 
    Abstract: Entrepreneurship and Sustainability are inevitable to the modern world. This review is twenty years consolidation of the high-quality papers related to sustainable entrepreneurship. This review had the purpose of understanding the factors, challenges, and models related to sustainable entrepreneurship. In this review, sixty-two peer-reviewed journal articles in thirty- three journals related to sustainable entrepreneurship in the last two decades. This paper used Web of Science resources to picture the current working themes in sustainable entrepreneurship. The topics of factors influencing sustainable entrepreneurship, the challenges of sustainable entrepreneurship, and models of sustainable entrepreneurship were important. This research had identified forty-six determinants, ten challenges, and several models of sustainable entrepreneurship. R studio and Wordstat are used for content analysis. This research had identified forty-six determinants, ten challenges, and several models of sustainable entrepreneurship. This research identified under-researched determinants, challenges, and models, with scope for further exploration.
    Keywords: Sustainability; Sustainable Entrepreneurship; Entrepreneur; Systematic Review.

  • Comparitive Assessment of Green Growth Indicators for China and India   Order a copy of this article
    by Anindita Chatterjee, Jitendra Gaur 
    Abstract: The paper empirically analyses green growth development in India and China as they are the emerging economies of Asia. Economic growth with the environmental and social well being is vital for achieving green growth. The study uses longitudinal data for both countries from 1990 to 2016 for empirical analysis. T-test and hierarchical clustering have been used to find significant differences between India and China. We found that green growth is a challenging course for both the countries though their growth patterns are entirely different with China leading the green growth pathway with advanced technology and structure. In India, apart from the enforced regulations, the activities need to be implemented for meaningful progress in the area of green growth. The outcome of the paper depicts the difference in growth patterns of both the countries concerning green growth indicators.
    Keywords: Green Growth; Green Economies; Emerging Economy; Sustainability; CO2 Productivity; CO2 Emissions; Pollution; Growth Rate.

  • The Impact of the No Choice Option on the Performance of Women-Owned Businesses in Patriarchal Societies   Order a copy of this article
    by Bridget Nneka Irene, Joan Lockyer, Cherisse Hoyte, Sunita Dewitt, Razieh Sadraei 
    Abstract: The female' underperformance' discourse is a well-established and often disputed notion in entrepreneurship research. this paper seeks to challenge performance measures and re-evaluate the association between gender and business performance using non-conventional performance indicators. This paper uses the Theory of Planned Behaviour and patriarchy as the theoretical frameworks, and Feminist Poststructuralist Discourse Analysis (FPDA) as the method to critically evaluate the association between choice intentions and performance in the context of women-owned businesses in a patriarchal society such as Nigeria, where often success is not required, expected nor welcomed. The data drawn from 100 women entrepreneurs found that 'no choice' or 'forced choice' impacted women's entrepreneurial intentions and, consequently, their business performance. This paper develops a critical analysis of the association between the 'No Choice Option' and the underperformance of women-owned businesses. This association can explain the high failure rates of women-owned businesses in Nigeria.
    Keywords: Gender; Entrepreneurial Intentions; Patriarchy; Underperformance; Theory of Planned Behaviour.

  • Fostering conversational artificial intelligence (CAI) for sustainable development in services: a case study of Haptik   Order a copy of this article
    by Deepak Singh, Balvinder Shukla, Manoj Joshi 
    Abstract: Conversational Artificial Intelligence (CAI) is a combination of Conversational Commerce, Chatbot, Voicebot and Virtual Assistant. CAI has enabled interstellar opportunities for large companies, collaborating with start-ups towards sustainable development. This has to simplify the services and optimised customer bookings, utility payments, queries, complaints and resolutions. CAI aided with a framework based on Technopreneurship Innovation (TIN) has been adopted at different stages of the start-up life cycle, hence, ensuring sustainable development with growth. A qualitative case study method of examination and enquiry, with an interpretive ontology, was tested for AI-based firms established between 2013 and 2020 across India in the services sector. Through purposive sampling, the Haptik application (app) for the case study was selected for investigation deploying inductive reasoning. The results stated that CAI is a futuristic living and is here to stay for industries like banks, travel, tourism, hospitality, insurance, healthcare, education, agriculture, e-commerce, retail, etc.
    Keywords: conversational artificial intelligence; technopreneurship; sustainable development; technological innovation; entrepreneurship; chatbot; start-ups; VUCA.
    DOI: 10.1504/WREMSD.2022.10047844
  • Sustainable development of SMEs during the COVID-19 pandemic: a comparative study between developed and developing countries   Order a copy of this article
    by Demetris Vrontis, Hani El-Chaarani, Sam El Nemar, Hebatallah Badawy 
    Abstract: This research compares and analyses the different innovation strategies employed by SMEs in both developing and developed countries to reveal their impact on firm performance and sustainable development during the COVID-19 pandemic period. Descriptive statistics, Mann-Whitney U test and a multivariate regression model were employed on two subsamples extracted from Saudi Arabia and France representing developing and developed countries, respectively. The results show that SMEs in France outperformed SMEs in Saudi Arabia during the pandemic period. French SMEs also have showed higher capacity to implement marketing, process, product, and organisational innovative strategies during the lockdown period. In addition, the results reveal that, during that period, marketing innovation practices have improved sustainability and financial performance of SMEs. Finally, the product innovation strategy was not well valued by customers during the pandemic period, which led to a decrease in the financial performance of SMEs in both developing and developed countries.
    Keywords: sustainable development; SMEs; COVID-19; financial performance; innovation strategy; performance strategy; developing and developed countries.
    DOI: 10.1504/WREMSD.2024.10063801
  • Farmer's zest for adopting organic basmati rice farming in Jammu   Order a copy of this article
    by Neeru Sidana, Taruna Dubey 
    Abstract: The purpose of the paper is to investigate factors influencing farmers to adopt organic farming. Farmers in Jammu district are practising organic as a well as inorganic method of farming. Cross-sectional study was conducted in Jammu district and a sample of 15 farmers was taken for the study and interview was conducted. The factors taken for the study were social, economic, environmental, government and demographic factors. Economic factor, support factor and marketing factors are main factors and the study suggests that farmers fear of reducing yield is the factor which restricts farmer from adopting organic farming farmers demand proper water availability as well as appropriate farm gate price. Farmers want to control price along with maximisation of their bargaining power so that they can get premium price.
    Keywords: organic; farming; farmer; factor; rice production; basmati; adoption; chemicals; fertilisers.
    DOI: 10.1504/WREMSD.2024.10059517
  • Enhancing sustainability and performance of supply chain organisations through rationality-riskiness analysis   Order a copy of this article
    by Raja Roy, Soma Roychowdhury 
    Abstract: The rationality-riskiness issues amongst the members of the supply chain organisations (SCOs), the suppliers, the firm, and the customers, are derived from the communications theory-modified Johari window approach (MJW). The derived issues are then strategically integrated with proactive and reactive approaches being adopted by the SCOs, to model orientation-performance aspects of SCOs. Data collected from 206 participants of medium-size manufacturing organisations located in eastern India has been used to fit the proposed weakness-rationality-risk-dissatisfaction (WRRD) model using structural equation modelling. The results demonstrate acceptable fit values based on the recommended values of various fit indices. Further the measures indicate and aid the SCOs to select and control appropriate risk integrated strategies for enhancing firms' performance and sustainability.
    Keywords: rationality-riskiness analysis; Johari window; structural equation modelling; supply chain organisations; sustainability; sustainable development.
    DOI: 10.1504/WREMSD.2022.10046374
  • Exploring teacher's perception towards sustainability in Indian higher educational institutions   Order a copy of this article
    by Ruby Sengar, Smriti Pande, Narendra Singh Chaudhary 
    Abstract: This study aims to explore the views of teachers from HEIs regarding sustainability in higher education. The qualitative research methods have been employed in this study, which involved in-depth interviews via semi-structured interviews. Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA) has been used to study and examine in detail the personal, lived-in experiences of the respondents. The study's findings highlight the various issues and challenges preventing higher education institutions from becoming sustainable. The authors have identified and explored that blurred vision of leaders, infrequent policy reviews, unethical conduct, demotivating organisation culture, lack of social contribution and huge investment demands are putting mounting pressure on the institutions and preventing them from being sustainable. Their myopic view of fulfilling short term goals and sheer focus on the profits and money minting are making situations worse. The study provides a framework and suggests ways that the HEIs can adopt to make themselves more sustainable and overcome the challenges that come their way. The present study can be utilised by the organisations and policy-making bodies to understand its various implications and accommodate necessary changes to garner the positive and remove the bottle neck that prevails. Employers can take decisions for the betterment of employees using the present study and devise appropriate policies accordingly.
    Keywords: HEIs; IPA; interpretative phenomenological analysis; sustainability; higher education; teachers; qualitative study.
    DOI: 10.1504/WREMSD.2024.10063802
  • Performance appraisal system and employee outcome for sustainable development of shipping and logistic industry   Order a copy of this article
    by Shweta, Shakti Prakash, Narendra Singh 
    Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to examine how Performance Appraisal System (PAS) and Employee Outcome (EO) are important for the sustainable development of the shipping and logistic industry. This purpose has been achieved by examining the influence of PAS on employees' productivity, motivation, and satisfaction level. To understand the robustness of this relationship, multiple regression, and Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) has been performed by conducting a structured survey method. The findings of this paper revealed that the rewards and appreciation provided to the employees for their work performance has enhanced their motivation and confidence level to perform more challenging tasks at workplace. CFA also revealed that the PAS carries a significant impact on employee satisfaction, productivity, and motivation. The findings are useful for the practitioners to develop an action plan to achieve rationally set targets directly linked to the set goals.
    Keywords: performance appraisal system; motivation; productivity; satisfaction; reward system; performance based pay; promotion; employee feedback.
    DOI: 10.1504/WREMSD.2023.10056535