International Journal of Trade and Global Markets (46 papers in press)
The Dynamic Nexus between GDP, Consumption and Exports of BRICS Countries: An ARDL Cointegration Analysis
by Zeenat Fatima, Mohd Shamim
Abstract: The study empirically examines the consumption and export-led growth strategy of BRICS countries. The country-specific time series data have been used to examine the short and long-run impact between the gross domestic product (GDP), export and consumption from 1989 to 2016. The autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) and error correction method are applied for the equilibrium-adjustment analysis. The ARDL bound test confirms the long-run cointegration between the variables of Brazil, Russia, India and China (BRIC) and fails to indicate any cointegration in South Africa series. Hence, the empirical evidence shows that both the strategies play a significant role in disequilibrium correction of BRIC countries whereas system analysis has been done in Brazil and Russia series. It implies that Brazil and Russian economic systems have bi-directional long-run causality. However, India and China series have uni-directional long-run causality from export and consumption to GDP whereas South Africa series has only short-run causality.
Keywords: BRICS countries; trade; Cointegration Analysis.
THE ROLE OF MANAGEMENT CONTROL SYSTEMS IN THE PERFORMANCE OF HIGHER EDUCATION THROUGH GOOD UNIVERSITY GOVERNANCE
by Ali Muktiyanto, Rini Hadiwidjaja, Ancella Hermawan
Abstract: Management control systems (MCSs) encourage university management to focus on achieving the expected performance. Unfortunately research on MCS in the public sector, has been very limited especially in the universities. It has been argued that MCS affects the Performance of Higher Education albeit in a weak manner. However, there are certain other variables that influence the role of MCS on higher education performance. Good university governance (GUG) is one of them. Kim (2008) states that GUG factors determine the success of management, quality control and organisational performance. This study seeks to examine the role of GUG under the influence of MCS on Performance. A study of 70 undergraduate accounting study programs in Indonesia using structural equation model has shown that MCS does affect performance. The effect is more pronounced with GUG being a mediator between MCS and performance. This suggests that the role of GUG should be optimised to enhance the role of MCS.
Keywords: Management Control System; Higher Education; Performance.
THE ROLE OF GENDER IN THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ABUSIVE SUPERVISION AND EMPLOYEES ORGANIZATIONAL CITIZENSHIP BEHAVIOUR IN INDONESIA
by E.D.I. CAHYONO, Tulus Haryono, Mugi Harsono, Budhi Haryanto
Abstract: The purpose of this paper is twofold; first, to examine the relationship between employees perception of abusive supervision and their organisational citizenship behaviour (OCB) and, second, to investigate the moderating role of gender differences on this relationship. Data were collected from 104 employees working in an Indonesian hotel through self-report questionnaires. The finding of the study confirms that abusive supervision is negatively related to subordinates OCB. The study also reveals that women employees OCB lower often than their men counterpart, when they perceive their supervisors to be abusive. The studys implications for theory and practice are discussed, its limitations are identified, and directions for future research are suggested.
Keywords: Abusive Supervision; Gender; Organizational Citizenship Behaviour.
Buying motives as demand factors for life insurances in emerging and developed markets: the case of Romania and Austria
by Vito Bobek, Katharina Radler, Romana Korez Vide, Tatjana Horvat
Abstract: This paper aims to explore buying motives as demand factors for life insurances and private pensions in emerging and developed markets, based on the comparative analysis of findings of surveys and interviews conducted in Romania and Austria.1 The comparative analysis between the quantitative research has shown that in Romania several more factors were influencing the steps between having no intention, the intention and the decision to buy a life insurance and private pension product than in Austria. However, trust in insurance companies and the central role of the sales agents have shown to be decisive for wanting to buy or having already acquired a life insurance in both countries. In Austria it is a personal choice, if the customer wants to invest in life insurance, in Romania, however, it is a challenge related to the regulatory and economic perspective of the country.
Keywords: Life insurances; demand factors; buying motives; emerging markets; Romania; Austria.
A New Approach on Effective Control regarding E-commerce Risks in Stock Exchange Market Focusing on Cloud Computing (A Caste Study: Tehran Stock Market)
by Seyedeh Hashemiyeh Mirrezaei
Abstract: Effective risk control is as significant as maximising the return of investment for investors; therefore, it is essential to examine patterns and tools of the effective risk control for investors. By using local and global optimisation algorithms, the approach minimises risk-based control patterns, draws and compares its performance boundaries. For this purpose, after testing the normal distribution of returns of selected companies, parametric nonlinear planning patterns are introduced for all three effective risk control models. Using optimisation algorithms and Matlab software, the optimisation function is based on fuzzy hierarchical analysis method, fuzzy DEA and an intelligent optimisation model in the cloud environment to do the comparison. For economic users of the stock exchange, the cloud environment was an unsafe media, and the cloud itself is considered a risk. The study findings show the fuzzy optimised model can better understand the cloud environment and the risks more effectively than other models.
Keywords: Effective Risk Control; Optimization of Risk Detection Methods; Fuzzy Analysis; Cloud Computing; stock exchange; computer networks; XenPump; economic users; business; employees; Skeptical.
Implications of KORUS on U.S. beef in South Korea
by ANDREW MUHAMMAD, Jada Thompson, Karen Delong
Abstract: We examined the competitiveness of US beef in South Korea and assessed how the US-Korea free trade agreement (KORUS) impacted preferences for imported beef products by exporting source (USA, Australia, and the rest of world). Since KORUS entered into force in 2012, US beef exports to Korea have increased 87% and the US is now the leading beef exporter to Korea. Overall, results indicated limited competition across exporting countries as evidenced by the insignificant cross-price estimates. However, we did find evidence of habit formation for US beef which indicates the success of KORUS for the US beef industry and underscores the critical desire to maintain this agreement. When examining how habit formation changed after the implementation of KORUS, we find clear evidence of an increase in preferences for US chilled beef in the South Korean market.
Keywords: Key words: beef; demand; KORUS; imports; Rotterdam model; South Korea; United States.
Foreign Direct Investment, Globalization Challenges and Economic Development: An African Sub-Regional Analysis.
by Folasade Adegboye, Romanus Osabohien, Felicia Olokoyo, Oluwatoyin Matthew
Abstract: Foreign direct investment (FDI) inflow is a global phenomenon for Africa and developing economies alike. It is expected that globalisation would foster inflow of foreign capital, technology transfer and consequently economic development. This study aimed at examining the effect of FDI on economic development for developing economies in the SSA sub-region. The study used pooled data for 39 SSA countries for the period within years 2000 and 2018. The analysis method used for the examination was the fixed effect least square dummy variable regression model. The study found that FDI is tangibly significant in relation to economic development for SSA sub-region that depended less on it. The study recommends that, the government of SSA subregion should consider the extent to which they would exploit existing opportunities that globalisation affords vis-
Keywords: FDI; Foreign Direct Investment; Globalization; Economic Development; African Sub-regions; Econometric Analysis; SSA; Sub-Sahara Africa.
The Nominal Devaluation and Real Devaluation: the case of Algeria
by Bilal Boubellouta, Lian An
Abstract: This paper explores the relationship between nominal and real effective exchange rates (REERs) using time series data over the period 1994
Keywords: Devaluation; ARDL bounds testing; Error Correction Method; Cointegration; Algeria.
The moderating role of ASEAN-Korea FTA on the relationship between trade and South Korean outward FDI
by Sun-Hwa Park, Hyun-Jung Nam, Jeong-Yeol Park, Suk-Jun Lim
Abstract: This study examines the determinants of outward Korean foreign direct investment (FDI) in ASEAN countries and the moderating role of the ASEAN
Keywords: Foreign Direct Investment; ASEAN-Korea Free Trade Agreement; Generalized Least Squares.
The Effect of Digital Financial Innovation on Structural Transformation and the Labour Market
by Fabio Monteforte, Michele Limosani, Fabrizio Lanzafame
Abstract: This paper focuses on the possible impact of more efficient credit allocation on a countrys processes of structural transformation. We develop a dynamic version of a small-scale general equilibrium model for a dual economy, in which labour reallocation is accompanied by involuntary unemployment in the modern sector, whose degree of financial efficiency varies over time. Counterfactual simulations indicate that structural transformation is faster in economies with greater financial efficiency, because the incentives for intersectoral migration are greater. That is, from the very outset of the transition the expected utility of working in the modern sector is greater. In our simulations, the greater flow of labour does not translate into higher unemployment rates.
Keywords: Structural change; financial efficiency; efficiency wages; digital economy.
East African trade agreement and continental economic integration: prospects and constraints for economic development
by Romanus Osabohien, Oluwatoyin Matthew, Abigail Godwin, Victoria Okafor, Busayo Aderounmu
Abstract: This study employed a panel data analysis from selected East African countries, with the use of fixed and random effects model which was tested using Hausman specification test. The results from the study showed that; trade agreement and foreign direct investment (FDI) have a significant positive effect on East African economy, while trade openness exerts a negative effect as a result of low productivity. Therefore, the study recommended that the government of East African countries should embrace and develop policies in promoting the continental trade agreement and economic integration, in order to raise the level of productivity within the region and the sub-region for sustainable economic development.
Keywords: East African Community; Economic Integration; Trade Agreement.
CONVERGENCE OF THE INSTITUTIONAL QUALITY OF THE SOCIAL SECTOR: THE PATH TO INCLUSIVE GROWTH
by Serhiy Lyeonov, Tetyana Vasilyeva, Yuriy Bilan, Kseniya Bagmet
Abstract: The paper uses concepts of the conditional and unconditional -convergence in order to answer the question of whether there is a convergence in the institutional quality of the social sector between countries. Two groups of indicators for institutional quality of the social sector are used: the first indicator is the institutional quality index of social sector (QISS) as measure of quality of formal institutions; the second group includes indices of social development (ISD), which are used as quality indicators for development of informal social institutions. The regression results that both conditional and unconditional convergence of the institutional quality of the social sector, according to the indicator QISS has not been approved yet. It was found that there was an unconditional convergence by the social institutes Intergroup Cohesion, divergence by the institutions gender equality. Informal social institutions revealed are significantly influenced by voice and accountability, rule of law, control of corruption.
Keywords: convergence; institutional quality of the social sector; social capital; inclusive growth; β-convergence; unconditional and conditional convergence; informal social institutions.
Integration Effects in Exports Induced Economic Growth: Evidence from Extended ELG Model in BRICS
by Saji T.G
Abstract: This research aims to assess the competitiveness of BRICS nations and to investigate its effects on their export performance and economic growth. Our fixed-effects panel regression procedure proves the competitiveness effects on export performance, where the influence of terms of trade and relative profitability of exports are dominant. The export-led-growth (ELG) model seems to be valid in estimating BRICS growth and the inclusion of inward foreign direct investment (FDI) and real effective exchange rate (REER) variables in the model as additional predictors enhance the robustness in forecasting. The study suggests that the multifaceted and interlinked dimensions of competitiveness are crucial to further enhancement in competitiveness and to ensure the even spread of growth and development in the partnership.
Keywords: BRICS; ELG Model; Competitiveness; Panel Regression.
ANALYSIS OF FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE CONSUMER PURCHASING DECISIONS ON CREATIVE INDUSTRIES IN BANDUNG CITY, INDONESIA
by SAMUN JAJA RAHARJA
Abstract: This study aims to analyse the influence of cultural, social, personal and psychological factors on consumer purchasing decisions on products of creative industries in Bandung City. This study uses quantitative methods and statistical analysis. The population of this study comprises consumers who bought creative products, such as culinary, fashion, crafts, design and publishing and printing products, for a minimum of two times. The sample consists of 216 people identified via simple random sampling based on central limit theorem. Results reveal that personal and psychological factors significantly influence consumers decisions to buy products from the creative industries. By contrast, cultural and social factors exert no significant effect. This study suggests that companies in the creative industries improve marketing strategies related to consumers lifestyle, personality, income, work and psychological factors.
Keywords: purchasing decisions; psychological factors; creative industries; Bandung City.
The Roles of Perceptions, Transparency, Trust and Perceived Social Equity in Enhancing Citizen Satisfaction in Public Sector
by Van Phuong Nguyen, Dong Mong Nguyen, Thi Vu Anh Trinh, Khoa T. Tran
Abstract: This paper prioritises the role of transparency in shaping citizen perceptions, trust, and social equity to enhance citizen satisfaction with public sector performance. An influential contribution of the abovementioned antecedents to citizen satisfaction is supported by the results of structural equation modelling. Perceived performance and social equity are identified as new mediators of the relationship between transparency and social equity, in addition to a negative moderating effect of citizen trust. By examining critical issues of reform in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, the findings provide insights into the public sector and suggest managerial implications for fostering citizen satisfaction.
Keywords: Transparency; perceived social equity; citizen trust; citizen satisfaction; public sector performance.
A WITS-SMART simulation analysis of trade creation, diversion and welfare effects of the African tripartite region
by Michael Takudzwa Pasara
Abstract: The paper employed WITS-SMART simulations to test Jacob Viners theory of trade creation and diversion effects in the tripartite free trade area (TFTA) signed between COMESA, EAC and SADC. Simulations used standardised 2-digit trade data. The four product classifications employed are raw materials, intermediate, consumer and capital goods whilst the economic sectors are agriculture, industrial and petroleum. Results indicated trade potential trade to be created or diverted, net trade, revenue and overall welfare effects. In total, the tripartite region will have net gains of approximately USD 2.1 trillion per annum. Specifically, the trade in the industrial sector has a 34% potential, intermediate goods 24% whilst agriculture sector will likely contribute 18% to net trade gains. Trade in raw materials and petroleum sector have the least potential contributions of 3% and 1%, respectively. The study recommends promoting the industrial sector to cater for structural changes and sync with the fourth industrial revolution.
Keywords: WITS-SMART simulation; trade creation; trade diversion; welfare effects; revenue effects; economic growth; economic sector.
The impacts of macroeconomic and financial indicators on stock market index: Evidence from Thailand
by Suthin Wianwiwat, Supakorn Chaengkham
Abstract: Market capitalisation and foreign investor transactions of the Thai Stock market have expanded significantly over the past 10 years. This research paper employed the autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) approach to examine the impacts of key macroeconomic and financial indicators on the stock market of Thailand. We applied two models in this study. The first model is based on macroeconomic indicators such as broad money supply, consumer price index (CPI), manufacturing production index (MPI), exchange rate, and exports. The second model is based on financial and commodity indicators such as volatility index, price-to-earnings ratio, gold price index, and oil price index (OIL). Consistent with theory, the results indicate that the Thai stock market index has a long-run relationship with the selected indicators such as exchange rate, broad money supply, CPI, price-to-earnings ratio, volatility index, and OIL. Therefore, the long-run coefficients estimated in this study could be utilised for managing long-term investments.
Keywords: Autoregressive distributed lag; Cointegration; Thai stock market.
Vocational Education and Training for Older Workers in Aged Countries: A Comparative Study of Korea, Spain, and the UK
by Sunny Sun-A Kim, Young-Min Lee
Abstract: This study compares Korean vocational educational and training (VET) policies targeting older workers with those of European countries that have been traditionally concerned about the socio-economic effect of ageing, and through this comparison to find ways to improve policies for older workers in Korea. The analysis was based on the application of the most similar systems design (MSSD), a method for exploring similarities and differences across cases. The paper concludes with a discussion of the implications for policy development based on the research findings and provides suggestions for improving VET opportunities for older workers in Korea.
Keywords: Ageing; Vocational Educational and Training (VET); the Most Similar Systems Design (MSSD); Older Workers.
Behavior Towards Investments In Islamic Capital Market: An Exploratory Study
by Indayani Indayani, Ratna Mulyany, Mirna Indriani
Abstract: This study aims to explore the behaviour of academicians in Indonesia towards investment in Islamic capital market (ICM). The concept of behaviour is analysed through the dimensions of the awareness and attitude. Four propositions were tested to identify whether there is any difference in the awareness and attitude based on demographic profiles and level of knowledge in ICM. The questionnaires were distributed with 280 responses were collected. Descriptive and non-parametric tests were performed to analyse the data. The findings uncovered relatively high level of awareness towards investment in ICM among the academicians yet their participation in the ICM activities is very limited. Religious motivation was found to be the main reason for investing. There was no difference in the awareness and attitude based on demographic factors. However there was significant difference in the attitude based on religion and awareness as well as attitude based on the level of knowledge about ICM.
Keywords: : awareness; attitude; behavior; investor; Islamic investment; capital market.
THE EFFECT OF TURKEYS LOGISTICS PERFORMANCE ON TURKEYS FOREIGN TRADE
by Zeynep Kaplan, Sezen Bozyigit
Abstract: When we consider the top 10 countries of the world by means of their economic sizes, it is obvious that these top-achievers are also the ones getting the greatest shares from global trade. However, Turkey is at 17th rank prior to her economic size, while she is at 26th rank in terms of foreign trade. In order to realise her goal of being within the first 10 countries by means of economic size, Turkeys share from the global trade has to be increased. The main motivation for this study is to reveal the effect of Turkeys logistic performance over foreign trade. So the data of 2007
Keywords: Logistics Performance Index; Foreign Trade; Turkey.
THE UNDERGROUND ECONOMY AND TAX POTENTIAL IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES: A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF INDONESIA AND RUSSIA
by Khoirunurrofik Khoirunurrofik, Aprilia Srikandi Manita
Abstract: This study compares the underground economies of Indonesia and Russia, on the basis that the two countries are G20 members and are both transitional nations. The study uses the ordinary least squares (OLS) regression with a currency demand approach derived from the difference between a money demand economy in the period 2004
Keywords: Currency Demand; Underground Economy; Tax Amnesty; Sunset Policy.
The Effect of Income Components and Tax on Inequality in Thailand under Comprehensive Income
by Voramast Limteerakul
Abstract: This study compares the effects of money income, capital gains, and income tax on inequality in Thailand. The study scope is broadened from money to comprehensive income. Over 1997
Keywords: Inequality; Accrued capital gains; Personal income tax.
THE RELATIONSHIP AMONG SUPPORTIVE ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE, JOB SATISFACTION, EMPLOYEE AFFECTIVE RESPONSE TO ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE, AND ORGANIZATIONAL CYNICISM
by Wisnu Prajogo
Abstract: This research explores the relationship among supportive organisational culture, employee affective response to organisational change, job satisfaction, and organisational cynicism (employee cynicism to organisational change process). Educators from state-owned and private schools participated in this research. This research has four results. First, supportive organisational culture has positive influence on job satisfaction. Second, supportive organisational culture has no influence on employee affective response to organisational change. Third, job satisfaction has positive influence on employee affective response to organisational change. Fourth, employee affective response to organisational change has negative influence on organisational cynicism.
Keywords: supportive organizational culture; job satisfaction; employee affective response of organizational change; organizational cynicism; two step SEM.
The Association between Human Resource Investments in the Internal Accounting Control System and Non-audit Fees: Evidence from South Korea
by Pyung Kyung Kang, Kook-Jae Hwang, Dong Jin JUNG
Abstract: This study empirically examines the relationship between human resource investments in the internal accounting control system (IACS) and firms non-audit fees. By using hand-collected data on the IACS for firms listed on the Korea Composite Stock Price Index (KOSPI) and Korea Securities Dealers Automated Quotations (KOSDAQ) markets, we find that human resource investments in the IACS are positively associated with firms nonaudit service fees. Specifically, the findings show that the number of employees working in the IACS positively relates to firms non-audit fees from the KOSPI and KOSDAQ sample. Our results indicate that this positive association is more prominent for large-sized than small-sized firms and KOSPI than KOSDAQ firms.
Keywords: Internal Accounting Control System; Human Resource Investment; Non-audit Fees; Internal Control.
The role of women's entrepreneurial orientation to access external financial supports: Empirical evidence from the Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) in Indonesia using PLS-SEM
by Nenden Kostini, Erna Maulina, Margo Purnomo, Achmad Fajri Febrian
Abstract: Majority of women entrepreneurs fight with problems in obtaining financial resources. The present research aims to examine how entrepreneurial orientation can be new factors to create the financial capability for women entrepreneurs. Using a sample of 55 women entrepreneurs in the culinary sector the results showed that entrepreneurial orientation will create the financial capability of women entrepreneurs in getting access to financial supports. The results indicate that the ability to manage the finance of women entrepreneurs will increase an economic-wellbeing, and these become even more important during an economic downturn when additional pressures are placed on the households finances.
Keywords: entrepreneurial orientation; financial capability; women entrepreneurs; small and medium enterprises; SMEs.
Influence of Financial Literacy, Financial Attitude, and Parental Income on Personal Financial Management Behavior A Case Study on the Millennial Generation in Indonesia
by Anisah Firli, Afna Dalihah
Abstract: Personal financial management behavior is used to observe the financial behavior of individuals on the basis of psychological factors. This study aimed to examine influential variables, namely, financial literacy, financial attitude, and parental income, and their significance to the personal financial management behavior of members of the millennial generation. Multiple linear regression was used to analyze questionnaires given to millennial respondents. Results showed that financial literacy and financial attitude had an influence on personal financial management behavior, whereas parental income did not have an influence on personal financial management behavior.
Keywords: Personal financial management behavior; Financial Literacy; Financial Attitude; Parental Income.
Implementation of Accrual Accounting Concept in Indonesian Government: Is it the true concept?
by Ramdhan M. Nur
Abstract: This study aimed to assess the accrual concept applied by the government, whether it is in accordance with the accrual concept applied to corporations. Accrual-based accounting in the government is a global issue. This study used a conflict-ambiguity model perspective with a combined method, public document analysis, and Inspectorate survey. The study found that there was 1.94% from total receivable general allocation funds (GAFs) that had not been given to regional government. However, in the governments financial statements in Lampung region, there was no record of receivables within the GAF.
Keywords: Accrual accounting concept; government financial management; ambiguity-conflict models.
Is decision-making process a mediator of the relationship between economic factor and international academic destination?
by Maybelle Paulino, Johnny Amora, Mary Caroline Castano
Abstract: International students are the bedrocks of the global higher education market. Thus, worldwide, higher education institutions (HEIs) focus most international marketing efforts on understanding the complexities surrounding this student market. Recent studies on international higher education reveal the choices made by this student cohort and a wide variety of factors influencing such selections. This present study focuses on a student decision that is made under a set of options. Using structural equation modelling (SEM), this study aims to investigate the relationships of economic factor and decision-making process with the choice of international academic destination. Results, conclusions, and recommendations are discussed.
Keywords: economic factor; the decision-making process; choice of international academic destination; international students; structural equation modeling (SEM).
Knowledge Sharing and Shadaqah Economy Schemes: A Better Future for Indonesias Economy
by Cici Cintyawati, Muhardi -, Nurdin -, Aminuddin Irfani
Abstract: Poverty and lower levels of education remain major obstacles to social enhancement in Indonesia. Our research addresses these problems by aiming to bring about a collaboration between Islamic economic schemes such as
Keywords: Shadaqah economy; knowledge sharing; social welfare enhancement; system dynamics.
The Mediating effect of Coaching acceptance between Employees Creativity, Motivation, Commitment and OCB on Performance
by Soha El Achi, Bassem Maamari
Abstract: Purpose-The aim of this study is to examine the effect of employees creativity, motivation, commitment and organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) on the acceptance of coaching and therefore employees performance in the Lebanese economic sector The authors will study the attitude of employees toward the integration of coaching in their firms while exploring the degree to which do employees perception varies depending on creativity, motivation, commitment and OCB Methodology
Keywords: Human Resource Practices; Development; Coaching; Employees acceptance; Involvement; Performance; Support; Creativity; Motivation; Commitment; OCB.
The Mediating Roles of Work-life balance, Affective Commitment, and Intrinsic Motivation in Achieving MSEs Performance
by Rifki Fadhlillah, Putri M. Desiana
Abstract: This research investigates the role of human resource practices on the performance of Micro and Small Enterprise (MSEs) in South Sulawesi, Indonesia. Factors such as work-life balance, affective commitment, and intrinsic motivation are shown to be influential in determining the performance of MSEs. In total 750 MSEs owners from South Sulawesi took part in the study, and the structural equation method is used for the analysis. This research contributes to existing research into the topic of human resource practices and their effect on performance. The results indicate that performance is profoundly affected by intrinsic motivation and affective commitment, but not by work-life balance.
Keywords: human resource management; work life balance; affective commitment; intrinsic motivation; performance; MSEs.
The Profile of Indonesian Workers: How Education Influences Their Welfare Status
by Yusriana Yusriana, Sutyastie Soemitro Remi, Dini Turipanam Alamanda
Abstract: This study aims to assess the effect of education on poverty reduction in Indonesia. The analysis uses time-series data from 2008 to 2018 with estimates using the ordinary least square (OLS) method. The results of the analysis show that education can reduce poverty. The results of the study are statistically corroborated by R-square and F-value. The error term of the estimation model meets the OLS standard assumptions. The results of the study show that education will increase the ability of human resources. Increasing human capital will increase productivity and income. Furthermore, increasing human capital will reduce poverty.
Keywords: education; human resources; human capital; productivity; international market; welfare; poverty.
Exchange Rate Undervaluation, Economic Institutions and Exports Performance: Evidence from Firm-Level Data
by Chahir Zaki, Ibrahim ElBadawi
Abstract: Exploiting a unique firm level dataset available for four countries (Egypt, Jordan, Kuwait and Yemen), this paper assesses the role of real exchange rate (RER) undervaluation as a determinant of the quantity of exports (intensive margin) as well as the probability of exporting more products or opening new export destinations (extensive margin) We find that moderate RER up to a certain threshold unconditionally promotes firms exports at the intensive margin, for all firm sizes and for financially developed or underdeveloped economies alike At the market and product-extensive margins, however, the evidence suggests that the undervaluation export promotion effect is conditional on the size of the firm and confined to medium and large firms only Moreover, RER undervaluation becomes a counter-productive policy instrument for promoting exports at the product-extensive margin in financially developed economies, though it continues to be a viable export strategy for promoting exports at the market-extensive margin.
Keywords: real exchange rate; RER undervaluation; exports; intensive margin; extensive margin; trade margin; financial development; Arab world.
Impact and determinants of the foreign direct investment on the Libyan Economy
by Osama Muhamed, Siti Nurazira Mohd Daud
Abstract: In this study, the researchers aimed to investigate the effect of the Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) on Libyas economic growth They have also investigated the effect of the financial development and the institutional quality on the FDI inflow in the country They used the Auto-Regressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) bound test approach for determining the time-series data in the period ranging between 1981 and 2013 Their results showed that the FDI positively affected the economic growth in Libya and possessed a non-linear relationship (i e , threshold effect) with the countrys economic growth With regards to the FDI determinants, the researchers observed that the financial development positively affected the FDI in the Libyan economy On the other hand, institutional quality did not significantly affect the FDI Hence, the results showed that the financial development is the main determinant of the FDI inflow, whereas the institutional quality does not affect the FDI
Keywords: FDI; Libya; effect and determinants; ARDL cointegration.
Liberalization of Taxation as a Prerequisite to Forming a Pleasure Economy: Special Tax Regimes, Tax Holidays and Family Business Taxation
by Yuliya Zima, Irina V. Gashenko, Irina Orobinskaya, Tatyana V. Makarenko
Abstract: This research is aimed at identifying the prospects and developing recommendations for the optimization of liberalization of taxation as a prerequisite to forming a pleasure economy. The methodologies of this paper include a time-series analysis method (using regression and correlation analysis), as well as a survey method (for the collection of empirical data not available from official statistics). It has been proved that liberalization of taxation is a prerequisite to forming a pleasure economy. However, the beneficial effect of liberalization of taxation associated with increased happiness of entrepreneurs may vary; in particular, it can be zero and even adverse. As exemplified by contemporary Russia, an overall reduction of the tax burden on business is the least preferred option for liberalization of taxation. Being intended to fully cover the entire business, it does not increase happiness of entrepreneurs.
Keywords: liberalization of taxation; pleasure economy; Russia; happiness of entrepreneurs; special tax regimes; tax holidays; family business taxation.
Limits of the Pleasure Economy in Industry 4.0: Specifics of Developing Countries
by Aleksei Bogoviz
Abstract: The purpose of the paper is to determine the limits of the pleasure economy in Industry 4.0 in view of the specifics of developing countries. The methodological basis of the research includes a complex of methods of economic statistics: correlation and regression analysis, analysis of variation, and Monte Carlo method, which envisages generation of random numbers, probabilistic analysis, and creation of a histogram. The research objects are 12 developing countries from the IMD ranking of digital competitiveness. It is proved that in developing countries the potential of Industry 4.0 in stimulation of formation of the pleasure economy is very limited. Only limited success could be reached in formation of the pleasure economy based on Industry 4.0 in developing countries. Therefore, the limits of the pleasure economy in Industry 4.0 are narrow in developing countries.
Keywords: limits; pleasure economy; quality of life; Industry 4.0; digital economy; digital competitiveness; developing countries.
Russian Production Sector in Crosshairs. Will We be Better off?
by Elena V. Sibirskaya, Liudmila V. Oveshnikova, Innara Lyapina, Stanislav Y. Evdokimov, Svetlana N. Bukhantseva
Abstract: The production sector remains a key area of the Russian economy and one of the most important tools for integrating the country into the international economy. The level of industrial development determines the quality of living of the population of many Russian regions. The authors of this research, which is based on extensive statistical data and uses statistical tools, analyze the current state trends of the Russian industry, which serves as a basis for elaborating rational industrial policy, improving the effectiveness of industrial complex, achieving equilibrium growth of our state.
Keywords: production sector; research tools; trends and status; prospects.
The Scientific and Methodological Approach to Classification of Economic Systems According to the Criterion of Pleasure
by Elena G. Popkova
Abstract: The purpose of the work is to solve the set problem by developing the scientific and methodological approach to classification of economic systems according to the criterion of pleasure. Based on the existing methodologies of measuring the level of development of pleasure economy
Keywords: economic system; pleasure; pleasure economy; happiness; conditions for life.
THE ROLE OF ELECTRONIC WORD OF MOUTH MODERATION IN EXPECTATION-CONFIRMATION MODEL (A study of Blackberry Smartphone Users in Solo Region, Central Java, Indonesia)
by Septiana Dewi, Asri Laksmi Riani, Mugi Harsono, Ahmad Ikhwan Setiawan
Abstract: This study aims to empirically prove the linkage of E-WOM moderation in the relationship between confirmation, perceived usefulness, satisfaction, and continuance intention of Blackberry smartphone products in Solo Region, Central Java, Indonesia. The population in this study is all Blackberry users in Solo Region. The total samples are 100 people selected using purposive sampling method. The data collected were analyzed using SEM and the result shows that all hypothesis and relationships between variables are significant with positive direction. This implies that companies need to develop their ability in managing E-WOM to build consumer intention of continuous usage of IT product.
Keywords: Perceived Usefulness; Confirmation; Satisfaction; Electronic WOM; Continuance Intention.
Indicators of Economic Security for Monotowns of the Voronezh Region
by Elena V. Sibirskaya, Yuliia M. Sokolinskaya, Mariia E. Khanenko, Lyudmila M. Kuznetsova, Liudmila A. Pashkevich
Abstract: The issue of economic security has never existed in and of itself, but was rather a derivative of the tasks of economic growth and development on every stage of social development and depended on internal and external environment during a particular period. From the perspective of economic security at all levels, the situation in our country goes beyond secure by numerous criteria and is volatile; this was especially aggravated during crisis phenomena. The complexity of the process of integrated assessment of indicators of economic security of a monotown is due to the underdeveloped municipal statistics service.
Keywords: economic security; monotown; economic security indicators and factors; Kaufman's Adaptive Moving Average.
The Impact of Macro-Economic Variables on the Performance of KSE Meezan Islamic Index (KMI
by Ali Burhan Khan, Most. Asikha Aktar, Muhammad Hatim
Abstract: The recent development in Islamic finance is the introduction of Sharia compliant stocks. To address such development, this study is aimed to analyze the macro-economic determinants of such stocks. For empirical investigation, the monthly data of inflation, interest rate, market return and unemployment rate was collected from 2011 to 2018 and multiple Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) method was applied. The results revealed that market return plays significant positive role in defining the performance of KMI
Keywords: Stock; Sharia; Performance; Pakistan.
Labor Efficiency in the Pleasure Economy: Perspectives of Increase in Developing Countries in Industry 4.0
by Aleksei Bogoviz, Svetlana Lobova, Alexander N. Alekseev
Abstract: The purpose of the paper is to determine the perspectives of increase of labor efficiency in Industry 4.0 for stimulating the pleasure economy in developing countries. The authors use regression analysis for determining the dependence of the index of happiness on labor efficiency and the dependence of labor efficiency on the index of Industry 4.0 technologies application. It is substantiated that in developing countries the contradiction of social and economic criteria of the pleasure economy is preserved during optimization of labor efficiency. It is proved that full automatization at smart companies in developing countries causes either unemployment or increase of the labor norms for unskilled workers, which hinders obtaining pleasure from labor. It is also substantiated that the scenario of moderate automatization is most preferable
Keywords: labor efficiency; pleasure economy; developing countries; digital economy; automatization; smart companies; norming of labor; Industry 4.0.
Legal Means of Ensuring Economic Security: the Fundamentals of Establishment of the System
by Dmitry A. Lipinsky, Victoria V. Bolgova, Alexey A. Fomin, Aleksandra A. Musatkina, Aleksey N. Stankin
Abstract: This research is aimed at identifying regulatory and methodological basis for the establishment of a system of legal means of ensuring economic security in contemporary Russia. The research utilized the method of synthesis of various theoretical approaches to economic security, as well as simulation approach that allowed constructing the model of a system of legal means of ensuring economic security. The authors have analyzed theoretical approaches to economic security; the authors demonstrate how a relevant approach is transformed in the process of creation of legal means of ensuring economic security. Conclusions. 1. Strategy papers in the field of economic security in modern Russia are based on the idea that parameters, indicative characteristics, security objectives and security threats are determined exclusively by the state. The implementation of this approach results in the reduced objectivity of assessment of the risks of damaging national interests, and increased subjective tendencies in making managerial decisions.
Keywords: economic security; legal means; state; policy; policy; protection; national interests; priorities.
Potential Trade Vulnerability of Bangladesh: An Exploratory Analysis
by Syed Yusuf Saadat
Abstract: Bangladeshs integration in the global economy has hitherto proven to be an important force behind its economic growth. However, exclusively trade dependent growth is also trade vulnerable growth. This paper explores the factors that may potentially affect the trade vulnerability of Bangladesh. Results of the bivariate non-parametric local linear kernel regression estimation reveal that the minimum wage of readymade garment workers, manufacturing cost, utilities cost, crude oil prices, and climate change are positively related to trade volatility, while improved political stability is negatively related to trade volatility. Multivariate kernel regressions with composite indicators show that macroeconomic factors, such as exchange rate, foreign exchange reserves and budget balance, have a statistically significant impact on the trade volatility of Bangladesh. In view of these preliminary results, a number of policy recommendations are suggested to deal with the short run and long run trade vulnerability of Bangladesh.
Keywords: trade vulnerability; local linear regression; composite factors; Bangladesh.
EFFECTS OF INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY ADOPTION AND INNOVATION CAPABILITY ON EXPORT PERFORMANCE: STUDY OF PURWAKARTA CERAMIC INDUSTRY IN INDONESIA
by SAMUN JAJA RAHARJA
Abstract: This study measures the impact of information and communication technology (ICT) adoption and innovation capability on export performance in the ceramic industry in Purwakarta, Indonesia. The current study also utilises a quantitative research method, which uses multiple linear regression analysis with simultaneous and partial hypothesis testing. Partial and simultaneous test results show that ICT adoption and innovation capability have an impact on export performance. However, the magnitude of this contribution is weak. ICT adoption and innovation capability should be increased and supported by skilled human resources through training and technical assistance, primarily in digital marketing, particularly in the field of design.
Keywords: ICT adoption; innovation capability; export performance.
Exchange Rate and its Impact on Indias trade with its Major Trading Partners: A Pooled Mean Group Approach.
by DHANEESH KUMAR T.K, Sudarshan P.K., Poornima BG
Abstract: The study examines short-run and long-run impact of exchange rate on Indias export and import with its select trading partners for a period from 1993Q1 to 2019Q3. The study employs Panel Cointegration and Pooled Mean Group Estimation method. The results establish the presence of long-run relationship among exports, imports, exchange rate, GDP of India and its trading partners. Further, in the long-run and short run, the exchange rate has impact on exports but not on Indias imports. The result reveals that there is a significant impact of exchange rate for Indias export to the countries like Belgium, China, Japan, Germany, Switz, UAE, US and UK. However, the exchange rate depreciation has significant effects only on Indias imports from China, UAE and US. Also, the results of Marshal-Lerner condition indicate depreciation of Indian rupee increases Indias exports.
Keywords: Cointegration; Exchange rate; Exports; GDP; Pooled mean group estimation.