Title: Evaluating the efficiency of two programming environments in shaping novices' attitudes, perceptions, beliefs and knowledge in programming: a comparison between Scratch and App Inventor

Authors: Stamatios Papadakis

Addresses: Department of Preschool Education, Faculty of Education, University of Crete, Crete, Greece

Abstract: The purpose of this study is to examine behavioural and learning differences between novice programmers in relation to the use of two different programming environments for novices, Scratch and App Inventor for Android (AIA). Initially, we assumed that due to the known characteristics of the two environments, students would improve their knowledge and behavioural approach towards programming. Given the characteristics of the AIA, we also assumed that students who were in the experimental group (teaching with AIA), would show more positive attitudes to programming, while they would significantly improve their knowledge score, in comparison with the control group (teaching with Scratch). The results of this study confirmed these hypotheses. All students improved their behavioural approach and their knowledge in programming, at the end of the intervention. In addition, students who were taught the AIA environment found to result in better learning outcomes and held more positive attitudes, perceptions and motivation to engage in programming than those who were taught using Scratch.

Keywords: MIT App Inventor; Scratch; novice programmers; secondary education.

DOI: 10.1504/IJTCS.2019.096871

International Journal of Teaching and Case Studies, 2019 Vol.10 No.1, pp.31 - 52

Received: 16 Apr 2018
Accepted: 25 Jun 2018

Published online: 22 Nov 2018 *

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