Title: Scaffolding reflection: prompting social constructive metacognitive activity in non-formal learning

Authors: Tracie Farrell Frey; Karolina Iwa; Alexander Mikroyannidis

Addresses: Knowledge Media Institute, The Open University, Walton Hall, MK76AA Milton Keynes, UK ' Progressive Partners, ul. Sarmacka 10A/10, 02-972 Warsaw, Poland ' Knowledge Media Institute, The Open University, Walton Hall, MK76AA Milton Keynes, UK

Abstract: The study explores the effects of three different types of non-adaptive, metacognitive scaffolding on social, constructive metacognitive activity and reflection in groups of non-formal learners. Six triads of non-formal learners were assigned randomly to one of the three scaffolding conditions: structuring, problematising or epistemological. The triads were then asked to collaboratively resolve an ill-structured problem and record their deliberations. Evidence from think-aloud protocols was analysed using conversational and discourse analysis. Findings indicate that epistemological scaffolds produced more social, constructive metacognitive activity than either of the two other scaffolding conditions in all metacognitive activities except for task orientation, as well as higher quality interactions during evaluation and reflection phases. However, participants appeared to be less aware of their activities as forming a strategic, self-regulatory response to the problem. This may indicate that for learning transfer, it may be necessary to employ an adaptive, facilitated reflection on learners' activities.

Keywords: epistemic cognition; epistemology; ill-structured problems; intragroup metacognition; metacognitive prompts; non-formal learning; reflection; scaffolding metacognition; self-regulated learning; social constructive metacognition.

DOI: 10.1504/IJTEL.2017.087800

International Journal of Technology Enhanced Learning, 2017 Vol.9 No.4, pp.277 - 306

Received: 31 Jan 2016
Accepted: 12 Sep 2016

Published online: 02 Nov 2017 *

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