Title: Sport for development and peace: a program evaluation of a sport diplomacy initiative
Authors: Robert E. Baker; Pamela H. Baker; Christopher Atwater; Heather Andrews
Addresses: Sport Recreation and Tourism, George Mason University, 10900 University Drive, 221 Bull Run Hall, MS4E5, Manassas, VA 20110, USA ' George Mason University, 4400 University Drive, MS1F2, Fairfax, VA 22030, USA ' George Mason University, 10900 University Blvd, MS4E5, Manassas, VA 20110, USA ' George Mason University, 4400 University Drive, MS1F2, Fairfax, VA 22030, USA
Abstract: The purpose of this investigation was to determine the immediate, short-term effectiveness of a specific SDP program, the sport diplomacy initiative, relative to established program goals. Thirty-six groups comprised of 554 individuals participated in the SportsUnited Sport Visitors program over the course of 39 months and were given the opportunity to complete both a pre-test and post-test survey consisting of two essential demographic items (e.g., gender, role as coach or athlete) and seven items measuring core concepts associated with participation. After the data were cleaned, 520 valid respondents remained for analysis. The overall total mean for all seven items combined yields a large effect size of 1.27. Effect sizes indicate that the program is having a strong positive impact on participants as a whole. While all seven items yielded significant gains, there were no significant differences based upon measured demographics.
Keywords: sport diplomacy; sport for development and peace; SDP programmes; global sport; inclusive sport; programme evaluation; demographics; gender; role.
International Journal of Sport Management and Marketing, 2015 Vol.16 No.1/2, pp.52 - 70
Received: 02 Feb 2015
Accepted: 07 Oct 2015
Published online: 24 Feb 2016 *