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Title: Measuring generalized expectancies for negative mood regulation in Japan: the Japanese language NMR scale

Authors: Jack Mearns; Eriko Self; Keiko Kono; Tetsuo Sato; Emaka Takashima; Fiona Tresno; Yuko Watabe; Salvatore J. Catanzaro

Addresses: Department of Psychology, California State University, P.O. Box 6846 (H-830M), Fullerton, CA 92834-6846, USA ' Department of Psychology, California State University, P.O. Box 6846 (H-830M), Fullerton, CA 92834-6846, USA ' Department of Psychology, California State University, P.O. Box 6846 (H-830M), Fullerton, CA 92834-6846, USA ' Department of Psychology, California State University, P.O. Box 6846 (H-830M), Fullerton, CA 92834-6846, USA ' Department of Psychology, California State University, P.O. Box 6846 (H-830M), Fullerton, CA 92834-6846, USA ' Graduate School of Environmental Studies, Department of Social and Human Environment, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8601, Japan ' Department of Psychology, Ohio University, 200 Porter Hall, Athens, OH 45701, USA ' Illinois State University, 401 Hovey Hall, Campus Box 4000, Normal, IL 61790-4000, USA

Abstract: Substantial research over the last 20 years supports the reliability and validity of the English language measure of negative mood regulation expectancies (NMRE) - the NMR scale. Framed within Rotter's (1954) social learning theory, NMRE represent people's confidence that they can alleviate the negative moods they experience. NMRE predict adaptive coping and buffer the effects of stress, resulting in less negative affect. Addressing the need for Japanese language individual difference measures related to coping, we created the Japanese version of the NMR scale - the NMR-J. The NMR-J represents a culturally sensitive translation of the original English scale, with items added to assess interpersonal aspects of mood regulation that are a fundamental element of Japanese society. We conducted four studies assessing the reliability and preliminary validity of the NMR-J. Over 950 Japanese men and women of diverse ages and from a range of regions participated. The NMR-J correlated positively with coping and negatively with psychological and somatic symptoms, including anxiety and depression. It was modestly correlated with social desirability. Results support the reliability and initial validity of the NMR-J as a culturally valid measure of Japanese people's mood regulation expectancies.

Keywords: Japan; depression; culture; measurement; generalised expectancies; negative mood regulation; NMR scale; Japanese society; social learning theory; adaptive coping; stress; interpersonal aspects; psychological symptoms; anxiety; somatic symptoms; social desirability.

DOI: 10.1504/IJQRE.2016.073675

International Journal of Quantitative Research in Education, 2016 Vol.3 No.1/2, pp.109 - 127

Available online: 15 Dec 2015 *

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