Title: A review of the challenges and opportunities for water reuse in irrigation with a focus on its prospects in Tanzania

Authors: Jacob Kihila; Kelvin Mark Mtei; K.N. Njau

Addresses: Institute of Human Settlements Studies, Ardhi University, P.O. Box 35176, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania ' School of Materials, Energy, Water and Environmental Sciences, Nelson Mandela African Institution of Science and Technology, P.O. Box 447, Arusha, Tanzania ' School of Materials, Energy, Water and Environmental Sciences, Nelson Mandela African Institution of Science and Technology, P.O. Box 447, Arusha, Tanzania

Abstract: Water reuse is one of the potential ways to complement the existing portable water sources. Its adoption is becoming of interest due to water shortages in many parts of the world. Its implementation is supported by several benefits though it has challenges as well. This paper provides a review of practice of the water reuse for irrigation in the world and focuses on its potentiality in Tanzania with a highlight on the water supply and wastewater treatment situation in the country. The challenges that need to be addressed, the benefits expected and global wastewater treatment options, capital and operation costs as well as the cost benefit analysis have been pointed out. Some arguments to justify a shift to water reuse in irrigation has been given. Lastly, it has been shown that full implementation of water reuse will require among other things, proper defined policy and institutional framework, clear guidelines as well as more research and investment on wastewater treatment.

Keywords: irrigation; wastewater treatment; water reuse; Tanzania; water supply; capital costs; operation costs; cost benefit analysis.

DOI: 10.1504/IJEE.2015.069817

International Journal of Environmental Engineering, 2015 Vol.7 No.2, pp.111 - 130

Available online: 12 Jun 2015 *

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