Title: The relationship between cognitive disequilibrium, emotions and individual differences on student question generation

Authors: Jeremiah Sullins; Arthur C. Graesser

Addresses: Department of Behavioral Sciences, Harding University, P.O. Box 12260, 915 E. Market Ave., Searcy, AR 72149, USA ' Department of Psychology, Institute for Intelligent Systems, University of Memphis, 400 Innovation Drive, Memphis, TN, 38152, USA

Abstract: The purpose of this study was to explore the effects of cognitive disequilibrium and individual differences on student question generation. Students were placed in a state of cognitive disequilibrium while they learned topics of computer literacy. During the course of the study a confederate was present to answer any questions that the participant may have had. Additional analyses examined any potential influence the confederates had on student question asking. Furthermore, the study explored the relationship between emotions and cognitive disequilibrium. Lastly, we examined any relationship between individual differences (e.g., personality and motivation) on question generation. Results revealed that participants who were not placed in a state of cognitive disequilibrium generated a significantly higher proportion of questions. Results did reveal significant main effects as a function of time for certain facial action units. Lastly, it was discovered that certain measures of individual differences were related to student question generation.

Keywords: cognitive disequilibrium; student question generation; emotions; confusion; question asking; individual differences; computer literacy; personality; motivation; computing education; learning.

DOI: 10.1504/IJLT.2014.065749

International Journal of Learning Technology, 2014 Vol.9 No.3, pp.221 - 247

Available online: 14 Nov 2014

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