Title: Neurophysiological methods for monitoring brain activity in serious games and virtual environments: a review

Authors: Manuel Ninaus; Silvia Erika Kober; Elisabeth V.C. Friedrich; Ian Dunwell; Sara De Freitas; Sylvester Arnab; Michela Ott; Milos Kravcik; Theodore Lim; Sandy Louchart; Francesco Bellotti; Anna Hannemann; Alasdair G. Thin; Riccardo Berta; Guilherme Wood; Christa Neuper

Addresses: Department of Psychology, Section Neuropsychology, University of Graz, Universitätsplatz 2/III, 8010 Graz, Austria ' Department of Psychology, Section Neuropsychology, University of Graz, Universitätsplatz 2/III, 8010 Graz, Austria ' Department of Psychology, Section Neuropsychology, University of Graz, Universitätsplatz 2/III, 8010 Graz, Austria ' The Serious Games Institute, Coventry University Technology Park, Innovation Village, Cheetah Road, Coventry, CV1 2TL, UK ' The Serious Games Institute, Coventry University Technology Park, Innovation Village, Cheetah Road, Coventry, CV1 2TL, UK ' The Serious Games Institute, Coventry University Technology Park, Innovation Village, Cheetah Road, Coventry, CV1 2TL, UK ' Istituto Tecnologie Didattiche (ITD), Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (CNR), Via De Marini, 6, 16149 Genova, Italy ' Informatik 5 - Information Systems, RWTH Aachen University, Ahornstr. 55, 52056 Aachen, Germany ' School of Engineering & Physical Sciences, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Heriot-Watt University, NS G.04, Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK ' School of Mathematical & Computer Sciences, Department of Computer Science, Heriot-Watt University, EM1.38, Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK ' ELIOS Lab, Department of Naval, Electrical, Electronic and Telecommunications Engineering (DITEN), University of Genoa, Via Opera Pia 11a, 16145 Genova, Italy ' Informatik 5 - Information Systems, RWTH Aachen University, Ahornstr. 55, 52056 Aachen, Germany ' School of Life Sciences, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK ' ELIOS Lab, Department of Naval, Electrical, Electronic and Telecommunications Engineering (DITEN), University of Genoa, Via Opera Pia 11a, 16145 Genova, Italy ' Department of Psychology, Section Neuropsychology, Karl-Franzens-Universität Graz, Universitätsplatz 2/III, 8010 Graz, Austria ' Department of Psychology, Section Neuropsychology, Karl-Franzens-Universität Graz, Universitätsplatz 2/III, 8010 Graz, Austria

Abstract: The use of serious games and virtual environments for learning is increasing worldwide. These technologies have the potential to collect live data from users through game play and can be combined with neuroscientific methods such as EEG, fNIRS and fMRI. The several learning processes triggered by serious games are associated with specific patterns of activation that distributed in time and space over different neural networks. This paper explores the opportunities offered and challenges posed by neuroscientific methods when capturing user feedback and using the data to create greater user adaptivity in game. Existing neuroscientific studies examining cortical correlates of game-based learning do not form a common or homogenous field. In contrast, they often have disparate research questions and are represented through a broad range of study designs and game genres. In this paper, the range of studies and applications of neuroscientific methods in game-based learning are reviewed.

Keywords: neurophysiological methods; brain monitoring; brain activity; serious games; gaming; virtual environments; virtual reality; NIRS; near infrared spectroscopy; EEG; electroencephalography; fMRI; functional MRI; magnetic resonance imaging; neuroscience; game-based learning; cortical correlates.

DOI: 10.1504/IJTEL.2014.060022

International Journal of Technology Enhanced Learning, 2014 Vol.6 No.1, pp.78 - 103

Available online: 24 Mar 2014 *

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