Authors: Genevieve Giuliano; Alison Linder
Addresses: University of Southern California, 650 Childs Way 90089-0626, Los Angeles, USA ' University of Southern California, 650 Childs Way 90089-0626, Los Angeles, USA
Abstract: The Clean Air Action Plan (CAAP), implemented by the Ports of Los Angeles and Long Beach in 2006, was an unprecedented effort to reduce air pollution emissions associated with port operations. We conduct a case study to understand why the ports developed the CAAP, how it was structured, and how it affected stakeholder relations. We identify those with the most influence in the international trade supply chain - 'dominant actors' - and hypothesise that they are the key participants in the CAAP development process and are least likely to be the subject of costly requirements or changes in operations. We find that the CAAP led to a restructuring of stakeholder relations, with new alliances formed between the ports and regulatory agencies and old alliances strained by what was perceived as a closed process utilised to develop the plan and as a lack of consideration of industry borne costs.
Keywords: ports; environmental regulation; environmental policy; air pollution; Clean Air Action Plan; USA; United States; stakeholder relations; international trade; supply chains; strategic alliances; port operations; pollutant emissions.
International Journal of Shipping and Transport Logistics, 2014 Vol.6 No.2, pp.172 - 188
Available online: 23 Feb 2014 *Full-text access for editors Access for subscribers Purchase this article Comment on this article