Title: Entrepreneurs' gender, age and education affecting their networks in private and public spheres: Denmark, Middle East and North Africa

Authors: Shayegheh Ashourizadeh; Thomas Schøtt

Addresses: Faculty of Entrepreneurship, University of Tehran, Farshi Moghaddam St., Kargar Shomali St., P.O. Box: 1439813141, Tehran, Iran ' Department of Entrepreneurship and Relationship Management, University of Southern Denmark, Engstien 1, 6000 Kolding, Denmark

Abstract: The purpose is to account for entrepreneurs' networking in private and public spheres, as influenced by gender, age and education in the context of culture. The Global Entrepreneurship Monitor has surveyed 17,742 entrepreneurs' networking for advice in Denmark and 14 countries representative of the Middle East and North Africa. Analyses show that entrepreneurs are networking in the private sphere of family and friends, especially in traditional culture in Middle East and North Africa, and are networking in public spheres, especially in secular-rational culture in Denmark. Male entrepreneurs' network is broader than female entrepreneurs, especially in the public sphere and especially in traditional culture, whereas women network more intensely in the private sphere. Age influences networking in the way that networking in the private sphere is more extensive among young than among older entrepreneurs. Education influences networking in the way that networking in the public sphere is especially extensive among educated entrepreneurs.

Keywords: gender; age; education; entrepreneurs; entrepreneurial networks; private sphere; public sphere; Denmark; Middle East; North Africa; MENA region; culture; Global Entrepreneurship Monitor; GEM.

DOI: 10.1504/IJBG.2013.056875

International Journal of Business and Globalisation, 2013 Vol.11 No.4, pp.380 - 398

Published online: 21 Nov 2013 *

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