Title: Innovative business cases in the South Africa table grape and wine industries: developing the concept of empowerment entrepreneurship

Authors: Peter J. Ras; Walter J.V. Vermeulen

Addresses: Department of Entrepreneurship and Management, Tshwane University of Technology, Private Bag X680, Pretoria 0001, Staatsartillerie Road, Pretoria West, South Africa. ' Copernicus Institute for Sustainable Development, Utrecht University, P.O. Box 90115, 3508TC, The Netherlands

Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to reflect on an innovative initiative taken spontaneously by producers in the supply chain of the table grapes and wine industry to empower employees. Empowerment is a fundamental force for change in doing business in South Africa and its societies, especially in the lives of previously disadvantaged people (PDI). The majority of the PDI employed in the agriculture industry have been marginalised with regards to business opportunities and proper education for decades by the political system of the country prior to 1994. By examining the innovative business models used by the producer in the empowerment process we gain a broader comprehension of how sustainable empowerment of employees in a supply chain can successfully be integrated into the business strategy used by the producers. The business models have undergone several innovative changes over time to find the 'ultimate' business model for creating empowerment in South Africa.

Keywords: employee empowerment; empowerment entrepreneurship; BEE; Black Economic Empowerment; South Africa; wine production; social sustainability; education; fair trade; table grapes; table wines; innovative initiatives; previously disadvantaged individuals; PDI; agriculture; marginalisation; business opportunities; business models; sustainable empowerment; business strategies; innovative changes; SCM; supply chain management; entrepreneurs; entrepreneurialism; management; sustainable development; sustainability; innovation; human resource management; HRM; performance enhancement; organisational performance.

DOI: 10.1504/WREMSD.2012.050301

World Review of Entrepreneurship, Management and Sustainable Development, 2012 Vol.8 No.4, pp.456 - 477

Available online: 14 Nov 2012 *

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