Authors: Rachael Bis; Huei Peng; A. Galip Ulsoy
Addresses: Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Michigan, 2277 G.G. Brown Building, 2350 Hayward Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2125, USA ' G036 Lay Automotive Laboratory, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2133, USA ' Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Michigan, 2266 G.G. Brown Building, 2350 Hayward Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2125, USA
Abstract: In order to autonomously navigate in an unknown environment, a robotic vehicle must be able to sense obstacles, determine their velocities, and select a collision-free path that will lead quickly to a goal. However, the perceived location and motion of the obstacles will be uncertain due to the limited accuracy of the robot's sensors. Thus, it is necessary to develop a system that can avoid moving obstacles using uncertain sensor data. The method proposed here is based on an occupancy grid which has been used to avoid stationary obstacles in an uncertain environment in conjunction with velocity obstacles which allow a robot to avoid well-known moving obstacles. The combination of these techniques leads to Velocity Occupancy Space (VOS): a search space which allows the robot to avoid moving obstacles and navigate efficiently to a goal using uncertain sensor data. The proposed method is validated by numerous simulation trials.
Keywords: velocity occupancy space; velocity obstacles; autonomous navigation; moving obstacles; obstacle avoidance; uncertain sensor data; occupancy grid; robot motion; motion planning; mobile robots; uncertainty; robot sensors; robot navigation; simulation.
International Journal of Vehicle Autonomous Systems, 2012 Vol.10 No.1/2, pp.41 - 66
Received: 14 Feb 2010
Accepted: 14 Oct 2010
Published online: 07 Jul 2012 *