Title: Intra-match competitive intensity in French football Ligue 1 and rugby Top 14

Authors: Nicolas Scelles, Christophe Durand, Thierno Souleymane Bah, Francois Rioult

Addresses: UFR STAPS, Campus II, Universite de Caen Basse-Normandie, 2 Boulevard du Marechal Juin, 14032 Caen Cedex, France. ' UFR STAPS, Campus II, Universite de Caen Basse-Normandie, 2 Boulevard du Marechal Juin, 14032 Caen Cedex, France. ' UFR Sciences, Departement Mathematiques et Mecanique, Batiment Sciences 3, Campus II, Universite de Caen Basse-Normandie, Boulevard du Marechal Juin, 14032 Caen Cedex, France. ' UFR Sciences, Departement Mathematiques et Mecanique, Batiment Sciences 3, Campus II, Universite de Caen Basse-Normandie, Boulevard du Marechal Juin, 14032 Caen Cedex, France

Abstract: This article develops a new dimension of competitive balance: intra-match level. In addition, it combines stakes and reversals as well as outcome uncertainty to create a new concept: competitive intensity. Intra-match competitive intensity was measured in French football Ligue 1 over the period 1993-2008 and rugby Top 14 over the period 2001-2008. The results show the regularity of intra-match uncertainty in Ligue 1 over the period 1993-2008 and the positive impact of the bonus system which was instituted in Top 14 in 2004-2005. Indeed, Top 14 intra-match competitive intensity surpassed Ligue 1|s (which was previously higher) over the sub-period 2004-2008.

Keywords: competitive balance; intra-match level; stakes; reversals; outcome uncertainty; competitive intensity; football; soccer; rugby; bonus; France; sport management; professional sports economics; public demand; consumer demand.

DOI: 10.1504/IJSMM.2011.041569

International Journal of Sport Management and Marketing, 2011 Vol.9 No.3/4, pp.154 - 169

Available online: 26 Jul 2011 *

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