Title: Exciton-polariton Bose-Einstein condensation: advances and issues

Authors: Maxime Richard, Jacek Kasprzak, Augustin Baas, Stefan Kundermann, Konstantinos G. Lagoudakis, Michiel Wouters, Iacopo Carusotto, Regis Andre, Benoit Deveaud-Pledran, Le Si Dang

Addresses: Equipe Mixte, Institut Neel, CEA-CNRS-Universite Joseph Fourier, 25 rue des Martyrs, 38042 Grenoble, France. ' School of Physics and Astronomy, Cardiff University, Cardiff, CF24 3AA, UK. ' IPEQ, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL), Station 3, 1015 Lausanne, Switzerland. ' IPEQ, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL), Station 3, 1015 Lausanne, Switzerland. ' IPEQ, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL), Station 3, 1015 Lausanne, Switzerland. ' ITP, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL), Station 3, 1015 Lausanne, Switzerland. ' INFM-CNR BEC and Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Trento, via Sommarive 14, 38050 Povo (Trento), Italy. ' Equipe Mixte, Institut Neel, CEA-CNRS-Universite Joseph Fourier, 25 rue des Martyrs, 38042 Grenoble, France. ' IPEQ, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL), Station 3, 1015 Lausanne, Switzerland. ' Equipe Mixte, Institut Neel, CEA-CNRS-Universite Joseph Fourier, 25 rue des Martyrs, 38042 Grenoble, France

Abstract: In this review, we present a comprehensive set of experimental results on microcavity-polariton Bose-Einstein Condensation (BEC), obtained within a close collaboration between Institut Neel, Grenoble, France and EPFL, Lausanne, Switzerland. First, we recall the main observations, i.e., massive occupation of the ground state and build-up of long range order, which led us to conclude that polariton BEC indeed occurs. Then, the highly disordered environment in which the condensation takes place is considered: we show how interactions are a necessary ingredient for polariton BEC. Finally we discuss quantised vortices observed for the first time in polariton condensates. Their unusual features are shown to be inherited from the disordered environment and the driven-dissipative character of the polariton BEC.

Keywords: Bose-Einstein condensation; polariton; superfluidity; quantised vortices; microcavity; strong coupling; nanotechnology.

DOI: 10.1504/IJNT.2010.031738

International Journal of Nanotechnology, 2010 Vol.7 No.4/5/6/7/8, pp.668 - 685

Published online: 21 Feb 2010 *

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