Title: The application of radiation sources in the oil and gas industry and shortages in their services
Authors: Falah Abu-Jarad
Addresses: Saudi Pioneers for Specialized Services (SPSS), P.O. Box 2110, Dammam 31451, Saudi Arabia
Abstract: Oil and gas industries utilise many radiation sources in various applied radiation-based technologies. Those technologies provide significant benefit to the daily operations of the industry. Gamma emitting sources of Cs-137, Co-60, Ba-133, Am-241 are used in oil and gas well logging, in Multiphase Flow Meter (MPFM) technology at oil and gas production facilities and in transmitted level gauges for tanks in refineries. X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) is used for sulphur gauges in laboratories. Cd-109 and Fe-59 are used in alloy analysers in refineries and workshops. Neutron sources like Cf-252 or 241Am-Be are used in density gauges and also in well logging. Ir-192 and Co-60 are routinely used in industrial radiography. Bi-113 and X-ray machines are used routinely in industrial security. To maximise benefits and minimise hazards associated with utilisation of radiation-based technologies, national radiation protection standards are implemented. The use of radiation sources needs regular services. There are shortages in the application of the needed radiation sources| services within the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. This paper will provide samples of radiation-based technologies used in the oil and gas industry and pay particular attention to few shortages in the radiation services needed for the safe handling of the sources that need to be rectified in order to encourage and assist the new radiation sources| users to utilise radiation-based technologies in the industry.
Keywords: radiation sources; applications; oil and gas industry; service shortages; multiphase flow; radiation protection standards; Saudi Arabia; radiation services; safety.
Atoms for Peace: an International Journal, 2009 Vol.2 No.4, pp.338 - 349
Published online: 13 Aug 2009 *Full-text access for editors Access for subscribers Purchase this article Comment on this article