Title: Perceptions of constraints to NHL spectatorship

Authors: Jonathan M. Casper, Michael A. Kanters, Jeffrey D. James

Addresses: North Carolina State University, Parks, Recreation and Tourism Mgt., Box 8004, 4012F Biltmore Hall, Raleigh, NC 27695-8004, USA. ' North Carolina State University, Parks, Recreation and Tourism Mgt., Box 8004, 4012F Biltmore Hall, Raleigh, NC 27695-8004, USA. ' Florida State University, 200 Tully Gym, Tallahassee, FL 32306, USA

Abstract: The purpose of this study was to better understand perceptions of constraints on National Hockey League (NHL) spectatorship. Additionally, this study sought to understand how constraints are perceived by spectators based on ticket holder type and test the negotiation thesis by comparing constraint variables across spectator motivation and team identification. The constraints scale was adopted from leisure literature and adapted to sport spectators. Two data collection methods (on-site and web-based) were used to recruit participants. A preliminary Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) found good fit for the leisure constraint scale. The results indicate that active spectators experience a variety of constraints with time and cost constraints cited as the most prevalent. Each of the constraint constructs were found to significantly lower spectator motivation and identification with the team across ticket holder types. The results of this study provide preliminary evidence of the importance of constraints in addressing NHL marketing efforts.

Keywords: consumer behaviour; NHL; National Hockey League; spectator constraints; team identification; spectator motivation; sport marketing; ticket levels; consumption behaviour; perceptions of constraints; ticket holder types.

DOI: 10.1504/IJSMM.2009.021750

International Journal of Sport Management and Marketing, 2009 Vol.5 No.1/2, pp.55 - 72

Available online: 01 Dec 2008 *

Full-text access for editors Access for subscribers Purchase this article Comment on this article