Title: When innovating services, are 12 Ps enough? Towards a design oriented framework

Authors: Marc Opitz

Addresses: Specialist Methodology, AMADEE AG, Zahringerallee 104, 32425 Minden, Germany

Abstract: The innovation of services is still often a matter of trial and error. The reason for this is that there are only very few defined mechanisms for systematic and ongoing service innovation. The frame concept presented here is intended to provide a basic understanding of the various aspects of the management of innovation by service providers. This paper begins by considering the features of services which can be designed. These reflections lead to a set of 12 design elements. A second step involves developing a life cycle oriented model of service innovation which takes account of the main functions of service creation, service development and service improvement as well as of radical and incremental levels of innovation. The model rests on subsystems, which deal with diverse aspects of service innovation. This enables the extremely complex innovation task to be broken down into manageable subsystems.

Keywords: services innovation; marketing mix; design elements; service life cycle; invention; service creation; service development; service improvement.

DOI: 10.1504/IJSTM.2008.019709

International Journal of Services Technology and Management, 2008 Vol.9 No.3/4, pp.320 - 333

Available online: 24 Jul 2008 *

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