Title: Students' engagement in online flipped Mandarin as a foreign language learning

Authors: Wee-Ling Kuan; Fitri Suraya Mohamad

Addresses: Faculty of Language and Communication, Universiti Malaysia Sarawak (UNIMAS), 94300, Kota Samarahan, Malaysia ' Faculty of Cognitive Sciences and Human Development, Universiti Malaysia Sarawak (UNIMAS), 94300, Kota Samarahan, Malaysia

Abstract: This study examines how students respond to online flipped Mandarin as a foreign language (MFL) learning regarding their behavioural, emotional, cognitive and agentic engagement. It also explores MFL students' responses to language learning challenges provided via online flipped learning. This explanatory sequential mixed methods design study included 104 full-time undergraduate students participating in an elementary MFL course. The findings revealed that students were most involved in behavioural engagement and least in agentic engagement. The main code for language learning challenges was categorised into six themes: lack of self-efficacy, time management, social interaction issues, language elements, emotional problems, and physical environment constraints/technical difficulties. This study reveals that MFL students strived to adapt to the online flipped language learning approach compared to Mandarin language elements. Furthermore, it was observed that students had higher expectations of 'teacher being', which are affective aspects of being more involved in the learning context.

Keywords: online flipped language learning; students' engagement; Mandarin as a foreign language learning; Mandarin as a foreign language; MFL.

DOI: 10.1504/IJIL.2024.135157

International Journal of Innovation and Learning, 2024 Vol.35 No.1, pp.1 - 37

Received: 29 Aug 2022
Accepted: 09 Nov 2022

Published online: 01 Dec 2023 *

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