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Title: Consumption determinants in the National Hockey League: the influence of violence in the USA and Canada

Authors: Alexander Traugutt; Gregory P. Greenhalgh; Chad Goebert; Michael D. Broda; Cody T. Havard

Addresses: Elon University, 2350 Campus Box, Elon, NC 27244, USA ' University of South Florida, 4202 E. Fowler Ave., Tampa, FL 33620, USA ' Kennesaw State University, 7965 Scenic Ridge Way, Ball Ground, GA 30107, USA ' Virginia Commonwealth University, 1015 W. Main St., Richmond, VA 23223, USA ' University of Memphis, 300 Innovation Drive #447, Memphis, TN 38152, USA

Abstract: The National Hockey League is aligned in such a way that it must present its product to large audiences in two countries. Given the difficulty of such a marketing effort, this study sought to determine the impact that violence, as measured by fighting, has on consumption. Separate demand models were estimated for attendance and viewership in the USA and Canada via Tobit and OLS regression models. Results from the various models indicated that the promotion of violence should not be considered a viable strategy for increasing consumption. More specifically, while fighting was found to be a positive predictor of attendance in all models, its impact was minimal. From a viewership perspective, fighting was not found to be a significant predictor in either market. Given the evolving nature of consumer preferences, these results are particularly salient to marketers seeking to develop strategies that are relevant to the current marketplace.

Keywords: sport marketing; consumer behaviour; attendance; viewership; National Hockey League; NHL; USA; Canada.

DOI: 10.1504/IJSMM.2023.130435

International Journal of Sport Management and Marketing, 2023 Vol.23 No.1/2, pp.154 - 173

Accepted: 13 Apr 2022
Published online: 20 Apr 2023 *

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