Title: The glass ceiling phenomenon in the US and EU labour market: a comparative study

Authors: Saška Gavrilovska; Balasundram Maniam

Addresses: College of Business Administration, Sam Houston State University, USA ' General Business and Finance, Sam Houston State University, USA

Abstract: The paper will explore the issue of the glass ceiling phenomenon that implies discriminatory actions toward women and minorities in the workplace. The invisible barrier prevents women and minorities from climbing above a certain level in the organisational chain of command. The purpose of the paper is to confirm the presence and identify the cause of the glass ceiling through an examination of its effects in the labour market. Hence, this is a comparative analysis paper of the glass ceiling phenomenon in the labour market in two different areas, the US and the EU. The historical literature selected indicates the constant progress of women and minorities in the middle management positions; however, little to no progress in the top management positions. The paper further explores possible explanations of the glass ceiling phenomenon such as personality difference, discrimination, and challenges of motherhood/childcare.

Keywords: glass ceiling; discriminatory actions; women; minorities; labour-market; US; EU; cause and effect.

DOI: 10.1504/IJSOM.2020.10037237

International Journal of Services and Operations Management, 2022 Vol.42 No.3, pp.422 - 438

Received: 28 Nov 2019
Accepted: 11 Apr 2020

Published online: 12 Jul 2022 *

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