Title: Diversity, culture, and membership in social organisations

Authors: Abu H. Ayob; Nor Asiah Omar; Zafir Mohamed Makhbul; Taslima Jannat

Addresses: Faculty of Economics and Management, The National University of Malaysia, 43600, Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia ' Faculty of Economics and Management, The National University of Malaysia, 43600, Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia ' Graduate School of Business, The National University of Malaysia, 43600, Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia ' Faculty of Economics and Management, The National University of Malaysia, 43600, Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia

Abstract: This cross-national study empirically examines cultural context as a boundary condition for the interaction of diversity and social organisations. Specifically, this research explores the effects of ethnic, religious and linguistic diversity on the membership of humanitarian and charitable organisations, and how the relationships are moderated by the level of fairness and happiness. The hypotheses are tested using the index of fractionalisation and data from the World Values Survey from 38 countries. After controlling for the institutions, the results show that ethnic and linguistic diversity, together with a level of fairness, have positive effects on the membership of social organisations. However, the impact of the level of happiness and the moderating effects of cultural variables vary according to the type of diversity. The findings imply that social heterogeneity and cultural context play a significant role in determining engagement in voluntary social activities.

Keywords: ethnic diversity; religious diversity; linguistic diversity; fairness; happiness; social organisations.

DOI: 10.1504/IJHD.2022.10048746

International Journal of Happiness and Development, 2022 Vol.7 No.1, pp.91 - 106

Received: 17 Aug 2020
Accepted: 08 Mar 2021

Published online: 15 Jul 2022 *

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