Title: Robust lateral and longitudinal stability control for delta three-wheeled vehicles with suspension system

Authors: Martín Antonio Rodríguez Licea

Addresses: National Council of Science and Technology (CONACYT), Technological Institute of Celaya, Department of Electronics, Laboratory of Innovation in Applied Electronics, Antonio García Cubas 1200, Celaya, Guanajuato, 38010, Mexico

Abstract: The delta three-wheeled vehicle (TWV) is well-known for low performance at curves compared to other configurations; little research has been published regarding rollovers, to the author's knowledge, and severe injuries are frequent due to the few safety systems. Electrification improves the performance, and new driver assistance systems to mitigate risks of an accident are needed. This paper proposes three new models for the skid and lateral and longitudinal rollover risks, considering the suspension system. The risks can be estimated using an IMU and information from the power-train control module (PCM). A robust lateral and longitudinal stability control (LLSC) to mitigate the risks simultaneously, despite parameter uncertainty, is proposed; rear electric in-wheel motors and independent ABS braking are used for such mitigation; the controller gains are obtained by offline optimisation. Hardware-in-the-loop tests show that the LLSC can effectively mitigate rollovers and skidding simultaneously, even on low friction surfaces.

Keywords: TWV; three-wheeled vehicle; stability; lateral skid; rollover; robust control; delta tricycle; in-wheel differential; Lyapunov; low-friction; optimisation.

DOI: 10.1504/IJVD.2021.122687

International Journal of Vehicle Design, 2021 Vol.87 No.1/2/3/4, pp.49 - 72

Received: 16 Aug 2020
Accepted: 07 Apr 2021

Published online: 05 May 2022 *

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