World Review of Science, Technology and Sustainable Development (16 papers in press)
Concentration of air pollutants in an urban parking garage in Kuwait
by F. Al-Rukaibi, N. Al-Mutairi, A. Al-Rashed
Abstract: In this research, the results of an indoor microenvironment study of five representative parking garages throughout Kuwait city are presented. Field measurements on the CO, NO, NO2 and CH4 concentrations, in three locations at each parking floor, repeated 8 times at each floor, over a nine-month period inside five sample parking garages are reported. Only CO was present in the air inside the study garages while NO, NO2 and CH4 could not be detected at any of the study parkings. Mean CO concentration levels exceeded the mean 8-hr standard (9 ppm) in Al-Mothannah and Al-Saleheyah parking garages in the morning and evening periods, and in Al-Fanar parking garage in the evening periods. CO concentration patterns showed the dependence of CO levels on parking garage size/capacity (number of stalls), temperature, humidity, and the time of day. The findings indicated that high levels of mean CO concentration were detected in the large enclosed parking garages, during high temperatures, and with high humidity levels and during the evening periods. Naturally, CO levels were also found to be depending on the volume of entering and exiting vehicles. The results of this preliminary research study could be representative of all other parking garages in Kuwait. The installation of CO sensors inside parking floors to detect the CO concentration levels continuously should be considered. Thus, when the concentrations approaching the standard 1-hour (35 ppm), the ventilation fans should be turned to double or triple speed automatically, to eliminate the build-up of this harmful gas.
Keywords: air pollutants; urban parking garage; Kuwait; indoor microenvironment.
Green industrial performance: the GIP index
by Jaime Moll De Alba, Valentin Todorov
Abstract: This article develops and introduces the green industrial performance (GIP) index that allows policy-makers and practitioners to analyse the performance of countries in terms of green manufacturing. We derive our data from international data sources, namely UNIDO's industrial statistics database (INDSTAT) and UN COMTRADE, to build up a set of green industrial indicators capturing different aspects of the countrys green industrial performance. We then construct a composite index and rank and analyse the green industrial performance of a set of 107 countries in 2014. In 2014, the top five green industrial performers according to the GIP index are Denmark, Taiwan Province of China, Germany, the Republic of Korea and Singapore. Industrialized economies generally outperform other economies. We derive from the GIP index a set of recommendations for future research within the general framework of the international 2030 Sustainable Development Agenda.
Keywords: Green manufacturing; industrial production; sustainable development; Sustainable Development Goals; performance index.
Special Issue on: Energy Aspects of Tribology for Sustainable Development
Tribological and mechanical properties of PM Fe-Cu-Sn alloy containing graphite as a solid lubricant
by Shuhaib Mushatq, M.F. Wani, S.Shahid Saleem, Mohammad Junaid Mir
Abstract: The mechanical and tribological properties of Fe-Cu-Sn alloy containing graphite as a solid lubricant were investigated. An attempt is made to develop graphite added Fe-Cu-Sn alloy using simple single stage compaction and sintering elemental powders. The influence of varying compositions of graphite on the mechanical and tribological properties of the sintered alloys was studied. The tribological behaviours of sintered alloys sliding against EN8 steel ball under dry sliding conditions were studied using a ball-on-disk tribometer. The composition containing 3wt% graphite shows better mechanical properties because due to the formation of Cu-Sn, Fe-Cu, and Fe-Sn compounds in large amounts at high sintering temperature. The friction coefficient of Fe-Cu-Sn alloy decreases with increase in sliding distance, upto 60% from 0wt% to 3wt% of graphite content. Higher amount of graphite content is found to be beneficial in improving wear resistance. The wear mechanism of Fe-Cu-Sn alloy containing 0wt% of graphite is adhesive wear and abrasive wear. However, the wear mechanism of Fe-Cu-Sn alloy containing 3wt% of graphite is mildly abrasive wear.
Keywords: Fe-Cu-Sn alloy; solid Lubricant; powder metallurgy; coefficient of friction; wear rate.
Fabrication of a dimple structure using a machining process on a metallic surface
by JAHARAH A.GHANI, Sharudin Hassan, Mohd Nor Azam Mohd Dali, Che Hassan Che Haron
Abstract: A surface texture, such as a dimple structure, can be produced through various processes like electrochemistry, electrolysis, laser and machining processes. This paper presents the fabrication of a dimple structure on an aluminium alloy 6061-T6 metallic surface using a machining process comprised of turning and milling. This fabrication was enabled with the aid of a newly-developed dynamic assisted tool for the tuning and milling processes respectively. The dynamic assisted tool that was developed was able to produce a dimple structure of various shapes and geometries in the turning process (spherical, short drop and long drop), whereas for the milling process, only a circular shape could be produced. The ranges that could be produced for the dimple structures were width of 153
Keywords: dimple structure; turning machine; milling machine.
Wear Characteristics of Recycled Carbon Fibre-Filled Polypropylene Composites via Acidic Surface Treatment
by Noraiham Mohamad, Anisah Abd Latiff, Mohd Edeerozey Abd Manaf, Hairul Effendy Ab Maulod, Mohammed Iqbal Shueb, Rose Farahiyan Munawar, Raja Izamshah Raja Abdullah, Mohd Shahir Kasim, Mazliah Mazlan, Jeefferie Abd Razak, Mohd Asyadi Azam
Abstract: Recently, the use of carbon fibre waste has been accepted as a wise approach to benefit the superior performance of carbon fibre and as a part of the green effort for disposal management. This research is carried out to study the potential of recycled carbon fibres (rCF) as reinforcement in polypropylene (PP) matrix, especially for tribology application. In this study, the recycled carbon fibres were treated with nitric acid (HNO3). The coefficients of friction and wear rate of PP filled with recycled carbon fibres at different fibre loadings of 0.5, 1, 3, 5 and 7 wt% were determined for studying the effect of acid treatment. The composites were prepared via melt compounding using a Haake internal mixer at 180
Keywords: Recycled carbon fibre; Polypropylene composites; Acid treatment; Wear rates; Coefficient of Friction.
Degradation behavior of Treated Betelnut Fibres Reinforced Polyester (T-BFRP) Composites for Tribological Applications
by UMAR NIRMAL
Abstract: The current research aims to study the tribological performance of T-BFRP composite aged in different lubricants with different kinematic viscosity. The test was conducted using a POD wear test rig at different applied normal loads (5 30 N) at different sliding distances (0 6.72 km) subjected to a smooth stainless steel (AISI-304, 60 HB) counterface at 2.83 m/s of sliding velocity. Results revealed that the specific wear rate (Ws) of T-BFRP composite reduced at higher applied loads; i.e. the reduction in Ws was 90% for AP and 86.3% for P test samples as compared to neat polyester (NP) test samples at 20 N of applied load. This was namely due to the lowest absorption rate incurred by the betelnut fibres when they were aged in their respective aging solutions; i.e. highest kinematic viscosity resulting in lowest absorption rate by the fibres. In other words, at high kinematic viscosities, T-BFRP composite experienced low values in Ws (i.e. low absorption rate by the fibres, lower material removal process due to high fibre surface wettability).
Keywords: degradation; natural fibres; tribology; sliding wear; polyester; specific wear rate.
Investigation of pressure ratio and efficiency of a turbocharger centrifugal compressor with a vaned diffuser
by Hilmi Amiruddin, Wan Mohd Faizal Wan Mahmood, Shahrir Abdullah, Mohd Radzi Abu Mansor, Rizalman Mamat, Azri Alias
Abstract: This paper presents the performance of a conventional turbocharger centrifugal compressor with a vaneless diffuser with the primary aim to improve the pressure ratio and efficiency of the compression stage through the application of a low solidity vaned diffuser (LSVD). A cold-flow turbocharger test rig was used for this experiment, with impeller rotational speeds ranging from 40 000 rpm to 70 000 rpm. The tests were conducted using three sets of flat plate vanes designs consisting of 6, 8 and 10 vanes with consist blade angles of 6
Keywords: LSVD; turbocharger; centrifugal compressor; pressure ratio; compressor efficiency.
Enhanced Tribological properties of Aluminium using Laser-assisted Tungsten coating
by Anurag Roy, Akshat Sharma, Aman Gupta, Vijay Meena, A.P. Harsha
Abstract: Aluminium (Al) suffers from poor wear and scratch resistance and also low surface hardness. To overcome this, the authors fabricated a ~200 μm coating of fine tungsten (W) powder on Al using laser surface alloying (LSA) with laser power and scanning speed varying from 400-800 W and 800-1,200 mm/min respectively. Material characterisation in the form of SEM and XRD, undertaken on the LSA samples, revealed novel microstructures including formation of intermetallic phases Al4W, Al12W that exhibit substantially higher hardness. Scratch hardness measurements further consolidated that surface hardness of coated samples was more than three times as compared to bulk aluminium. Scratch testing at normal loads of 50-150 N, scratch speed of 30 mm/min, demonstrated a stable friction coefficient of 0.6 and higher coating adhesive strength. When applied to automobile components and aerospace products, the micro-coated LSA samples can provide far better alternatives to the current industrial grade of aluminium from the tribology point of view.
Keywords: Laser Surface Alloying ; Material Characterization ; Wear Resistance ; Scratch Hardness ; Scanning Electron Microscopy(SEM) ; X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) ; Intermetallics ; Micro-coatings ;.
A brief review on Friction Reduction via Dimple Structure for Piston Engine
by Haniff Abdul Rahman, JAHARAH A.GHANI, Wan Mohd Faizal Wan Mahmood
Abstract: Advanced low-friction coatings and surface texturing are potentially new methods for reducing friction in reciprocating engines. The piston is an engine component that can benefit from the introduction of micro dimple texturing on its surface to improve engine efficiency. The design of the piston skirt is one of the key features to be taken into account in controlling the performance of friction, oil consumption and noise. The piston skirt contributes to around 25-47% in piston-cylinder system losses due to engine friction. A micro dimple distribution on the surface will act as an oil reservoir and provide lubrication to reduce friction by up to 30%. In addition, micro dimple texturing is also beneficial in generating hydrodynamic pressure and a load-carrying capacity on sliding surfaces, hence contributing to lower friction. The aspect texture ratio, λ, texture density, ρ_texture, and relative texture depth, S, are some of the important parameters that need to be considered in designing a dimple structure and pattern on a piston skirt surface to optimize the hydrodynamic pressure effect and to reduce friction.
Keywords: dimple structure; friction; piston.
Special Issue on: Impact of Technology on Societal Sustainable Development
GEOSPATIAL ASSESSMENT OF THE EFFECTS OF INCREASING SURFACE TEMPERATURE ON SOIL EROSION IN IBADAN NIGERIA
by Olusola Adetoro, Shogo Garuba
Abstract: The evident impact of climate change has been observed to be strongest and most comprehensive for the natural systems. The experienced modifications have been reflected mostly by ecosystems and by considerable alterations in soil formation and degradation processes, in soil properties and soil functions inclusive. Advancement in Remote sensing techniques has brought about the possibility of obtaining and distribution of spatial information rapidly over large areas by means of sensors operating in several spectral bands, mounted on aircraft or satellites.
This paper seeks to identify the various GIS and RS techniques that have been employed in the assessment of the erosion of soil resulting from increasing temperature in the tropics and its applicability to Ibadan, Nigeria.
Keywords: GIS; Remote sensing; Climate change; Soil erosion; Surface temperature.
Determinants of Technology-based Product Adoption by Consumers
by Santanu Satapathy, Shirish Sangle, Seema Unnikrishnan
Abstract: The climate change situation is alarming due to both industrial and domestic consumption patterns, and a positive change in consumer preference for more energy-efficient household appliances is crucial to address this challenge. This study attempts to ascertain the determinants of technology-based household product adoption by consumers. The data collected by a survey has been analyzed through exploratory factor analysis and factor scoring to determine the significance of product characteristics and economic attractiveness of the product vis-a-vis the environmental attractiveness and social characteristics of the consumers, while making a purchase decision. Based on the understanding developed from this study, the adoption of technology-based household products by the consumers depends on four major factors: Product Characteristics, Economic Attractiveness, Environmental Attractiveness of the product and Social Characteristics of the consumers. This study of consumer behavior has been carried out with medium-range investment products that are technology-based. Low-cost consumer goods such as stationery, eatables, cosmetics as well as high-cost investments such as personal vehicles or houses have not been considered in the study. The study will provide significant insights into the mindset of various stakeholders associated with technology-based household products; these include manufacturers, marketing communities, environmental professionals and associated researchers. The output model will be useful for the Government in formulating any forward-looking strategy towards reduction of household GHG emission for Climate Proactivity. The study findings are supported by adequate empirical evidence.
Keywords: Technology-based Product; sustainable consumption; climate change; India; Consumer Purchasing Styles.
A Literature survey of LFC in a Deregulated Electricity Environment
by Deva Brinda M, Suresh A, Rashmi M R
Abstract: This paper deals with an exhaustive literature survey on load frequency control for an deregulated electricity environment for different market scenarios based on different designs like thermal, hydro, wind, diesel, and hybrid power systems conventional methods such as I, PI,PID controllers, robust control methods, intelligent control methods for also for different types of tielines AC-DC, with inclusion of FACTS devices. The control strategies is based on NERC standards to reduce wear and tear to overcome the situations like sudden load changes and uncertainties to keep the system frequency and tie line power within prescribed limits.
Keywords: Load Frequency Control; integral controller Proportional Integral (PI) Controller; Proportional Integral Derivative (PID) Controller,Intelligent Control methods,robust control methods,FACTS devices,NERC Standards,Deregulated electricity enironment.
A fast approach to encrypt and decrypt of video streams for secure channel transmission
by Farooq Sunar Mahammad, Madhu Viswantham V
Abstract: The information transmission methods have been incredibly affected by the expanded prevalence of multimedia applications. Communication system are vulnerable to meddlers and accordingly should be ensured. Tragically the calculations proposed till now apply encryption and decoding on the whole video stream that are computationally exorbitant and moderate. Hence, numerous encryption methods have been recommended that influence just part of the video stream. Consequently this paper proposes a light weight encryption method in which it scramble resulting edges of the video rather than the whole video. To enhance the time multifaceted nature of the current framework, parallel rendition of the current approach is being proposed in this paper in which every square of picture casings of the video are scrambled in parallel by creating confirmation flag utilizing Shamir Secret Sharing plan
Keywords: Shamir Secret Sharing; alpha channel; video frames; grayscale image; video encryption; authentication signal; stego-image Introduction.
Secure Medical Data Transmission by using Collaborative Neighbor Based Method in WBAN
by Devi L, S.P. Shantharajah
Abstract: Wireless Body Area Network or Body Area Sensor Network is wearable device in human body. It is a medical device to transmit data in online used in healthcare industry. Transmitting the data from sensor node to destination is proved when introducing the best technique. However, WBAN has faced many security issues and challenges when transmitting the data. Existing ECC secure key distribution methods are implemented, using this method the time is consumed, efficiency and security of data was discussed. Elliptic Curve Cryptography scheme implements for secure key distribution and data exchange. The proposed method is used that is collaborative neighbor based method .Overall the proposed method proves a better security in the health care devices. Collaborative Neighbor Selection and time taken on packet forwarding from one point to another to identify the presence data being appended in the framework. With the application of Time-efficient Sink Detection algorithm, the occurrence of time event on packet forwarding helps to improve packet transmission. The proposed framework includes enhancement to security and efficiency by forwarding the node information and performing the verification procedure based on the received packet to filter the false data. We also demonstrate how the proposed framework can be extended to send data in the sensor network using Associative Filtering scheme. Extensive experiments and simulation results indicate that, in terms of bandwidth efficiency, packet transmission, network security and processing time, performs favorably compared to existing ECC mechanisms in Wireless Body Area sensor network.
Keywords: ECC; Filtering data; key distribution.
VEERBENCH - AN INTELLIGENT COMPUTING FRAMEWORK FOR WORKLOAD CHARACETIZATION IN MULTI CORE HETROGENEOUS ARCHITECTURES
by Yokesh Babu Sundaresan, Saleem Durai M A
Abstract: Multi-Core heterogeneous architectures are playing the important role in server, mobile and all commercial devices. With the advent of Internet of Things in todays applications and increase in the workloads inputs, predictive simulating and computing tools are mandatory for the effective implementation of the Multi Core heterogeneous architectures for the different applications. Many tools such as MacPACT, ESEC has been into existence but an intelligent computing framework tool for the predictive selection of the cores depending on the workloads remains in the darker side of the research. Hence the new computing framework called VEERBENCH has been proposed which works on the Learning and Training mechanisms for the usage of the cores in the heterogeneous architectures depending on the workloads. The Framework uses the Fuzzy Clustering with the Extreme Learning Machines and Formulation of Adaptive and Cognitive Energy (FACE) Rule Sets which are used for the energy and performance based allocation of the cores. VEERBENCH is the simulating test bench which aims for the exploration and visualization of the design space of heterogeneous architectures in terms of energy and performance usage metrics. The proposed knowledge based test bench has been compared with the other tools such as MACPACT, ESEC and with the other energy based scheduler benchmarks and the obtained results are shown.
Keywords: VEERBENCH; Extreme Learning Machines; FACE; MacPACT; ESEC; Internet of Things.
A comprehensive review on thin film based Nano-biosensor for uric acid determination: Arthritis diagnosis
by Parthasarathy Panchatchram, Vivekanandan S
Abstract: This article aims to provide a survey on the development of thin film based nano-biosensor over the decade, which includes sensing principles, electrode types and various thin film matrices. The theoretical and experimental results suggest that the thin film based sensor are suitable for highly sensitive detection of low concentration bio molecules and can be used for early diagnosis and screening of arthritis, kidney diseases and other cardiovascular diseases. This review concludes that enzyme immobilization and surface functionalization methods were used to increase sensitivity of the biosensor and new combination of polymer nano-composites with metal oxide thin films results in increased efficiency due to its high biocompatibility.
Keywords: Uric acid; immobilization; enzymes; bio-compatibility; thin films; nano-materials.