World Review of Science, Technology and Sustainable Development (16 papers in press)
Characteristics of the Research on Value Engineering (20002015)
by Saeid Jafarzadeh-Ghoushchi, Shadi Dorosti, Saeed Asgari Tehrani
Abstract: As another administration strategy, value engineering is a successful approach to reducing expenses while enhancing execution and quality necessities. In the past several decades, great steps have been made in this field. This review investigates number of value engineering published articles since 2000 until 2015, in any journals of all the subject categories of the Science Citation Index compiled by Institute for Scientific Information (ISI), web of science and Scopus, "Value Engineering", "Value engineering analysis" and "Value Management" were used as keywords to search part of titles. The published output analysis showed that Value engineering research steadily increased over the past 15 years. The considered paper numbers in this study is more than 800, which have been published from 2000 to 2015. The two leading countries in this field are USA and China. The quantitative and qualitative investigation techniques were utilized to assess this work. Our analysis of this paper provides useful insight on the Value Engineering literature and could aid the creation and accumulation of knowledge in this scope. It is hoped that the review could be a good resource for anyone who is interested in Value Engineering research and also help to stimulate further interest in this area.
Keywords: value engineering; Literature review; value engineering analysis; Bibliometrics.
A Review on Carbon Trading: New Age Enterprise for Sustainable Development and Profitability with special reference to UAE
by Jacob Cherian, Jolly Jacob, Sherine Farouk
Abstract: This study is an attempt to analyze Carbon Emission Trading with a special focus on United Arab Emirates. The purpose of the study is to assess how far enterprises are able to sustain Carbon trading mechanism and to analyze the quantum of benefits they derive or the liabilities they encounter .The highlight of this paper is on carbon trading with respect to the Kyoto protocol. Further, it has also been elucidated that greenhouse gas emission leads to climate change. With a view to gain carbon credits, mechanisms to reduce emissions such as; clean development mechanism, joint implementation and emission trade have been presented. In this research, various types of instruments for CO2 trade have been presented which is followed by a detailed literature on carbon trading with respect to UAE. The study concludes that carbon trading in general lacks vision but could be implemented by the government through the creation of policies. As a result, enterprise development would go in tandem with sustainable development.
Keywords: Carbon Credits; Sustainable Development; Green House Gas; Ecological Footprints and Profitability.
Design of an Economically Feasible Nutrient Medium for Microorganisms Using Banana Waste
by Kodali Vidya Prabhakar, Abraham Karlapudi, Neeraja Valluru, Ravi Teja, Sai Nath Bhashyam
Abstract: The management of the generated waste is a major problem in developing countries. The waste generated in the agroprocessing has been used as sources of nutrients for the microbes. In the present study, a medium has been formulated with banana fruit stalk and the microbial growth was monitored. Growth and biomass production was examined on banana stalk agar (BSA) and broth (BSB), banana stalk dextrose agar (BSDA) and broth (BSDB) using commercial potato dextrose agar (PDA) and broth (PDB) as control. It was observed that the good microbial growth was observed when compared to that of other conventional growth media. The weight of the Aspergillus niger biomass in BSDB was 1.8 g after 4 weeks of growth and the weight of the biomass in PDB was 0.9 g. The remarkable growth on BSDB may be attributed that the banana stalk is highly rich in nutrients.
Keywords: Banana Waste; Economically feasible; Nutrient medium; Microorganisms; Fungal Cultures.
Phytoremediation Potential of Selected Hydrophytes for Fluoride in Aquatic Environment
by Mamta Baunthiyal, Vinay Sharma
Abstract: Phytoremediation with aquatic plants could be an effective and economic method for improving water quality. The effectiveness of three aquatic macrophytes, viz. Hydrilla verticillata, Chara corallina and Cladophora glomerata were evaluated for their capability to remove fluoride from fluoride contaminated solutions. Different concentrations (10, 20, 50 mgL-1) of fluoride solution were taken in 1 litre plastic container having 20 g macrophytes and 500 ml fluoride solution for 10 days. Chara corallina showed better removal efficiency than other experimental macrophytes. The accumulation of fluoride of more than 1000 mgL-1 in plant tissues indicate that aquatic plants can be considered as hyperaccumulators of fluoride. Significant removal of fluoride was obtained for containers containing all aquatic plants, indicating that they can be utilized in the phytoremediation method to remove fluoride from wastewater.
Keywords: Hyperaccumulation; Fluoride; Hydrilla verticillata; Chara corallina; Cladophora glomerata; phytoremediation.
A review of the current situation, challenges and opportunities in the financial analysis of Enterprise Architectures
by Yeimi Pena, Dario Correal, Eduardo Miranda
Abstract: Enterprise Architecture (EA) has gained increasing recognition from industry and academia because of the support it provides for alignment of business and technology. To achieve this alignment, an EA responds to business concerns with technology solutions based on transition architectures. Both require support from financial analysis. Various researchers and practitioners have developed financial analysis approaches, but most i) use poorly standardized concepts, ii) ignore rapidly changing technology and iii) use limited procedures for financial analyses. This review provides specific information about the current situation of financial analysis available for EA, describes approaches found in a literature review, and proposes challenges and future research directions.
Keywords: financial analysis; enterprise architecture; transition plan; technology investment; methodologies; methods; systematic literature review.
Role of technology in brand management of Indian SMEs: An exploratory study
by Vinay Singh, Vshal Vyas, Sneha Singh Jadon
Abstract: Present study aims to explore the impact of technology development in increasing brand performance along with considering market orientation and innovative culture of the organization in Indian small and medium enterprises context. An exploratory study is conducted through structured questionnaire in Indian small and medium enterprises belonging to manufacturing sector. To find out the inter-relationships among the variables of the study, decision making trial and evaluation laboratory (DEMATEL) method is employed. The result shows that market orientation, innovative culture and technology development affects the brand performance of SMEs. Market orientation and innovative culture are found the net causing factors. Technology development and brand performance are belonging to effect group. For better competitive advantages and business performance, managers of the firm can be able to establish synergy across the organization by focusing on the market and by building innovative culture in the firm through their learning capabilities.
Keywords: Brand Performance; Innovative Culture; Market Orientation; Technology Development; DEMATEL.
A review of the econometric evidence on innovation policy instruments in Brazil
by Carlos Kawamoto, Paulo Feldmann, James Wright
Abstract: Evaluations of innovation policy instruments have shown a proliferation in growth in the last decade in Brazil ever since the publication of PINTEC, a crucial survey conducted by the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE). The sometimes contradictory results among some studies require the development of a clearer picture of the policy effects of R&D in the country. We focus on the additionality effect of inputs from various government incentives, and survey the related empirical literature dedicated to Brazil. Our results suggest that fiscal incentives for R&D activities provide a more robust additionality effect, in comparison to non-reimbursable subsidies for innovative activities. In addition, the effect occurs more robustly with low and medium technology intensive firms than it does with high technology intensity ones.
Keywords: R&D; research and development; innovation; government incentives; fiscal incentives; reimbursable incentives; innovation policy; policy instruments.
Sustainability in Development: Rethinking About Old Paradigms
by Reza Hafezi, Mohsen Bahrami, AmirNaser Akhavan
Abstract: Sustainable development has become an important issue in long-term planning due to the limitation of natural resources and ethical responsibilities to future generations to meet their needs. Some of researches in this field investigated case studies in order to answer environmental concerns. Others went behind and presented a multi-dimensional view, considering economic and social aspects, in addition. This paper suggests a comprehensive rethinking about sustainable development discourse. A three-level meta-model is presented to map interconnections between fundamental aspects of social and personal life (ethics, beliefs and values) and sustainable development. These three levels are: (1) Fundamental level (consists of a world view perspective), (2) Interactive level (frameworks in which elements of fundamental level translated to behavioral conditions) and (3) peripheral level (defines processes to form interacts with the universe) .This rethinking procedure proposed a more basically investigations to guarantee the outcomes of a sustainable development process.
Keywords: Sustainability; Sustainable Development; Future; Ethics; Social Responsibility.
Study of lead and copper accumulation by selected botanical species in urban environment
by DJEDOUX MAXIME ANGAMAN, Y.A.O. SADAIOU SABAS BARIMA, ZAMBLE FIDELE TRA BI, BINI KOUAME DONGUI
Abstract: The aim of this study is to quantify lead and copper concentrations deposited on plant species exposed in different habitats of Abidjan in order to assess air quality of Abidjan. Five species were used Barleria prionitis, Cassia surattensis, Duranta repens, Ficus benjamina, Jatropha interrigima and exposed in Parks, Main Roads, Industrial and Residential zones.
Leaf samples were collected and the concentrations of copper and lead were carried out by Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Roads generally showed high levels of copper and lead and the highest values reached 13 mg.g-1 and 7.5 mg.g-1 respectively. While the lowest were found in Parks with the values 2 mg.g-1 for Cu and 0.5 mg.g-1 for Pb. These results suggest that the major source of pollution were car exhaust. However, C.surattensis at roadsides showed the highest deposition of Cu and Pb. A significant positive correlation between lead and copper concentration in three leaves species, Cassia surrattensis (r = 0.974; p = 0.0043), Duranta repens (r = 0.824; p = 0.0057) and Jatropha interrigima (r = 0927; p = 0.00001) were found.
Keywords: Lead and copper contents; air pollution; plant leaves; ICP-MS.
Crop Farmers Understanding of Climate Change and Adaptation Practices in South-east Nigeria
by Robert Onyeneke, Chinenye Mmagu, Jonathan Aligbe
Abstract: This paper investigated crop farmers perception and adaptation practices to climate change in South-east Nigeria based on climatic data from a meteorological station and information from a review of 30 published studies about practices that boost farmers resilience or reduce their vulnerability to observed or expected changes in climate. Data collected from meteorological station were subjected to trend analysis, while farmers perception on climate change and adaptation were subjected to detailed literature review. Results confirmed the evidence of climate change in the area and that the farmers noticed the change. The review revealed that crop farmers in South-east Nigeria are already using a wide range of creative practices to deal with climate risks; these can be further adjusted to the challenge of climate change by planned adaptation programs. We found 41 different practices relevant to climate change adaptation and organised them in five categories: farm management and technology; farm financial management; diversification; mobility and social networks; and knowledge management and regulations. We concluded that adaptation policies should complement farmers autonomous response to climate change through crop improvement and cropland management, provision of financial services, investments in local knowledge and social networks, and implementation of policies to enhance good local governance and livelihood diversification.
Keywords: Climate change; perception; adaptation; trend analysis; crop farmers; South-east Nigeria.
SIMULTANEOUS ELECTROCOAGULATION OF DAM WATER AND PRODUCTION OF HYDROGEN
by Arturo Bailon, Thelma Pavón-Silva, Jorge Ibanez, Gabriela Roa-Morales
Abstract: The aim of this project was to design, build, and test a novel electrolyzer for the simultaneous electrocoagulation of dam surface water and production of hydrogen. Costs were reduced by using stainless steel (SS) and aluminum (Al) electrodes. However, operating the electrolyzer with SS as the anodic material and Al as the cathodic material released up to 5.2 mg/L of chromium into the treated water. To prevent chromium release the SS anode was replaced with an Al anode, which yielded an average hydrogen production efficiency of 35.3% and an average hydrogen purity of 92.6%. In a novel scheme, the reactor simultaneously produced cathodic hydrogen and electrocoagulated surface water, which removed color, turbidity, hardness, chemical oxygen demand (COD), nitrates, nitrites, ammonia nitrogen, and total coliforms. There are several advantages to using this system instead of the traditionally used proton exchange membrane (PEM) electrolyzer: a) surface water can be used without pretreatment, b) a membrane is not required for gas separation, c) hydrogen production and surface water treatment can be conducted simultaneously, and d) the reactor can be coupled directly to a solar energy system.
Keywords: hydrogen production; electrocoagulation; paired processes; simultaneous processes; solar energy; surface water.
Special Issue on: ICOM2015 Business, Technology and Sustainable Development in Afro-Asian Economies
Typology of Indian e-buyers: Clustering on the basis of online shopping motives
by Sanjeev Prashar, Tata Sai Vijay, Harvinder Singh, Chandan Parsad
Abstract: The exponential growth in people having access to the Internet has led to the dramatic increase in e-buyers. As in conventional retailing, consumers in the online setting vary in their preferences and choices. Marketers tend to address this diversification by segmenting consumers into homogeneous groups. The objective of this study is to identify and profile the segments on the basis of shoppers online shopping motives. Primary data was collected using a survey questionnaire, administered to online shoppers in India. For identifying clusters of respondents and profiling shoppers, two-step cluster analysis was applied. The findings of the study supported the presence of two unique e-shopper segments. The segments, Indifferent Shoppers and Involved Shoppers, varied considerably in terms of their online shopping motivations. Based on the unique characteristics of the two segments, online retailers must carve different marketing strategies to attract and retain them ensuring optimum allocation of marketing expenses. The findings of this research may be used as guidelines for the development of strategic framework by online retailers.
Keywords: Online shopping; clustering online shoppers; shopping values; web entertainment; cluster analysis.
Role of Psychological Contract between Organizational Commitment and Employee Retention: Findings from Indian Manufacturing Industries
by Rabindra Kumar Pradhan, Lalatendu Kesari Jena, Sajeet Pradhan
Abstract: Gaining awareness, understanding employees values, and the extent to which they are aligned with the organizations overall values, are important for corporate success. A psychological contract evolves as a result of such ongoing interaction between employee and employer. This kind of intangible contract is implicit towards building a sense of community in the team, promoting recognition for commitment and encouraging employees to remain as a part of the organization. It is believed that, more extensive research linking the commitment and retention with the intent of psychological contract among skilled professional may provide further insight in this matter. Employees and executives working with manufacturing industries possess specialized and hard to replace skills. Therefore, understanding the psychological contract and commitment levels may benefit the organizations to retain their valuable talent. The present study was designed to explore the influence of organizational commitment on employee retention in manufacturing organizations of Eastern India. It further investigated the mediating role of psychological capital between organizational commitment and employee retention. A questionnaire survey was conducted on 208 executives randomly selected from Indian manufacturing organizations. Data were analyzed by using structural equation modeling. SEM result revealed that organizational commitment positively influence retention. Further, psychological capital was found to be significantly mediating the relationship between organizational commitment and employee retention. Results were discussed in relation to existing literature. The study suggests that employer and employee should take cognizance of their obligations to each other for enhancing their commitment, retention and satisfaction.
Keywords: Organizational commitment; loyalty; employee retention; organizational policies; psychological contract; India.
Strategic CSR, Reputational Advantage and Financial Performance: A framework and case example
by Praveen Balakrishnan Nair, Ricky Wong Baan Wahh
Abstract: Heightened social and environmental concerns of the civil society have compelled present day managers to deviate away from the traditional viewpoints of business strategizing that merely focuses on shareholder wealth maximisation. While they are primarily tasked with ensuring sound returns on capital and long term economic growth of the firm, the demands of a wider society to be socially and environmentally responsible are exerting enormous pressure on them and cannot be ignored. While many argue that trying to satisfy the divergent stakeholder expectations might cause a dent in the financial performance of the business, the authors portray the case of a company which created added value for the stakeholders by incorporating responsible economic, environmental and social behaviour into organisations strategies. Their proactive moves have helped them to create a reputational advantage in a highly competitive industry and in turn contributed positively to the financial performance by skilfully exploiting the reputational advantage.
Keywords: sustainable business; corporate social responsibility; reputation advantage; financial performance; property development; Malaysia.
Assessment of Supplier Selection for Critical Items in Public organizations of Abu Dhabi
by Alia Alkabi, Matloub Hussain, Mehmood Khan
Abstract: This study is built around supplier selection using the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) method. Main objective of this study is to find out best procurement criteria addressing critical items in government organizations in UAE. The proposal includes a thorough review of the literature on current best practices in procurement and supplier selection focusing on addressing challenges faced by procurement professionals in public organisations during supplier selection. The study will contribute a new practical model for supplier selection based on AHP method; proposed model will employ new proposed stakeholders interest factors in selection and is customized for needs of public organizations working in UAE business environment.
Keywords: Supplier selection; Public Organizations; AHP; UAE.
Macroeconomic factors, entrepreneurial performance and economic growth in emerging markets
by Olga V. Mezentceva, Anna V. Mezentceva
Abstract: Reducing the gap between developed and developing countries in the global economy is still open for discussion. At the same time, there is a lot of research about the relationship and economic growth, but most of it is considered only in advanced countries. This paper examines the macroeconomic factors driving entrepreneurial performance and economic growth in emerging markets. We attempt to reveal what factors in the entrepreneurial environment are most significant in the emerging market
We chose the BRICS countries (Brazil, Russia, India, China, and South Africa) as our object of study for the macroeconomic analysis which allows us to compile global trends. We conducted an empirical analysis of the macroeconomic factors affecting entrepreneurial development and economic growth in the BRICS countries.
We also studied the dynamics of the output gaps in these countries. We found that the BRICS countries are affected by different factors driving entrepreneurial performance and economic growth. Therefore, these countries could exchange the experience, expertise and best practices gained in each country for shaping effective entrepreneurial policy. Thus, research could be used in the development of measures to support small business and entrepreneurship.
Keywords: Entrepreneurship; BRICS; Hodrick-Prescott Filtering; Output Gap; GEM Project; Doing Business Ranking; Global Competitiveness Index; Emerging Markets.