World Review of Science, Technology and Sustainable Development (8 papers in press)
A review of the econometric evidence on innovation policy instruments in Brazil
by Carlos Kawamoto, Paulo Feldmann, James Wright
Abstract: Evaluations of innovation policy instruments have shown a proliferation in growth in the last decade in Brazil ever since the publication of PINTEC, a crucial survey conducted by the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE). The sometimes contradictory results among some studies require the development of a clearer picture of the policy effects of R&D in the country. We focus on the additionality effect of inputs from various government incentives, and survey the related empirical literature dedicated to Brazil. Our results suggest that fiscal incentives for R&D activities provide a more robust additionality effect, in comparison to non-reimbursable subsidies for innovative activities. In addition, the effect occurs more robustly with low and medium technology intensive firms than it does with high technology intensity ones.
Keywords: R&D; research and development; innovation; government incentives; fiscal incentives; reimbursable incentives; innovation policy; policy instruments.
Study of lead and copper accumulation by selected botanical species in urban environment
by DJEDOUX MAXIME ANGAMAN, Y.A.O. SADAIOU SABAS BARIMA, ZAMBLE FIDELE TRA BI, BINI KOUAME DONGUI
Abstract: The aim of this study is to quantify lead and copper concentrations deposited on plant species exposed in different habitats of Abidjan in order to assess air quality of Abidjan. Five species were used Barleria prionitis, Cassia surattensis, Duranta repens, Ficus benjamina, Jatropha interrigima and exposed in Parks, Main Roads, Industrial and Residential zones.
Leaf samples were collected and the concentrations of copper and lead were carried out by Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Roads generally showed high levels of copper and lead and the highest values reached 13 mg.g-1 and 7.5 mg.g-1 respectively. While the lowest were found in Parks with the values 2 mg.g-1 for Cu and 0.5 mg.g-1 for Pb. These results suggest that the major source of pollution were car exhaust. However, C.surattensis at roadsides showed the highest deposition of Cu and Pb. A significant positive correlation between lead and copper concentration in three leaves species, Cassia surrattensis (r = 0.974; p = 0.0043), Duranta repens (r = 0.824; p = 0.0057) and Jatropha interrigima (r = 0927; p = 0.00001) were found.
Keywords: Lead and copper contents; air pollution; plant leaves; ICP-MS.
Crop Farmers Understanding of Climate Change and Adaptation Practices in South-east Nigeria
by Robert Onyeneke, Chinenye Mmagu, Jonathan Aligbe
Abstract: This paper investigated crop farmers perception and adaptation practices to climate change in South-east Nigeria based on climatic data from a meteorological station and information from a review of 30 published studies about practices that boost farmers resilience or reduce their vulnerability to observed or expected changes in climate. Data collected from meteorological station were subjected to trend analysis, while farmers perception on climate change and adaptation were subjected to detailed literature review. Results confirmed the evidence of climate change in the area and that the farmers noticed the change. The review revealed that crop farmers in South-east Nigeria are already using a wide range of creative practices to deal with climate risks; these can be further adjusted to the challenge of climate change by planned adaptation programs. We found 41 different practices relevant to climate change adaptation and organised them in five categories: farm management and technology; farm financial management; diversification; mobility and social networks; and knowledge management and regulations. We concluded that adaptation policies should complement farmers autonomous response to climate change through crop improvement and cropland management, provision of financial services, investments in local knowledge and social networks, and implementation of policies to enhance good local governance and livelihood diversification.
Keywords: Climate change; perception; adaptation; trend analysis; crop farmers; South-east Nigeria.
SIMULTANEOUS ELECTROCOAGULATION OF DAM WATER AND PRODUCTION OF HYDROGEN
by Arturo Bailon, Thelma Pavón-Silva, Jorge Ibanez, Gabriela Roa-Morales
Abstract: The aim of this project was to design, build, and test a novel electrolyzer for the simultaneous electrocoagulation of dam surface water and production of hydrogen. Costs were reduced by using stainless steel (SS) and aluminum (Al) electrodes. However, operating the electrolyzer with SS as the anodic material and Al as the cathodic material released up to 5.2 mg/L of chromium into the treated water. To prevent chromium release the SS anode was replaced with an Al anode, which yielded an average hydrogen production efficiency of 35.3% and an average hydrogen purity of 92.6%. In a novel scheme, the reactor simultaneously produced cathodic hydrogen and electrocoagulated surface water, which removed color, turbidity, hardness, chemical oxygen demand (COD), nitrates, nitrites, ammonia nitrogen, and total coliforms. There are several advantages to using this system instead of the traditionally used proton exchange membrane (PEM) electrolyzer: a) surface water can be used without pretreatment, b) a membrane is not required for gas separation, c) hydrogen production and surface water treatment can be conducted simultaneously, and d) the reactor can be coupled directly to a solar energy system.
Keywords: hydrogen production; electrocoagulation; paired processes; simultaneous processes; solar energy; surface water.
Sustainability improvement in cacao supply chain agroindustry
by Iphov Kumala Sriwana, Yandra Arkeman, Dahrul Syah, Marimin
Abstract: One of the problems in the cocoa agro-industry supply chain is the low income of farmers, causing the land conversion which leads to its sustainability. The purpose of this study was to improve the critical attributes of each sustainability dimension which causes continuous decrease. The methods used were Multidimensional Scaling (MDS), Interpretive Structural Modeling (ISM) to describe the attributes connection, SWOT matrix strategy and the House Model to design the institutional model. The results showed that the sustainability index was 43.07% (less sustainable). The sustainability improvement proposed were the efficient use of fertilizers and pesticides, the usage of waste for fertilizer also for other income and institutional design. The efficiency achieved was 709 Indonesian rupiah (IDR) per kg of fertilized and 60 IDR per kg of pesticides. Institutional designed in this study was able to facilitate the fulfillment of knowledge and financial requirement of facilities and infrastructure for cocoa processing from plantations up to post-harvest.
Keywords: Multidimensional Scaling; MDS; Interpretive Structural Modeling; ISM; SWOT analysis.
Performance and Determinants of Adoption of Improved Cook-stoves in Farming Communities in Benue and Kaduna States of Nigeria
by Robert Onyeneke, Chinedum Nwajiuba, Chinenye Mmagu, Jonathan Aligbe, Christiana Igberi
Abstract: The study analyses the performance and determinants of adoption of improved cook-stoves (ICS) in Benue and Kaduna States of Nigeria. Cross-sectional data obtained from 440 households (ICS users and non-users) using questionnaire and subjected to statistical analysis indicate that the fuel-wood used and time spent in boiling 6 litres of water through Save80 and Greenwatch cook-stoves were less compared to the open fire. Save80 cook-stove released less carbon monoxide than the Greenwatch cook-stove and open fire. Income, contact with Save80 disseminator agents, mass media exposure, and knowledge of the benefits of the cook-stove significantly influenced the adoption of Save80 while age, gender, household size, and contact with Greenwatch Initiative agents significantly determined the adoption of Greenwatch cook-stove. Therefore, there is need to increase awareness of the benefits of using improved cook-stoves through mass media by the promoters of the stoves.
Keywords: Adoption; socioeconomic determinants; improved cook-stove; water boiling time; fuel-wood consumption; carbon monoxide emission; Benue and Kaduna States; Nigeria.
An Analysis of South Carolina Fish Kills in Relation to Human Population Density and Measures of Water Quality.
by Jesse McWilliams
Abstract: This correlational analysis attempts to describe the relationships between fish kill reports, measures of water quality, biological indicators, atmospheric variations, agricultural activities, and human population variables within the state of South Carolina. Generally, agricultural activities are negatively correlated with the frequency of fish kill events. Biochemical oxygen demand, pH, and conductivity are correlated with both the frequency of fish kills and human population variables. Similarly, conductivity, pH, and decreases of dissolved oxygen are correlated with the frequency of fish kills and temperature changes. No correlation is observed between anthropogenic nutrient disruptions and fish kill incidents. However, when nitrogen and phosphorous levels are compared to reference standards, it is evident that the failure to correlate these variables with fish kills is likely related to the wide distribution of eutrophic conditions. Property managers in the area are advised to consult with available resources to mitigate or prevent these conditions.
Keywords: Agricultural Impacts; Aquatic Habitats; Biochemical Oxygen Demand; Environmental Correlations; Eutrophication; Fish Kill; Human Population Density; Hypoxia; South Carolina; Water Quality.
Assessing the Effectiveness of a Corporate Environmental Education Program for Primary Aluminum Industry Workers in Brazil
by Lenia Vieira
Abstract: The material of this research was developed from a study done in a production unit, denominated Reduction III, of a primary aluminum industry, in the city of Ouro Preto, situated in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The exploratory study evaluated the influence that environmental training could exercise in controlling the pollution caused by the enterprise. The purpose of the project being that of training the workers of this unit, in a short time, on the subject of Environmental Protection. The pro-environmental training, in practice, benefits the technological measurement of pollution control in that aluminum plant. The methodological approach employed was a case study, with the registered data and documentation, of a specific project in furnace rooms 3 and 4 of Reduction III. After the Environmental Training Program, there was a definitive positive alteration in the environmental performance indicator graph, called open-door-time of the furnaces. It showed more coherent figures. Although the ideal daily open-door-target time of 40 minutes was not achieved, the graph showed figures which closely approximated this ideal time. If there are continued investments in this Environmental Education Program, the ideal target time is sure to be reached.
Keywords: Corporate Environmental Education; Environmental Performance Indicator; Environmental Management.