World Review of Science, Technology and Sustainable Development (13 papers in press)
Crop Farmers Understanding of Climate Change and Adaptation Practices in South-east Nigeria
by Robert Onyeneke, Chinenye Mmagu, Jonathan Aligbe
Abstract: This paper investigated crop farmers perception and adaptation practices to climate change in South-east Nigeria based on climatic data from a meteorological station and information from a review of 30 published studies about practices that boost farmers resilience or reduce their vulnerability to observed or expected changes in climate. Data collected from meteorological station were subjected to trend analysis, while farmers perception on climate change and adaptation were subjected to detailed literature review. Results confirmed the evidence of climate change in the area and that the farmers noticed the change. The review revealed that crop farmers in South-east Nigeria are already using a wide range of creative practices to deal with climate risks; these can be further adjusted to the challenge of climate change by planned adaptation programs. We found 41 different practices relevant to climate change adaptation and organised them in five categories: farm management and technology; farm financial management; diversification; mobility and social networks; and knowledge management and regulations. We concluded that adaptation policies should complement farmers autonomous response to climate change through crop improvement and cropland management, provision of financial services, investments in local knowledge and social networks, and implementation of policies to enhance good local governance and livelihood diversification.
Keywords: Climate change; perception; adaptation; trend analysis; crop farmers; South-east Nigeria.
An Analysis of South Carolina Fish Kills in Relation to Human Population Density and Measures of Water Quality.
by Jesse McWilliams
Abstract: This correlational analysis attempts to describe the relationships between fish kill reports, measures of water quality, biological indicators, atmospheric variations, agricultural activities, and human population variables within the state of South Carolina. Generally, agricultural activities are negatively correlated with the frequency of fish kill events. Biochemical oxygen demand, pH, and conductivity are correlated with both the frequency of fish kills and human population variables. Similarly, conductivity, pH, and decreases of dissolved oxygen are correlated with the frequency of fish kills and temperature changes. No correlation is observed between anthropogenic nutrient disruptions and fish kill incidents. However, when nitrogen and phosphorous levels are compared to reference standards, it is evident that the failure to correlate these variables with fish kills is likely related to the wide distribution of eutrophic conditions. Property managers in the area are advised to consult with available resources to mitigate or prevent these conditions.
Keywords: Agricultural Impacts; Aquatic Habitats; Biochemical Oxygen Demand; Environmental Correlations; Eutrophication; Fish Kill; Human Population Density; Hypoxia; South Carolina; Water Quality.
Assessing the Effectiveness of a Corporate Environmental Education Program for Primary Aluminum Industry Workers in Brazil
by Lenia Vieira
Abstract: The material of this research was developed from a study done in a production unit, denominated Reduction III, of a primary aluminum industry, in the city of Ouro Preto, situated in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The exploratory study evaluated the influence that environmental training could exercise in controlling the pollution caused by the enterprise. The purpose of the project being that of training the workers of this unit, in a short time, on the subject of Environmental Protection. The pro-environmental training, in practice, benefits the technological measurement of pollution control in that aluminum plant. The methodological approach employed was a case study, with the registered data and documentation, of a specific project in furnace rooms 3 and 4 of Reduction III. After the Environmental Training Program, there was a definitive positive alteration in the environmental performance indicator graph, called open-door-time of the furnaces. It showed more coherent figures. Although the ideal daily open-door-target time of 40 minutes was not achieved, the graph showed figures which closely approximated this ideal time. If there are continued investments in this Environmental Education Program, the ideal target time is sure to be reached.
Keywords: Corporate Environmental Education; Environmental Performance Indicator; Environmental Management.
Strategies for Enhancing Strategic Project Management in Public Research Projects: Case Nigeria
by Charity Ugonna, Edward Ochieng, Wilfred Matipa, Raj Shah
Abstract: The study examined barriers and key criteria for enhancing strategic project management application in the execution of research and development (R and D) projects in Nigerian public research organisations. Given the economic and social challenge in R and D projects, a multi-methodology consisting of quantitative and qualitative analysis was employed. A total of 213 questionnaires were used and twenty senior practitioners interviewed. The findings revealed that organisational culture such as employees behaviour, civil service procedures, operational routines and lack of knowledge in strategic project management (SPM), organisations routines were the significant barriers to the application of SPM. Strategies for addressing the barriers and enhancing SPM application were identified to include: proper definition of projects, use of project team approach, stakeholders involvement enhanced, using the problem-driven-approach to select projects and employees motivation.
Keywords: Strategic project management; Project management; Organisational culture; Research and development projects; Public research organisation.
Essential Strategy for Urban Seasonal-River Restoration
by Mohammad Ebrahim Banihabib, Farimah Sadat Jamali
Abstract: Pursuing the recent global movement and due to positive environmental effects, many urban rivers are being restored, while debris flow may occur in seasonal-rivers of cities in arid regions. Therefore, as a part of river restoration studies, the impacts of debris flow on an urban seasonal-river (Vardavard River, Tehran) were analysed based on field investigations and hydrologic, hydraulic and sediment analyses. The results show that high-concentration of sediments in debris flow increases peak flow and hydraulic roughness, resulting in a river flooding. The steep slope of the river basin increases the debris flow peak up to 1.2 times more than an ordinary flood peak with similar return period. Hence, designing a slit dam before the river enters the city is suggested as an essential strategy to control debris flow and improve safety conditions of downstream urban areas. The proposed approach, along with enforced watershed management schemes, can be used as a measure to restore other urban seasonal-rivers and to prevent probable debris flow in arid regions.
Keywords: urban seasonal-river; safety; debris flow; arid region; slit dam; detention dam; flood control.
Strategic planning of human settlement development of Qeshm Island by using SWOT model
by Morteza Zarei, Mojtaba Zakeri
Abstract: Considering the significance of implementation of Integrated Coastal Zone Management, the evaluation of human settlements development, as one of the development use in sensitive coastal areas, can be seen as the base of strategic planning and appropriate management. The aim of this study is to investigate strategic planning of human settlements development in Qeshm Island using SWOT analytical model and proposing the developments in the future horizons. In this study, firstly, the environment's internal strategic factors (strengths and weaknesses) and external factors (opportunities and threats) were identified. Then, SWOT and QSPM matrix were used to evaluate and prioritize these factors, as well as to develop several proposed strategies. In this study, the proposed model adopted in Qeshm Island which is a resort island located in the Persian Gulf in Hormozgan Province of Iran. The results showed that the most effective strategies to optimal development of the human settlements use of coastal areas of Qeshm Island include: strategies of deployment of Integrated Coastal Zone Management Plan to prevent the destruction of sensitive coastal areas as a result of unsystematically and reckless development of commercial and residential centers, creating an entity related to urban issues in order to empower and organize informal settlements and appropriate planning to solve the problem of these settlements, cultural fit with the local community and the use of public participation power in urban planning and management, providing safe residence and recognizing the right of residence to create a sense of ownership for rehabilitating homes.
Keywords: human settlements; strategy; Qesham Island; SWOT.
Special Issue on: Energy Aspects of Tribology for Sustainable Development
Enhanced Tribological properties of Aluminium using Laser-assisted Tungsten coating
by Anurag Roy, Akshat Sharma, Aman Gupta, Vijay Meena, A.P. Harsha
Abstract: Aluminium (Al) suffers from poor wear and scratch resistance and also low surface hardness. To overcome this, the authors fabricated a ~200
Keywords: Laser Surface Alloying ; Material Characterization ; Wear Resistance ; Scratch Hardness ; Scanning Electron Microscopy(SEM) ; X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) ; Intermetallics ; Micro-coatings ;.
Tribological and mechanical properties of PM Fe-Cu-Sn alloy containing graphite as a solid lubricant
by Shuhaib Mushatq, M.F. Wani, S.Shahid Saleem, Mohammad Junaid Mir
Abstract: The mechanical and tribological properties of Fe-Cu-Sn alloy containing graphite as a solid lubricant were investigated. An attempt is made to develop graphite added Fe-Cu-Sn alloy using simple single stage compaction and sintering elemental powders. The influence of varying compositions of graphite on the mechanical and tribological properties of the sintered alloys was studied. The tribological behaviours of sintered alloys sliding against EN8 steel ball under dry sliding conditions were studied using a ball-on-disk tribometer. The composition containing 3wt% graphite shows better mechanical properties because due to the formation of Cu-Sn, Fe-Cu, and Fe-Sn compounds in large amounts at high sintering temperature. The friction coefficient of Fe-Cu-Sn alloy decreases with increase in sliding distance, upto 60% from 0wt% to 3wt% of graphite content. Higher amount of graphite content is found to be beneficial in improving wear resistance. The wear mechanism of Fe-Cu-Sn alloy containing 0wt% of graphite is adhesive wear and abrasive wear. However, the wear mechanism of Fe-Cu-Sn alloy containing 3wt% of graphite is mildly abrasive wear.
Keywords: Fe-Cu-Sn alloy; solid Lubricant; powder metallurgy; coefficient of friction; wear rate.
Special Issue on: Impact of Technology on Societal Sustainable Development
A Literature survey of LFC in a Deregulated Electricity Environment
by Deva Brinda M, Suresh A, Rashmi M R
Abstract: This paper deals with an exhaustive literature survey on load frequency control for an deregulated electricity environment for different market scenarios based on different designs like thermal, hydro, wind, diesel, and hybrid power systems conventional methods such as I, PI,PID controllers, robust control methods, intelligent control methods for also for different types of tielines AC-DC, with inclusion of FACTS devices. The control strategies is based on NERC standards to reduce wear and tear to overcome the situations like sudden load changes and uncertainties to keep the system frequency and tie line power within prescribed limits.
Keywords: Load Frequency Control; integral controller Proportional Integral (PI) Controller; Proportional Integral Derivative (PID) Controller,Intelligent Control methods,robust control methods,FACTS devices,NERC Standards,Deregulated electricity enironment.
A fast approach to encrypt and decrypt of video streams for secure channel transmission
by Farooq Sunar Mahammad, Madhu Viswantham V
Abstract: The information transmission methods have been incredibly affected by the expanded prevalence of multimedia applications. Communication system are vulnerable to meddlers and accordingly should be ensured. Tragically the calculations proposed till now apply encryption and decoding on the whole video stream that are computationally exorbitant and moderate. Hence, numerous encryption methods have been recommended that influence just part of the video stream. Consequently this paper proposes a light weight encryption method in which it scramble resulting edges of the video rather than the whole video. To enhance the time multifaceted nature of the current framework, parallel rendition of the current approach is being proposed in this paper in which every square of picture casings of the video are scrambled in parallel by creating confirmation flag utilizing Shamir Secret Sharing plan
Keywords: Shamir Secret Sharing; alpha channel; video frames; grayscale image; video encryption; authentication signal; stego-image Introduction.
Secure Medical Data Transmission by using Collaborative Neighbor Based Method in WBAN
by Devi L, S.P. Shantharajah
Abstract: Wireless Body Area Network or Body Area Sensor Network is wearable device in human body. It is a medical device to transmit data in online used in healthcare industry. Transmitting the data from sensor node to destination is proved when introducing the best technique. However, WBAN has faced many security issues and challenges when transmitting the data. Existing ECC secure key distribution methods are implemented, using this method the time is consumed, efficiency and security of data was discussed. Elliptic Curve Cryptography scheme implements for secure key distribution and data exchange. The proposed method is used that is collaborative neighbor based method .Overall the proposed method proves a better security in the health care devices. Collaborative Neighbor Selection and time taken on packet forwarding from one point to another to identify the presence data being appended in the framework. With the application of Time-efficient Sink Detection algorithm, the occurrence of time event on packet forwarding helps to improve packet transmission. The proposed framework includes enhancement to security and efficiency by forwarding the node information and performing the verification procedure based on the received packet to filter the false data. We also demonstrate how the proposed framework can be extended to send data in the sensor network using Associative Filtering scheme. Extensive experiments and simulation results indicate that, in terms of bandwidth efficiency, packet transmission, network security and processing time, performs favorably compared to existing ECC mechanisms in Wireless Body Area sensor network.
Keywords: ECC; Filtering data; key distribution.
VEERBENCH - AN INTELLIGENT COMPUTING FRAMEWORK FOR WORKLOAD CHARACETIZATION IN MULTI CORE HETROGENEOUS ARCHITECTURES
by Yokesh Babu Sundaresan, Saleem Durai M A
Abstract: Multi-Core heterogeneous architectures are playing the important role in server, mobile and all commercial devices. With the advent of Internet of Things in todays applications and increase in the workloads inputs, predictive simulating and computing tools are mandatory for the effective implementation of the Multi Core heterogeneous architectures for the different applications. Many tools such as MacPACT, ESEC has been into existence but an intelligent computing framework tool for the predictive selection of the cores depending on the workloads remains in the darker side of the research. Hence the new computing framework called VEERBENCH has been proposed which works on the Learning and Training mechanisms for the usage of the cores in the heterogeneous architectures depending on the workloads. The Framework uses the Fuzzy Clustering with the Extreme Learning Machines and Formulation of Adaptive and Cognitive Energy (FACE) Rule Sets which are used for the energy and performance based allocation of the cores. VEERBENCH is the simulating test bench which aims for the exploration and visualization of the design space of heterogeneous architectures in terms of energy and performance usage metrics. The proposed knowledge based test bench has been compared with the other tools such as MACPACT, ESEC and with the other energy based scheduler benchmarks and the obtained results are shown.
Keywords: VEERBENCH; Extreme Learning Machines; FACE; MacPACT; ESEC; Internet of Things.
A comprehensive review on thin film based Nano-biosensor for uric acid determination: Arthritis diagnosis
by Parthasarathy Panchatchram, Vivekanandan S
Abstract: This article aims to provide a survey on the development of thin film based nano-biosensor over the decade, which includes sensing principles, electrode types and various thin film matrices. The theoretical and experimental results suggest that the thin film based sensor are suitable for highly sensitive detection of low concentration bio molecules and can be used for early diagnosis and screening of arthritis, kidney diseases and other cardiovascular diseases. This review concludes that enzyme immobilization and surface functionalization methods were used to increase sensitivity of the biosensor and new combination of polymer nano-composites with metal oxide thin films results in increased efficiency due to its high biocompatibility.
Keywords: Uric acid; immobilization; enzymes; bio-compatibility; thin films; nano-materials.