World Review of Science, Technology and Sustainable Development (13 papers in press)
Microbiological leaching of metals and its recovery from Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment: A Review
by Mohan Annamalai, Kalaichelvan Gurumurthy
Abstract: Electronic waste or Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) is an emerging and fast-growing waste stream with complex characteristics. As per United Nations Global E-waste monitor report, 2015, the global quantity of total E-waste generated in 2014 was around 41.8 million metric tonnes (MT). The presence of metals like Copper, Aluminium, Iron and various precious metals like Gold, Silver, Palladium, Platinum, etc., in high concentrations, made E-waste an Urban mine. Bioleaching is one of the successful biohydrometallurgical method, which can be employed for metal recovery from different WEEEs. Recovery of precious metals like Copper, Gold, and Silver are possible in high concentrations from WEEEs using acidophilic mesophiles and thermophiles and some fungal species. The current paper mainly aims to review on E-waste generation, mechanisms of bioleaching and various microorganisms employed for the extraction of metals from the electronic waste.
Keywords: Electronic waste; metals; urban mine; biohydrometallurgy; bioleaching; acidolysis; oxidation; reduction; acidophilic bacteria; fungi.
A Retrospective Study on Green ICT Deployment for Ecological Protection Pedagogy: Insights from Field Survey
by Bokolo Anthony
Abstract: This research examines Green Information Communication Technology (ICT) deployment for ecological protection in industries, by developing a research model. Accordingly, survey was employed targeting practitioners in industries and analysed using Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS). Results from regression analysis reveal that the identified variables significantly influence Green ICT deployment which improves ecological protection in industries. Moreover, results from multiple regression moderating analysis indicate that the age of practitioners influence their intention towards deploying Green ICT practice. Conversely, the gender, education and years of experience do not have any effects on practitioners intention to deploy Green ICT practice. Furthermore, results from partial correlation analysis suggest that annual revenue of the industry influence Green ICT deployment, whereas sector the industry belong to does not influence Green ICT deployment. Respectively, findings from this study have implications that provide a roadmap for industries to include ecological related pedagogy in their industrial process.
Keywords: Sustainable development; Ecological protection; Green ICT deployment; Ecological pedagogy; Practitioners in industries; Survey.
Modelling the Sustainable Development Goals for India An Interpretive Structural Modelling Approach
by Syed Hameedur Rahman Zaini, Asif Akhtar
Abstract: In its resolve for a sustainable future, the UN has adopted 17 ambitious goals known as the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) which aim to wipe out poverty, fight inequality and tackle climate change over the next 15 years. The key challenge is how to concentrate efforts to effectively implement and achieve the SDGs by 2030. This paper aims to assess the importance of different SDGs from the perspective of India. It also aims to develop a hierarchical model for the adoption of the SDGs by India, for which the Interpretive Structural Modelling (ISM) approach is used. ISM is a methodology for identifying and establishing relationships among the identified variables. The study variables comprise the 17 SDGs which are found to have a direct relatedness to common sustainability targets like poverty eradication, hunger elimination, reduced inequality, etc. These variables have also been mapped on driving power-dependence diagram and categorized accordingly.
Keywords: Sustainable Development Goals; SDGs; Millennium Development Goals; MDGs; Interpretive Structural Modelling; ISM; MICMAC Analysis; Driving Power; Dependence; India.
THE SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT GOALS AND 1.5
by Raquel De Paiva Seroa Da Motta
Abstract: This article reviews the implications of reaching the United Nations 2030 Agenda, consisting of 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), and making it easier or harder to accomplish the Paris Agreements overarching ambition: limiting the global surface average temperature (SAT) to 1.5
Keywords: 1.5°C; 2030 agenda; Adaptation; Climate; Climate Change; Efforts; GHG; Interactions; Mitigation; Paris Agreement; Resilience; Sustainable Development; Sustainable development goals; SDGs; SAT.
Do environmental performance and disclosure bring financial outcome? Evidence from Indonesia
by Devie Devie, Jessica Kamandanu, Josua Tarigan, Saarce Elsye Hatane
Abstract: In some developing countries such as Indonesia, there is a lack of regulatory controls in social responsibility performance and disclosure. Therefore, this paper is conducted to study the level of social responsibility performance and disclosure. As well as to investigate the relationship of environmental performance with a financial outcome, using environmental disclosure as the mediation variable. A firms environmental action is measured by both the extent of environmental management in their operations, which is the environmental performance with PROPER score as the indicator, and the level of environmental information they disclose in their reports, which is environmental disclosure measured with disclosure index according to GRI index. While the financial outcome is evaluated using both short and long-term measures, with profitability and firm value. Results show that 3 out of 6 hypotheses presented in this paper are accepted. Furthermore, it indicates that firms financial outcome is significantly affected by their environmental action (PROPER score and GRI Index). However, the findings also indicate that both environmental disclosure and profitability together are able to mediate the relationship between environmental performances and firms. The findings suggest that, in general, the majority of firms need to follow the GRI guidelines for reporting environmental information, therefore the investors should consider this information when making investment decisions.
Keywords: Environmental performance; environmental disclosure; profitability; firm value; PROPER; GRI index.
Circular Economy: waste-to-wealth, jobs creation, and innovation in the global south
by Katie Conlon, Randika Jayasinghe, Ranahansa Dasanayake
Abstract: Circular Economy [CE] is predominantly framed as a means for circulating material streams within the technosphere as economically as possible, for as long as possible, in both applications of theory and practice. Arising from requirements for regulatory compliance, some global north industries have ventured into CE, and now this model is making headway in all industrial sectors. Whereas, in the global south, CE has been conceptualized as a mechanism for keeping materials out of the waste streams otherwise destined to reach landfills, waterways etc. Characteristic haphazard waste management is a serious socio-environmental issue in Sri Lanka. As a result, CE is promoted as a sustainable strategy that drives the waste-to-wealth initiative with a rational to creating jobs while diverting waste from the landfills. To that end, the case for industries and civic society to transit to a more sustainable economy is officially recognized, where waste is reduced or eliminated through, for example, development of new business models, eco-designs, and sustainable consumption and production strategies. In tandem, partnerships between local universities, not-for-profit organizations, and social enterprise groups have initiated several community-based projects across the country since 2009, targeting waste streams including household, industrial, and agricultural waste. Presented herein are the lessons learned from the CE-based waste-to-wealth projects in Sri Lanka with an emphasis on the cultural, economic, and structural roadblocks faced by the micro-social entrepreneurs in this field.
Keywords: Circular economy; plastic waste; global south; waste prevention and management; upcycling; Sri Lanka; waste-to-wealth; bottom-up circular economy; micro-social entrepreneurs; green jobsrnrn.
END OF FOSSIL FUEL ECONOMY: WEATHERING THE STORM OF TRANSITION TO POST-FOSSIL SOCIETY IN NIGERIA
by Austine Sadiq Okoh
Abstract: Nigerian economy built on petroleum faces a carbon catch-22 as profound economic shocks will unfold when the hydrocarbon boom winds down. Exit from fossil fuels in the proliferation of Electric Vehicles will impede vision 20: 2020 and Economic Recovery and Growth Plan (ERGP). Despite this, there is no concrete Fossil Fuel Exit Strategy (FES) to surmount the gathering storm when the petroleum bubble burst. Using quantitative data derived from Nigerias Energy Calculator (NECAL2050), this study examines other alternatives they could adapt while ensuring developmental objectives are met. The study finds that power generation would still be more reliant on fossil fuels due to its cost effectiveness in the advent of FES imposed availability, lack of a Clean Growth Plan strategy together with hotchpotch policies on diversification could derail exit from fossil fuels. The study is the view that holistic smart energy system; large-scale biomass production targeted at feedstock exports, improvements in agriculture, massive renewable energy generation in wind, solar, hydropower and increased off-grid power generation would reinvigorate the economy in the post-carbon era. The study concludes that large-scale bamboo cultivation can provide energy and generate additional income with the private sector providing new investments in other renewables capable of leveraging enormous natural resources to generate revenue.
Keywords: Low-carbon growth; Oil age; Bamboo; Fossil-fuel exit; Post-petroleum society.
A STRUCTURAL IMPACT ANALYSIS OF THE FASHION SYSTEM WITH REGARDS TO TEXTILE RECYCLING
by Sabine Weber
Abstract: The current fashion system is a linear economy predicated on buy, use, and disposal. For instance, only three percent of the unwanted textiles in the U.S. are being recycled and turned into new fibres. This leads to high amounts of textile waste on the one side and fibre shortage on the other side. Overcoming this global fibre gap will require making the fashion system circular and increasing fibre recycling. This sounds simple but is difficult to achieve because the fashion industry is a complex system determined by numerous interrelated factors. This chapter argues that municipalities, which are responsible for textile diversion, and the textile recycling sector must be seen as part of the fashion system. Changing the fashion system towards circularity requires technical innovation for textile recycling, but this is not enough. Although all textiles can be recycled in some way, in North America the current rate for textiles being diverted from the waste stream and being recycled is about 7.5 percent. To achieve a large-scale system transformation and make the fashion system circular other factors such as markets, price for reclaimed fibres, municipalities, or infrastructure and their relationships to each other must support textile recycling. This chapter conducts a structural analysis to study the direct and indirect influences between the factors, by using a systematic approach based on MICMAC (Impact Matrix Cross-Reference Multiplication Applied to a Classification) analysis. The results reduce systemic complexity by defining the most influential factors of the system. The study concludes that government policies should create market incentives to foster a circular economy in the textile system. This chapter leads to a better understanding of the organization and the structure of the fashion system, its key factors and how textile recycling can be increased. This is an important step to achieve circularity in the fashion industry.
Keywords: Fashion system; circular economy; textile waste; green technology; textile diversion; textile recycling; reclaimed fibres; closed loop; structural analysis; direct and indirect influences; MICMAC analysis.
Involving stakeholders in the development of a dietary adoption concept: What can we learn from open innovation?
by Leonie Fink, Angelika Ploeger, Carola Strassner
Abstract: Part of the transformation to sustainable food systems is to increase the adoption rate of sustainable diets ideally by choice. At the same time evidence in the field of behaviour science shows that people have trouble translating their intentions into actual behaviour. This phenomenon, known as the intention-behaviour gap, is based on a number of barriers that influence actual behaviour. In search of an appropriate methodology to develop a dietary adoption concept supporting peoples diet adoption processes, we examined the concept and especially the methods of open innovation, commonly applied in modern product and service development. This paper is about what we can learn or even transfer from open innovation to develop a dietary adoption concept. We reveal how the methods of open innovation can be usefully applied, such as integrating lead-users in the development process to let them find solutions to bridge the intention-behaviour gap.
Keywords: consumer involvement; sustainable diets; intention-behaviour gap; open innovation.
Impact of leadership style on sustainable innovation
by Stefane Kabene, Said Baadel, Rafik Attou
Abstract: In a rapidly changing environment, innovation is essential in maintaining long-term survival of public and private organizations. What influences survivability in a fast-paced, changing world? The following paper used quantitative research with the aim of understanding the impact of global innovation index variables have on innovation in 64 countries. Single regression analysis was used to find correlations between Global Innovation Index (II) and Government Effectiveness Index (GEI), Gender Inequality Index (GII), Cultural Diversity Index (CDI), Average Secondary Educational Level (AVSEL), Happiness Index (HI), and Glass Ceiling Index (GCI) to understand how the above variables affected and influence innovation in studied countries. This present study suggests that countries or organizations that are of the transformational leadership nature incur higher levels of innovation. Research findings illustrate that innovation is significantly correlated to Government Effectiveness, whereby the level of internal effectiveness in government structures influence other variables (GII, HI, AVSEL, and CDI). Our study provides a concise explanation of the intricate relationship between transformational leadership and its impacts on innovative, modernized organizational culture, trickling down the hierarchal pyramid to both public and private sectors. This research will benefit the business community, governments, and different stakeholders to understanding what variables and leadership types are most effective and associative with innovation.
Keywords: Cultural diversity; glass ceiling index; government effectiveness index; happiness index; transformational leadership.
Analyzing the influence of supply chain risk on supply chain sustainability using structural equation modeling - with a case study in the home appliance industry
by Arash Shahin, Angappa Gunasekaran, Sima Ebrahimi
Abstract: The aim of this article is to analyze the influence of supply chain risk on supply chain sustainability. Entekhab Industrial Group (EIG) has been considered for case study as the most famous home appliance producer of Iran. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data from the senior and middle managers of EIG. Data analysis was done using partial least square structural equation modelling. Findings indicate that supply chain risk has significant influence on supply chain sustainability. Other relationships among latent variables which generally relate nine dimensions to two major variables of supply chain risk and supply chain sustainability are found significant indicating appropriate explanation of major variables by the dimensions.
Keywords: Supply Chain Management; Risk; Sustainability; Structural Equation Modelling; Entekhab Industrial Group.
Special Issue on: ICESW2017 Trend in Engineering for Sustainable World
Study of properties of hot and cold rolled Al 8015 alloy processed by sustainable reversible rolling mill
by Olayinka Olaogun, Esther Akinlabi, Leke Oluwole
Abstract: Reversible rolling mill has proven to be a technology that is sustainable because it reveals applications in many industries throughout the globe. Aluminium rolling involves two stages;- hot rolling and cold rolling. Producers of cold-rolled aluminium products are continually seeking to maintain and improve product quality majorly by decreasing tolerances in thickness and flatness and improved surface quality. The Al 8015 alloy utilize in this study has a wide range of applications and is manufactured by continuous cast method been hot rolled into plates before subjecting to cold rolling in order to improve the properties. This study is aimed at investigating microstructure and mechanical properties of Al 8015 when hot rolled, and cold rolled. The plates were initially 7 mm thick, annealed at room temperature and fed into the 4-high reversible cold rolling mill to reduce the thickness to 1.2 mm. Material characterization tests were performed on the hot rolled, and cold rolled sheets, the changes in the mechanical properties (hardness, ultimate tensile strength, and the yield strength), as well as microstructural evolution, were investigated. The microstructure was investigated by optical and scanning electron microscopy. The findings revealed that the microstructure of the hot rolled Al 8015 in the rolling direction (longitudinal section) shows equiaxed grain structure nearly thrice the size of the larger equiaxed grain structure observed from the cold rolled sample. Moreover, in the transverse section of the rolling direction, higher degree of grain compaction was observed in the cold rolled sample compared to the hot rolled sample. Consequently, the hardness, 0.2% offset yield strength and ultimate tensile strength increased in the cold rolled sample compared to the hot rolled sample. Conclusively, the reversing cold rolled Al 8015 will be better used for commercial applications that requires minimal ductility compared to the hot rolled Al 8015.
Keywords: Al 8015 alloy; cold rolled; hot rolled; rolling direction; reversible rolling mill.
APPLICATION OF SOLAR PHOTOVOLTAIC SYSTEM TO POWER AIR BLOWER AND MIXING MECHANISM IN A TILTING FURNACE
by Philip Olufemi Babalola, Christian Amechi Bolu, Anthony Omieraokholen Inegbenebor, Sunday Olayinka Oyedepo, Gideon Adeyemi
Abstract: Gas and oil-fired furnaces require air blower and stirring mechanism to produce homogeneous metal matrix, alloyed metals and metallic composites. Both the blower and the stirrer require electric power that is not reliable in some urban areas and non-available in some rural communities in sub-Saharan countries. In this paper, a 20kg oil-fired tilting furnace for melting iron, gold, aluminium, lead, magnesium, copper, tin et cetera and also used to produce metal matrix composites through liquid metallurgy routes, is designed for off-grid locations. Photovoltaic system specification of 250W solar panel, 20A charge controller, 300AH deep cycle battery and 1400W inverter were used to provide electric power to the air blower and mixing motor of the tilting furnace. With this arrangement, this versatile tilting furnace could be used in cottage industry without electric mains by small and medium-scale enterprises (SMEs), thus reducing unemployment among the populace and reduction of emission products into the atmosphere.
Keywords: Renewable energy; Solar photovoltaic; Tilting furnace; Aluminium; SMEs; MMC.