World Review of Science, Technology and Sustainable Development (7 papers in press)
Microbiological leaching of metals and its recovery from Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment: A Review
by Mohan Annamalai, Kalaichelvan Gurumurthy
Abstract: Electronic waste or Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) is an emerging and fast-growing waste stream with complex characteristics. As per United Nations Global E-waste monitor report, 2015, the global quantity of total E-waste generated in 2014 was around 41.8 million metric tonnes (MT). The presence of metals like Copper, Aluminium, Iron and various precious metals like Gold, Silver, Palladium, Platinum, etc., in high concentrations, made E-waste an Urban mine. Bioleaching is one of the successful biohydrometallurgical method, which can be employed for metal recovery from different WEEEs. Recovery of precious metals like Copper, Gold, and Silver are possible in high concentrations from WEEEs using acidophilic mesophiles and thermophiles and some fungal species. The current paper mainly aims to review on E-waste generation, mechanisms of bioleaching and various microorganisms employed for the extraction of metals from the electronic waste.
Keywords: Electronic waste; metals; urban mine; biohydrometallurgy; bioleaching; acidolysis; oxidation; reduction; acidophilic bacteria; fungi.
A Retrospective Study on Green ICT Deployment for Ecological Protection Pedagogy: Insights from Field Survey
by Bokolo Anthony
Abstract: This research examines Green Information Communication Technology (ICT) deployment for ecological protection in industries, by developing a research model. Accordingly, survey was employed targeting practitioners in industries and analysed using Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS). Results from regression analysis reveal that the identified variables significantly influence Green ICT deployment which improves ecological protection in industries. Moreover, results from multiple regression moderating analysis indicate that the age of practitioners influence their intention towards deploying Green ICT practice. Conversely, the gender, education and years of experience do not have any effects on practitioners intention to deploy Green ICT practice. Furthermore, results from partial correlation analysis suggest that annual revenue of the industry influence Green ICT deployment, whereas sector the industry belong to does not influence Green ICT deployment. Respectively, findings from this study have implications that provide a roadmap for industries to include ecological related pedagogy in their industrial process.
Keywords: Sustainable development; Ecological protection; Green ICT deployment; Ecological pedagogy; Practitioners in industries; Survey.
Modelling the Sustainable Development Goals for India An Interpretive Structural Modelling Approach
by Syed Hameedur Rahman Zaini, Asif Akhtar
Abstract: In its resolve for a sustainable future, the UN has adopted 17 ambitious goals known as the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) which aim to wipe out poverty, fight inequality and tackle climate change over the next 15 years. The key challenge is how to concentrate efforts to effectively implement and achieve the SDGs by 2030. This paper aims to assess the importance of different SDGs from the perspective of India. It also aims to develop a hierarchical model for the adoption of the SDGs by India, for which the Interpretive Structural Modelling (ISM) approach is used. ISM is a methodology for identifying and establishing relationships among the identified variables. The study variables comprise the 17 SDGs which are found to have a direct relatedness to common sustainability targets like poverty eradication, hunger elimination, reduced inequality, etc. These variables have also been mapped on driving power-dependence diagram and categorized accordingly.
Keywords: Sustainable Development Goals; SDGs; Millennium Development Goals; MDGs; Interpretive Structural Modelling; ISM; MICMAC Analysis; Driving Power; Dependence; India.
THE SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT GOALS AND 1.5
by Raquel De Paiva Seroa Da Motta
Abstract: This article reviews the implications of reaching the United Nations 2030 Agenda, consisting of 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), and making it easier or harder to accomplish the Paris Agreements overarching ambition: limiting the global surface average temperature (SAT) to 1.5
Keywords: 1.5°C; 2030 agenda; Adaptation; Climate; Climate Change; Efforts; GHG; Interactions; Mitigation; Paris Agreement; Resilience; Sustainable Development; Sustainable development goals; SDGs; SAT.
Do environmental performance and disclosure bring financial outcome? Evidence from Indonesia
by Devie Devie, Jessica Kamandanu, Josua Tarigan, Saarce Elsye Hatane
Abstract: In some developing countries such as Indonesia, there is a lack of regulatory controls in social responsibility performance and disclosure. Therefore, this paper is conducted to study the level of social responsibility performance and disclosure. As well as to investigate the relationship of environmental performance with a financial outcome, using environmental disclosure as the mediation variable. A firms environmental action is measured by both the extent of environmental management in their operations, which is the environmental performance with PROPER score as the indicator, and the level of environmental information they disclose in their reports, which is environmental disclosure measured with disclosure index according to GRI index. While the financial outcome is evaluated using both short and long-term measures, with profitability and firm value. Results show that 3 out of 6 hypotheses presented in this paper are accepted. Furthermore, it indicates that firms financial outcome is significantly affected by their environmental action (PROPER score and GRI Index). However, the findings also indicate that both environmental disclosure and profitability together are able to mediate the relationship between environmental performances and firms. The findings suggest that, in general, the majority of firms need to follow the GRI guidelines for reporting environmental information, therefore the investors should consider this information when making investment decisions.
Keywords: Environmental performance; environmental disclosure; profitability; firm value; PROPER; GRI index.
Special Issue on: ICESW2017 Trend in Engineering for Sustainable World
Study of properties of hot and cold rolled Al 8015 alloy processed by sustainable reversible rolling mill
by Olayinka Olaogun, Esther Akinlabi, Leke Oluwole
Abstract: Reversible rolling mill has proven to be a technology that is sustainable because it reveals applications in many industries throughout the globe. Aluminium rolling involves two stages;- hot rolling and cold rolling. Producers of cold-rolled aluminium products are continually seeking to maintain and improve product quality majorly by decreasing tolerances in thickness and flatness and improved surface quality. The Al 8015 alloy utilize in this study has a wide range of applications and is manufactured by continuous cast method been hot rolled into plates before subjecting to cold rolling in order to improve the properties. This study is aimed at investigating microstructure and mechanical properties of Al 8015 when hot rolled, and cold rolled. The plates were initially 7 mm thick, annealed at room temperature and fed into the 4-high reversible cold rolling mill to reduce the thickness to 1.2 mm. Material characterization tests were performed on the hot rolled, and cold rolled sheets, the changes in the mechanical properties (hardness, ultimate tensile strength, and the yield strength), as well as microstructural evolution, were investigated. The microstructure was investigated by optical and scanning electron microscopy. The findings revealed that the microstructure of the hot rolled Al 8015 in the rolling direction (longitudinal section) shows equiaxed grain structure nearly thrice the size of the larger equiaxed grain structure observed from the cold rolled sample. Moreover, in the transverse section of the rolling direction, higher degree of grain compaction was observed in the cold rolled sample compared to the hot rolled sample. Consequently, the hardness, 0.2% offset yield strength and ultimate tensile strength increased in the cold rolled sample compared to the hot rolled sample. Conclusively, the reversing cold rolled Al 8015 will be better used for commercial applications that requires minimal ductility compared to the hot rolled Al 8015.
Keywords: Al 8015 alloy; cold rolled; hot rolled; rolling direction; reversible rolling mill.
APPLICATION OF SOLAR PHOTOVOLTAIC SYSTEM TO POWER AIR BLOWER AND MIXING MECHANISM IN A TILTING FURNACE
by Philip Olufemi Babalola, Christian Amechi Bolu, Anthony Omieraokholen Inegbenebor, Sunday Olayinka Oyedepo, Gideon Adeyemi
Abstract: Gas and oil-fired furnaces require air blower and stirring mechanism to produce homogeneous metal matrix, alloyed metals and metallic composites. Both the blower and the stirrer require electric power that is not reliable in some urban areas and non-available in some rural communities in sub-Saharan countries. In this paper, a 20kg oil-fired tilting furnace for melting iron, gold, aluminium, lead, magnesium, copper, tin et cetera and also used to produce metal matrix composites through liquid metallurgy routes, is designed for off-grid locations. Photovoltaic system specification of 250W solar panel, 20A charge controller, 300AH deep cycle battery and 1400W inverter were used to provide electric power to the air blower and mixing motor of the tilting furnace. With this arrangement, this versatile tilting furnace could be used in cottage industry without electric mains by small and medium-scale enterprises (SMEs), thus reducing unemployment among the populace and reduction of emission products into the atmosphere.
Keywords: Renewable energy; Solar photovoltaic; Tilting furnace; Aluminium; SMEs; MMC.