World Review of Science, Technology and Sustainable Development (9 papers in press)
Determining the Dynamic Linkages between Renewable Electricity Generation and Its Determinants toward Sustainable Energy in Malaysia
by Hussain Ali Bekhet
Abstract: Renewable electricity generation is a significant variable in achieving sustainable energy for economic development. This study analyzes the dynamic relationship among capital, labour, economic growth, nonrenewable electricity generation, financial development and renewable electricity generation in Malaysia. An augmented CobbDouglas production function framework, F-Bound test, and VECM for the 19802016 period are applied. A dynamic long-run relationship exists among the variables, while the long-run elasticity of labour on renewable electricity generation is positive elastic. The long-run elasticity of nonrenewable electricity generation is negative elastic on renewable electricity generation. The short-run elasticity of capital on renewable electricity generation is negative elastic, also, the short-run renewable electricity generation-GDP elasticity has a positive elastic. While, the short-run financial development elasticity on renewable electricity generation is negative inelastic. The causality results implicate the existence of long-run bidirectional causality between FD and renewable electricity generation. The long-run unidirectional causality, which is running from capital, labour, nonrenewable electricity generation, and GDP to renewable electricity generation is discovered. On the other hand, short-run unidirectional causality from capital and labour to renewable electricity generation is found, also, from renewable electricity generation to FD. However, the absence of causal relationship between, labour and renewable electricity generation, also, between nonrenewable electricity generations are detected in the short-run. Accordingly, these findings highlight important messages to policymakers in the process of sustainable energy through the determinants influence the renewable electricity generation in Malaysia.
Keywords: renewable electricity generation; non-renewable electricity generation; financial development; Malaysia.
The Pillars of Economic Diversification in Saudi Arabia
by Jalel Euchi, Anis Omri, Ahmad Alteet
Abstract: The success of economic diversification constitutes a key factor for sustainable economic growth. Therefore, a country that its economy only based on income from natural resources is in danger of instability. In addition, this diversification creates jobs, reduces poverty, and improves the life and institution's qualities. After the first boom in 1970, the Saudi Arabia government has established 11 development plans, each one covering five years, and their main objective is how to build a diversified economy. Accordingly, this paper aims to analyze the strategies of economic diversification in Saudi Arabia based on four variables: investment in education, entrepreneurship, international tourism, and oil production over the period 1970-2014. Using the FMOLS technique, we found that oil production has the highest contribution to economic growth in Saudi Arabia, followed by the tourism sector and entrepreneurship activity. While, the contribution of education is positive, but insignificant. Research and policy recommendations are also discussed.
Keywords: Economic diversification; Oil production; Tourism; Entrepreneurship; Education.
Design and experimental studies of an indirect-mode natural convection solar dryer for henna leaves (Lawsonia inermis)
by Abdelouahab Boubeghal, Abla Chaker
Abstract: Abstract: Solar drying system is an important solution for the preservation of agricultural crops. In this research work, an indirect type natural convection solar dryer is designed, fabricated and tested under the Sahara weather conditions of Algeria. Experimental tests are performed in different seasons in order to study the thermal behaviour of the solar dryer. The temperature distribution in different parts of the dryer, ambient temperature, solar irradiance and relative humidity in the dryer have been recorded. The results show that the use of a vertical absorber will bring more quantity of energy in winter; consequently causes an increase of the dried air temperature. The drying time during the winter period is reduced approximately by 50% compared with the open sun drying; most of the quality henna leaves is perfectly preserved.
Keywords: solar drying; indirect solar dryer; open sun drying; moisture content; Lawsonia inermis.
POWER ACCESSIBILITY AND SUSTAINABILITY IN SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA: EFFECTS OF DOMESTIC DEVELOPMENT OF SMALL HYDROPOWER TECHNOLOGY
by Williams Ebhota, Pavel Tabakov
Abstract: The quest for alternative energy sources is on the increase in Sub-Saharan Africa due to gross power inadequacy coupled with a global trend of greenhouse gas emission. This study identifies solar, geothermal, wind and hydro which are renewable energy sources as options. Small hydropower (SHP) has been singled out as the best alternative power system in the region. But there is insufficient local content in terms of design and manufacturing of SHP devices and systems in the region. To boost local participation, the study simplified the design process for low (3 m) and high (60 m) heads for Kaplan/propeller and Pelton pico hydro turbines respectively. CAD modelling and simulation software was used to evaluate the mechanical properties of aluminium alloy (6061-T6) for Pelton bucket application. The study concludes that adaptive design, domestic manufacturing and regional joint SHP research are factors that promote sustainable power development
Keywords: Small hydropower; Power; Turbine Design; Pelton turbine; Propeller turbine; Sub-Saharan Africa.
A Secured Green Computing Technique for Sustainable Information Technology Using Fuzzy Classified Finger Vein Biometrics
by Rose Bindu Joseph P, Ezhilmaran D
Abstract: Realisation of the diverse advantages of green computing will lead to restructuring internet technology firms for incorporating sustainability. Green computing aims to design, manufacture and dispose of computing technologies and devices without much of impact on environment. Cloud computing is a green computing technology with the concept of sharing services over a network for maximizing the effectiveness of resources. These resources are shared by multiple users all over the world, thus maximizing the computing power and reducing environmental damages with less usage of energy, less carbon emissions and reduced e-waste. Hosting on the cloud is more environment friendly and it results in less of a carbon footprint. Inadequate authentication in cloud facilities can cause security threats and data stealing. Biometric authentication is a promising solution which provides safer user authentication for cloud services. Finger vein recognition is a competent biometrics possessing a superior level of security and stronger robustness against spoofing than other biometrics of modern era. In this paper, a fuzzy set theory based image classification is proposed for finger vein images for securing cloud services against unauthorised access. Performance of the proposed method is evaluated in terms of recall and precision rates.
Keywords: green computing; cloud computing; finger vein biometrics; fuzzy set; membership function; classification.
Prediction of online perceived service quality using Spider Monkey Optimization
by Vani Agrawal, Shailja Bhakar, Prashant Singh Rana, D.C. Tiwari
Abstract: With the evolution of technology, the attention of customers for the shopping has triggered to online platforms in a way that can never be thought of thus, giving a huge competition to the traditional methods but with this there rises a case of doubt in the perceived service quality of the products/ services which was easy to evaluate using the traditional ways. For attracting the customers towards it, a website should always have some characteristics through which a customer can evaluate its quality easily. This study aims towards predicting online perceived service quality. To fulfill this purpose, spider monkey optimization algorithm along with machine learning techniques have been used. rnThis study is one of a kind endeavor aiming to predict online perceived service quality by focusing on the characteristics like user interface, security and customer service of an e-commerce website. A swarm-based intelligent optimization algorithm, SMO which is known for having good capacities for providing the best solution in the sufficient time has been used for the purpose of feature selection in the study. SMO is proved to be the best or competitive as compared to other metaheuristic algorithms while dealing with feature selection problems. Along with SMO, many classification models like rpart, decision trees (C5.0), Support Vector Machine (KSVM) and General Linear Model (GLM) are used for prediction of service quality. These are mostly based on intelligent techniques.rn
Keywords: Optimization; Spider monkey algorithm; machine learning; perceived service quality; classification models.
Special Issue on: ICESW2017 Trend in Engineering for Sustainable World
Study of properties of hot and cold rolled Al 8015 alloy processed by sustainable reversible rolling mill
by Olayinka Olaogun, Esther Akinlabi, Leke Oluwole
Abstract: Reversible rolling mill has proven to be a technology that is sustainable because it reveals applications in many industries throughout the globe. Aluminium rolling involves two stages;- hot rolling and cold rolling. Producers of cold-rolled aluminium products are continually seeking to maintain and improve product quality majorly by decreasing tolerances in thickness and flatness and improved surface quality. The Al 8015 alloy utilize in this study has a wide range of applications and is manufactured by continuous cast method been hot rolled into plates before subjecting to cold rolling in order to improve the properties. This study is aimed at investigating microstructure and mechanical properties of Al 8015 when hot rolled, and cold rolled. The plates were initially 7 mm thick, annealed at room temperature and fed into the 4-high reversible cold rolling mill to reduce the thickness to 1.2 mm. Material characterization tests were performed on the hot rolled, and cold rolled sheets, the changes in the mechanical properties (hardness, ultimate tensile strength, and the yield strength), as well as microstructural evolution, were investigated. The microstructure was investigated by optical and scanning electron microscopy. The findings revealed that the microstructure of the hot rolled Al 8015 in the rolling direction (longitudinal section) shows equiaxed grain structure nearly thrice the size of the larger equiaxed grain structure observed from the cold rolled sample. Moreover, in the transverse section of the rolling direction, higher degree of grain compaction was observed in the cold rolled sample compared to the hot rolled sample. Consequently, the hardness, 0.2% offset yield strength and ultimate tensile strength increased in the cold rolled sample compared to the hot rolled sample. Conclusively, the reversing cold rolled Al 8015 will be better used for commercial applications that requires minimal ductility compared to the hot rolled Al 8015.
Keywords: Al 8015 alloy; cold rolled; hot rolled; rolling direction; reversible rolling mill.
APPLICATION OF SOLAR PHOTOVOLTAIC SYSTEM TO POWER AIR BLOWER AND MIXING MECHANISM IN A TILTING FURNACE
by Philip Olufemi Babalola, Christian Amechi Bolu, Anthony Omieraokholen Inegbenebor, Sunday Olayinka Oyedepo, Gideon Adeyemi
Abstract: Gas and oil-fired furnaces require air blower and stirring mechanism to produce homogeneous metal matrix, alloyed metals and metallic composites. Both the blower and the stirrer require electric power that is not reliable in some urban areas and non-available in some rural communities in sub-Saharan countries. In this paper, a 20kg oil-fired tilting furnace for melting iron, gold, aluminium, lead, magnesium, copper, tin et cetera and also used to produce metal matrix composites through liquid metallurgy routes, is designed for off-grid locations. Photovoltaic system specification of 250W solar panel, 20A charge controller, 300AH deep cycle battery and 1400W inverter were used to provide electric power to the air blower and mixing motor of the tilting furnace. With this arrangement, this versatile tilting furnace could be used in cottage industry without electric mains by small and medium-scale enterprises (SMEs), thus reducing unemployment among the populace and reduction of emission products into the atmosphere.
Keywords: Renewable energy; Solar photovoltaic; Tilting furnace; Aluminium; SMEs; MMC.
Special Issue on: Advancements in Internet of Things for Smart Transportation, Smart Health and Smart Sustainable Cities
Microbiological leaching of metals and its recovery from Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment: A Review
by Mohan Annamalai, Kalaichelvan Gurumurthy
Abstract: Electronic waste or Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) is an emerging and fast-growing waste stream with complex characteristics. As per United Nations Global E-waste monitor report, 2015, the global quantity of total E-waste generated in 2014 was around 41.8 million metric tonnes (MT). The presence of metals like Copper, Aluminium, Iron and various precious metals like Gold, Silver, Palladium, Platinum, etc., in high concentrations, made E-waste an Urban mine. Bioleaching is one of the successful biohydrometallurgical method, which can be employed for metal recovery from different WEEEs. Recovery of precious metals like Copper, Gold, and Silver are possible in high concentrations from WEEEs using acidophilic mesophiles and thermophiles and some fungal species. The current paper mainly aims to review on E-waste generation, mechanisms of bioleaching and various microorganisms employed for the extraction of metals from the electronic waste.
Keywords: Electronic waste; metals; urban mine; biohydrometallurgy; bioleaching; acidolysis; oxidation; reduction; acidophilic bacteria; fungi.