World Review of Entrepreneurship, Management and Sustainable Development (71 papers in press)
Towards a networked governance approach in Danish hospitals? Analysing the role of patients in solving wicked problems
by Annalisa Brambini, Jan Vang
Abstract: Hospitals across the globe are prone to numerous wicked problems. Wicked problems maintain to be difficult to solve and continue to negatively influence hospital systems. The proponents of the networked governance approach suggest that a new governance mode embracing a collaborative innovation approach for solving wicked problems has emerged. In the context of hospitals, collaborative innovation refers to mobilizing patients for, in collaboration with staff members and other stakeholders, solving wicked hospital problems. The claims put forward by proponents of networked governance have not been assessed in the context of hospitals. This paper reduces this research gap by conducting an analysis of the extent to which Danish hospital has implemented a collaborative innovation approach involving patients as an innovation asset in a systematic manner. The paper shows that the use of new collaborative innovative techniques involving patients has been embraced but not for solving wicked problems and not in a systematic manner. The paper suggests that hospitals need to embrace collaborative innovation endeavours and patients involvement in a systematic manner for solving wicked problems.
Keywords: Health-care, hospitals, innovation, networked governance, wicked problem, Denmark
Business Development Services for Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises Literature Review of Past Trends and Future Directions
by Sandeep Goyal, Bruno S. Sergi, Mark Esposito
Abstract: This article examines the research literature to understand the current and emerging trends pertaining to the role of business development service (BDS) providers in the performance of micro, small and medium enterprises (MSMEs). The MSMEs account for 60% to 80% of the total jobs thereby posing a key influence in the economic growth of the nations. The availability and access to BDS providers (public and private) is essential for MSMEs to learn and acquire new skills regarding marketing, operations, management, resourcing, technology and innovation. However, the research literature reflects the underdeveloped nature of BDS markets, weak acceptance among the MSMEs, dynamic challenges for the BDS providers and changing market trends from public to private BDS providers. The research objective involves (1) evaluating the evolutionary aspect of the BDS concept; (2) understanding the definition of BDS providers; (3) identifying the key challenges faced by the BDS providers; (4) identifying the strategic actions undertaken by the BDS providers.
Keywords: literature review; BDS provider; business advice; business development services; BDS challenges; MSMEs
Is New Public Management on the Return in the Governance of Hospitals? An Assessment from a Networked Governance Perspective
by Annalisa Brambini
Abstract: This paper analyses whether new public management is in the process of being rolled back as suggested by recent research undertaken from the perspective of the networked governance approach. The paper is delimited to analysing dimensions supposed to prevent implementing a systematic collaborative innovation approach for solving wicked problems in hospitals. The paper is based on original data combining semi-structured interviews and analysis of the content of the contracts used for governing hospitals. The paper relies on an in-depth study of the Danish hospitals located in Greater Copenhagen. The case is a purposefully selected critical case. Methodologically, the paper builds on critical realism. The paper finds that contrary to what is proposed by proponents of the networked governance approach, new public management is not reducing its importance but becoming increasingly institutionalized. The paper suggests that this is a problem in connection to solving wicked problems based on tools from the networked governance approach.
Keywords: hospital management, health care, welfare, Denmark
STRATEGY AS AN EVER EVOLVING ROAD TO SUCCESS OF GROWING ENTERPRISES
by Gadaf Rexhepi, Stjepan Srhoj
Abstract: Small and medium enterprises (SMEs) play a crucial role in economy because of the job generation and their innovation potential. Building on the resource based view of the firm, this paper sets to deepen the understanding on how entrepreneurs select strategies in the growth phase of the enterprise life-cycle. Paper first provides a theoretical background and then examines the frequency of changes in strategy-making of SMEs located in Croatia and Macedonia (n=130). Findings point towards hybrid strategy as the most frequently used, followed by cost leadership and differentiation strategy. Most of the surveyed enterprises constantly make incremental changes to the strategy. Formal business planning was mostly not used by the sampled entrepreneurs. Future research papers are encouraged to use qualitative research methods and try to explore the nature of the informal strategy making changes in the context of SMEs.
Keywords: strategy; growth phase; SMEs; strategy regeneration; competitive advantage.
Beyond Local Agenda 21: local implementation of sustainability. An Inventory of Organizational Practices of Sustainability Approaches of Western Swiss Municipalities
by Gerhard Schneider, Clotilde Jenny, Rene Longet
Abstract: In Switzerland, more than 200 municipalities representing about 33% of the population have established a Local Agenda 21 or another sustainability approach.
Governance and organizational processes can play a decisive part in the success or failure of Local Agenda 21. The objective of the present analysis was to establish an inventory of organizational practices of the sustainability approaches, their achievements and the obstacles encountered with a sample of nine municipalities of Western Switzerland in order to determine necessary conditions for a successful sustainability approach in local government.
The result of the analysis raised the following concerns:
A majority of the municipalities consider Local Agenda 21 to be an inflexible listing of arbitrary and heterogeneous actions, which is added as an extra layer onto day-to-day municipal management, thus showing difficulties to be introduced in day-to-day work or into operational management.
Several municipalities started a transversal or horizontal sustainability approach across different departments by evaluating the sustainability of new projects.
Independently of the chosen approach, all municipalities regret the lack of a standardized framework with criteria and indicators that allow controlling and evaluation.
All of the municipalities of the sample want to continue on their way to a sustainable township; several are even convinced that sustainability will be one of the imperatives of municipal governance in the years to come.
In our opinion, either approach (Local Agenda 21 or a transversal approach) can be successful what seems to matter most is a sustainability strategy and a standardized framework.
Keywords: Sustainability in municipalities, sustainability in local government, local agenda 21, integrating sustainability, embedding sustainability
Collective Efficiency: A Prerequisite for Cluster Development?
by Rasmus Lema, Jan Vang
Abstract: This paper is concerned with analysing the importance of collective efficiency for up-grading of clusters. The limited literature on collective efficiency ascribes it a crucial role in upgrading in clusters in developing countries. Little, however, is known about how insertion into global value chains affects the prospects of gaining collective efficiency hence, the paper analyses if Bangalores insertion into global value chains has spurred or impeded collective efficiency in the cluster. Bangalore is considered a success case in terms of cluster upgrading in a developing country context. The paper finds mixed evidence of collective efficiency. Upgrading was mainly an aggregate outcome of an uncoordinated decentralised process managed by individual companies.
Keywords: Bangalore; Cluster; India; ICT; software; collective efficiency; externalities; innovation; development.
Materiality and External Assurance in Corporate Sustainability Reporting: An Exploratory Case Study of the UK Construction Industry
by Peter Jones, Daphne Comfort, David Hillier
Abstract: The aims of this paper are to provide a preliminary examination of the extent to which the UKs leading construction companies are reporting embracing materiality and commissioning independent external assurance as part of their sustainability reporting processes and to offer some wider reflections on materiality and external assurance in sustainability reporting. The information on which the paper is based is drawn from the top twenty UK construction companies corporate web sites.The paper reveals that only a minority of the UKs top twenty construction companies had embraced materiality or commissioned some form of independent external assurance or as an integral part of their sustainability reporting processes. This can be seen to reduce the reliability and credibility of the construction companies sustainability reports. However growing stakeholder pressure may force the UKs leading construction companies to embrace materiality more fully and to commission more rigorous and wider ranging external assurance as systematic elements in the reporting process. The paper provides an accessible review of the extent to which the UKs leading construction companies are currently reporting embracing materiality and commissioning external assurance as part of their sustainability reporting processes. As such it will be of interest to professionals, practitioners, academics and students interested in sustainability in the construction industry.
Keywords: Sustainability; materiality; external assurance; construction companies, UK
INDUSTRY-BASED ISSUES IN THE PROVISION OF HEARING AIDS IN ITALY
by Nicola Cobelli, Marta Maria Ugolini, Fabio Cassia, Liz Gill, Ian D. Cameron
Abstract: Despite the availability of free hearing tests and aids provided by qualified community-based professionals specialising in audiology services, hearing aid adoption remains low in Italy. This article investigates the implications of the findings of a previously published Italian study, which adopted a consumer behaviour approach to identify reasons why hearing aids have a low acceptance level in Italy. Interviews with different hearing health professionals were conducted along with an analysis of the regulations and documentation governing the provision of publicly funded hearing aids. A combined service management and hearing-health literature review was then carried out and analysis performed. Interviews were then conducted with other hearing health professionals to confirm our analysis and findings. We contend that industry operational issues related to the structure, culture and public financing of the Italian audiology industry adversely impact on consumer service experiences. Based on this finding we propose a conceptual framework and offer four theory building propositions that we have identified as related to this highly regulated service industry. These propositions require further investigation and evaluation. We contend that the adoption of a service approach as opposed to the existing product focus will enhance hearing services and ultimately improve access to and the use of hearing aids, benefiting both the individual and society.
Keywords: Audiology Industry; Customer Experience; Service Provision; Hearing Aid; Customer orientation; Customer Value; Value Co-Creation.
Sustainable and Socially Responsible Business: Doable Reality or Just a Luxury? An Exploratory Study of the Bangladeshi Manufacturing SMEs
by Md Nazmul Hasan
Abstract: Drawing on the ISO 26000: 2010 Guidance on social responsibility, this study investigates the extent to which Bangladeshi manufacturing small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) are incorporating social responsibility (SR)/sustainability into their day-to-day business activities. Both quantitative and qualitative data were collected sequentially (through a mixed-method design) from 59 manufacturing SMEs operating in six different sectors. The findings reconfirm the existence of the so called attitude-behaviour gap. The barriers that hinder the sustainable engagement of SMEs include corruption, a weak regulatory environment, inefficient or ill-suited government and external support, and a lack of awareness of the environmental aspects of SR. In addition, this research reveals that Bangladeshi manufacturing SMEs do, to a certain degree, implement SR; only those few issues that suit the owner-managers personal motives are addressed, while many others (e.g. environmental issues) are neglected. Finally, it has been found that the business type and size, and the owner-managers educational attainments have no significant influence on the degree of adoption of socially responsible business practices by Bangladeshi manufacturing SMEs. The study is exploratory in nature, providing the very first empirical evidence of SMEs involvement with SR in a Bangladeshi context. Therefore, limitations are clearly admitted and practical suggestions to conduct further studies are provided. Some policy and social implications of the research findings are also discussed.
Keywords: SMEs, social responsibility; ISO 26000; ethics; sustainability; developing countries; Bangladesh
Governance and Banking System Morphology in China: the evolution over the last two decades (1995-2015)
by Carlo Bellavite Pellegrini, Laura Pellegrini, Bruno S. Sergi
Abstract: Over the past two decades important reforms have been introduced in China, which opened Chinese economy to world trade and international financial markets. In the Chinese banking system substantial progress has been made, and reforms have been mainly aimed at improving its governance and efficiency, but many governance problems still exist and hinder a complete transition to a market economy. Through the analysis of the Economic Freedom and the Global Governance Indicators, in the context of a comparative analysis with Western Europe and North American countries, this paper shows that, despite a considerable economic growth, economic and financial reforms, Chinese governance indexes are still quite poor, but so far they are not likely to have a strong influence on economic performance. This evidence suggests that governance variables are likely to have a second order effect in comparison with fundamental economic variables in favouring (or not) Chinese growth. However the high rate of growth of Chinese economy, over the years of the financial turmoil as well, may have paradoxically prevented the improvement of governance indexes, meanwhile financial sector and global governance issues will have to be improved in order to promote efficient financial intermediation and resources allocation, sustainable growth and attracting foreign capital in China.
Keywords: China, banking system morphology, governance indexes, economic growth
On corporate sustainability integration and the support of tools
by Sjors Witjes, Jacqueline Cramer, Walter Vermeulen
Abstract: Various tools have been developed to support companies integrating Corporate Sustainability (CS) into their organisational system. Research on the use of these tools does not clearly show how these tools support the integration process of CS. This paper focuses on the CS integration support of three tools most often mentioned in the literature. We will question the contribution each tool can make in supporting CS integration, based on six integration process elements. The analysis shows a potential complementarity between the tools. Moreover, companies should be critical on where within the organisation the interventions for CS integration are needed and what improvement should be generated before choosing tools.
Keywords: Corporate Sustainability Integration; sustainability reporting; life cycle assessment; environmental management systems.
THE SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT GOALS AND RETAILING
by David Hillier, Daphne Comfort, Peter Jones
Abstract: The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) agreed at a United Nations General Assembly in 2015 embrace an ambitious and wide ranging set of global environmental, social and economic issues designed to effect a transition to a more sustainable future. The United Nations called on all governments to pursue these ambitious goals but also acknowledged the important role of the business community in addressing the SDGs. This paper provides an outline of the SDGs and offers a commentary on the challenges leading retailers seem likely to face if they are to make a significant contribution to the SDGs. The commentary suggests that while retailers will need to identify and measure their contributions to the SDGs, to integrate their achievements into their sustainability reporting processes and to commission more comprehensive external assurance, fundamental concerns remain about the tensions between sustainability and continuing economic growth.
Keywords: Sustainable Development Goals, Business Engagement, Retailing, Economic Growth.
Use of the Web in Corporate Sustainability Disclosure: Malaysian Evidence
by Azlan Amran, Say Keat Ooi, Riduan Toani Mydin, Susela Devi
Abstract: The development of internet-based technologies has dramatically changed social and business interactions and communications. At the same time, in response to increased customer awareness of sustainability and corporate social responsibility, organisations have adopted these into their business processes. Business organisations employ a range of communication channels to inform and interact with their stakeholders on their corporate social responsibility and sustainability concerns. Over the years, with the proliferation of the Internet, online and web-based communications have become the most widely used medium. However, comparatively little is known about the current use of and potential of Internet communications. This study explores the use of the Internet in corporate sustainability disclosure in Malaysia. It highlights the numerous advantages that the web provides for communication of sustainability issues. These advantages have been conceptualised through Media Richness Theory and operationalised through a study of online sustainability disclosure practices among public-listed companies in Malaysia. The findings indicate that the potential of the web is not extensively utilised by businesses to communicate their sustainability practices. To have the greatest possible communication coverage, businesses should assess their opportunities to use the web to tap into the potential of online sustainability disclosure as a tool for stakeholder dialogue in a manner that complements and extends other channels to demonstrate their corporate accountability and integrity in sustainable development.
Keywords: sustainability disclosure; sustainable development; internet; communication; Media Richness Theory; Malaysia.
Emergence of Film Industries in Small Countries: On the Needs for an Integrated Cluster and Branding Strategy
by Jan Vang, Annalisa Barmbini, Sean Maher
Abstract: Studies on the spatial organisation of film industries have grown steadily during the last decade. This has resulted in a highly valuable stream of research concerned with the clustering of the film industry; being one of the largest contributors to the experience economy. This literature has, however, neglected to pay attention to the specificities of the challenges faced by small countries aimed at building up a film industry in the context of global dominance by media conglomerates located in major audio-visual hubs such as Hollywood, New York and Paris. The conventional cluster and regional innovation systems-literature highlight respectively reduced transaction costs, cluster-based learning and knowledge externalities, tax incentives and systemic effects in explaining the spatial distribution of film activities. These factors are all supply factors. We illustrate how the supply factor based explanations need to integrate demand side factors for explaining emergence of film clusters located in small countries. Based on an original case study on the emergence of the Copenhagen film cluster, we document how the co-evolution of cluster externalities and shared branding (i.e. demand side) paved the way for its successful transformation emergence. The branding activities are intrinsically linked to the shared content of the experience products (i.e. Dogma films), hence the study shows how the cluster literature needs to embrace the experience literature. rnrn
Keywords: Innovation; cluster; film; Dogma; von Trier; creative industries; experience economy.
An Analysis of the Financial Inclusion in South Africa considering Race, Education and Income per capita.
by Mohamed F. Omran
Abstract: The paper examines the issue of financial inclusion in South Africa by analysing the likelihood of ownership of a bank account of an adult individual by race, education and income. While it is acknowledged that bank ownership is not a sufficient measure of financial inclusion, it is still a necessary condition for young entrepreneurs seeking further help in terms of acquiring loans, credit facilities and financial advice. South Africa population is mainly made of four ethnic groups, Africans, Asians/Indians, Coloured and Whites. Although racial segregation in South Africa was ended on May 10th, 1994, there is still considerable evidence that self-employed and entrepreneurs successes are related to their ethnic groups. The paper examines how likely it is that higher education, after controlling for income, increase awareness of financial planning and therefore bank accounts ownership. The paper uses first wave of the national income dynamic study of South Africa. The paper uses regression model for categorical dependent variables. The results indicate that Whites are far more likely to own bank accounts, followed by Asians/Indians, Coloured, and finally Africans. The probabilities of having a bank account, for citizens with a median income and median education years within their ethnic groups, are 92%, 63%, 35% and 29% for Whites, Asians/Indians, Coloured, and Africans, respectively. Education is found to be a significant factor that increases the likelihood of owning a bank account. The odds of owning a bank account increases by 15% for every extra year of education, holding race and income constant. The Whites have the highest median years of education of 12, followed by 10 years for Asians, 9 years for Africans, and 8 years for Coloured.
Keywords: Financial Inclusion; Race; Education; Ethnic Entrepreneurship; Logit Regression.
A Mixed Methods Bibliometric Investigation of the World Review of Entrepreneurship, Management and Sustainable Development: from qualitative to quantitative data
by Giacomo Marzi, Riccardo Rialti, Marina Dabić, Andrea Caputo
Abstract: This article offers a complete overview of the World Review of Entrepreneurship, Management and Sustainable Development (WREMSD) from 2005 to 2015. The article employs an innovative mixed method, based on a bibliometric analysis of the Journal and an in-depth interview with the editor Prof. Leo Paul Dana about the journal, his academic and personal life. By using SCOPUS data, the analysis maps the knowledge produced and disseminated by the journal revealing the most cited papers and most prolific authors. By also presenting a keywords correlation analysis, the paper shows the main streams of research covered by the Journal and their evolution. Although the objective of mapping the knowledge in WREMSD this paper offers an example of application of a mixed method to bibliometric studies, methodological implications are discussed.
Keywords: Bibliometric; Scientometric; Keywords; Mixed Methods; Qualitative; Quantitative; Keywords Clustering; Journal Impact; Journal Knowledge Structure; Management; Entrepreneurship; Interview; Scopus.
Uscio e Bottega: An Exploratory Study on Conflict Management and Negotiation During Family Business Succession in Tuscany
by Andrea Caputo, VIncenzo Zarone
Abstract: This paper aims to explore how conflicts are managed, also through negotiations, during the succession phase in family businesses. The paper adopts a qualitative methodology and develops case studies of two companies, based on the interviews of the family business members belonging to multiple generations. The findings are interpreted with the dual concern model for the conflict management styles and the 2-class model for the prototype of negotiators. The results of the study show an evolutionary path regarding the conflict management style adopted by the incumbent generation, which is influenced by the role taken in the company and the historical moment. The favourite negotiators prototype of the incumbent generations is the emotional one. The study, although exploratory, investigates a topic that is under researched both in terms of family business literature and conflict management literature. Moreover, the study offers an interesting and important bridge of the two bodies of literature, which could benefit from cross-fertilisation.
Keywords: Conflict; Family Business; Succession; Italy; Negotiation; Case study.
Literature Review of Emerging Trends and Future Directions of E-Commerce in Global Business Landscape
by Sandeep Goyal, Bruno Sergi, Mark Esposito
Abstract: The global business landscape is undergoing a dynamic transformation due to the increasing penetration of internet and communication technologies. This article reviews the e-commerce literature to understand the emerging trends and future directions, which are shaping the competitive trends in the global business landscape. The article focuses on the following research dimensions e-commerce definition; underlying research themes; theoretical models and frameworks used to understand e-commerce adoption; and key challenges faced by the e-commerce providers. The first contribution involves elaborating the broad perspectives and statistical overview of the selected articles including the publications summary, research themes, methodology, and locations. The second contribution involves presenting an integrated view of e-commerce definitions across five dimensions information, technology, buy-sell transactions, monetary transactions and competition. The third contribution involves highlighting the theoretical models being used to study patterns of consumer behavior. The fourth contribution lies in identifying the key challenges faced by the e-commerce organizations.
Keywords: e-commerce; internet; literature review; e-commerce challenges; e-commerce definition.
Enabling Climate Change Reporting in Malaysia
by Say Keat Ooi, Azlan Amran
Abstract: Paris Agreement 2015 marked a historical moment for climate change mitigation efforts. With the put forth plans to cut GHG emissions, there are increasing demand for transparency of corporate carbon footprint reductions. This paper describes the development of a Malaysian context climate change reporting index. Drawing from the National Policy on Climate Change, and the Reporting Framework of the Climate Disclosure Standards Board, together with content analysis of several recognised best practice guides released by international associations, a Malaysian based climate change reporting index has been developed. This climate change index would be useful for organisations seeking to report climate change related information, and it acts as a detailed benchmarking tool for institutional investors and corporations to take action on climate change. Despite the comparatively low extent of corporate climate change reporting, the finding indicated that Malaysian businesses are aware of climate change, and focus on climate change business strategies.
Keywords: climate change; climate change reporting index; governance; sustainable development; Malaysia.
Sustainable leadership and entrepreneurship for corporate sustainability in small enterprises: An empirical analysis
by Suparak Suriyankietkaew
Abstract: This paper empirically investigates leadership and management practices that the literature suggests to influence organisational performance and corporate sustainability in entrepreneurial firms, an area that is lacking to date. Survey data were gathered from 357 small business leaders in Thailand. A sustainability research model and hypotheses were developed based on Sustainable Leaderships theoretical framework. Factor analysis revealed eight leadership and management factors, including enabling and trusting team, valuing people, empowerment, ethics, long-term orientation, quality, stakeholder consideration and innovation, which were postulated to significantly and positively predict superior financial performance and sustainability in small, entrepreneurial firms. Regression results indicated that innovation, high quality and stakeholder consideration were three significant drivers for enhanced long-term financial performance, thereby contributing to corporate sustainability. Therefore, small and entrepreneurial enterprises in Thailand and possibly in other Asian countries should consider adopting these strategic leadership and management practices to grow superior financial results and corporate sustainability.
Keywords: leadership; sustainable leadership; sustainability; sustainable entrepreneurship; small business; financial performance; innovation; high quality; stakeholder; Thailand.
Does being greener pay? Bridging the gap between green technology orientation and firms growth
by Tommaso Pucci, Elena Casprini, Alberto Mattiacci, Lorenzo Zanni
Abstract: This paper analyses the impact of green technology orientation (GTO) on the firms growth. Mediation effect of environmental performance and moderation effect of environmental competitive strategies are also considered. Data from a unique sample of 177 wineries (over a 9 years long panel) and a focus group with three wine managers and a journalist were collected and analysed. Results are threefold. First, firms may pursue two different environmental performances (Land and Ecosystem and/or Energy and Emission). Second, there is no a direct relationship between the firms GTO and the firms growth, but this relationship is mediated by the environmental performances of a company. Finally, multiple combinations between environmental performances and environmental competitive strategies are able to explain firms growth.
Keywords: Growth; Environmental Performance; Green Technology Orientation; Competitive Strategies; Latent Growth Model; Wine; Mediation Effect.
Determinants of Sustainable Efficiency of Rice Farming in Peri-urban Area, Evidence from Ladkrabang District, Bangkok, Thailand
by Sasima Fakkhong, Suneeporn Suwanmaneepong, Panya Mankeb
Abstract: Growing urbanisation, dwindling land for rice cultivation, and declining numbers of rice farmers have been major concerns. Yet, many local people living in peri-urban areas still produce rice for their livelihood. This study aimed to estimate the sustainable efficiency of the rice farmers in the peri-urban areas and investigate the determinants of sustainable efficiency by employing a multiple linear regression methods. Based on data collected from 230 rice farmers in the Ladkrabang district, the peri-urban area located to the East of Bangkok, Thailand, this study revealed that, on average, the sustainable efficiency score of sample rice farmers was 0.84. The large-sized farmer had a higher average sustainable efficiency than small-sized and medium-sized ones. The results of regression analysis indicated having heirs working in farm was the most effective variable on the sustainable efficiency of rice farming, followed by participation in agricultural training programs. Formal years of schooling, the number of family labour, and subsidies.
Keywords: sustainable efficiency; peri-urban farming; rice farming; Ladkrabang; Thailand.
A Framework for Climate Change Management in Organisations: A case for India
by Aditee Potdar, Seema Unnikrishnan, Anju Singh
Abstract: This paper proposes a framework for climate change management in business organisations. In the proposed framework, regulations play a substantial role in translating the response drivers to mitigation activities and ultimately leading to the formation of a climate change strategy. The proposed framework is validated in the Indian context by designing a questionnaire and administering it to 166 manufacturing organisations. The organisational responses are subjected to exploratory factor analysis to derive items that are central to the Indian context. The findings suggest that physical risk due to climate change affects the firms greatly. Procurement and supply chain management are the areas where firms could initiate significant mitigation actions. The organisations anticipate the Government bringing out climate change related rules and standards for further mitigation. It can be concluded that the organisations perceive climate change as a risk and are exploring opportunities to tackle the challenge to gain benefits from it.
Keywords: Climate change; regulations; mitigation; risk; business organizations.
THE DIFFICULTY WITH WHICH TACIT KNOWING IS TRANSFORMED INTO EXPLICIT KNOWLEDGE
by Sarah Philipson
Abstract: This is a conceptual paper giving a fundamental critique of knowledge management, as conceptualized by Nonaka and colleagues by a critical reading of Polanyi, inspired by the Russian psychologist Vygotsky and the US engineering professor Ferguson.
The findings are that the externalization of tacit knowing is much more complex and less prone to management than suggested in extant literature. In creating knowledge from such tacit knowing the community pf practice is identified as crucial.
Keywords: tacit knowing; externalization; explicit knowledge; gestalt; problematization; innovation; community of practice.
Malaysias Response and Strategies towards Climate Change
by Say Keat Ooi, Azlan Amran
Abstract: Climate change is among the most critical challenges facing the world as it affects human well-being and economic growth. As a non-Annex I country, Malaysia has no quantitative commitments to reduce GHG emissions. Nevertheless, as part of the global community, Malaysia consciously pledges to share the load of global challenges. As the most powerful stakeholder in Malaysia, the Government plays an important role in providing leadership to guide and encourage businesses to address this topical issue. This paper reviews the energy and GHG emissions in Malaysia, and provides an overview of the climate change strategies from the governments perspective. It demonstrates Malaysias commitment to address climate change in the context of sustainable development, and highlights Malaysian governments efforts towards energy efficiency and renewable energy utilisation.
Keywords: climate change policy; climate change strategies; energy; GHG emissions; Malaysia.
Critical Success Factors of Knowledge Management: A Review
by Asish Oommen Mathew, Lewlyn L. R. Rodrigues
Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to explore, compile and analyse the current literature base of critical success factors (CSFs) of Knowledge Management (KM) using qualitative research approach. After preliminary survey of articles, 72 research papers were identified for detailed review. CSFs were compiled using content analysis methodology and an inductive coding technique. Two iterations of coding were carried out resulting in the identification of nine generic CSFs of KM. The two of the most highly cited CSFs were KM culture and Human Resource Management (HRM). An analysis of the literature was also carried out to bring forth any existing research gaps. The most significant findings were lack of focussed CSF studies with respect to industries and dearth in research regarding various stake holder perspectives. This comprehensive research provides a base for KM researchers to carry out further research.
Keywords: knowledge management; critical success factors; content analysis; knowledge management culture; human resource management; knowledge management technology; knowledge management strategy; knowledge management leadership; knowledge management process capability; knowledge management resources; knowledge management measurement.
Technical efficiency and decision to exit: evidence from the dairy farms in Sukabumi district, West Java, Indonesia
by Maman Setiawan
Abstract: This research investigates technical efficiency and its effect on the decision to exit of the dairy farms in Sukabumi district, West Java, Indonesia. Farm-level data obtained from survey are used to estimate the technical efficiency using a bootstrapped data envelopment analysis. The results show that dairy farms in Sukabumi are technically inefficient. The technical efficiency also has a negative effect on the decision to exit. This implies that the dairy farms with higher technical efficiency scores tend to have lower probabilities to exit from the business.
Keywords: dairy farms; technical efficiency; bootstrapped data envelopment analysis; decision to exit.
The development of high-growth agribusinesses in the aftermath of the 2008 financial crisis
by Nuria Arimany-Serrat, Elisenda Tarrats-Pons, Petra Nylund
Abstract: The impact of the 2008 financial crisis has led the region of Central Catalonia, Spain, to rely even more on agribusiness. This industry represents a large share of employment and sales income in the region. In addition, high-growth firms drive a disproportionate share of regional economic growth. We therefore analyze the economic and financial health of high-growth agribusinesses in Central Catalonia during the period 2008-2013. We find that these firms exercise frugal financial management during the studied years, and that their economic profitability is a function of their solvency and the employee productivity. We conclude by discussing the implications of these findings.
Keywords: Economic and financial analysis; high-growth firms; agribusinesses; profitability; financial return; Catalonia.
Investment Climate Constraints, Network Isomorphism and Survival among Small Commercial Poultry Farms (SCPF) in Ghana
by George Acheampong
Abstract: The aim of this study was to understand the importance of network isomorphism to survival using data from a two-year network survey of poultry enterprises in rural Ghana. The data was collected between January 2014 and March 2015. The study seeks to understand the usefulness of network isomorphism as structural conformance in a network in aiding the survival of SCPFs. Isomorphism was measured as the structural equivalence between actors in the collaborative network we developed from the data. First, it was found that there is a high failure rate among the SCPFs of about forty percent. Secondly, isomorphic SCPFs have a better survival probability and such isomorphism was very useful in overcoming investment climate constraints. However, the isomorphism reaches an optimum after which returns have a negative effect. The findings imply that, while technical efficiency is important to the survival of enterprises, business managers must also be attuned to the influencing role of structural conformance in an industry.
Keywords: Small Business; Isomorphism; Investment Climate; Networks; Ghana.
Healthcare Service Quality in Private Hospitals of India- An Empirical Assessment from Jammu and Kashmir State
by Shahid Hamid Raina, R.L. Bhat
Abstract: This study evaluates the quality of healthcare services provided by private hospitals in Srinagar City of Jammu and Kashmir State of India from the perspective of inpatients. The study made use of SERVQUAL model to make an empirical assessment of the quality of healthcare services provided to the inpatients and determine the gaps between patients perceptions and expectations of service quality. The differences between mean perceptions and mean expectations of patients were statistically significant (p< 0.01) for all service quality dimensions except for efficiency dimension, implying that the private hospitals in Srinagar were not meeting the expectations of patients. The overall service quality was found to be -0.70, indicating significant shortfalls in service quality. The study gives some valuable insights into the functional service quality of private hospitals and proposes some managerial interventions for the improvement of overall service quality in the private hospitals of the study area.
Keywords: India; Private Hospitals; Service quality;; Expectations; Perceptions.rn.
Role of Leader-Member Exchange and Organisational Justice on Firm Sustainability in India: An Empirical Examination
by A.N.U. SINGH LATHER, Simran Kaur
Abstract: This study proposed that a perception of Organisational justice plays an important role in explaining the relationship between subordinates and their supervisors, and in turn, the resulting influence on firms sustainability. The study reports responses from 218 employees from Delhi NCR. This study disclosed that the distributive, procedural and interactional justice stanching from the Leader Member Exchange quality have a positive and significant link with firm sustainability. The limitations of common method bias and cross sectional data are discussed in light of implications for future research. This study answers the vital question that what should be done to increment the perception about Organisational fairness which result in sustainability of the firm.
Keywords: Organisational Justice; Leader Member Exchange; Firm Sustainability.
The Green Value Chain Construct: Instrument Validation and Green Practices among Malaysian Corporations
by Jeen Wei Ong, Guan Gan Gerald Goh, Choon Yih Goh, Hui Siang Sally Yong
Abstract: This study aims to validate the green value chain construct developed through semi-structured interviews conducted on 35 public listed companies with green focus in Malaysia. Despite the importance of value chain activities as the cornerstone of value creation for businesses, there are only limited research effort that had been directed at empirically validating the green value chain construct. This study validated the green value chain construct through questionnaire surveys among 198 Malaysian corporations. In addition, the adoption of green practices within the value chain among the corporations are examined. The findings suggest that while the corporations are embedding green practices, mainly in the primary value chain activities, the green practices in the secondary value chain activities are however given lower emphasis. The minimal emphasis on embedding green elements in the technology development and human resource management is of concern which raises the question on the sustainability of green practices among these corporations.
Keywords: Green Value Chain; Green Practices; Construct Validation; Exploratory Factor Analysis; Malaysian Corporations.
Technical and economic evaluation of renewable energy production in the Italian agricultural firm: financing a biogas plant investment
by Domenico Raucci, Stefano Agostinone, Martina Carnevale
Abstract: This paper provides a technical and economic evaluation for financing a biogas plant investment for energy production. Using a case study, the analysis is focused on a diversification strategy of an Italian agricultural firm that, moving from its traditional business, exploits the potentials offered by the integrations with renewable energy production. The building of a biogas plant represents, for a farm, an opportunity to plan a fruitful sustainable development by searching an effective and efficient balance between the financing sources and the regulatory incentives. The economic-financial results show that the renewable energy investment, especially in the biogas production, integrates effectively the current activities of the farm investigated without changing the core business efficiency. Furthermore, it supports its growth strategies with suitable levels of the profitability and greater attention of environmental impacts.
Keywords: Italian agriculture sector; renewable energies production; biogas plant investment; project management; cash-flow analysis.
Inclusion in entrepreneurship, especially of women, youth and unemployed: Status and an agenda for research in Middle East and North Africa
by Ayman Ismail, Ahmed Tolba, Seham Ghalwash, Ayman Alkhatib, Emine Esra Karadeniz, Khalid El Ouazzani, Fatima Boutaleb, Lotfi Belkacem, Thomas Schøtt
Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to study entry of people into the entrepreneurial vocation and to propose an agenda for research on entrepreneurship inclusion in MENA. Specifically, we ask how gender, age, and occupation affect entry, including entry pulled by opportunity and pushed by necessity.rnResearch design and data We use a large representative sample of adults around MENA, surveyed between 2009 and 2016 by the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor.rnFindings Analyses show that occupations depend on gender and age. Notably, while homemaking is a primary occupation for women, employment and especially self-employment are primary occupations for men. However, unemployment is high, especially among women and youth. This trend is also true for entry into the vocation of entrepreneurship, which depends on gender and age as well as occupation. Men both intend to and actually become entrepreneurs more frequently than women, pulled by opportunity and pushed by necessity. Younger people more frequently intend to start, but middle-aged people more frequently actually start, both pulled by opportunity and pushed by necessity. Unemployed more frequently intend to start than employees, but less frequently succeed in starting.rnValue The study contributes to understanding peoples entry into entrepreneurship in MENA, especially as their vocational choices are shaped by their gender, age, and occupation.rnFurther research The major limitation in this paper is that education and training for entrepreneurship are ignored. Further research ought to consider education and training as mediating between background and involvement, as ways of enhancing participation in entrepreneurship.rnRelevance for policy Policies for entrepreneurship in MENA may utilize some of the findings. Notably, the study shows that inclusion of women, youth, and unemployed may be enhanced. These disadvantaged segments frequently intend to become entrepreneurs, but they tend not to enact their vocational intents.rn
Keywords: inclusion; women; youth; unemployed; intention; upstart.
Stakeholder collaboration based on an innovated tourism product club model - An empirical investigation of the Parenzana product club
by Robert Ribarić, Christian Stipanović
Abstract: The aim of this study is to analyse the potential of a tourism product club, as a form of collaboration, in the development of a tourism product. The study applies a qualitative approach and consists of a theoretical part and an applicative part. Structured interviewing in the field was used to survey 49 respondents and the data were processed using thematic coding and qualitative content analysis. The theoretical part includes a schematic diagram of a tourist product club model that would ensure the competitiveness of an integrated tourism product, drive entrepreneurship and encourage the entrepreneurial activities of stakeholders. The applicative part investigates the possibilities of valorising, for the purposes of tourism, the Parenzana route, which passes through two countries, Croatia and Slovenia. Based on the current state, fundamental objectives are defined that could be accomplished through the synergy of innovated operational strategies, resulting in a highly-developed, integrated tourism product based on the Parenzana product club model.
Keywords: stakeholder collaboration; cross-border collaboration; entrepreneurship; business model; tourism product club; innovations; integrated tourism product; sustainable development; qualitative research; thematic coding; qualitative content analysis; operational strategies; Parenzana.
Entrepreneurial characteristics and intentions among undergraduates in Malaysia
by Mohani Abdul, Azmawani Abd. Rahman, Mastora Yahya, Mohammad Mizanur Rahman
Abstract: This study investigates the entrepreneurial intentions of undergraduate students in the Public University and Private Institution of Higher Learning in Malaysia. Six entrepreneurial characteristics were observed during the focus group interviews which included; risk taking propensity, self-confidence, need for achievement, innovativeness, tolerance of ambiguity, and locus of control. These elements are used to define the entrepreneurial profile of students using the trait model of entrepreneurship as a basis of the proposed research. Ten students from the public and private higher institutions of learning were interviewed. Students were selected from one public university (IPTA) and another from private university (IPTS). Results based on the students entrepreneurial intentions are compared between the IPTA and IPTS and some plausible explanations are discussed. This research provides deeper insight into entrepreneurship education besides providing comprehensive empirical evidence about the impact of higher education on entrepreneurial intentions, thus fills an important gap in the entrepreneurship literature.
Keywords: Entrepreneurial intentions; entrepreneurial characteristics; risk taking propensity; self-confidence; need for achievement; innovativeness; tolerance of ambiguity; locus of control; Undergraduates; Public university; IPTA; Private university; IPTS; Malaysia.
Asymmetric effects on the development of social enterprises. Factors and effects
by Jace Kristjana, Athanasios Tsagkanos, Evangelos Koumanakos
Abstract: The purpose in this paper is to empirically examine the factors that affect the development of social enterprises. Our research focus on a group of 16 EU countries in which the social economy sector is considered developed. Using a less homogeneous group of countries with respect to a more homogeneous group of areas from the same country will offer a different view regarding the significant factors. Our methodology is based on advanced econometric tests as Bootstrap test and Bayesian Bootstrap that attain better statistical properties in presence of low size sample with respects to classical correlation test. The results exhibit asymmetric effects of social entrepreneurship that differentiate the factors contributing to their development. In countries of South of Europe all the factors that theory proposes affect the development of social enterprises whereas in countries of North of Europe the impact is confined on the unemployment in vulnerable groups (as women and young people) and low expenditure on care for elderly. These results provide strong evidence that countries of South of Europe should turn the model of their macroeconomic policy.
Keywords: Social enterprises; European Union; Bootstrap test; Asymmetric effects.
ECOTOURISM: REPOSITIONING GREEN TOURISM AMONGST MILLENNIAL GENERATION IN INDIA
by Parminder Kaur, Harman Arora
Abstract: Recently, a new upsurge can be seen in the travel industry that millennial are highly inclined towards nature travelling. The aim of the study is to investigate how green tourism can be promoted amongst youth. After conducting a content analysis of 200 Indian tourists from user-generated content available online, a survey was floated to a sample of 515 tourists with an objective to assess indicators that leads to destination loyalty amongst youth. An exploratory research was conducted to study qualitative standards that lead to consumer satisfaction and repeated visits. The study is useful for Ministry of tourism and policy makers, who are planning to set new tourist destinations in completely virgin areas. Further, the research can be used by destination managers, advertising and marketing companies, travel portals and lodging managers to study antecedents to faithful consumer behaviour amongst Generation Y.
Keywords: Millennial; Environment; Repositioning; destination marketing; ecotourism.
THEORY AND PRACTICE OF VALUATION APPROACHES IN RENEWABLE ENERGY INVESTMENTS: A SURVEY AMONG INVESTMENT PROFESSIONALS
by Christian Hürlimann, Jasim Al-Ali, Dolores S. Bengoa
Abstract: This paper reports the findings of an ongoing research project in renewable energy (RE) investment valuation. We present the results of a survey of 111 Swiss and German investors in RE typically a non-traded asset (NTA). The surveys focus is placed on capital budgeting techniques, risk assessment, risk mitigation, cost of capital (CoC) approaches, and risk-adjustment processes in RE valuations, set in relation to demographic data of the surveyed firms and the interviewed participants to recognise relevant influencing factors. The research objectives are challenging due to the restricted data access for NTA. The survey results are both reassuring and surprising. In contrast to public traded companies (PTC), various unsystematic risk components are considered in risk assessments and risk-adjustments in RE investment valuation. The majority of organisations still employ simple techniques, such as the weighted average cost of capital (WACC) for valuating RE investments, particularly by large organisations, to derive country, technology, industry and/or project stage specific discount rates rather than project specific discount rates. A surprising number of organisations still use their firms risk within discount rates in RE valuations instead of project risk. In addition, the propagated certainty equivalent (CE) method is seldom applied. Moreover, we find clear evidence about materialised risk influencing personal risk preferences, and some evidence about cultural differences in valuation processes apart from providing considerations and suggesting improvements in line with good and/or best practice approaches while benchmarking the data and results between the available subsamples.
Keywords: capital budgeting; asset pricing; investment return; cost of capital; risk assessment; risk mitigation; project risk; risk-adjustment; non-traded assets; private equity; renewable energy; Switzerland; Germany; benchmarking.
Game-based entrepreneurship education: impact on attitudes, behaviours and intentions
by Katharina Fellnhofer
Abstract: Despite the worldwide increasing interest in entrepreneurship education (EE), little attention has been paid to the game approach as a useful instrument for boosting entrepreneurial attitudes, entrepreneurial intentions and entrepreneurial behaviour. This contribution utilised a structured questionnaire to analyse a new scale tested on a first sample of 41 participants. As a primary basis for further research, this work assesses the impact of game elements in EE with 42 items. In particular, by conducting linear regression analyses the study draws special attention to significant positive impacts of key game elements in EE such as indicators of flow on entrepreneurial attitudes, intention and behaviour, whereas indicators of curiosity appear to decrease entrepreneurial intention and the probability of starting a business. Explanatory factor analyses, and Cronbach's alpha confirm the reliability and validity of the construct. In addition, the findings of this currently neglected issue call for more research to be done on web-based teaching methods in EE, which are considered to be essential not only to academia, but also to business, potential entrepreneurs and policy makers.
Keywords: entrepreneurship; entrepreneurship education; game approach; entrepreneurial perception; entrepreneurial intention; entrepreneurial attitudes; entrepreneurial behaviour; game design; impact study.
Towards an eventual three-dimensional equilibrium regarding corporate social responsibility in Lebanese small and medium enterprises
by Nadine Dubruc, Sélim Mekdessi, Danie Khawaja
Abstract: This paper focuses on the integration of CSR in the SMEs' strategies and points out socially responsible practices of Lebanese SMEs looking for a three-dimensional equilibrium, economic, social and environmental, in their activities. To do this, a quantitative method has been established based on data collected from a survey sent to Lebanese SMEs. The sample of Lebanese SMEs shows the existence of certain socially responsible practices and also focuses on the SMEs' challenges to engage in CSR. It has also underlined the importance of standards and the role of networks in promoting CSR in Lebanese SMEs. Finally, this article will identify the conditions to promote learning about CSR and the commitment of Lebanese SMEs in CSR.
Keywords: Lebanese SMEs; corporate social responsibility; economic; social; environmental; performance; networks; standards.
Influence of policies in capability evolution and industry structure: lessons from the Indian automotive industry and implications for other developing countries
by Rifat Sharmelly, Pradeep Kanta Ray
Abstract: This paper empirically examines capability progression along with industry structure through three policy eras in the Indian automotive industry. Based on two rounds of field works and using Sanjaya Lall's technology capability pyramid model as the principal theoretical framework, this extensive, multidimensional inquiry found that at the licensing phase, protectionist policies played an important role in the attainment of operational capabilities. However, at a later stage, liberalisation policies catalysed the growth of innovation capabilities. Lastly, the stimulus to form linkage partnerships, in-house R&D efforts and close networked relationships among suppliers and manufacturers also supported the advancement in capabilities. Our proposed conceptual framework contributes to the literature by mapping the relationship between key policies of the Indian Government and the progression of capabilities along with the consequential impact on the industry structure. The study has significant implications for public policy in terms of upgrading capabilities in other developing countries of the world.
Keywords: automotive industry; India; capability progression; technology capability pyramid model; operational capabilities; innovation capabilities; industry structure.
Do senior bankers care about entrepreneurial behaviour?: case of senior managers of Iranian vanguard banks
by Saeed Jafari Moghadam, Aidin Salamzadeh
Abstract: Changing needs of markets, innovations of competitors, and creative ideas of leading companies, require managers to reveal more entrepreneurial behaviour patterns. Entrepreneurial behaviours are those behaviours that lead to innovative/opportunity oriented results which are the outcomes of an entrepreneurial process. The main question of this study is: "what are the factors affecting entrepreneurial behaviours of the managers of vanguard banks in Iran?" To answer this question, first, some interview sessions were held to recognise the key factors affecting corporate entrepreneurial behaviours of the bank managers. Then, these factors were classified into three main groups: 1) individual factors; 2) organisational factors; 3) precipitating events. Among these, the first two factors were studied in the quantitative phase, and the third factor was studied in the qualitative phase. Our finding confirmed that entrepreneurial behaviour could be construed at the nexus of organisational and individual antecedents, alongside certain precipitating events.
Keywords: entrepreneurial behaviour; bank managers; individual factors; organisational factors; environmental trends.
Special Issue on: University Social Responsibility International Models and Impacts
Universities as promoter of a new social and industrial development of national economy
by Elena L. Andreeva, Alla N. Golovina, Yuliya G. Myslyakova
Abstract: The article is devoted in forming the new scientific stream in university social responsibility (USR) investigation. This stream delegates to universities the role of promoter of new social and industrial development of national economy. The peculiarities are revealed of such development allowing to substantiate participants of this process and to define the central role of universities as its promoter. Consideration of this role allows broadening the USR definition, thanks to revealing the universities' influence on forming neo-industrialisation potentials. The features of USR in various countries in terms of neo-industrialisation are considered. In all countries' cases the separate elements are present of the university functions highlighted in the article. However the single complex approach is absent. This allowed developing USR definition through substantiating the USR directions, functions, indicators. Based on opinions of all participants revealed the estimation is made of USR development in Russia and the USR prospects are revealed.
Keywords: university social responsibility; new social and industrial development of national economy; universities as promoter of development; directions; functions and indicators of responsibility; problems and prospects of university social responsibility.
Student perceptions of university social responsibility: implications from an empirical study in France, Italy and Russia
by Zhanna Belyaeva, Simone Domenico Scagnelli, Mark Thomas, Maurizio Cisi
Abstract: This article analyses student perceptions of university social responsibility (USR) across three cultures (France, Italy and Russia). USR is needed to strengthen civic commitment and active citizenship by university members to the communities they serve (Vasilescu et al., 2010). Insufficient empirical evidence currently exists to describe perceptions of key stakeholders as to what this should entail. Understanding such mind-sets is crucial to ensure effective learning adapted to the host environment (Dana, 2001). A descriptive-empirical approach combined with a factor and multivariate analysis from an online survey of 426 students enabled a comprehensive understanding of student opinions on the role of universities within their communities. Findings suggest that French and Italian students see USR as a more individual commitment compared to their Russian counterparts. From this, a specific approach to the education of future managers on issues of US and ethics may be developed. This also provides implications for higher education policy makers.
Keywords: university social responsibility; USR; corporate social responsibility; CSR; non-financial reporting; USR impacts; management of sustainable practices; France; Italy; Russia.
The role of need for self-expression and arousal to commit university students for environmental responsibility behaviours
by Sandra Maria Correia Loureiro, Dong-Mo Koo, Michael Breazeale
Abstract: University social responsibility as recycling and environmental protection attitude is a core issue in higher education. However, scarce research examines the factors that influence individuals' commitment to recycling and environmental preservation, and even less explores how that commitment can lead to preferential behaviour, word of mouth and willingness to sacrifice for recycling and environmental preservation. This study examines the roles of need for self-expression and arousal to explain commitment and whether commitment leads to those behaviours. The study is duplicated in three countries, each representing different cultural dimensions. Data collected from participants at universities in South Korea, USA and Portugal inform a model that supports the majority of the hypotheses and points out some interesting differences in the ways that recycling and environmental preservation should be presented in various cultures to achieve buy-in and behaviour change.
Keywords: recycling; environmental preservation; commitment; arousal; self-expression; willingness to sacrifice; multi-cultural.
'Sustainable and socially responsible university' in Maribor, Slovenia, European Union
by Matjaž Mulej, Iztok Slatinek, Branka Čagran
Abstract: In 2011, University of Maribor decided to become a 'sustainable and socially responsible university'. We summarise here its related efforts and the basic reasons for them. Then we consider the implementation of the S&SRUM as a non-technological innovation process, because S&SRUM is supposed to become a beneficial new practice; this cannot be attained by writing and passing good documents alone.
Keywords: innovation process; non-technological innovation; Slovenia; sustainability; social responsibility; University of Maribor; European Union.
Beyond teaching CSR and ethics in tertiary education: the case of the University of Nicosia, Cyprus (EU)
by Marlen Demetriou, Alkis Thrassou, Ioanna Papasolomou
Abstract: The research investigates a cause-related marketing campaign launched by the University of Nicosia, Cyprus; and identifies the scope and rational of the campaign, the stakeholders and actions involved, and the outcomes of the campaign, through a multi-perspective view. The research adopts the case study methodology and its findings show that, in the organisational perspective, the key aims of the campaign were to instil a strong 'volunteerism' spirit amongst its academic community (students, faculty and staff), as well as to enhance the university's social responsibility reputation. The findings further show that CSR in tertiary education institutions demands for an approach that is comprehensive, planned, with specific aims, means and ends, and integrated within the organisational marketing strategy and communications' mix. The research also underlines the need for further research in this area, particularly in terms of employee volunteerism and its relationship with cause-related marketing (CRM).
Keywords: tertiary education; higher education; universities; corporate social responsibility; CSR; employee volunteerism; cause-related marketing; CRM; image; reputation.
Internationalisation trajectory influence on university social responsibility
by Victoria S. Beliaeva
Abstract: A new socially responsible role of the university involves becoming an experimental platform for the adaptation of people with different cultural values and the development of multilateral cross-cultural interaction; that is to ensure inter-ethnic harmony and trust for education services at the global level. The existent literature relates to students perception of university social responsibility, but mostly opts out the power of university to adapt different cultures for a better balancing society. The presented research is to look at the factors affecting internationalisation paths as a strategic direction for the contemporary and innovative responsible university. The methodology is based on in-depth interviews with chosen academic experts. The students' perception was studied using a sample of 1,300 international students of Ural Federal University, Russia. The study outlines positive correlation between fast adaptation of international students and inclusive participation in social life of a university, at the same time a university involvement into the active global environment stimulates better international communities' engagement. The research is limited by a choice of university, although the sample data is quite representative.
Keywords: social responsibility of university; cross-cultural management; adaptation; tolerance; new role of the university.
Cross subsidy model for community transformation: Jain University social responsibility in India
by Ravi Kandhadai, P. Chander
Abstract: Jain Vidya Niketan (JVN) in Kanakpura, Bangalore, India, is an opportunity school for the rural poor offering access to high quality education which would have otherwise been inaccessible to them. The JVN cross subsidy model is unique though it reflects in parts many theoretical concepts, practices and elements such as those of Carroll's (1979) pyramid model, the Intersecting Circles model, the Concentric Circles model (Aviva Geva, 2008) and the Impact-based USR model (Belyaeva, 2015). It is in this light the JVN case as a viable example of university social responsibility is presented. This paper also proposes a synthesised model called 'Model of auspicious vision for all' with innovative factors namely emotional capital and spiritual capital in addition to economic, ethical and philanthropic considerations.
Keywords: corporate social responsibility; CSR; university social responsibility; USR; sustainability; cross subsidy model; CSR models; CSR framework; CSR case study; India.
International standards of social responsibility and their suitability for high educational institutions
by Sylvie Formánková, Renata Kučerová, Andrea Hrdličková
Abstract: The paper deals with the evaluation of selected international CSR standards. The following areas are evaluated: what type of organisation is a norm intended for; binding force of a norm; applicability for HEIs and the degree of freedom in implementation. Except for the norm SA 8000:2008, the evaluated standards are complex, dealing with general principles of CSR. Two norms are mostly dealing with reporting (AA 1000:2008; Global Reporting Initiative (GRI)/2008). In their recommendations, they say what to do rather than how to do it. Almost all of them could be suitable for the implementation in high educational institutions, only the OECD norm is mainly focused on multinational organisations. SA 8000:2008 and AA 1000:2008 are meant for certification whilst the others are in the form of recommendation which makes them free in implementation.
Keywords: corporate social responsibility; university; standards; norms; international; education; ISO; Global Reporting Initiative; GRI; Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development; OECD; Global Compact.
The process of social accounting and reporting at University of Torino: main challenges and managerial implications
by Laura Corazza
Abstract: The process of social accounting and reporting performed by universities is a voluntary mechanism through which academic institutions could freely communicate the fulfilment of their social responsibilities to the open public. Universities can inherit from more than 20-year experience of companies on how to manage and implement a social accounting and reporting process, even though the peculiar academic environment highlights uncommon challenges and issues. The case of University of Torino, a six-century HEI will be presented and discussed adopting a descriptive case study. The aim of the paper is to narrate how and why a HEI should embed university social
responsibilities to social reporting processes.
Keywords: university social responsibilities; social accounting and reporting; Global Reporting Initiative; GRI; high education institutions; HEIs; intellectual capital; legitimisation in universities; sustainability reporting in universities.
Buildup of federal universities' social responsibility in the context of development of Russia's regions
by Andrey Shelomentsev, Olga Kozlova, Vladimir Antropov, Tatyana Terentyeva
Abstract: The paper deals with processes of development of a university's social responsibility in the regional community. The content of ten websites of Russia's federal universities and of official sites of regional authorities of their respective locations was taken as the initial empiric material. Theoretical analysis of basic viewpoints on the nature of buildup of universities' social responsibility was conducted. Basing on the socio-cultural approach to analysis of the mission and lines of the universities' activities, the authors generalised modern practices of social responsibility realisation and gave insight into prospective lines of the universities' activity in the context of the socio-economic development of Russian regions. As a working hypothesis, it has been assumed that it is the human and professional experience of regional leaders that has considerable influence on the formation of universities and regions' mutual social responsibility for realisation of socio-economic objectives of the regional development. Finally, conclusions about horizons and ways of enhancement of the role of social responsibility within the system of interrelations between universities and regions were formulated.
Keywords: university; social responsibility; regional development; university's social mission; Russia.
Developing a university CSR framework using stakeholder approach
by Alexandros Antonaras, Melpo Iacovidou, Paraskevi Dekoulou
Abstract: Contemporary organisations are paying a growing attention to the social impact of their business activities in pursuit of favourable economic outcomes and sustainable competitiveness. Universities increasingly enact corporate social responsibility strategies with the aim of strengthening both their customer and employee satisfaction. However, since organisations have limited resources to invest in CSR activities, they need to prioritise their CSR objectives and this can be accomplished by taking the expectations of their stakeholders into consideration. Based on a stakeholder approach, a survey was conducted with the aim of assessing main stakeholders' expectations and perceptions concerning CSR practices implemented by universities. Moreover, in order to address the absence of practical tools and models for corporate responsibility management, the present study led to the development of a conceptual framework for crafting and implementing a CSR strategy at university level.
Keywords: corporate social responsibility; CSR; stakeholder approach; universities; CSR framework; sustainable competitiveness.
Special Issue on: The Future Promise of Internet of Things (IoT) and Smart Cities Governance, Entrepreneurship and Innovation Management
A SMART PARKING SYSTEM USING IoT
by Ganesh Gopal D, Asha Jerlin M
Abstract: The primary vision of developing smart cities is to enable growing technologies in to our daily activities, that will helps us to resolve our daily issues in house management, health care management, traffic management system. Due to the overcrowding of cities and increase in the number of vehicles finding a free space to park vehicles has become a major issue to the drivers especially in peak hours. Though many traditional approaches and technologies are deployed there have been many flaws are suspected and identified. Though lot of solutions has been proposed over the parking solution problems they have certain limitation and constraints over the devices or technology used as well as the cost factor required for implementation. So considering such factors we have proposed a prototype model to experiment our system which can very effectively optimize the parking solution with low-cost parking solutions.
Keywords: Smart parking System ( SPS); IoT; ultrasonic Range finder; wifi enabled Arduino UNO; low cost.
NEW OPPORTUNITIES FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF SMART CITIES IN ITALY: THE ROLE OF BANKING FOUNDATIONS.
by Chiara Crovini, Giovanni Ossola, Guido Giovando
Abstract: The present study represents a theoretical contribution in the field of smart cities and banking foundations and, in particular, the paper aims to underline the opportunities and the potential benefits of banking foundations supporting the development of smart cities in Italy.
We analysed the reports on strategic business plan of the period between 2017-2019, published by the eighty-eight banking foundations, the corporate governance and the internal organisation model, the notes to the financial statements and the websites of the Italian banking foundations and, through a deductive approach, we elaborated their general business model.
This research, thanks to its multidisciplinary approach, contributes to the body of knowledge by providing a virtuous example of interactions and synergies between smart cities and banking foundations in Italy.
This work represents the first step of a far deeper analysis and consequently future developments will constitute valid tests of core arguments deeply analyzed in this context.
Keywords: smart cities; smart sustainable cities; Italian banking foundations; business model; innovation.
Depicting a conceptual framework for Smart City
by Francesco Caputo, Vincenzo Formisano, Barbora Buhnova, Leonard Walletzky
Abstract: The vibrant scenario in which companies, organizations, and institutions daily interact is underlying the increasing relevance and opportunities offered by the information and communication technologies. The world in which we live is progressively becoming a digital ecosystem in which all the interactions, relationships, and exchanges are supported by technological instruments and platforms.
In this emerging scenario the topic of Smart City is attracting a prominent interest of researchers and practitioners. The general approach to the Smart City as instruments to connect users, infrastructures, and services by using the information technologies is producing several research questions with references to the relationships among technologies, environment, and users in the next years.
In order to enrich previous knowledge on this topic, the paper adopts a qualitative approach to define a wider conceptual framework for Smart Cities. The principal aim is to support both researchers and practitioners in better understand and manage the emerging smart and digital environment.
Keywords: Digital Ecosystems; Smart Communities; Information and Communication Technology.
Special Issue on: Re-engineering for Sustainability and Climate Change
A STUDY TO MEASURE THE ORGANISATIONAL INTEGRITY ACROSS DIFFERENT SECTORS
by Virender Khanna
Abstract: Organizational Integrity can be defined as self-governing practices of an organization based on some values and ethics. Organizational integrity always flows from top to bottom. Current study aims to measure the organizational integrity of fifty companies from ten different sectors of Indian economy using primary data. KPMG thermometer has been used to measure the organizational integrity for measuring eight dimensions of integrity namely; clarity, role modeling, enabling environment, support, transparency, enforcement, comfort to report misconduct and openness. Data has been collected from all over India from the employees of the surveyed companies. It was found from the study that organizational integrity is high in banking, and insurance companies while the integrity is low in IT and Automobile companies
Keywords: Integrity; Companies; Ethics; Ethical leadership; Governance; KPMG Thermometer; Responsible behavior and Banking.
Decision tree model for classification of fake and genuine banknotes using SPSS
by AKANKSHA UPADHYAYA
Abstract: Counterfeiting is a exhaustive problem smashing extensively, virtually as well as in reality, on each sectors all around the world. In order to identify and classify fake and genuine banknote various techniques and models have been proposed and developed. This paper proposes an effective predictive model based on machine learning technique for authentication of banknotes, which can predicts with good accuracy that whether the given banknote is fake or genuine. The decision tree model is built using IBM SPSS tool. The performance measure of the model is done using Gain charts and Index charts and it is found that proposed decision tree model is good enough for prediction of banknote classification as fake or genuine.
Keywords: Counterfeiting; fake and genuine banknotes; decision tree; banknote authentication; gain values; Index values; machine learning; SPSS.
Intellectual Property Rights Protection and Foreign Direct Investment: A Study of BRICS countries
by Rajender Kumar, Sunil Kumar Yadav, Saurabh Verma
Abstract: Economic implications of Intellectual property rights protection is always been a matter of debate among policy makers. It is assumed that FDI inflow in any nation depends upon the level of protection given to the creation of intellectual capital. Studies conducted on developed nations built strong link between IPR protection and foreign direct investment. The debate centered on whether these results can be reciprocated for developing countries. This study adds new dimensions to the existing literature by analyzing the impact of IPR protection on FDI inflow in BRICS nations with the help of country specific data for the period of 2000- 2015. FDI inflow is considered as dependent variable and charges of IP use, patent granted, patent filed by residents, non-residents and R&D expenditure as the percentage of GDP as an independent variable and proxy to IPR protection. The empirical results suggests that charges of IP use, total patent granted and patent filed by non-residents affects FDI inflow. Further study concludes that stronger IPR protection in developing countries will infuse foreign direct investment in the technology oriented knowledge sectors where probability of loss due to imitation is high.
Keywords: Intellectual property rights; foreign direct investment; BRICS countries.
Indian Individual Investor Behavior: A Model Based Study to Meet Sustainable and Inclusive Growth
by Kritika Batra, Vibhash Kumar
Abstract: Purpose: This study investigates the contextual and psychological factors influencing individual investors decision making in the currently volatile and emerging Indian investment market. Design/Methodology/Approach: Primary information was collected through a multi-segment questionnaire. The questionnaire was employed to measure individual investor biases, contextual attributes influencing investment, and financial satisfaction. Responses were obtained from 384 individual investors of Chandigarh, Panchkula, Mohali region and a model was thus developed using exploratory factor analysis and structural equation modelling to show the impact of psychological factors and contextual factors on financial satisfaction. Findings: On the basis of exploratory factor analysis six relatively homogenous groups of contextual factors that influence individual investor behaviour were identified. As per the literature on biases we identified the psychological factors/biases as overconfidence, Loss aversion, regret aversion, mental accounting, Illusion of control, hindsight, status quo, self-control, availability, representativeness and conservatism. SEM analysis depicted that psychological factors/biases and contextual factors could explain 13% of variation in financial satisfaction. Research Implications: This paper can act as a guide to the investors, financial service providers, government and the policy makers. This analysis also contributes to the literature of behavioural research, in terms of generating financial satisfaction through behavioural, psychological and contextual factors; and in the process promotes inclusive growth and reduce income inequality thereby meeting some sustainable development goals outlined by the United Nations. Originality/Value: This study is among the few behavioural studies on financial satisfaction and establishes a relationship between psychological factors and financial satisfaction.
Keywords: Financial Inclusion; Investor Decision Making; Investment Behaviour; Financial Satisfaction; Sustainable and Inclusive Growth.
Green Practices for Sustainability of Quick service chain restaurants (QSR) Business: An
by Ashutosh Nigam, Sima Kumari
Abstract: Indian Quick service chain restaurants are becoming important segment of food services market, and have seen exponential growth in India. To survive and sustain in longer term, organized quick service chain restaurants have to develop policy and processes towards green practices, and are able to make significant contribution towards community development. Present study focuses on employees behavior towards green practices in quick service chain restaurants with broadly three prospectives namely, environmental, social, and economic. Adoption of green practices will enable the QSR to sustain the business persistently and able to grow their businesses through community development.
Keywords: Sustainability; Green Practices; Ecofriendly; Quick Service Chain Restaurants.
Special Issue on: Ethics and Social Responsibility
AIDA BOOKS&MORE: A PROJECT BEYOND READING
by Elisa Baraibar-Diez, María D. Odriozola, José Luis Fernández Sánchez
Abstract: Cutbacks in official development assistance (ODA) have forced many NGOs to diversify their sources of funding to continue (and also expand) their projects in destination countries. AIDA is a Non-Governmental Organization for Development Cooperation working in Morocco, Guinea Bissau, Senegal, Lebanon and Bangladesh. In search for new sources of funding, AIDA Books&More was born in 2009 in Segovia (Spain). It was the first charity bookshop in Spain and eight years later, 220 volunteers are involved in a project that has an online store and 9 outlets (Segovia, 2 shops in Madrid, 2 shops in Valencia, Castell
Keywords: social entrepreneurship; non-for-profit organizations; NGOs; charity bookshops; accountability; cooperation projects.
Sustainability Disclosure Imbalances. A qualitative case-study analysis
by M.ISABEL SANCHEZ-HERNANDEZ, Flavio Hourneaux-Junior, Barbara Galleli
Abstract: According to the paradigm of the Triple Bottom Line approach for sustainability, an organization is supposed to positively impact on three dimensions of sustainable development: economic, social, and environmental. Therefore, there is some doubt if companies are giving the same importance at these different aspects of sustainability in their disclosure efforts. The aim of this paper is to identify the existence of either equilibrium or imbalance among the dimensions of sustainability and to identify the level of association between the company
Keywords: Disclosure; Qualitative Analysis; Performance; Sustainability.
Corporate social responsibility, job satisfaction, and customer orientation in Angola
by Ana Patricia Duarte, José Gonçalves Das Neves, Daniel Roque Gomes, Gabriel Alberto Moisés
Abstract: This study sought to examine the effect of corporate social responsibility (CSR) on employees costumer orientation through the mediating role of job satisfaction for a sample of tourism and hospitality employees in Angola. Data were collected from 125 respondents using anonymously completed structured questionnaires. Perceived CSR was assessed by the scale developed by Mart
Keywords: Corporate social responsibility; job satisfaction; employee customer orientation; Angola; Africa; tourism and hospitality; hotels; job attitudes and behaviours.
Corporate Hypocrisy and Social Responsibility: a comparative study of brand crises effect on consumer's attitude toward brands
by Ana Luisa Santos, Beatriz Casais
Abstract: It is essential to understand how consumers react to scandals that occur in the domain the brand promotes Corporate Social Responsibility. This study discusses how corporate social responsibility and perceived corporate hypocrisy change consumer attitudes after a brand crisis. The results of 328 responses to a survey about attitude towards four brands faced a crisis in the environmental domain - BP, Zara, Nestl
Keywords: corporate social responsibility; corporate hypocrisy; attitude towards the brand; brand crises.
Portugal, The Best Destination: the case study of a CSR communication that changed mentalities and increased business performance
by Beatriz Casais, Bruno Sousa
Abstract: Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) practices have shown evidence of success in marketing and business outcomes, even during financial crisis periods and in the context of small businesses. This paper presents a case study of a small company producing digital albums that launched a digital communication campaign aiming to increase the habits of taking and printing digital photos. The campaign also aimed at creating a more positive image about Portugals future in a financial crisis context and increasing tourism activities and a sense of national self-esteem among people. The campaign Portugal, The Best Destination invited everyone in Portugal to show the country as a tourist destination of excellence, participating with photos that would be added to the largest photo book recognized by The Guinness World of Records. The buzz created by such a low budget campaign solved the organizations lack of awareness and the lack of photography printing routines among consumers, while bringing a Portuguese sense of pride and helping create an external public opinion about the country.
Keywords: Corporate Social Responsibility; Integrated Marketing Communications; New Media; Societal Marketing; Destination Marketing.
Drivers and Barriers of University Social Responsibility: Integration into Strategic Plans
by Elva Lizeth Ramos-Monge, Xavier Llinas-Audet, Jesus Barrena-Martinez
Abstract: The implementation of University Social Responsibility (USR) in its strategic plans is a subject of great social interest. However, the lack of understanding produces deficient stakeholders engagement, obstructing USR applications and potential benefits. USR in a formal context and as part of strategy should be a path that leads to its fulfilment. A Delphi method was used and several experts have participated in it. Results show that USR is related to students issues, among main drivers are to work under a code of ethics and acquire civic competences as a part of their vocational training. Among barriers to be involved in social responsibility activities is the lack of engagement of university community. The insufficient communication into the university community is mentioned as one of the main obstacles to incorporate USR into strategic planning. Relevance of this work relies on the holistic points of views of the results.
Keywords: University Social Responsibility; Delphi method; Strategic Management; Strategic Plan; Stakeholders Theory.
CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY (CSR) AND CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR IN THE HOSPITALITY SECTOR: ITS EFFECTS ON THE DECISION-MAKING PROCESS
by Cesar Sahelices-Pinto, Ana Lanero-Carrizo, Jose Luis Vazquez-Burguete
Abstract: In current marketplaces, implementation of activities related to Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) is a new expectation to be fulfilled by all sort of organizations. These ethical practices are key issues at the time of differentiating products, gaining competitive advantages for consumer decisions and reviews, and building simultaneously a positive reputation in face of the various stakeholders. Although the recent marketing literature indicates a positive link between companies involvement in social and environmental causes and consumer goodwill towards firms and brands, the effects of social reputation on consumer behavior are not entirely demonstrated. In the context of these evidences, this paper analyzes the consideration of responsibility criteria (CSR) over the different stages of the consumer decision-making process with regard to hospitality services. Particularly, a self-administered questionnaire was conducted with a representative sample of consumers in Spain. In general, findings support a moderate-downward impact of perceived business responsibility over the consumer decision-making process, while some discrepancies can be observed between individuals within gender and different age groups. Lastly, a final discussion is carried out gathering some interest considerations as direct reflection of results obtained and further lines of future research are indicated.
Keywords: corporate social responsibility (CSR); consumer behavior; consumer decision-making process; hospitality sector; gender and age.
Collective Social Entrepreneurship for Sustainable Impact: a framework proposal
by Vanessa Mato-Santiso, Marta Rey-Garcia
Abstract: Collective social entrepreneurship (CSE) has gained in importance over the last decade as a set of new approaches to solve complex social problems. This paper aims to better understand the conditions under which CSE may achieve sustainable impact. To fulfil that goal, we propose a conceptual framework that relates the antecedents, enablers and outcomes of CSE. The framework is applied to assess the maturity of a large cross-sector alliance in the field of work integration through case study research methods (Yin, 1994). Regarding main theoretical contributions and empirical findings, we: 1) propose a set of six key inter-organisational enablers to assess the maturity of CSE towards the creation of a shared value ecosystem, 2) highlight the potential role of integrated and innovative corporate social responsibility as both antecedent and enabler of CSE, 3) shed light on the challenge of measurement of CSE outcomes and their contingency on factors beyond alliance boundaries, and 4) illustrate the tensions derived from disparate goals, language differences and asymmetric alliance learning in a CSE.
Keywords: Collective Social Entrepreneurship; Sustainable Impact; Collective Impact; Shared Value Ecosystem; Systemic Change; Inter-organisational Enablers; Alliance Learning; Work Integration; Vulnerable Groups.
CONSUMER PERCEPTION OF CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY: POINTS OF VIEW FROM PORTUGUESE UNDERGRADUATE STUDENTS
by Sandra Gomes, Pedro Graca
Abstract: One of the main purposes of this paper is analysing the perception of Portuguese consumers namely undergraduate students in Oporto regarding Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR). Considering consumer perceptions on CSR dimensions are limited to a national contingency, this research provides some results that bridge the research gap on the subject in Portugal.
For this purpose, exploratory interviews have been conducted and such interviews have allowed the elaboration of a questionnaire directed to a sample of 824 students in 22 higher education institutions.
Due to the analysis of the main results, it has been concluded that students had some knowledge and a multidimensional vision of CSR. After an exploratory and confirmatory factorial analysis, it has been found that the CSR concept is based on four dimensions: Economic, Environmental, Employees and Community.
Concerning consumer support of CSR, such consumers prefer avoiding products from socially irresponsible companies to actually be willing to pay more for products from socially responsible ones.
Keywords: Consumer perception; Consumer support of CSR; CSR; Undergraduate students.